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ikB&8 LVsfUly fUly dkVuk (CUTTING STENCILS) lajpuk 8-0 8-1

mÌs’; izLrkouk

8-2

fMt+kbu cukus ds fy, rS;kjh 8-2-1 Ties dh tkudkjh

8-3 8-4

LVs sfUly cukus ds fy, isij dk iz;ksx djuk LVfUly sfUly fMt+kbu flfefVªdy LVs LVfUly

8-5

LVs sfUly cukus ds fy, IykWfLVd dk iz;ksx LVfUly

8-6

LVsfUly fUly dkVuk 8-6-1 8-6-2 8-6-3

8-7

flfefVªdy fMt+kbu dkVuk vflfefVªdy LVsfUly fUly dkVuk fjihV LVsfUly fUly

nRr dk;Z 8-7-1 d{kk dk;Z 8-7-2 x`g dk;Z

8-8

lkjka’k

8-9 Lo;a tk¡p iz’uksa ds lEHkkfor mRrj 8-10 vH;klkFkZ iz’u 8-11 lanHkZ ,oa v/;;u ;ksX; iqLrdsa 8-12 'kCnkoyh


8 LVsfUly fUly dkVuk (CUTTING STENCILS) geus ikB 7 esa v/;;u fd;k fd LVsfUly fizafVax ljy ,oa 'kh?kz fizafVax djus dh fof/k gSA bl ikB esa ge LVsfUly dkVus dh çfØ;k ds egRoiw.kZ Hkkx dk v/;;u djsaxsA ;g LVsfUly fizafVax rduhd dk ,d vko’;d ?kVd gS ftlesa dkS’ky rFkk dkjhxjh vko’;d gksrh gSA vxys ikB esa ge fofHkUu fof/k;ksa ls LVsfUly fizafVax dk v/;;u djsaxsA

8-0

mÌs’; (Objectives)

bl ikB dk v/;;u djus ds i’pkr~ vki% • LVsfUly dkVus ds fy, fofHkUu lkexzh dh igpku dj ldsaxsA • LVsfUly dkVus dk Kku rFkk Ties dk egRo tku ldsaxsA • fHkUu fMt+kbuksa ds LVsfUly isij ;k IykfLVd 'khV ij dkV ldsaxsA

8-1

izLrkouk (Introduction)

izk;% dkxt+ ;k IykfLVd ;k fQYe fuxsfVo ij fMt+kbu dkV dj LVsfUly cgqr vklkuh ls cuk;k tk ldrk gSA blds fy, midj.kksa dh tkudkjh rFkk fMt+kbu dk vkdkj ftldk LVsfUly dkVuk gS miyC/k gksuk pkfg,A ;g fiNys ikB dk fo"k; FkkA LVsfUly dkVus ds fy, vR;f/kd /kS;Z rFkk tkx:drk vko’;d gS rkfd fizafVax lEiw.kZ rFkk =qfVjfgr gksA LVsfUly dkVus ds i’pkr~ ftl lrg ij fizaV djuk gks bldks j[kdj dVs gq, Hkkxksa esa jax yxk;k tkrk gS bl izdkj lqUnj fMt+kbu uhps j[ks isij ij Ni tkrk gSA ge LVsfUly ds fMt+kbu dks ,d vkÑfr ds :i esa isij ds vfrfjDRk vU; fdlh oLrq ij Hkh fizaV dj ldrs gSa tSls ikWdsV] LdkQZ ij ;k Vscy ds diM+s tSls uSifdu ;k Vh dksth ;k ifj/kku ;k Vh&’kVZZ ;k ftl txg Hkh pkgsa fizaV dj ldrs gSaA

8-2

fMt+kbu cukus ds fy, rS;kjh (Design Preparation)

igys jQ fMt+kbu cuk;sa rFkk mldk /;ku iwoZd fujh{k.k djsa fd mlesa dksbZ Hkkx rks ugha NwVk tks LVSfUly ij fMt+kbu dkVus ij i`"BHkwfe ls vyx gks tk;sA LVsfUly ij iw.kZ lkQ fMt+kbu vafdr djus ds fy, ^^VkbZ** ds fo"k; dks le>uk vko’;d gS rFkk blfy, bl fo"k; dks foLrkj ls v/;;u fd;k tk,xkA

8-2-1 ^^VkbZt+** dh tkudkjh (Understanding ‘Ties’)

