Page 1

ikB 2 cukjl czksdsM (BANARAS BROACADE) lajpuk 2-0

mÌs’;

2-1 2-2

izLrkouk ,sfrgkfld i`"BHkwfe

2-3

czksdsM ds rF; rF;

2-4

iSVuZ

2-5

jaxksa dk egRo

2-6 2-7

cqukbZ uD’kk o fMt+kbu

2-8 2-9

ekdsZV nRr dk;Z

2-3-1 2-3-2 2-3-3

dPpk eky diM+s dk izdkj czksdsM ds izdkj

2-9-1 d{kk dk;Z 2-9-2 x`g dk;Z

2-10 lkjka’k 2-11 Lo;a tk¡p iz’uksa ds laHkkfor mRrj 2-12 vH;klkFkZ iz’u 2-13 lanHkZ ,oa v/;;u ;ksX; iqLRdsa 2-14 'kCnkoyh


2 cukjl czksdsM (BANARAS BROCADES) fiNys ikB esa vkius Hkkjr esa cqus gq, oL= o mudh mUufr ds bfrgkl ds ckjs esa tkudkjh izkIr dhA bl ikB esa izfl) mRrj Hkkjr ds cukjl czksdsM ds ckjs eas i<+saxsA

2-0

mÌs’; (Objectives) bl ikB ds v/;;u ds ckn vki ;g le> ldsaxs fd% • cukjl czksdsM ds bfrgkl] mUufr] dPps eky dk iz;ksx] fofHkUurk] iSVuZ o fMt+kbu ds fo"k; esa tkudkjh izkIr djsaxsA • cqukbZ rduhd] fMt+kbu o jaxksa ds ckjs esa tkudkjh izkIr djds vki cukjl czksdsM dh rqyuk dj ik;saxsA

2-1

izLrkouk (Introduction)

cukjl ¼okj.kklh½ mRrj izns’k dk ifo= LFkku gSA izkphu dky ls czksdsM gkFk ls cus diMs+ o lkfM+;ksa dk dsUnz jgk gS czksdsM 'kCn ysfVu ds 'kCn ^czkspl* ls fy;k x;k gS] ftldk vFkZ ,d txg ls nwljh txg LFkkfir djukA cukjl czksdsM ^fdu[kkc^ ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gS ftldk vFkZ gS lksus dk diM+kA eq[; cukjl dks f’kouxjh ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gS tks O;kikj ds fy, izfl) gSA ;gk¡ vfr mRre diM+s iwjs lalkj esa ilan fd;s tkrs gSa tks fofHkUu izdkj ds js’ke ds rkus o ckus ds /kkxksa ls cuk;k tkrk gSA iqjkrRo ys[kksa ls irk pyrk gS fd diM+s esa 'kq) lksus o pk¡nh ds /kkxksa ls cqukbZ gksrh Fkh ysfdu vktdy flYd dk iz;ksx fd;k tkus yxk A vktdy lksus o pk¡nh dh rkjksa dks flYd ds lkFk yisV dj ckus esa iz;ksx fp= 22-1 cqus gq, fdu[kkc czksdsM fd;s tkus yxk gSA cukjl czksdsM o lkM+h flYd dh l?kurk ls cquh gksrh gS rFkk bleas mHkkj ykus ds fy, lksuk o pk¡nh ls dk;Z fd;k tkrk gSA iqjkus le; esa 'kq) lksuk o pk¡nh iz;ksx dh tkrh Fkh tks dHkh eVeSyh ugha gksrh Fkh o blds jax gtkjksa o"kksZa rd blh izdkj pedrs jgrs FksA czksdsM cquus dh dyk dkQh le; ls pyh vk jgh gS o fofHkUu izdkj ds czksdsM vkt Hkh vf/kd :i esa cuk;s tkrs gSaA

2-2

,sfrgkfld i`"BHkwfe (Historical Background)

czksdsM cqukbZ ds dsUnz Hkkjr esa jkT; dh jkt/kkfu;ksa o ifo= LFkkuksa ds vkl ikl vf/kd jgs D;ksafd mPp ?kjkuksa o efUnjkas esa egaxs diM+ksa dh cgqr ek¡x FkhA izkphu dsUnz eq[; :i ls cukjl] xqtjkr] fnYyh] vkxjk o eqf’kZnkckn esa LFkkfir gq,] mRrjh cqudj czksdsM cqukbZ ds {ks= esa iwohZ o nf{k.kh if’kZ;k] rqdhZ] e/; ,f’k;k o vQxkfuLrku ds fMt+kbu o rduhd ls izHkkfor FksA 2


