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7- uewus (PATTERNS) çkÑfrd v/;;u&1 dh fiNyh bdkbZ esa vkius i<+k fd ,d ikS/ks ls nwljs ikS/ks dh ifÙk;ksa dh vkÑfr vkSj mudh lajpuk fdl çdkj cnyrh gSA mlds ckn fofHkUu çdkj ds Qwy] Qwyksa dh vkÑfr;k¡] muds VsDl~pj vkSj vR;f/kd lqanj jaxksa ds fo"k; esa fopkj&foe”kZ fd;k x;kA geus ifÙk;ksa vkSj Qwyksa ds ewy vkdkjksa vkSj jax Hkjus rFkk 'ksfMax dh rduhd dk Hkh v/;;u fd;kA çkÑfrd v/;;u&2 dh bl bdkbZ esa] vkxs ds ikBksa esa vkSj vf/kd :fpdj rF;ksa rFkk lfCt;ksa o Qyksa] ikS/kksa o isM+ksa ds fofHkUu uewuksa dk v/;;u djsaxsA

7-0 mís'; uewuksa ij vk/kkfjr ;g ikB vkidks crk;sxk fd % • ç—fr esa mifLFkr ifÙk;ksa] Qwyksa] lfCt;ksa vkSj Qyksa ds uewuksa dkss dSls le> ldrss gSaA • tc gekjs pkjksa vksj dh oLrq,¡ vO;ofLFkr fn[krh gSa] rks muesa Hkh ,d fuf”pr ljapuk fNih gksrh gSA • fdlh Hkh fo"k; dks mldh ljapuk dks le>rs gq, MªkW djuk] ftlls fd mlds fo”ks"k çdkj ds xq.kksa dks le> ldsaA

7-1 çLrkouk ikB 6 esa vkius Qwyksa dk foLrkjiwoZd v/;;u fd;k ftlls fd vki xqykc dh ik¡p ia[kqM+h okyh ljapuk dks ;kn dj ¼Lej.k ;k nksgjk½ ldsaA bl ikB esa vki iwjh vkSj dVh gqbZ lfCt;ksa o Qyksa dk v/;;u djsaxsA vkb, ç—fr esa ikbZ tkus okyh bu lHkh oLrqvksa dh ljapuk dk la{ksi esa v?;;u djsaA gesa ,dne ls ns[kus ij tks dqN Hkh vLr O;Lr yxrk gS tSls& ikS/ks] isM+] [kfut inkFkZ] tkuoj] ekuo vkfn lHkh esa ,d Nqih gqbZ ljapuk vkSj uewuk gksrk gSA thfor oLrqvksa esa tgk¡ iapHkqt uewuk vf/kd gksrk gS ogha [kfut inkFkksZa esa nks irZ ¼foldUn] rhu irZ] pkj irZ vkSj N% irZ dk lkeatL; gksrk gSA

7-2 çÑfr esa uewus ¼PATTERNS IN NATURE) çÑfr esa uewuk iwjh ljapuk dks fu;af=r djrk gSA isM+ vkSj ikS/kksa esa igpkuus ;ksX; uewus gksrs gSa% i) ii) iii) iv)

eki esa vuqikr ds uewusA ifÙk;ksa ds LFkku fu/kZkj.k (placement½½ esa uewusA iÙkh] cht vkSj ia[kqM+h vkfn dh la[;k esa uewusA Qy] lCth] Qwy] cht vkfn ds vkdkj esa uewusA

okLro esa] tgk¡ rd bu uewuks dk laca/k gS blesa ,d fuf”pr js[kkxf.kr (geometry) gksrh gSA 1


vkb, buesa ls dqN vk”p;Ztud rF;ksa dks tkusa fd oks D;k gSa vkSj fo"k; dh lk/kkj.k ljapuk dk Kku gesa fdl çdkj iÙkh] Qwy] Qy vkSj isM+ dks vPNh rjg ls le>us esa lgk;rk çnku djrk gSA ;kn j[ksa] MªkWbax dks dsoy ns[kuk gh ugha gS] bls ns[kdj] fujh{k.k djds vkSj le> dj ml fo’k; dks fdlh ek/;e ds }kjk dkxt+ ij çLrqr djuk gSA vc vki tks dqN Hkh lh[ksaxs oks lc vki dks vçR;{k :i ls Mªkbax es fuiq.krk ¼dq”kyrk½ izkIr djus esa lgk;rk çnku djsaxsA