66


VkbZ iryh iRrh gksrh gS tks yxHkx 1/8" pkSM+h gksrh gS rFkk LVSfUly ij fMt+kbu cukrs le; NksM+ nh tkrh gS ;g fMt+kbu dks nks ;k vf/kd fdukjksa ij LVSfUly ls tksM+s j[krh gS ;k LVsfUly ij fMt+kbu ds dkVs x;s Hkkx ds chp ds LFkku dks tksM+s j[krh gSA ;g fuEu mnkgj.k ls iwjh rjg le> esa vk tk;sxkA fp= 8-1 esa v{kj ‘A’ dks blh voLFkk esa dkVk ugha tk ldrk D;ksafd ,slk djus ls og i`"BHkwfe ls vyx gks tk;sxkA bldks jksdus ds fy, v{kj ‘A’ rFkk LVSfUly ds e/; Mk;xuy VkbZt+ cukbZ tkrh gS blds ifj.kke Lo:i v{kj ‘A’ dh vkÑfr dks ,d ne igpkuk tk ldrk gS rFkk LVSfUly Hkh lqjf{kr jgrh gSA blfy, o.kZekyk ds LVSfUly fo’ks"k :i ls vius fof/k ls cuk;k tkrk gSA

fp= 88- 1 v{kj ‘A’ dk LVsfUly

vc ,d VkbZ jfgr lk/kkj.k MªkWbaxksa dk fp= 8-2 ds ck¡; nsf[k,A ;fn ge i{kh dh okLrfod js[kk fp= dks mldh vkÑfr ds lkFk lkFk dkVsa ¼fp= 8-2b ck¡;s½ rks og i`"BHkwfe ls iwjh rjg vyx gks tk;sxh rFkk ml ij dsoy igpku esa u vkus okyh Qwy dh Nk;k 'ks"k jg tk;sxhA ge ;g pkSM+h ifRr;k¡ ;k tksM+us okyh VkbZ fo’ks"k :i ls LVsfUly cukus ds fy, MªkW djrs gSaA vc tc Hkh ;g js[kkfp= LVsfUly cksMZ ij dkVk tk;sxk rks ;g [kqys ia[kks okys i{kh dk iw.kZ izfrfcac gksxk ¼fp= 8-2a nk¡;s½ rFkk uhps cuh ,d lqUnj xqykc dh MUMh ¼fp= 8-2b nk¡;s½ Hkh blh çdkj curh gSA V kbZ LVsfUly dks etcwrh nsus ds fp= 88- 2a Vkbt+ ds }kjk vkSj mlds fcuk cuk fy, Hkh fp= 88- 2b Qwy esa Vkbt+ gqvk fp= ykHknk; d gksrh gSA VkbZt+ cgqr de pkSMh ugha gksuh pkfg;s] D;ksafd os fizafVax ;k lQkbZ djrs le; VwV ldrh gSaA ;gh dkj.k gS fd cM+s fMt+kbuksa dks LVsfUly ij lw{e fooj.k nsus ds fy, Vkbt gh vafre gy gSA

Lo;a tk¡p iz’u (Self-check Questions) 67


1. 2.

^^Vkbt+** D;k gksrh gaS\ muds egRo dk o.kZu dhft,A flfefVªdy fMt+kbu D;k gksrk gS\

8-3 LVsfUly fUly cukus ds fy, dkxt+ dkxt+ rFkk vU; oLrqvksa dk mi;ksx (Use of Paper and Other Objects for Making Stencils) fofHkUu izdkj dh isij 'khV~l ij LVSafly dkVus ds fy, fuEu ijh{k.k fd;s tk ldrs gSaA • dkVZfjt+ 'khV~l% ;g vke iz;ksx esa vkus okyk esVhfj;y gSA bldks vklkuh ls dkVk rFkk izz;ksx esa yk;k tk ldrk gSA ;g cgqr yphyk gksrk gS rFkk blls cus LVsfUly ls xksy rFkk [kqjnjh lrg ij fizafVax dh tk ldrh gS tSls crZu] xksy oLrq,a] cksrysa] tkj ;k IysV~l vkfnA • vkbojh 'khV~l% ;s 'kq) lQsn 'khV gksrh gSaA ;g dkVZfjt+ 'khV~l ls eksVh rFkk dMs+ LVsfUly eSSVhfj;y ds :i esa iz;ksx dh tkrh gSA • ckSaM isij% tc vki LVSfUly cukus dk ijh{k.k djrs gSa ;k fMt+kbu cukuk pkgrs gSa ;k ,d ls vf/kd fMt+kbu cukuk pkgrs gSa mlds fy, eksVk ckSaM isij lcls vPNh ilan gSA • dqN vke oLrq,¡% dqN vke oLrq,a ?kj ij csdkj iM+h jgrh gaS mudks LVsfUly ds fy, iz;ksx fd;k tk ldrk gSA buesa 'kknh dk dkMZ] xzhfVax dkMZ] csdkj MCcsa] cSx vkfn lfEefyr gSaA