'krkfCn;kas ls Hkkjrh; bfrgkl esa cukjl czksdsM dk viuk ,d eq[; LFkku o laLÑfr esa cukjl dk viuk ,d ifo= LFkku gS pkSFkh 'krkCnh B.C.ds iwoZjr ;g /kuh ns’k jgk gS vkSj fo’o esa oL=ksa ds dkj[kkuksa ds fy, tkuk tkrk gSA fjXosn esa tks ^fgj.;k* diM+s dk mYys[k feyrk gS oks vktdy ds fdu[kkc ds leku gSA ckS) lkfgR; ls irk pyrk gS fd fo’o esa okj.kklh esa cuus okys diM+s] vkjkenk;d] ns[kus esa lqUnj o /kuh vkSj vPNs ilan okys yksxksa ds chp izfl) gSA cks) /keZ ds iqjk.kksa esa dk’kh dk cgqr mYys[k gSa blds vuqlkj tc xkSre cq) us egkifj fuokZ.k izkIr fd;k rc mudh oLrqvksa dks okj.kklh ds diM+s esa tks yky] ihyk vkSj uhys jax dk Fkk j[kk x;kA bu lc ls ,slk yxrk gS fd czksdsM dk dk;Z izkphu le; ls cukjl esa izpfyr gSA xqIr dky ds vtUrk fHkfRr esa tks fofHkUu izdkj ds uewus iznf’kZr gSaA uDdk’k ;g ekurs gSa fd ;g vkt ds czksdsM ls feyrk tqyrk gSA Qwyksa dss fMt+kbu] tkuoj o T;kferh; uewus vkt ds czksdsM ds leku gSA

fp= 22- 2 czksdsM dks igus gq, o`f"kdk] 10oha 'rkCnh

;g dgk tkrk gS fd pkSngoha 'krkCnh esa xqtjkr esa Hk;adj vkx yxus ds dkj.k vf/kd la[;k eas cqudj cukjl] vtesj] fnYyh o vkxjk eas vkdj dk;Z djus yxsA eqgEen fcu rqxyd us 500 cqudjkas dks ysdj fnYyh esa viuh o iRuh ds fy, lksus ds czksdsM cquok;s o vusd czksdsM [kq’kh ls migkj ds :i eas fn;sA

iUnzgoha 'krkCnh eas d’ehj esa (AD 1459-1470) lqyrku tSu my vfcnhu us czksdsM dh cqukbZ dks mUufr iznku dhA d’ehj o bjku ds cqudjksa dks vkil esa cnydj muesa mRlkg dks c<+k;kA vf/kd la[;k esa vaxzst cqudj@dykdkj d’ehj dh 'kkgh dk;Z’kkyk esa ,df=r gq, ckn esa ;s lHkh dykdkj fnYyh] vkxjk] cukjl vkSj vU; LFkkuksa ij QSy x;sA ;g ns[kus ;ksX; ckr gS fd cukjl czksdsM o d’ehj ds tkekokj 'kkWy ds uewuksa esa lekurk gksrh gS ¼fp= 2-4½ D;ksafd nksuksa dks gh izsj.kk ,d tSls feyrhA tgkaxhj Hkh czksdsM dks vf/kd ilan djrs Fks uwjtgk¡ dks u, fMt+kbuksa dks fodflr djus dk cgqr vf/kd 'kkSd FkkA cgqr ls vaxzst ;kf=;ksa vkSj vusd Hkze.k djus okyksa us cukjl oL=ksa dh efgek dk o.kZu fd;kA mUgksaus ik;k fd ;g cgqr lqUnj gS ysfdu vf/kd egaxk gS tks fd dsoy egRoiw.kZ R;ksagkjksa ij gh iguk tk ldrk gS czksdsM fL=h o iq#"k nksuksa ds fy, iz;ksx gksrk gSA izR;sd /keZ ds yksxksa ds jax fMt+kbu o dPpkeky] viuk vyx gksrk gSA fgUnw pedhys yky ihyk o larjh jax dh flYd ilan djrs gSaA fefJr gYdk uhyk] lQsn ;k etsaVk diM+k eqlyekuksa }kjk ilan fd;k tkrk gSA tkuojksa vkSj euq"; dh vkÑfr;k¡ eqlyeku ilan ugha djrsA 'krkfCn;ksa ls cukjlh flYds cquus dk m|ksx eqlyekuksas vkSj fgUnqvksa esa caVk gqvk gSA O;kikj ij fgUnqvksa dk opZLo gS tcfd cqudj vf/kdrj eqlyeku gSaA

Lo;a tk¡p ç’u (Self-check Questions) 1.

3

cukjl czksdsM dks ifjHkkf"kr dfj,A ;g fdl nwljs uke ls tkuk tkrk gS\


xfrfof/k (Activity) 1.