7-2-1 ia[kqfM+;ksa dh la[;k vkSj O;oLFkk esa uewus ¼PATTERNS

IN NUMBERS AND

ARRANGEMENT OF PETALS)

js[kkxf.kr esa ,d ekU;rk çkIr vuqikr gksrk gS ftls Lof.kZe vuqikr ¼golden ratio) dgrs gSa tks fd 1%1%618 gSA ;g vuqikr T;kferh; vkdkjksa dh foU;kl O;oLFkk (configuration) dh o`f) ds fy, lcls vPNk ekuk tkrk gSA çÑfr esa geus ik;k fd Lof.kZe vuqikr ¼golden ratio½ iw.kZ ugha gS ysfdu ,d lekuqikr gSaA tks 1%1%618 dh vksj tkrk gSA ;fn vkils ,d vk;r cukus ds fy, dgk tk, tks vkidks çHkkfor djsa rks ml vk;r dh yackbZ vkSj pkSM+kbZ dk vuqikr Lof.kZe gksxkA bldk mnkgj.k 5lseh x 8lseh dk ,d vk;r gS tks lcls vf/kd lqanj vkSj çHkkfor djus okyk gksrk gSaA Lof.kZe vuqikr dh :fpdj Js.kh ¼FIBONACCI NUNBERS½ gksrh gSa ftleas çR;sd la[;k vkxs okyh la[;kvksa dk ;ksx gksrh gS] vkSj nks Øekxr la[;kvksa dk vuqikr Lof.kZe vuqikr gksrk gS]tSls& 1]2]3]5]8]13]21]34A ikS/kksa esa Qhcksusfd la[;k (Fibonacci Numbers) vkSj Lof.kZe vuqikr vf/kd ik;k tkrk gSA yxHkx gj Qwy dh ia[kqfM+;ksa esa Qhcksusfd la[;k gksrh gSA ,slk de gh gksrk gS fd Qhcksusfd la[;k u gksA tSls Qwf”k;k (Fuchsia) vkSj eLVMZ (Mustard) nks ,sls Qwy gSa ftles pkj ia[kqfM+;k¡ gksrh gSaA dqN ikS/kksa dh tkfr;k¡] tSls] cVjdIl (Buttercups) esa ia[kqfM+;ksa dh la[;k fof/kiwoZd gksrh gS tcfd nwljksa esa ia[kqM+h dsoy vkSlr la[;k dh Qhcksusfd la[;k gksrh gSA Qwyksa esa ia[kqM+h dh la[;k vkSj mudh O;oLFkk dks geesa ls fdlh us Hkh /;ku ls ughs ns[kk gksxkA vxj geus ,slk fd;k gksrk rks gesa cgqr lh pht+sa Li’V gksrhA çFke] gesa irk yxrk fd Qwy esa ia[kqM+h dh la[;k Qhcksusfd la[;k esa ls ,d gSaA ,d ia[kqM+h dk Qwy tSls] okbV dSyk fyyh (White Calla Lily) ¼fp=% 7-1½ vkSj nks ia[kqM+h dk Qwy tSls] ;wQksjfc;k (Euphorbia) ¼fp=% 7-2½ lkekU;r% ugha ik;s tkrs gSa ysfdu rhu ia[kqM+h okys Qwy tSls] Vªhfy;e (Trillium) ¼fp=% 7-3½ lkekU;r% ik;s tkrs gSaA taxyh vkSj lhaps gq, Qwyksa dh lkS ls vf/kd tkfr;k¡ gSa ftuesa ik¡p ia[kqM+h gksrh gS ¼fp=% 74½A ik¡p ia[kqM+h okys Qwyksa dh rjg vkB ia[kqM+h okys Qwy lkekU;r% vf/kd ugha ik;s tkrs gSa ysfdu dqN çfl) tkfr;k¡ Hkh gSa ftues vkB ¼fp=% 7-5½] rsjg ¼fp=% 7-6½] bddhl vkSj pkSarhl ia[kqM+h ¼fp=% 7-7½ okys Qwy gksrs gSaA Mst+h tkfr ds Qwyksa dk ckgjh NYyk Qhcksusfd la[;k dks vPNh çdkj ls çnf”kZr djrk gSA 13] 21] 34] 55 ;k 89 ia[kqM+h okys Mst+h cgqr vf/kd ik;s tkrs gSaA ,d lk/kkj.k Mst+h esa 34