8-4 flfefVªdy LVsfUly fUly fMt+kbu (Symmetrical Stencil Designs) og LVSfUly fMtkbu ftudk v{k leku gks rFkk pkjksa vksj ls ,d leku fn[kkbZ iM+s mUgsa flfefVªdy LVsfUly fMt+kbu dgrs gSaA mudks dkxt ij isij QksfYMax fof/k }kjk dkVk tk ldrk gSA Øec) fMt+kbu dk js[kkfp= cukuk cgqr ljy gS rFkk mudk LVSfUly dkVk tk ldrk gSA ijUrq mudk lgh pquko fiazV djus okyh lrg ds {ks= rFkk vfUre mRikn ds mi;ksx ij fuHkZj djrk gSA mnkgj.k ds fy, buls lkM+h ds ckWMZj dks vyaÑr ugha fd;k tk ldrk] ijUrq Vscy DykWFk ds chp esa ;k Mkbfuax 'khV ;k csM’khV ij os cgqr vPNs yxrs gSaA ;|fi] lsfefVªdy fMt+kbu iqujko`fRr okys uewus fizaV ds lkFk lkFk fdlh rduhd tSls CykWd fizafVax] LØhu fizafVax vkfn esa iz;ksx esa yk;s tk ldrs gSaA

lsfefVª dy fMt+kb u dk js[kkfp = cukus fp= 68


dh rduhd tkikuh dyk ij vk/kkfjr gSA ,d dkxt dks oxkZdkj eksM+sa ¼fp= 8-3½ rFkk pkjksa Hkkxksa ij lsesfVªdy fMt+kbu dks ,d leku MªkW djsa tSls fp= 8-4 esa fn[kk;k x;k gSA fMt+kbu lk/kkj.k Qwy dh pkj ifRr;ksa ls v"VHkqt tfVy ikWfyxu gks ldrk gSA ge dkxt dks nksgjk djus ckn Hkh nksuksa Hkhrjh fdukjksa ij fMt+kbu MªkW dj ldrs gSaA ge Qwyksa] isM+ksa ;k ekuo ;k i’kq dh vkÑfr ls mi;qDr :ijs[kk MªkW dj ldrs gSaA

fp= 88- 4 'khV ij flfefVªdy fMt+kbu cukus ds js[kkfp= cukuk

xfrfof/k (Activity) 1-

isij QksfYMax fof/k }kjk ,d flfefVªdy fMt+kbu cuk,a rFkk dSaph }kjk dkVsaA

8-5

LVsfUly fUly cukus ds fy, IykfLVd dk iz;ksx (Use of Plastics for Making Stencils)

LVsfUly cukus ds fy, nwljk eSfVfj;y IykfLVd 'khV gS tks 'kk;n lcls fo’oluh; eSVhfj;y gSA ;g nsj rd pyus okyk ty 'kks/kd ¼okWVj iwzQ½ gS rFkk bl ij yxs jax dks ljyrk ls gVk;k tk ldrk gSA IykfLVd ls cuk;k x;k LVsfUly ckj ckj rFkk yEcs le; rd iz;ksx esa yk;k tk ldrk gSA dbZ izdkj dh IykfLVd 'khV~l iz;ksx esa ykbZ tk ldrh gSA muesa ls dqN fuEu gSa%&