2-3

cukjl czksdsM ds uewus ,df=r dhft,A

czksdsM ds rF; rF; (Facts about Brocades)

2-3-1 dPpk eky (Raw Materials) Hkkjr esa lksus o pk¡nh ds rkjksa ls czksdsM cquus dh ijEijk jgh gSA blfy, ;s lqUnj] et+cwr] uje o eqyk;e gksrk gSA czksdsM nks izdkj ds gksrs gSaA • flYd o lwrh dks feykdkj cuk czksdsM o • lksus o pk¡nh ds /kkxksa ds lkFk tjh czksdsM eq[; :i ls czksdsM dh cqukbZ esa flYd dk iz;ksx gksrk gSA czksdsM eas vusd izdkj ds dPpk eky dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS tSls rUnwjh cukdk o eqDrkA rUnwjh ekYnk uked LFkku ls eaxok;k tkrk gSA cukdk iryk o vPNh fdLe gksrk gS tks fd eq[;r% diM+s dks eqyk;e cukrk gSA blls ixM+h o :eky curs gSaA eqDrk dkslZ o vPNh flYd dk iz;ksx fdu[kkc eas fd;k tkrk gSA

flYd % fofHkUu izdkj ds czksdsM cukus ds fy, eq[;r% eycjh flYd /kkxs dk iz;ksx gksrk gSA vPNh fdLe dk flYd phu] if’kZ;k ds e/; ,sf’k;k ls eaxk;k tkrk FkkA ysfdu ckn esa bVyh ls [kjhnk tkus yxkA flYd czksdsM dh dsoy vHkwriwoZ lqUnjrk gh ugha cfYd mldh xq.koRrk c<+kus ds fy, fons’kksa ls dPpk eky eaxok;k tkrk FkkA tkiku o phu dk flYd /kkxk viuh mPpre xq.koRrk] lekurk o ped ds dkj.k tkuk tkrk FkkA eycjh flYd Hkkjr esa vklke o caxky esa ik;k tkrk Fkk vktdy NksVk ukxiqj] fcgkj] iatkc o d’ehj esa bldk mRiknu gksrk gS mPpre xq.koRrk okyk flYd ewaxk o Vlj gSA 18oha o 19oha lnh esa eq’khZnkckn flYd dk eq[; dsUnz ekuk tkrk FkkA eq[;r% flYd dk mRiknu bu dsUnzksa ij gh gksrk Fkk vkSj ckgj Hkstk tkrk Fkk o cgqr FkksM+s ekax dk gh ;gk¡ ds cqudj iz;ksx djrs FksA flYd ds /kkxksa dk oxhZdj.k etcwrh] VsDLpj~] xq.koRrk o mRrerk ds vk/kkj ij fd;k tkrk FkkA fpU;k ,d flYd dk /kkxk gS ftls ,asB dj cuk;k tkrk gS tks fd Liu flYd ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gS ftudk iz;ksx Hkkjh czksdsM cukus esa fd;k tkrk gS tSls fdu[kkcA iV vkSj iVcuk flYd fcuk ,saBk gqvk /kkxk gS tks gYds vkSj Hkkjh nksuksa izdkj ds czksdsM cukus ds fy, iz;qDr gksrk gSA dPpk flYd dk iz;ksx eq[; :i ls czksdsM esa fd;k tkrk gSA bldks loZizFke ,asBk tkrk gS ¼ftls flYd FkzsfMax dgrs gSa½ mlds ckn jhfyax dh tkrh gSA blds ckn mldh ,d lekurk o xksy kbZ dks tk¡pk tkrk gSA mlds ckn Cyhp fd;k tkrk gS fQj blesa mifLFkr xksn tSlk inkFkZ ¼lsjsflu½ dks fudkyk tkrk gS ftls Mh&xfeax dgrs gSaA blds gVus ij ;g pednkj o eqyk;e gks tkrk gS o jaxus ds fy, rS;kj gksrk tkrk gS bu lHkh fØ;kvksa dks cgqr /;ku iwoZd fd;k tkrk gS D;ksafd js’ksa detksj o [kjkc gks ldrs gSa flYd dks lkcqu ds ikuh esa dqN le; mckyk tkrk gS fQj jaxus ds fy, Hkstk tkrk gSA

4


tjh % Hkkjrh; czksdsM esa lksu k o pk¡nh tjh /kkxs dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA eq[; :i ls ftldk mRiknu lwjr o okj.kklh esa gksrk gSA dykcRrq lksus o pk¡nh dk /kkxk ugha gksrk gS ijUrq flYd ij lksus o pk¡nh dh ijr p<+kbZ tkrh gSA tjh nks izdkj dh gksrh gS cknyk o dykcRrq] cknyk tjh lery lksus o pk¡nh ds rkj ls curh gS tks l[r gksrh gS ftlls le; ds lkFk VwV tkrh gSA blfy, cqudj bls ilan ugha djrs gSA dykcRrq iryh lksus o pk¡nh ds rkj dks lwrh o flYd ij yisVk tkrk gSA vktdy jsvkWu ij Hkh yisVk tk jgk gSA bl izdkj dk izHkko xaxk tequh dgykrk gSA

