LESSON 11 WORKING DESIGNS FOR ORNAMENTATION ON FABRIC STRUCTURE 11.0
UNDERSTANDING THE DESIGN
W ORKING WITH VARIOUS TOOLS
ORNAMENTATION OF FABRIC LAYOUT 11.4.1 11.4.2
ASSIGNMENTS 11.5.1 11.5.2
CLASS ASSIGNMENTS HOME ASSIGNMENTS
POSSIBLE ANSWERS TO SELF-CHECK QUESTIONS
REFERENCES AND SUGGESTED FURTHER READING
11. WORKING DESIGNS FOR ORNAMENTATION ON FABRICS In this lesson we will concentrate how one can create a design from different sources on various themes and thus satisfying a creative urge of a designer. Working with various tools for creating designs will also be discussed.
11.0 Objectives After going through this lesson you will gain an understanding of: •
Working with various tools.
Attractive ornamentation of fabrics.
11.1 Introduction After learning about the processes of enlargement and reduction of a motif or design with the help of various techniques, we now proceed to learn about designs used for ornamentation of fabrics. Design is the idea behind which any creation originates (for example see Fig. 11.1). .A good design is the combination of basic elements and principles of art. It is the basic form of ornamenting a fabric surface.
Fig. 11.1 An all over design
It is therefore interesting to learn how one can develop designs using a variety of tools.
11.2 Understanding the Design By definition; a design like the one shown in Fig. 11.2 is an arrangement of forms, lines, symbols in a way that is appealing to the observer. From the time man’s existence is believed to have started, art followed him. After fulfilling his basic needs of food, shelter and clothing, his next natural basic instinct 2
was to make things beautiful. It was his aesthetic instinct that led him to first decorate his dwelling, clothing and himself. The primitive man used to draw symbols on the walls to convey his thoughts. One can see the hunting scenes, war scenes and the day to day activities carved on the rocks. As time passed, various civilizations developed and art became more and more a part of their life. Art from each land was so different that it became the source to identify the people from different parts of the world. For example, the Egyptian designs gave prominence to the snake, Sphinx, date palm, eagle, lotus and geometrical borders. Some of the Egyptian styles of design can be seen in Figs. 11.3 a, b and c. The first picture (Fig. 11.3 a) is a pendant design made with the cobra. In the other two pictures (Fig. 11.3 b and Fig. 11.3 c) we have the lotus shown in different forms. India probably has the widest range of designs available as each state of India has its own set of designs. Rajasthan, for instance has characteristic motifs of animals, plants and geometrical designs. (For example, see Fig. 11.4)
Fig. 11.3 a Pendant design made with cobra
Fig. 11.3 b, c Lotus designs
Fig. 11.4 Geometrical and animal motifs
The sources of inspiration for the designs have been the same since times immemorial viz. nature, day-to-day life and religion. These inspired the primitive man and continue to inspire the modern man. For example: flowers, mountains, trees, animals, snow, stone, vegetables, and fruits have always fascinated man. Only the way they were depicted differed. Along with these, different geometrical designs also flourished. For a layman a design is just a piece of drawing or a collection of forms. But as textile designers, it becomes very important that one understands a design. For a designer who creates new designs it has a meaning, a message or it can even be an expression of a story. For a designer, lines, forms and colours are his language of expression. Whenever a designer creates something new, he always has a theme in mind upon which he works. As a result the designs that he develops are an expression 3
of his perceptions and creativity for that particular theme. Each person has his individual way of thinking and therefore the same theme can lead to various designs. For example the theme of “Wildness” may be depicted by some by an angry tiger, some with a crocodile, some through a group of people fighting, some with a thorny desert bush while some can also think of a thorny rose bud. Today artistic expression has become a very specialized and glamorous profession and we have designers and big labels creating new designs for us. In the fashion shows telecast these days, the designers talk about their designs, themes, colours, forms and so on. The designs shown in Fig. 11.5 are 21st Century geometrical designs.
Fig. 11.5 Designs inspired from nature
Self-check Questions 1. Write the definition of design? 2. On which place the primitive man used to draw symbols to convey his thoughts? 3. What kind of scenes one can see on the carved rocks? 4. Describe the main sources of inspiration for primitive as well as modern man.
11.3 Working with Various Tools A designer needs some basic tools to create designs, e.g. pencils, eraser, scale (6’’ and 12’’), paper sheets, set of colours and brushes and at times a tracing paper. Things become easier if he has an epidiascope, photocopier and a tracing table. The various tools are briefly described below: •
Pencils: Various kinds of pencils are used to get different effects. HB pencils are used for normal drawing. 2B, 4B and 6B pencils are soft pencils and are used to give shading and textures in the design. Very often 2B pencils are used for normal drawing jobs, as they are neither very soft nor hard and are smooth and comfortable to use. 2H, 4H are hard and light pencils.
Eraser: Non dust erasers are used by designers as they are very soft and do not damage the paper.
Scales: Scales of 6’’ and 12’’ should be kept handy by designers as accuracy is important in designing. Conversion scale are also used to make different styles of lines i.e. wavy lines, curves etc.
Sheets: Designers use two types of sheets: o Cartridge sheets are soft but with a slight roughness. They are a slightly offwhite in colour and the effect of textures and shading made with pencil and carbon are expressed well on them. o Ivory sheet paper is more crisp and pure white in colour. Effects from poster colours, pencil colours and water colour come out very well on these sheets.
Tracing paper: Tracing paper is a translucent paper through which one can see the design on the sheet on which it is placed. So one can trace the outline of the design.