2


ia[kqfM+;k¡ gksrh gSaA ,slk dgk tkrk gS fd lk/kkj.kr;k% Mst+h esa 34 ia[kqfM+;k¡ gksrh gSa ysfdu dksbZ&dksbZ vyx uewus dk Hkh gks ldrk gSA buesa vifjiDo gksus dh laHkkouk vf/kd gksrh gS blfy, 35 dh vis{kk 33 dh la[;k vf/kd lkekU; gSA

fp=% 77--1 lQsn dSyk fyyh dk ,d ia[kqM+h okyk Qwy

fp=% 77-3 Vªhfy;e dk rhu ia[kqM+h;ksa okyk Qwy

fp=% 77-5 cYM:V dk vkB ia[kqfM+;ksa okyk Qwy

fp=% 77--2 ;wQksjfc;k dk nks ia[kqM+h okyk Qwy

fp=% 77--4 dksYeckbu dk ik¡p ia[kqfM+;ksa okyk Qwy

fp=% 77-6 CySd&vkbM lwlu dk rsjg ia[kqfM+;ksa okyk Qwy

fp=% 77-7 'kglrk Mst+h dk 21 ia[kqfM+;ksa okyk Qwy

7-2-2 ifÙk;ksa dh la[;k vkSj mudh O;oLFkk esa uewus ¼PATTERNS IN NUMBER AND ARRANGEMENT OF LEAVES)

ikS/kksa vkSj Qhcksusfd la[;k dk laca/k dsoy ia[kqfM+;ksa dh la[;k rd gh lhfer ugha jgrk gSA fp=% 7-8&7-12 esa Luht+oVZ (Sneezewort) ikS/ks ds ;kstukc) vkjs[k (schematic diagrams) dk lkekU; fp= gSaA ubZ dfy;k¡ lkekU;r% Vguh ls fudyrh gSa tgk¡ ij iÙkh dh /kqqjh gksrh gS ¼fp=% 7-8½A vxj ge /kqjh ls vkM+h js[kk [khaprs gSa rks blls gesa ikS/ks ds fodkl dh fofHkUu voLFkkvksa dk irk yxrk gS ¼fp=% 7-9½A çR;sd voLFkk ds vkjaHk esa eq[; Vguh ;k rus 3


ls mi”kk[kk;sa fudyrh gSaA vkjaHk dh nks voLFkkvksa rd mi”kk[kk;sa jgrh gSa vkSj fQj mlds ckn mlesa gj ubZ voLFkk ds lkFk dqN mi”kk[kk;sa fudyrh gSaA lHkh 'kk[kkvksa ij ;g fu;e ykxw gksrk gSA blfy, ;g dksbZ vk”p;Z ugha gS fd fodkl dh fdlh Hkh voLFkk esa 'kk[kkvksa dh la[;k Qhcksusfd la[;k gS ¼fp=% 7-10½A fdlh Hkh voLFkk esa ifÙk;ksa dh la[;k Hkh Qhcksusfd la[;k gksxh ¼fp=% 7-10½A Luht+oVZ (Sneezewort) ikS/ks esa ftl çdkj dh o`f) fn[krh gS oks lk/kkj.k ikS/ks esa Hkh gksrh gS] fodkl dh çR;sd voLFkk ,d o"kZ rd jgrh gS ¼fp=% 7-11] 7-12½A