2-3-2 diM+ks ds izdkj (Fabric Types) czksdsM diM+s nks izdkj ds gksrs gSa% • ywe fQfu’k • ;kMsZt ywe fQfu’k diM+s tSls lkM+h vks<+uh] iVdk] ia[kk] ijns vkfn gksrs gSaA ;kMsZt vf/kdrj lwV ds diM+s vigksYLVªh vkSj insZ esa iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA lcls vf/kd izfl) czksdsM ds diM+s dks fdu[kkc ;k de[kkc uke ls Hkh tkuk tkrk gSA blds eq[; dsUnz okj.kklh vgenkckn vkSj lwjr esa gSA budh [kwclwjrh vkSj nke bUgsa budk uke lkFkZd djrh gSA budk uke dk vFkZ gS fd dksbZ ,slh pht ftl fd euq"; lius esa Hkh dYiuk u dj ldsa ¼de% NksVk] [okc% liuk] fdu% pkbuhl dks lksuk½A budh fo’ks"krk gS fd buesa lkus vkSj pk¡nh /kkxs dk feydj iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS ftlesa flYd dks diM+k 'kk;n gh dgha fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA fdu[kkc pkj izdkj dk gksrk gS% 1. og diM+k ftlesa vlyh lksus o pk¡nh dk iz;ksx gksrk gSA 2. blesa eq[; :i ls lksus o pk¡nh ds /kkxs dk iz; ksx gksrk gS ysfdu blesa jaxs gq, flYd

ds iz;ksx fMt+kbu esa mHkkj ykus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA 3. c¶rk jaxs gq,s flYd ls cqus tkrs gSa ftlesa fMt+kbu ds dqN Hkkx esa lksus o pk¡nh ds

/kkxs dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA 4. gYds flYd vkSj eyey dk diM+k ftls eSVsfyd /kkxs dk cgqr de iz;ksx gksrk gS ;k

ftl ij lqugjk ckWMZj vkSj iYyk flyk gksrk gSA

2-3-3 czksdsM ds ds vU; izdkj (Well known varieties of Brocades) vYQh% vYQh ;g ,d tjhczksdsM gS ftldk iz;ksx diM+ksa esa gksrk gSA lksus o pk¡nh t+jh dh cwfV;ksa esas ,d ;k nks jax ds /kkxksa dk iz;ksx djds vkmV ykbu cukbZ tkrh gS] bls ^ehukdkjh* ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA ;g cukjl dh fo’ks"krk gSA vYQh esa uewus dh vkmV ykbu jaxhu /kkxs ls gksrh gSA ckdh lc lksus o pk¡nh ds /kkxs ls gksrk gSA 2. rk’kh% ;g fdu[kkc dh gS ftlls lqugjh cknyk tjh dk vfrfjDr rkuk /kjkry esa o vfrfjDr flYoj cknyk tjh iSVuZ esa fn;k tkrk gSA rk’kh ,d izkphure lqugjh diM+k gS tks Hkkjr] phu o frCcr esa curk gSA 3. iksV Fkku o c¶rk% c¶rk bUgsa dkru czksdsM ds uke ls Hkh tkuk tkrk gSA blesa flYd /kjkry o iSVuZ Hkh flYd o tjh ls curs gSaA ;g gYdk gksr k gS vkSj bls diM+s o lkM+h cukus esa iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA 1.

5


fge# vkSj ve#% ;g fdu[kkc dh rjg cqus tkrs gSa ysfdu fcuk dykcRrq ds iz;ksx ls blesa iSVuZ js’ke ds /kkxs ls js’ke ij gh cuk;s tkrs gSaA 5. e’k#% ;g /kkjh o ftx tSx iSVuZ dk fefJr diM+k gS blesa rkus o ckus esa nks vyx izdkj ds oLrq dk iz;ksx gksrk gS tSls flYd o lwrh] Åu o lwrh vkfnA ;g eqfLye leqnk; esa iz[;kr gSA D;ksafd bUgsa 'kq) flYd iguuk euk gksrk gSA 6. fV’kq% iryk] ikjn’khZ] gYdh oLrq dk iz;ksx ixM+h] nqiêk o lkM+h esa gksrk gSA fV’kq ;k ixM+h vdsys lqugjh ckus ls curs gSaA 7. dksjk flYd% flYd blesa rkuk o ckuk 'kq) jkW flYd ls o fMt+kbu vfrfjDr lwrh ckus ds lkFk curs gSa ;g lkM+h o MªSl esVhfj;y esa iz;ksx gksrk gSA 4.

lkjka’k% • fiNyh dbZ 'krkfCn;ksa ls cukjl czksdsM dh ijEijk gSA • czksdsM nks izdkj ds gksrs gS 'kq) flYd o tjh czksdsMA • cukjl cqukbZ esa jkW flYd dPps eky ds :i eas fofHkUu izdkj ls egRo j[krk gSA czksdsM cqukbZ esa

iz;ksx djus ls igys mldk VªªhVesaV fd;k tkrk gSA • tjh ,d lqugjh@ pk¡nh /kkxk gS tks czksdsM esa iz; ksx fd;k tkrk gSA

fp= 22- 3 cukjl czksd sM

fp= 22- 4 d’ehj dk tkekoj 'kkW 'kkWy

Lo;a tk¡p iz’u (Self-check Questions) 2. 3. 4.