fp= 88- 5a LVsfUly ds fy, Qyksa ds fMt+kbu

fp= 88- 5 LVsfUly }kjk fizaV fd;s x;s dq’ku ij lqUnj Qyksa ds fMt+kbu

69


• eksVh IykfLVd 'khV% 'khV IykfLVd dh eksVh ikjn’khZ 'khV cgqr le; rd pyrh gS rFkk ;g ckj ckj iz;ksx djus ds fy, mi;qDr gksrk gSA eksVh IykfLVd 'khV dk izn’kZu cgqr vPNk gksrk gSA bu 'khV~l ij lh/kk ljy fMt+kbu cukuk mfpr gSA • csdkj fuxsfVo fQYe% fQYe bu ls LFkkbZ fo’oluh; LVsfUly cuk;s tk ldrs gSaA ;fn LVsfUly dkss Hkfo"; esa iz;ksx ds fy, laxzg djus dh ;kstuk gks rks blh eSVhfj;y ls LVsfUly cuk;s tkrs gSaA csdkj fuxsfVo fQYe ls cus LVSfUly dks vklkuh ls lkQ fd;k tk ldrk gS] blds vfrfjDr bldks ckj ckj iz;ksx esa yk;k tk ldrk gSA fQYe ls cus LVsfUly ueh ugha idM+rsA • csdkj ,Dljs fQYe % csdkj ,Dljs fQYesa LVSfUly cukus ds fy, cgqr mi;qDr gSA ;g yEcs le; rd pyus okyh rFkk tyjks/kd gksrh gaSA ;|fi budks dkVuk dfBu gksrk gS rFkkfi budks ckj ckj iz;ksx fd;k tk ldrk gS rFkk ;g dkQh le; rd [kjkc ugha gksrhA • cus cuk;s LVsfUly% Uly cktkj esa cus cuk;s LVsfUly] tks vf/kd le; rd ç;ksx fd;k tk ldrk gS blds fy, izk;% flaFkSfVd esVhfj;y ls cuk;s tkrs gSa] tSls NksVs cPpksa ds fy, o.kZekyk rFkk i’kq] Qy ,oa lfCt;ksa ds LVsfUly vPNh xq.koRrk okys IykfLVd ls cuk;s tkrs gSa tks lqjf{kr rFkk lqxerk ls iz;ksx esa yk;s tk ldrs gSaA • csdkj ikjn’khZ 'khV% ;g LVsfUly cukus dk ,d vPNk eVhfj;y gS ijUrq ikjn’khZ 'khV dks dkVus ds fy, vfrfjDr /;ku rFkk dkS’ky dh vko’;drk gksrh gSA eksVh ikjn’khZ 'khV dks fMt+kbu ij j[k dj vklkuh ls dkVk tk ldrk gSA ijUrq bu 'khV~l ij lw{e fMt+kbu cukuk cgqr dfBu gSA vr% ges bu 'khV~l ij cksYM fMt+kbu gh dkVus pkfg,A • csdkj IykfLVd QkbZy doj % budk iz;ksx Hkh LVSfUly dkVus ds fy, fd;k tk ldrk gS] ijUrq IykfLVd vPNh gksuh pkfg,A • f[kykSus rFkk NksVs cPpksa dh [ksyus okyh oLrq,a% vU; ?kjsyw miyC/k oLrqvksa dks Hkh LVSfUly dkVus ds fy, iz;ksx fd;k tk ldrk gS] tSls NksVs cPpksa ds CykWDl] IykfLVd fjax] NksVh Nuuh vkfnA ikjn’khZ eSfVfj;y ls LVSfUly dkVus ds fy, 'khV dks Mk;jsDVyh fMt+kbu ds Åij j[kdj LVSfUly vklkuh ls cuk;k tk ldrk gS /;ku jgs fMt+kbu ds Vsi }kjk fpidk ysuk pkfg,A ijUrq blls MªkWbaZx [kjkc gksus dk Mj jgrk gSA

Lo;a tk¡p iz’u (Self-check Questions) 3- LVsfUly dkVus ds fy, fHkUu fHkUu izdkj ds isij rFkk IykfLVd esfVfj;y dh lwph cukb,A 4- LVsfUly cukus ds fy, fdl izdkj ds fMt+kbu mi;qDr gksrs gSaA

70


8-6

LVsfUly dkVuk (Cutting Stencils)

