LESSON 12 WORKING WITH REPEATS AND ALL OVER DESIGNS STRUCTURE 12.0
W ORKING WITH REPEATS 12.2.1 12.2.2
REPEATS FOR BUTI REPEATS FOR BORDER
AN ALL OVER DESIGN
TRACING AND TRANSFERRING A DESIGN
PRESENTATION OF DESIGN
ASSIGNMENTS 12.6.1 12.6.2
CLASS ASSIGNMENTS HOME ASSIGNMENTS
POSSIBLE ANSWERS TO SELF-CHECK QUESTIONS
REFERENCES AND SUGGESTED FURTHER READING
12. WORKING WITH REPEATS AND ALL OVER DESIGNS In Lessons 10 and 11 we learnt about enlargement and reduction of design, understanding the design, working with various tools for ornamentation of fabrics with buti, buta and border designs. In this lesson we will learn how to repeat a design, a buti or a buta and thus create ornamented fabrics, borders etc. We will also learn how to make an all over design.
12.0 Objectives After going through this lesson you will be able to: •
Plan the placement of a design on a fabric the way you like it to be.
Visualize the appearance of a fabric with various types of design placement patterns, like diagonal, vertical all over etc.
12.1 Introduction Once the design is created, proper placement of the design is essential to obtain different effects with the same pattern. By repeating patterns in several ways; butis, butas or border designs could give different appearance on the fabrics. The final presentation of the design could be thus changed by working with different repeat effects. This leads to a variety of designs which will be described briefly in this lesson. Some aspects of tracing and transferring a design will also be discussed.
12.2 Working with Repeats Many attractive textile products contain ‘repeats’ of a design. The methods for repeating the design of buti or buta (which were considered in Lesson 11) will now be described. 12.2.1 Repeats for Buti There are a number of ways in which buti can be repeated for ornamenting a fabric. These are considered below:-
Fig. 12.1 All over design
All over repeat
All over repeats are used very widely as in Fig. 12.2.
Units have been placed directly above, below and to the side of any particular unit.
After placing the first unit, as we move further to the next unit or block, the motifs rotate clockwise by 45 degrees in the designs shown in Fig. 12.2.
Brick layer repeat
Fig. 12.2 All over repeat
They are very common repeats.
In a brick layer repeat, units are placed directly above and below a particular unit but at the side the new unit being placed is dropped down, so that its top edge meets at the centre of the first unit as shown in Fig. 12.3.
Fig. 12.3 Brick layer repeat
iii) Vertical repeat •
In this repeat (Fig. 12.4) the units are placed vertically directly above and below a particular unit but at the side, a fixed distance is left between the two columns.
The distance between the two columns is kept equal to the width of the unit.
Fig. 12.4 Vertical repeat
iv) Horizontal repeat •
In this repeat (Fig. 12.5) the units are placed horizontally in a row.
A gap is left between the first and second row.
The distance between the two rows is equal to the length of the unit.
After the gap, the second row of units is placed.
Fig. 12.5 Horizontal repeat
v) Equidistance repeat (Fig. 12.6) •
In this repeat, the unit is placed by leaving equal distance on all the four sides of the previous unit.
Fig. 12.6 Equidistance repeat
vi) Half drop repeat •
They are most common repeat.
The units (Fig. 12.7) are placed alternatively one after the other.
Fig. 12.7 Half drop repeat
vii) Diagonal repeat In this repeat (Fig. 12.8), the units are placed diagonally by leaving a fixed diagonal distance between them.
Fig. 12.8 Diagonal repeat
12.2.2 Repeats for Border •
First, draw the design for border, about 6” in width (Fig. 12.9).
Fig. 12.9 Repeats for border
When you trace this design, one after the other, you will notice that, there is no continuation and perfect joining between the two tracings (Fig. 12.10).
Fig. 12.10 Tracing for Repeat of Border
To avoid this situation or for perfect joining, first draw the design and then draw a small part from the start of the border to indicate that the next tracing will start from this part.
Self-check Questions 1. What is the difference between half drop and diagonal repeat? 2. Define all over repeat. 3. Write the names of the following repeats: â€˘
In this repeat, units are placed directly above and below a particular unit but at the side the new unit being placed is dropped down, so that its top edge meets at the centre of the first unit.
In this repeat, Units are placed directly above, below and to the side of any particular unit.
In this repeat, the unit is placed by leaving equal distance on all the four sides of the previous unit.
Activity 1. Make a nursery print with the help of a cartoon motif, by placing it as brick layer repeat.
12.3 An All Over Design All over design, as the name suggests, covers the fabric to a large extent. The design surface can be divided into two parts-the background and the foreground. The background is the base of the fabric and the foreground is the design on it. When the foreground is more than the background then it is an all over design (Fig. 12.11). In other words in all over designs the back ground gets covered by the design and little or no background is seen.
Fig. 12.11 All over designs
Here in the first design there is no background to be seen while in the second design with red poppies the navy blue background can be seen. Both the designs fall in the category of allover designs. To make an all over design, the following steps may be followed:
Take a square piece of paper.
Fold it in half and unfold the paper (Fig 12.12).
Then fold the half portion in half from both sides (Fig. 12.13).
Start drawing the design on the folded portion.
After drawing, unfold the paper
Again fold the paper in the same manner from the other two sides i.e. vertically.
Again unfold the paper, after drawing.
After unfolding the paper, you can see that only centre of the paper is left blank and the design is drawn on four sides of the paper.
Now draw the design in the centre and join the four sides of the design with the design in the centre.