2-4

nks izdkj ds czksdsM dkSu ls gS\ czksdsM diMs esa nks izdkj crkb;sA czksdsM dh fofHkUu fdLe ds uke fyf[k,A

iSVuZ (Pattern)

cukjl czksdsM ds fMt+kbu izfØ;k esa izÑfr izkFkfed lzksr gS Qwyksa dk vkdkj cwVh dgykrk gSA cwVh ¼fp= 2-5½ vkdkj eas NksVh NksVh gS tks ,d Qwy] fpfM;k¡] tkuoj ;k iRrh ls curh gS ;gk¡ ij dqN lkekU; iSVuZ tks fofHkUu vkdkj eas gksrs gS tSls cknke (almond) cwV h] dsjh (mango) cwVh] pk¡n (moon) cwVh] v’kQhZ (coin) cwVh ¼fp= 2-6½ iku (beetel leaf) cwVh ia[kk (fan) cwVhA dbZ izdkj ds vkHkw"k.k ds uewus ls izsfjr gksrs gSa ltkoVh vke dh vkÑfr dk cwVk rqjat dgykrk gSA

6


cukjl czksdsM dk vU; lEekuuh; iSVuZ tky o tkyh fMt+kbu gS ftls taxyk uke ls Hkh tkurs gS bldh mRifRr Vjfdl czksdsM ls ekuh tkrh gS ;g diMs+ ds /kjkry ij iwjk Hkjk gksrk gSA cukjl tky cgqr uktqd gksrk gS tky eas Qwy] fpfM+;k¡ o tkuoj dks bl izdkj ikl ikl cuk;k tkrk gS fd og usV dk dk;Z ftlesa egjko] pkSdksj o T;kferh; vkdkj] Qwyksa o csyksa dks ,d nwljs eas Qalkdj /kjkry dks Hkjk tkrk gSA gSnjkckn ds fut+ke ds dksVZ dh ek¡x ij cukjl ds cqudjksa dks gSnjkcknh taxyk cukuk fl[kk;k x;kA cwVh }kjk Qwyksa ds uewus gksrs gSa tks fd gokvksa ds lkFk cgrs fn[kkbZ nsrs gSaA iRrh] Qwy] Qy] fpfM+;k¡ o tkuoj dks bl izdkj iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS tks iSVuZ esa lqfuf’prrk dks ckf/kr ugha djrs gSaA fMt+kbu esa dh xbZ vkmVykbu ges’kk fn[kkbZ ugha nsrh ijUrq fQj Hkh fMt+kbu dk vkdkj lkQ fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA /keZ Hkh vusd izdkj ds ltkoVh uewus iznku djrk gSA okj.kklh /kkfeZd LFky gksus ds dkj.k ogk¡ ds efUnjksa o HkDrksa esa cukjl czksdsM cgqr egRoiw.kZ gSA Qwynkj uewuksa ds lkFk /kkfeZd fpUg o nsoh nsork Hkh eksfVQ+ esa iz;ksx gksrs gSaA oL= tSls Vksih lkQk vkSj vaxksNk ij /kkfeZd ea= fy[ks o cqus tkrs gSa ¼fp= 2-8½A

2-5

jaxksa dk egRo (Importance of Color)

czksdsM cqukbZ esa jaxksa dk egRoiw.kZ LFkku gSA czksdsM dh ped o ckjhdh lqanjrk mlds vkilh jaxksa ij fuHkZj djrh gSA jax diM+ksa ij dkO;kRed lEcU/k izLrqr djrs gSa o LHkko dks vPNk dj nsrk gSaA yky jax I;kj dk] ihyk clUr dk uhyk Hkxoku Ñ".k dk ftldh rqyuk ckfj’k] ckny ls dh tkrh gS vkSj xs#vk jax /kjrh dk gksrk gSA iqjkus le; esa izkÑfrd MkbZ dk iz;ksx gksrk Fkk tks iDds jax gksrs Fks ftudh lqUnjrk dbZ ihf<+;ksa rd cuh jgrh FkhA vktdy jlk;fud jaxkbZ izfl) gS D;ksafd os lLrs] de le; ysus okys o jaxksa ds vusd izdkj nsrs gSaA bUgsa cM+s :i esa Hkh cuk;k tk ldrk gSA jlk;fud jaxkb esa cqduh dbZ ckj iz;ksx eas yk;k tk ldrk gSA ftlls uhys] yky o xqykch ds vusd 'ksM feyrs gSA yky o xqykch xzkgdksa esa vf/kd ilan fd;s tkrs gSaA ftUgsa diM+s esa eq[; jax ds :i esa iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA cukjl esa iz;ksx gksus okys jax fuEufyf[kr gS% • • • • • • 7

dkluh&uhyk] yky o ihyk jax feykus ij tnZ& ihyk xU/kdh & lYQj&ihyk diklh& isy ;syks clUrh& fizejkst eksfV;k& ihyk yky