8-6-1 flfefVªdy fMt+kbu dkVuk (Cutting Symmetrical Designs) ,d LVsfUly dkVus dh izHkkoh ,oa ljy fof/k dkxt dks eksM+ dj flfefVªdy vkÑfr dkVuk gSA yEcs eksM+s x;s Nksj d lkFk lkFk vdsyh vkÑfr dkVasA bl ckr dk /;ku j[ksa fd fdlh Hkh dksus dks vkj ikj u dkVsaA isij dks [kksyus ij ;g ,d LVsfUly dh Hkk¡fr gksxk ¼fp= 8-6a½A flfefVªdy fMt+kbu dkVus esa cgqr ljy gksrs gSa ¼fp= 8-6b½ rFkk vkd"kZd ,oa lqanj fn[krs gSa flfefVªdy LVsfUly ls cus fp=ksa dk vuqeku mls jaxhu isij ij Qsyk dj fd;k tk ldrk gS ¼fp= 8-6c½A mlds i’pkr~ fMt+kbu dks fdlh Hkh LVsfUly esfVfj;y ij cuk;k tk

ldr k gS tSls dkVZf jt isij] vkbo

fp= 88- 6a flfefVªd y fMt+kbu dks dkVuk

jh 'khV] ckSaM isij ;k dksbZ vU; IykfLVd eSfVfj;yA

fp= 8.6b

flfefVªdy fMt+kbu

fp= 8.6c

8-6-2 vflfefVªdy LVSfUly dkVuk (Cutting an Asymmetrical Stencil)

fp= 88-7 vflfefVªdy fMt+kbu

LVsfUly dkMZ ;k isij dks dkVus okyh lrg ij j[ksa rFkk rst LVsfUly dÍj ;k ØkW¶V ds pkdw }kjk /;ku iwoZd izR;sd vkÑfr rFkk vU; Hkkxksa dks fdukjksa ds lkFk lkFk dkfV, rFkk lko/kkuh ls izR;sd Hkkx dks ,d ds ckn ,d vyx djsaA 8-6-3 fjihV LVsfUly fUly (A Repeat Stencil)

71


LVSfUly dh vkÑfr dks ckj ckj fizaV ds fy, nthZ }kjk iz;ksx fd;s tkus okys pkWd ls ij fjihV gksus okys Hkkx dks vafdr dj fy;k gSA rst ØkW¶V dk pkdw ls X- vkÑfr okys NksVs nksgjs frdksus lqjk[k LVsfUly cksMZ dh Bksl i`"BHkwfe {ks= esa dkVsa tks fjihV js[kkvksa dks Bhd ls feyk;s ¼fp= 8-8½ i`"BHkwfe {ks= ;fn vf/kd rax mls Vsi~M vkWu dkMZ ls c<+k,aA

djus diM+s tkrk ,oa

lqjk[kksa dk LFkku fuf’pr djus ds fy, fcanqvksa dks [kksft, tgk¡ fjihV js[kk;sa ijLij dkVrh gks rFkk mudks LVsfUly ij vafdr djsaA ØkW¶V ds pkdw ls izR;sd pkjksa fdukjksa ij nks NksVs ØkWl dV cuk;sa rFkk pkdw dh uksd }kjk NksVs f=Hkqtksa dks dkVsaA

mu

fof/k gksrks

NksVs fp= 88- 8 fjihV ds fy, LVsfUly x dk fu’kku

diM+s ij fjihV Hkkxksa dks vafdr djus ds fy, /kkxs dh js[kkvksa ;k nthZ }kjk dke esa yk;s tkus okyk pkWd dk iz;ksx djsaA tSls gh vki diM+s ij LVSfUly dks uhps djsaxs vki NksVs lqjk[kksa esa ls ns[k ldsaxs rFkk diM+s ds fdukjksa ij X- fcUnq ns[ksaA

xfrfof/k (Activity) 2.

8-7

lk/kkj.k T;ksesfVªdy vkÑfr tSls f=Hkqt ;k oxZ ;k o`Rr ;k ,d lk/kkj.k Qwy dks IykfLVd 'khV ij MªkW djsa rFkk bls dSaph ;k isij dVj dh lgk;rk ls dkV dj vyx djsaA

nRr dk;Z (Assignments)

8-7-1 d{kk dk;Z (Class Assignments) i) vkbojh 'khV ij ,d lk/kkj.k Qwy ;k dkVZwu MªkW djsa rFkk bls dkVsaA blds i’pkr~ iqu% fMt+kbu VkbZ lfgr MªkW djsa rFkk nksuksa esa vUrj ns[ksaA