Fig. 12.12 Unfold paper
Fig. 12.13 Fold paper
Fig. 12.14 Complete design
Your design is now completed (Fig.12.14) but still it is looking incomplete. So let us now learn to complete the design by tracing and transferring.
12.4 Tracing and Transferring a Design
You can see that the four sides of the design are incomplete. To complete this design, first name the four sides of your design as a, b, c, d.
Trace the design on another paper with the help of a tracing paper.
Then again trace the design from side ‘a’ next to the side ‘b’.
Now one side of the design has been completed, but the other is still incomplete.
You can complete the incomplete side of the design by placing it one after the other.
After this an all over design is formed.
Another aspect of all over design is that it’s very difficult to trace the beginning and end of the design repeat.
This is a very common style of designing (Fig.12.15). You can easily see these types of designs in bed covers, dress materials, tapestry, upholstery etc.
12.5 Presentation of Design
Fig 12.15 Coloured design
Designers prepare the portfolio of their designs in such a way, that it represents their idea and their design for a particular item, e.g.-a garment, dress materials, or a fabric for tapestry, upholstery etc. The presentation should be complete in all aspects. For preparing the portfolio, one should follow the following steps•
First, prepare the outline or rough sketch of the final product or item such as tapestry.
Then make a design according to the type of article to be made. Prepare this design as an all over pattern or in repeatable form.
After finalizing the design, finalize the colour scheme.
Then make a complete design for the final product with colours on ivory sheet in 9” X 9” block.
Now enlarge a small portion of the design to clarify the motifs and colours, in a corner of this sheet in a block of 3” X 3”.
Finally make a sheet showing a drawing of the final product (Fig.12.16).
Now search for a similar pattern on the fabric or the fabric you want to use for the product. Stick a swatch of this fabric for reference.
Show the colours used in this design, in small blocks on this sheet below the design block.
Now you have your design, an idea of the final product, colour scheme and swatch of the fabric.
Fig. 12.16 Presentation of design
Self-check Questions 1. What is an all over design. 2. Explain the repeat for border.
Activity 2. Make an all over design chart with little background is showing. Your theme for this design is floral pattern with butterflies and make this design in one primary colour (say red, yellow or blue), by using its tints, tones and shades.
12.6 Assignments 12.6.1 Class assignments i)
Make a sheet of all over, diagonal and vertical repeats by using geometrical and floral motifs.
Draw a a border by repeating the 6â€? border design.
12.6.2 Home assignments i)
Draw an all over design of bed sheet for a childâ€™s room.
12.7 Summing Up After learning the technique of enlargement, reduction and ornamentation of fabric in the previous two lessons, we have learnt about working with repeats, an all over design and presentation of design in this class. We have discussed six types of repeat techniques viz. all over repeat, half drop repeat, equidistance repeat, vertical repeat, horizontal repeat, brick layer repeat and diagonal repeat.
12.8 Possible Answers to Self-check Questions 1. In half drop repeat the units are placed alternatively one after the other. In diagonal repeat the units are placed diagonally by leaving a fixed diagonal distance between them. 2. All over repeats are used very widely. in this repeat Units are placed directly above, below and to the side of any particular unit. After placing the first unit, as we move further to the next unit or block, the motifs rotate clockwise by 45 degrees in the designs.
3. Brick layer repeat, All over repeat, Equidistance repeat. 4. An all over design, covers the fabric to a large extent. The design surface can be divided into two parts-the background and the foreground. The background is the base of the fabric and the foreground is the design on it. When the foreground is more than the background then it is an all over design (Fig. 12.11). In other words in all over designs the back ground gets covered by the design and little or no background is seen. 5. For a border repeat first, draw the design for border, about 6” in width. When you trace this design, one after the other, you will notice that, there is no continuation and perfect joining between the two tracings. To avoid this situation or for perfect joining, first draw the design and then draw a small part from the start of the border to indicate that the next tracing will start from this part.
12.9 Terminal Questions 1. Explain the presentation of design. 2. Describe the technique of making an all over design. 3. Write about the following-
All over repeat
Half drop repeat
References and Suggested Further Reading
Belfer, N. 1992. Batik and Tie Dye Techniques, 3rd Rev. Ed. Dover Publications, New York.
Fisher, R, and Wolfthal, D. 1987. Textile Print Design. Fairchild, New York.
Johnston, M. P. and Kaufman, G. 1981. Design on Fabrics, 2nd Ed. Prentice Hall, New York.
Joyce, C. 1993. The Complete Guide to Printed Textiles for Apparel and Home Furnishings. Watson-Guptill, New York.
Lassiter, N. and Lassiter, F. 1977. Screen Printing: Contemporary methods and materials. Hunt Manufacturing, Philadelphia.
Proctor, R.M. and Lew, J. F. 1984. Surface Design for Fabric. University of Washington Press, Seattle.
Stein, V. 1969. Batik as A Hobby. Sterling, New York.
Storey, J. 1978. The Thames and Hudson Manual of Dyes and Fabrics. Thames & Hudson, London.
Storey, J. 1992. The Thames and Hudson Manual of Textile Printing. Thames & Hudson, London.
10. Yates, M. 1986. A Handbook for Designers. Prentice Hall, New York.
The ground or base specially of a scene
Slanting position, joining the two opposite corners
At equal distance
The part of a scene which is nearest to the spectator
To present, to show
Source from where indications or ideas are extracted
To turn in clockwise direction
Rich hangings (drapes) with pictures
To mark out
To shift or to place at some position
Curtain material, textile covering, padding etc. for furniture