• • • • •

vklekuh&vklekuh uhyk fQjksth& VjDokbt uhyk yktoarh& xgjk uhyk cSatuh& ok;yV mMk & cSaxuh uhyk


• • • •

dksykbZ & xgjk lUrjh lqyrkuh lq[kZ & LdkjysV lq[kZ& yky vkSj vtark xqykch& fiad

• • • •

dkgh & xgjk gjk [kkdh & xzs dQwjh& LVªk dyj cknkeh& gYdk cQ

xfrfof/k (Activity) 2. cukjl czksdsM eas iz;ksx gksus okyh dqN cwfV;k¡ cuk;s o jax Hkfj;sA

2-6

cqukbZ (Weaving)

lHkh LFkkuksa ij czksdsM rduhd esa cqukbZ ds fy, vyx izdkj ds ywe iz;ksx fd;s tkrs gSA cukjl es fiVywe] tkdMZ ywe o ikoj ywe dk iz;ksx gksrk gSA enuiqjk o vkykbZiqjk cukjl esa ikjEifjd cqukbZ ds Hkkx gSA izR;sd lewg ds cqukbZ djus dk viuk ,d rjhdk gksrk gSA enuiqjk dk dk;Z ikjEifjd gS vkSj vius lqUnj fMt+kbu jax o cqukbZ esa gYdh ikjnf’kZrk ds fy, tkuk tkrk gSA vykbZiqj dk dk;Z vPNk ugha gksrk ysfdu os ubZ rduhd o fMt+kbuksa dk iz;ksx djrs jgrs gSaA

2-7

uD’kk vkSj fMt+kbu (Naksha or Design)

cqukbZ ds fy, fMt+kbu uD’kkcUn }kjk cuk;s tkrs gSa os cukjl esa uDdk’kh ds eq[; HkkLrj gksrs gSa o cqudjksa }kjk lEekfur gksrs gSA uDdk’k cUn dk eq[; dk;Z dkxt ij iSVuZ dks cukuk o blds ckn fMt+kbu dks NksVs ydM+h ds Ýse ftl ij lwrh /kkxk iafDr ls rkus o ckus esa gksrk gS cukrs gSa ;g tkyk uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA fMt+kbu dh rS;kjh fMt+kbuj dh fØ;k’khyrk ij fuHkZj djrh gSA fMt+kbu dks xzkQ isij ij cuk;k tkrk gS ;s lQsn jax dk gksrk gS tdkMZ cqukbZ ds fy, xzkQ dks gkMZ isij ij iap fd;k gqvk gksrk gS tks fd vius vki tdkMZ ywe ij LFkkfir gks tkrk gSA cukjl ds fMt+kbu ikjEifjd fMt+kbu ;k uewuksa ls vyx gksrs gS dqN fMt+kbuksa ds uewus vklke] cxkay o xqtjkr dh yksd dyk ls fy;s x;s gSa tks fd eqxy] jktLFkkuh o igkM+h dyk esa ns[kus dks feyrs gSaA blesa lcls T;knk Qwyksa okyh ^cwVh* vkSj T;kferh; uewuksa okyh vkÑfr gksrh gS ftUgsa tky ;k taxyk dgrs gSaA ikWih] xqykc] tSlehu] fyyh] gal] cqycqy] f’kdkj fgju] phrk gkFkh ;k Hkxoku Ñ".k vkSj xksfi;k¡] vke] dkydk] LØkWy Qwy vkSj ifRr;k¡] ruksa esa cus gksrs gSa izÑfr ds fo"k; Hkh gksrs gSa tSl s Hkkjrh; czksdsM esa ^^pk¡n rkjs ;k lwjt vkSj rkjs** iwjs esa Hkjs gq, gksrs gSa tSls fd Hkkjrh; eyey fdu[kkc dkO;kRed dke tSls ^fjiYl vkWQ flYoj* /kwiNk¡o cqycqy dh vk¡[ksa] dcwrj dh vk¡[ksa ¼cqycqy p’e vkSj gfyerk{kh½ vkSj eksj dh xnZu ¼eqxZyk½ eq[; :i ls dPps eky dk iz;ksx mlds feyus o ewY; ij fuHkZj 8


gksrk gS tSls flYd /kkxk ^dykcRrq* ds LFkku ij dkj[kkuksa esa js;ku] jlk;fud js’kksa dk iz;ksx gksus yxk gS D;ksafd flYd /kkxk&dykcrq bldh vis{kk vf/kd egaxk gksrk gSA

2-8

ckt+kj (The Markets)