8-7-2 x`g dk;Z (Home Assignments) i) ikjn’khZ 'khV ;k csdkj ,Dl js fQYe ij ,d lk/kkj.k fMt+kbu dk LVsfUly dkVsaA blds i’pkr~ bl LVsfUly ls 6 Vscy eSV~l rFkk usifdu ij fizaV dfj,A

72


8-8

lkjka’k (Summing Up)

gkFk }kjk LVsfUlfyax] LØhu fizafVax dk igyk pj.k gS tks LVsfUly fof/k ls xzg.k fd;k x;k gSA bl ikB esa geus LVSfUly dkVus dh fofHkUu rduhd lh[khA flfefVªdy rFkk vflfefVªdy LVsfUly fofHkUu y{k.k rFkk mu ij fMt+kbu cukus ,oa dkVus ds fof/k;ksa dk Kku izkIr fd;kA geus VkbZ dkVus ,oa fMt+kbu cukus esa ^VkbZ^ ds egRo dh tkudkjh Hkh izkIr dh FkhA LVsfUly }kjk fizafVax dk ijh{k.k djus ds fy, vusd izdkj ds dkxtksa rFkk IykfLVd ds iz;ksx }kjk LVsfUly dkVus ds i’pkr~ geus ;g tkuk fd ge muesa ls fdlh Hkh ,d ds }kjk mudh miyC/krk rFkk fLFkfr ds vuqlkj dk;Z dj ldrs gSaA

8-9

Lo;a tk¡p iz’uksa ds lEHkkfor mRrj (Possible Answers to Selfcheck Questions)

1.

^VkbZ* NksVh ifRr;k¡ gksrh gS tks dqN feyh ehVj pkSM+h gksrh gS ftudks LVsfUly dkVrs le; NksM+ fn;k tkrk gSA ^VkbZ* dks fMt+kbu dkVrs le; nks fof’k"V fcUnqvksa ds e/; NksM+k tkrk gS ftlls fMt+kbu lqLi"V rFkk fizafVax ds i’pkr~ igpkuk tk ldrk gSA

2.

flfefVªdy LVsfUly fMt+kbu og gksrs gSa tks niZ.k izfrfcac ds leku gksrs gSaA

3.

fHkUu fHkUu izdkj ds dkxt rFkk IykfLVd tks LVSfUly cukus esa iz;qDr gks ldrs gSa] os gSa% dkxt%

vkbojh 'khV] dkVZfjt 'khV~l] eksVk cksaM isij] xzhfVax dkMZ] csdkj IykfLVd dkVZu vkfnA IykfLVDl% ikjn’khZ 'khV~l] ,Dljs fQYe] fQYe fuxsfVo] IykfLVd QkbZy doj vkfnA 4.

dsoy cM+s fMt+kbu dk iz;ksx LVsfUly fizafVax fof/k }kjk fd;k tk ldrk gSA og fMt+kbu tks lqxerk ls LVsfUly cuk;s tk ldrs gSa mlls vyx ugha gksrsA tfVy rFkk eghu fMt+kbu ds izk;% isij LVsfUly ugha cuk;s tkrsA

8-10 vH;klkFkZ iz’u (Terminal Questions) 1. 2.

isij dV ;k LVsfUly fizafVax fof/k dh laf{kIr :ijs[kk nhft,A ,d fMt+kbu MªkW djsa rFkk LVsfUly cukus ds fy, bldk fo’ys"k.k rFkk lq/kkj fdl izdkj fd;k tk ldrk gS O;[;k djsaA

73


8-11 lanHkZ ,oa v/;;u ;ksX; iqLrdsa(Suggested Further Reading and References) 1. 1979. Craft and Hobbies (Reader’s Digest). Reader’s Digest Association, New York.

2. 1977. Dyeing and Printing. Excalibur Books, , 201 Park Avenue South New York, 10003 U.S.A.

8-12 'kCnkoyh (Glossary) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

flfefVªdy vflfefVªdy Vkbt+ Vªksalisjsalh fjihV

,d fMt+kbu tks fcydqy vius çfrfcac tSlk gksA ,d fMt+kbu tks fcydqy vius çfrfcac tSlk u gksA tksM+us okyh ifV~V;k¡A ftlds vkj&ikj ns[k ldsA ,d uewus dks ckj ckj fçaV djukA

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