fp=% 7-

fp=% 7-

fp=% 7-

fp=% 77-11

fp=% 77-12

fp=% 77-8&78&7-12 Luht+oVZ ikS/ks esa foHkktu ds uewus Luht+oVZ (Sneezewort) ikS/ks ds ;kstukc) vkjs[k (schematic diagrams) dk fp= çLrqr fd;k x;k gS tcfd ikS/ks fcYdqy lery FksA ;g fodkl dks çnf”kZr djrk gS tks Qhcksusfd la[;k rd ys tkrk gSA ysfdu vf/kdrj ;g ikS/ks dh fo”ks"krk dks nckrk gS] tgk¡ ubZ ifÙk;k¡ ;k dfy;k¡ eq[; rus ds pkjksa vksj fodkl dh gj ubZ voLFkk ds lkFk ckjh&ckjh ls fudyrh gSaA vxj ge viuk /;ku iÙkh ij u nss ds fupys Hkkx ij dsafær djrs gSa] tgk¡ fdlh ,d fcUnq ij dsoy ,d iÙkh gks ¼fp=% 7-13½A vxj ge ml iÙkh dks Þ0Þ la[;k nsrs gSa ¼fp=% 714½ vkSj Åij dh vksj fxuuk vkjaHk djrs gsa tc rd fd ml iÙkh ij u vk tk;sa tks vkjaHk dh iÙkh ds fcYdqy Åij gS rks gesa tks la[;k çkIr gksxh oks Qhcksusfd la[;k dh gksxh ¼fp=% 715½A

fp=% 77-13

fp=% 77-14

fp=% 77-15

fp=% 77-16

fp=% 77-17

fp=% 77-13&713&7-18 Luht+oVZ ikS/ks esa Vguh ¼fQyksVSDlh½ ij iÙkksa dh O;oLFkk

4


fQj ls] vxj ge rus ij /;ku nsa] vkSj ns[ksa fd ge rus ds pkjksa vksj fdruh ckj pDdj yxkrs gSa ¼fp=% 7-16½A ;g la[;k Hkh lkekU;r% Øe la[;k dks çnf”kZr djrh gS ¼fp=% 717½A ifÙk;ksa dh O;oLFkk dks rc vuqikr dh rjg O;Dr dj ldrs gSaA gekjs ikS/ks ds uewus esa ifÙk;ksa dh la[;k 8 gS vkSj pDdjksa dh la[;k 5 gSA ,sls ¼5@8 ds½ ikS/ks dks QkbyksVSDlh (phyllotaxy) dgk tkrk gSA çR;sd tkfr dh fo”ks"krk QkbyksVSDlh ds }kjk tkuh tkrh gSA vf/kdrj gj okss vuqikr tks gesa feyrk gS] oks fujarj Øe ls feyus okyh la[;k ;k ,d NksM+dj feyus okyh la[;k dk vuqikr Qhcksusfd uacj esa gksrk gS ¼fp=% 7-18½A