Hkkjr ds jktkvksa o cM+s ?kjkuksa esa czksdsM eq[; diM+s dh rjg iz;ksx gksrk FkkA 1947 esa jkT;ksa eas bldk iru gksus yxkA iqj kus cktkj [kRe gks x;s muds LFkku ij u;s cktkj LFkkfir gks x;sA vktdy fQj ls cukjl czksdsM dh ekax c<+ x;h gSA bl ijEijk dks mUgksaus vius vki 'kq: fd;kA vU; LFkkuksa dh rduhd dks Hkh lfEefyr fd;kA lwjr dh rupksbZ vusd izdkj ds rjhdksa ls fodflr gqbZA d’ehj esa tkekokj esa iSVuZ o rduhd lkfM+;ksa es Hkh iz;ksx gksus yxh gSA vusd diM+ksa dks ckgj cktkj esa Hkstus ds fy, cqudjksa us vusd rjhdksa ls rS;kj fd;kA 1982 ls 85 rd ds chp ;w0 ds0] Ýkal] ;w- ,l- ,- esa fo’odekZ izn’kZuh esa Hkkjr ds ikjEifjd iSVuZ o diM+kas dks iznf’kZr fd;kA fofHkUu QS’ku fMt+kbuj ds }kjk Hkkjrh; diM+ksa dks egku lQyrk feyhA

2-9

nRr dk;Z (Assignments)

2-9-1 d{kk dk;Z (Class Assignments) i) vkbZojh isij ij cukjl czksdsM lkM+h ckWMZj dh jsiyhdk cukb;sA ii) cukjl czksdsM esa iz;ksx gksus okys fofHkUu uewus cukb;sA

2-9-2 x`g dk;Z (Home Assignments) i)

czksdsM ds uewus izkIr dfj;s tSls vkius ?kj esa lkM+h nqdku ij] fdrkcksa ls if=dk vkSj bUVjusV ls tks fd cqukbZ rjhds o rduhd dks izn f’kZr djrs gSaA mudks vPNh rjg fpidkb;s o izR;sd fp= ds uhps uke fyf[k,A

2-10 lkjka’k (Summing Up) cukjl czksdsM fdu[kkc ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA flYd diM+ksa esa ikl ikl cqukbZ gksrh gS o fMt+kbu esa lqugjk o pk¡nh dk dk;Z gksrk gSA cukjlh cqudj iSVuZ eas cukjl ds uD’kkcUn tks cqudjksa ds ekLVj gksrs FksA tkyk eas mudh fo’ks"krk gksrh FkhA cukjl esa vykbZiqj vkSj enuiqjk nks egku ikjEifjd cqukbZ ds e/; tks vyx izdkj ds czksdsM dk fuekZ.k djrs FksA fMt+kbu izfØ;k esa izÑfr izkFkfed lzksr gSA Qwyksa dk vkdkj cwVh & cwVk dgykrk gSA cwVh vkdkj eas NksVh gksrh gS tks ,d Qwy] fpfM;k] tkuoj ;k iRrh ls curh gSA tky vkSj usV fMt+kbu taxyk uke ls tkus tkrs gSaA ;g cukjl czksdsM dk vyx iSVuZ gSA cukjl tky cgqr uktqd gksrs gSaA cukjl czksdsM esa jaxksa dk viuk ,d egRo gSA yky o xqykch jax lkekU; yksxksa esa izfl) FkkA eq[; :i ls tjh flYd /kkxs ij flYoj o xksYM dh ijr p<+kdj rS;kj dh tkrh gSA

2-11 Lo;a tk¡p iz’uksa ds lEHkkfor mRrj

(Possible Answers to Self-

check Answers) 1. cukjl czksdsM esa flYd diM+s ikl ikl cqus tkrs gSa o fMt+kbu esa lksus o pk¡nh ls dk;Z fd;k tkrk

gSA cukjl czksdsM fdu[kkc ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA 9


2. nks izdkj ds czksdsM i) 'kq) js’ke o lwrh czksdsM ii) lksus o pk¡nh /kkxs ds lkFk tjh czksdsM 3. nks izdkj ds czksdsM diM+s & ywe fQfu’k vkSj ;kMsZtA 4. fofHkUu izdkj esa czksdsM tSls vYQh] rk’kh] iksVFkku o c¶rk] fge# vkSj ve#] e’k#] fV’kw vkSj dksjk