Tracing table: Tracing table is especially designed to make the tracing of designs easy. The table has a glass top and lights are fixed below the glass (Fig. 11.6). The design sheet is placed on the glass top and then the tracing paper on which the design has to be copied. Because of the lights the design, can be seen very clearly and copied.
Paper Knife: It is used to cut the sheets and to sharpen the pencil and pencil colours.
Compass Cutter: It is just like a compass. It is used to cut the sheet in a circle (Fig. 11.7).
Fig. 11.6 Tracing table
Fig. 11.7 Compass Cutter
The Epidiascope and Photocopier: These have already been described in Lesson 10
Colours: Colours of various types are available in the market. Generally designers use poster colours to do the sheet work but one can use pencil colours, pastels, wax, or water colours.
Painting brushes: Painting brushes of various sizes are required. One needs both the round and flat brushes.
Activity 1. Make an all over design for a dress material inspired from nature. 2. Draw twenty different prehistoric symbols in your sketch file.
11.4 Ornamentation of Fabric Layout Ornamentation is embellishment or decoration. There are various ways in which one can decorate the fabric, two of which are: 1. Buti
These are briefly described below. 11.4.1 Buti Butis are small motifs. Though there is no specific size limit in this category, their size generally varies from a centimeter to 5cms. When used on cloth they are placed close to each other and are repeated on the entire fabric. Butis can be floral, geometrical or stylized (when the motif is made using curved lines), for example as shown in Fig. 11.8.
Fig. 11.8 Butis
When the size of the motif becomes larger than say approximately 3’’ then it is called buta. (Fig. 11.9)
It is a very common and a popular way of fabric ornamentation. This style has been used in all types of textiles be it household textiles like napkins, table cloths, table mats and so on or bed linens like bed covers, pillow covers etc. It is also very popular in dress materials and dupattas. 11.4.2 Border The dictionary meaning of a border is â€˜a part or a decorative strip that forms the outer edge of something such as a fabricâ€™. It runs along the edge of the fabric. It can go lengthwise or widthwise. The width can vary. One finds broad borders and at times you can see very narrow delicate borders also. Border designs can be geometrical, stylized, grape wine movement and so on. Even a simple thick band of colour which runs along the edge will be called a border. Carpet borders are an example of very complicated and intricate borders.
Fig. 11.10 Borders
Borders bind the design together. It is the unifying factor in a design. Some different styles of borders are shown in (Fig. 11.10).
The first border is the grape wine style of border. The differentiating feature is the wavy line running in the centre of the design. This wavy line gives movement to the design. The second design is a simple geometrical style of border. It is made of simple curved lines. The final design is a stylized (use of curved lines) design made up of curved lines. This category of designs also has a sense of movement in it. Borders can also be formed by repeating a single motif again and again to form a long chain.
Activity 3. Design a geometrical buta and border suitable for a bed cover.
Self-check Questions 5. Give the names of basic tools required by a designer to create a design. 7
6. Which types of pencils are good for making designs? 7. What is the difference between cartridge and ivory sheet? 8. Write the difference between buti and buta.
11.5 Assignments 11.5.1 Class assignments i) Design a floral and geometrical buti suitable for a dupatta. 11.5.2 Home assignments i) Develop a stylized border design.
11.6 Summing Up In Lesson11, we have studied some aspects of Designs and designing and about their existence in the prehistoric period and in later civilizations. We also saw how working with various tools like pencils, eraser, scales, sheets, tracing paper, tracing table, colours, brushes etc. one can develop designs for the ornamentation of fabrics with buti and border.
11.7 Possible Answers to Self-check Questions 1. By definition; a design is an arrangement of forms, lines, symbols in a way that is appealing to the observer. 2. Walls 3. One can see the hunting scenes, war scenes and the day to day activities carved on the rocks. 4. The sources of inspiration for the designs have been the same since times immemorial viz. nature, day-to-day life and religion. These inspired the primitive man and continue to inspire the modern man. For example: flowers, mountains, trees, animals, snow, stone, vegetables, and fruits have always fascinated man. Only the way they were depicted differed. 5. The basic tools required by a designer are as followsâ€˘ 8
• • • • • • • • • •
Eraser Scales Sheets Tracing peper Tracing table Paper knife Compass cutter The Epidiascope and Photocopier Colours Painting Brushes
6. Various kinds of pencils are used to get different effects. HB pencils are used for normal drawing. 2B, 4B and 6B pencils are soft pencils and are used to give shading and textures in the design. Very often 2B pencils are used for normal drawing jobs, as they are neither very soft nor hard and are smooth and comfortable to use. 2H, 4H are hard and light pencils. 7. Cartridge sheets are soft but with a slight roughness. They are a slightly off-white in colour and the effect of textures and shading made with pencil and carbon are expressed well on them. Ivory sheet paper is more crisp and pure white in colour. Effects from poster colours, pencil colours and water colour come out very well on these sheets. 8. Butis are small motifs. Though there is no specific size limit in this category, their size generally varies from a centimeter to 5cms. When the size of the motif becomes larger than say approximately 3’’ then it is called buta
11.8 Terminal Question 1. What do you understand by the term, Design? 2. Briefly describe Buti and buta. 3. Write about the tools used in the technique of making designs. 4. What is a border?
11.9 References and Suggested Further Reading 1. Anonymous. 2006. The Complete Guide to Drawing and Painting. Quantum Publishing Ltd., London 9
2. Bhavnani, E. 1968. Decorative Designs and Craftsmanship of India. D.B. Taraporevala & Sons Co. Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai. 3. Mishra, J. S. 1981. Ancient Indian Textile Designs. Prithivi Prakashan, New Delhi.
11.10 Glossary 1.
Society at a stage of social development
A way of conceiving something