fp=% 77-19

8 ifÙk;k¡ 5 ifjorZu QkbyksVSDlh% 5@8 fp=% 7-18

Qhcksusfd la[;k 'kk[kkvksa] ifÙk;ksa vksj cht ¼QkbyksVSDlh½ dh O;oLFkk esa vf/kdrj ik;s tkrs gSaA vxj ge ikS/ks dks Åij ls ns[ksa rks ¼fp=% 7-19½] ge ik;saxs fd ifÙk;k¡ ,d ds Åij ,d O;ofLFkr ugha gS cfYd bl rjg ls gS fd mUgsa /kwi vkSj ikuh fey ldsA ge rus ds pkjksa vksj ,d iÙkh ls nwljh iÙkh rd tkus dh la[;k fxurs gSa vkSj tc ge ifÙk;ksa dh la[;k fxurs le; ml iÙkh rd igq¡prs gSa] tgk¡ ls geus igyh fxurh vkjaHk dh Fkh] bu nksuks rjg dh fxurh;ksa esa Qhcksusfd la[;k çkIr gksrs gSaA çR;sd fn”kk esa yxk;s x, pDdjksa dh la[;k vkSj ifÙk;ksa dh la[;k esa lkekU;r% rhu yxkrkj Qhcksusfd la[;k gksrs gSaA

7-2-3 NksVs Qwy] cht rFkk Qy dh O;oLFkk esa uewus ¼PATTERN IN ARRANGEMENT OF FLORETS, SEEDS AND FRUITS) phM+ (pine) dksUl ds 'kYd (scale) ds uewuksa ds lkFk ¼fp=% 7-20 & 7-23½] lwjteq[kh ds chtksa dk uewuk vkSj vuUukl ds mBs gq, uewus esa dqN fHkUurk gksrh gSa ¼fp=% 7-28&7-32½A phM+ (pine) ds dksu esa tks cht okys 'kYd (scale) gksrs gSa oks ifÙk;ksa dk ifjofrZr :i gksrs gSa tks fd ,d lkFk bdV~Bh vkSj NksVs rus ls tqM+h gqbZ gksrh gSaA ;gk¡ ij gesa QkbyksVSDlh çkIr ugha gksrh gS D;ksafd ;s dsoy ifÙk;ksa esa gh ikbZ tkrh gSA ge ifÙk;ksa dh nks eq[; O;oLFkkvksa dks <wa< ldrs gSa tks 'kk[kk ds lkFk tqM+ dj Åij dh vksj pØkdkj :i esa c<+ jgh gSa ¼fp=% 7-21½A phM+ (pine) dksu ds fp= esa] vkB pØkdkj dksu ?kM+h dh fn”kk esa Åij tkrs gSa ¼fp=% 7-22½] tcfd rsjg pØkdkj ?kM+h dh foijhr fn”kk esa T+;knk [kM+h Å¡pkbZ ij Åij tkrs gSa ¼fp=% 7-23½A

fp=% 77-20

fp=% 77-21

5


fp=% 77-20&720&7-23 phM+ dksu esa 'kYd uewuksa dh O;oLFkk

fp=% 77-22

fp=% 77-23

Mst+h Cykle (daisy blossom) Qwy ds cht dks”k esa NksVh dfy;ksa dh ?kfu’Brk O;oLFkk esa ge vlk/kkj.k oLrq nks vk;ke esa ns[k ldrs gSa ¼fp=% 7-24½A gekjh vk¡[ksa bDdhl pDdj (spiral) ¼fp=% 7-25&7-27½ rFkk pkSarhl y?kqx.kd (logarithm) ;k ledks.kh; pØ (equiangular spirals) ?kM+h dh foijhr fn”kk esa ,d ckj esa ns[krh gSaA fdlh Hkh Mst+h ds Qwy esa] ?kM+h dh fn”kk esa vkSj ?kM+h dh foijhr fn”kk esa pØkdkjksa (spiral) ds lfEeJ.k esa lkekU;r% Qhcksusfd la[;k esa ,d ds ckn ,d vkus okys la[;kvksa dks fn[kkrh gSA