flYd

2-12 vH;klkFkZ iz’u (Terminal Questions) Hkkjr esa czksdsM cqukbZ dsUnz jkT; dh jkt/kkfu;ksa o ifo= LFkkuksa ds pkjksa rjQ D;ksa fodflr gqvk\ o.kZu dhft,A 2. cukjl czksdsM dks fodflr djus esa eqgEEn fcu rqx yd dk D;k ;ksxnku gS\ 3. t+jh cukus esa dkSu lk dPpk eky iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS\ 4. cukjl czksdsM rFkk d’kehj dh tkekokj 'kkWy esa D;k lekurk gS\ 5. cukjl czksdsM esa iz;ksx gksus okys ywe dk uke fyf[k;sA 6. cukjl czksdsM ds bfrgkl dks laf{kIr esa o.kZu dfj;sA 7. cukjl czksdsM eas iz;ksx gksus okyh cwVh dh fofHkUu vkÑfr crkb;sA 8. cukjl czksdsM ij ckSf/kd lkfgR; dk D;k izHkko gS\ izdk’k Mkfy,A 9. cukjl czksdsM esa iz;ksx gksus okys ik¡p jax crkb;sA 10. cukjl czksdsM cqukbZ esa jaxksa dk D;k egRo gS\ o.kZu dfj;sA izkÑfrd MkbZ ds LFkku ij flUFksfVd MkbZ D;ksa iz;ksx gksus yxh gSA 11. [kkyh LFkku Hkfj;sA i) ltkoVh vke dh vkÑfr okys cwVs dks ----------- dgrs gSaA ii) _Xosn esa ftl fgj.; diM+s ds ckjs esa crk;k x;k gS og ---------------- tSlk gSA iii) czksdsM 'kCn ysfVu Hkk"kk ds ----------- 'kCn ls fy;k x;k gSA iv) iUnzgoha 'krkCnh esa d’ehj esa fdlus czksdsM dyk ls vodxr djk;k-------------------------v) tky o tkyh fMt+kbu tkus tkrs gSa-----------------vi) ---------------- yky] uhyk o ihyk jax feyk dj cuk;k tkrk gSA vii) ---------------------- vkSj ------------------ dk iz;ksx djds 'kq) xksYM tjh cuk;h tkrh gSA 1.

12. lgh o xyr crkb;s% i) cukjl czksdsM esa eq[; :i ls eYVh jax iz;ksx fd;s tkrs gSaA lgh @ xyr ii) fdu[kkc dks flYoj dk diM+k dgrs gSaA lgh @ xyr iii) yky jax Hkxoku Ñ".k dk] tks ikuh Hkjs cknyksa ls lEcfU/kr gSA lgh @ xyr iv) xs:vk jax /kjrh dk gSA lgh @ xyr v) d’ehj ds tkekokj rFkk cukjl czksdsM esa dksbZ lEcU/k ugha gSA lgh @ xyr vi) gSnjkckn ds futke dh Hkkx ij cukjl cqudjksa us gSnjkcknh taxyksa ls ifjfpr djk;kA vii) dQwjh gYdk cQ jax cukjl czksdsM es iz;ksx gksrk gSA

10

@ xyr lgh @ xyr

lgh


2-13 lanHkZ ,oa v/;;u ;ksX; iqLrdsa (Suggested Further Reading and References) 1.

Barnes, R., and Oth. 2002. Trade, Temple and Court Indian Textiles, Indian Book House Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai.

2.

Bhatnagar, P. 2005. Decorative Design History in Indian Textiles and Costumes. Abhishek Publications, Chandigarh.

3.

Bhatnagar, P. 2003. Traditional Indian Costumes and textiles. Abhishek Publications, Chandigarh

4.

Calico Museum Ahmedabad. 1980. Treasures of Indian Textiles. MARG Publications. Mumbai.

5.

Dhamija, J. and Jain, J. 1989. Handwoven Fabrics of India. Mapin Publishing Limited, Ahmedabad.

6.

Gillow, J. and Barnard, N. 1994. Traditional Indian Textiles. Thames and Hudson Limited, London

7.

Mehta, R.J. 1984. Masterpieces of Indian Textile. D.B. Taraporevala & Sons, Bombay

8.

Mohanty, C. 1984. Brocaded Fabrics of India. Vol I and II. H.N. Patel Publishing, Ahmedabad.

2-14 'kCnkoyh (Glossary) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

tdkMZ fiVywe okiZ os¶V vkmVykbu flYd MkbZ

cus iSVuZ dks ydMh ij iap djds gSUMywe o ikojywe esa iz;skx gksrk gSA LFkku o cqudjksa ds le; dks cpkus okys ;a= rkuk ckuk ckájs[kk js’ke jaxkbZ

Banaras brocades are closely woven silk fabrics with designs worked out in gold or silver. Banaras brocade is also known as Kin-khab. The two broad classes of Brocades are i) Brocades of pure silk and cotton blends; and ii) Zari brocades with gold and silver threads. The two fabric types of Brocades are – Loom finish and Yardage. Some of the well known varieties of Brocades are Alfi, Tashi, Pot Than or Bafta, Himru or Amru, Mashru, Tissue and Kora silk. 11


12

201-L-2-h  

2222----10101010 lkjka’klkjka’klkjka’klkjka’k 2222----11111111 Lo;a tk¡p iz’uksa ds laHkkfor mRrjLo;atk¡piz’uksadslaHkkformRrjLo;atk¡piz’uks...