fp=% 77-24

fp=% 77-26

fp=% 77-25

fp=% 77-27

fp=% 77-24&724&7-27 Mst+h ds Qwy esa NksVs Qwyksa dh O;oLFkk 6


vUukukl ds 'kYd Hkh pØkdkj (spiral) :i esa gksrs gSa ¼fp=% 7-28½ D;ksafd ;g vkdkj esa [kqjnqjs ‘kV~dks.k tSls gksrs gSa] blfy, rhu fHkUu çdkj ds pØkdkjksa (spirals) ds lsV ns[ksa tk ldrs gSaA ik¡p pØkdkjksa (spirals) dk lsV lh/kh vksj gYdk lk >qdk gqvk ¼fp=% 7-30½ tcfd vkB pØkdkjksa (spirals) dk lsV mYVh vksj >qdk gqvk ¼fp=% 7-31½ vkSj rsjg pØkdkjksa (spirals) dk ,d rhljk lsV lh/kh vksj >qdk gqvk Åij dh vksj c<+rk tkrk gS ¼fp=% 7-32½A

fp=% 77-28

fp=% 77-29

fp=% 77-30

fp=% 77-31

fp=% 77-32

fp=% 77-28&728&7-32 vUukukl Qy esa 'kYdksa ds uewuksa dh O;oLFkk

lsc ds Qy esa ik¡p ia[kqfM+;k¡ gksrh gSaA Qy ds fupys fgLls esa iapdksf.kd (pentagonal) foHkktu ns[kk tk ldrk gs vxj lsc dks vk/kk dkVk tk;s rks cht esa rkjs tSlk

uewuk fn[krk gSa ¼fp=% 7-33½A:

ikS/kksa esa Qhcksusfd la[;k

dsys essa rhu

lsc ess a ikaap

fp=% 7l&lsD”ku 7-33 dsys vkSj lsc ds Qyksa ds ØkWl&ls

7-2-4 lfCt;k¡ rFkk Qyksa esa uewus ¼PATTERNS IN VEGETABLES AND FRUITS) QwyxksHkh dh ckgjh js[kk [khaph tk;s rks oks iapdks.k (pentagon) gksxhA /;ku ls ns[kus ij vkidks ,d e/; fcUnq fn[kkbZ nsxk] tgk¡ ij NksVs Qwy (florets) lcls NksVs gksrs gSaA vki vxj fQj ls vkSj vf/kd /;ku ls ns[ksaxs rks vki ik;saxs fd bl e/; fcUnq ds pkjksa vksj nksuksa fn”kkvksa ess ;s Qwy pØkdkj :i esa O;ofLFkr gSaA

7


jksekusLd czksdksyh@QwyxksHkh ¼;k jksekusLd½ {Romanesque Broccoli/Cauliflower (or Romanesque)} ns[kus esa vkSj Lokn esa czksdksyh vkSj QwyxksHkh dk feyktqyk :i yxrk gSA gj NksVk Qwy (floret) mHkjk gqvk vkSj igys tSlk ¼,d lk½ gksrk gS ysfdu iwjs Qwy dk NksVk :i gksrk gS ftlls fd ge pØkdkj (spiral) vklkuh ls ns[k ikrs gSaA vkius fHkUMh ds vkdkj dks /;ku ls ns[kk gS\ blesa ik¡p&oxZ (pentad) gksrs gSa blh çdkj dsys esa gksrk gS ¼dPps dsys dks /;ku ls nsf[k;s½A okLro esa dsys dks vkM+k dkVus ij chp esa f=dks.k curk gS ;kuh fd 3 Hkkx ¼fp=% 7-33½ D;k ;g :fpdj ughs gS\ vxj vki vius pkjksa vksj /;ku nsaxs rks ,sls vusd mnkgj.k fey tk;saxsA vkidks igys Hkh crk;k x;k gS fd ;g tkudkjh vkidks vçR;{k :i ls lgk;rk çnku djsxhA bldk eq[; ç;ksx rc gksxk tc vki viuh oLrq dks lkeus j[kdj mldh ckgjh js[kk cuk;saxsA

Lo;a tk¡p ç” ç”u ¼SELF CHECK QUESTIONS) çÑfr esa ik;s tkus okys uewus dkSu&dkSu ls gSa\ Lof.kZe vuqikr D;k gS vkSj ,slk D;ksa dgk tkrk gS\ Qhcksusfd la[;k D;k gksrh gS\ Qwyksa esa Qhcksusfd fodkl ds mnkgj.k nhft,A lfCt;ksa ,oa Qyksa esa Qhcksusfd fodkl ds çek.k dgk¡ ns[kus dks feyrs gSa\ nks fofHkUu çdkj ds lrgh (surface) VsDLVpj dkSu ls gSa\ lfCt;ksa o Qyksa ds mnkgj.k ls le>kb,A 7. ,d ia[kqM+h okys Qwyksa dk ,d&,d mnkgj.k nhft,A 8. fjDr LFkku Hkfj, %

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

i) ifÙk;ksa dh O;oLFkk dks vuqikr dh rjg Hkh O;Dr dj ldrs gSa ftls ml ikS/ks dh

tkfr dk _________ dgrs gSaA mnkgj.k ds fy,] Luht+oVZ (Sneezewort) ikS/ks esa ifÙk;ksa dh la[;k _________ ] ifjØek (revolution) dh la[;k _________ gksrh gSA ikS/ks dks _________ 5@8 dgk tkrk gSA ii) phM+ (pine) dksu ds fp= esa vkB _________ dksu ij _________ _________ Åij dh vksj c<+rs gq, ns[ks tk ldrs gSa tcfd rsjg _________ ] _________ fn”kk esaA iii) fdlh Hkh Mst+h Qwy esa ?kM+h dh lqbZ dh fn”kk esa vkSj ?kM+h dh lqbZ dh foijhr fn”kk esa _________ dk lfEeJ.k _________ la[;k ds ckjh&ckjh ls vkus okys la[;kvksa dks fn[kkrk gSA 8


iv) lsc vkSj dsys ds ØkSl&lsD”ku esa _________ vkSj _________ Qhcksusfd

la[;k gksrs gSA _______________________________________________________

7-3 lfCt;k¡ rFkk Qyksa ds jax vkSj VsDlpj ¼COLOUR AND TEXTURE OF VEGETABLES AND FRUITS)

• Qy o lfCt;ksa dh vlk/kkj.k fo”ks"krk jax gSA dqN Qy ,d ls vf/kd jax ds gksrs gSa vkSj dHkh&dHkh ;s jax ,d nwljs esa ?kqyrs gq, gksrs gSa] tSls& vke ;k lscA • Qyksa dh rjg gh lfCt;ksa esa Hkh lrg (surface) dk VsDLkpj egRoiw.kZ gksrk gSA ;g lfCt;ksa dh fo”ks"krk ds fy, egRoiw.kZ gSA • Lkrg ds VsDLkpj nks çdkj ds gksrs gSa % us=h; (visual) vkSj Li”kZ Kku laca/kh (tactile)A us=h; VsDlVpj Qy ds fNYds dk rRo gS ftls ge ns[k ldrs gSa ;g fofHkUu jax dk gks ldrk gSA • Li”kZ Kku laca/kh (tactile) og VsDLVpj gS ftUgsa ge Nw ldrs gSa ;k Nwdj mldk vuqHko dj ldrs gSa] ;g Qy ;k lCth esa feykus ls rhu vk;keh gksrs gSaA rhu fofHkUu çdkj dh lfCt;k¡ yhft,A mnkgj.k ds fy, % cSaxu ;k ykSdh ;k VekVj fHkUMh ;k lse ;k eVj iÙkksa ds lkFk QwyxksHkh ;k iÙkkxksHkh ;k ewyh ifÙk;ksa ds lkFkA cSaxu ;k ykSdh txg ?ksjus okyh lfCt;k¡ gSa tcfd lse ;k eVj de txg ?ksjrh gSaA QwyxksHkh ;k ewyh esa QSyko gksrk gSa rFkk buds lkFk iÙks rFkk M.By Hkh gksrs gSaA vki iasfUly dh lgk;rk ls iwjh o vk/kh dVh gqbZ lCth dk fp= cukb,A vki ;s ns[ksaxs fd lfCt;ksa esa vyx çdkj dk lrg dk VsDLkpj vkSj jax gksrs gSaA okLro esa lrg VsDLkpj dk viuk vkdkj Hkh gksrk gS tSls fd QwyxksHkhA • lfCt;ksa dh rjg gh Qwyksa esa lrg VsDLkpj egRoiw.kZ rRo gksrk gSA ;g Qyksa dh fo”ks"krk fn[kkus ds fy, cgqr egRoiw.kZ gSA • vkids }kjk cukbZ xbZ MªkWbax Qy dh fo”ks"krk dks çnf”kZr djus okyh gksuh pkfg,] blesa Qy dh ckgjh js[kk lrg VsDLkpj vkSj æO;eku (mass) 'ksfMax ds }kjk mHkj dj vkuk pkfg,A • ty jax ;k iksLVj jax dh lgk;rk ls iwjk ;k vk/kk dVk gqvk Qy cukb,A

• • • • • • •

nksuks ek/;eksa ¼isafUly vkSj jax½ esa dk;Z djus ls vkidks le> esa vk x;k gkssxk fd ,d gh çdkj ds oLrq dks vyx&vyx ek/;eksa ¼iasfUly vkSj jax½ esa djus ij og dSls fn[kkbZ nsrs gSa vkSj mudk ç;ksx fdl rjg ls djuk gSA

xfrfof/k (ACTIVITY) rhu vyx&vyx çdkj dh lfCt;ksa dk ¼iwjh o dVh gqbZ½ v/;;u iasfUly dh lgk;rk ls dfj;s vkSj 'ksfMax Hkh nhft,A budk v/;;u dkys rFkk lQsn jax esa rFkk 'ksfMax ds lkFk dfj;sA 9


7-4 nÙkdk;Z (ASSIGNMENTS) 7-4-1 d{kk dk;Z

1. rhu fofHkUu çdkj ds Qyksa dk v/;;u dfj;s vkSj mUgsa iasfUly] Ldsp isu o jax esa

¼”ksfMax ds lkFk½ cukb,A mnkgj.k ds fy, % lsc ;k vkywcq[+kkjk ;k uk”ikrh ;k csj vke ;k rjcwt ;k [kjcwtk ;k dsys vaxwj ;k uk”ikrh iasfUly dh lgk;rk ls fdlh Hkh lsV dks vk/kk o iwjk dVk gqvk MªkW dfj;sA vc vki jaxhu isafly] Øs;kWu ls dk;Z dj ldrs gSa ysfdu xzsQkbV isafly ls ugha cuk ldrsA • ;kn jf[k,] vkidks jcj dk ç;ksx fcYdqy Hkh ugha djuk gSA vc rd vki oLrq vuqikr dks rFkk mldh ljapuk dks le>us esa rFkk mls dkxt+ ij cukus esa l{ke gksaxsA • • • •

7-4-2 x`g dk;Z i) isafly] isu vkSj jax ¼'ksfMax½ dh lgl;rk ls vU; nks lfCt;ksa dks iwjk rFkk vk/kk

dVk gqvk cukb,A ii) jaxhu isafly] Ldsp isu rFkk ty jax dh lgk;rk ls vU; nks Qyksa dks iwjk rFkk

dVk gqvk cukb, blesa mudk ÁR;sd fooj.k (detail) fn[kkb, vkSj 'ksfMax Hkh dfj;sA

7-5 lkjka”k bl ikB esa çÑfr ds dqN vk”p;Z lkeus vk;s gSaA ftruk ge çÑfr dk v/;;u djrs gSa] mrus gh jgL; lkeus vkrs gSaA bl ikB esa fofHkUu çdkj ds ikS/kksa o isM+ksa dh tkfr;ksa dk v/;;u mudh ljapuk ds vk/kkj ij fd;k x;k gS ftlls dh vki vklkuh ls çÑfr fp=.k dj ik;saxsA vc vki oLrq ds vuqikr rFkk mldh ljapuk ds v/;;u ds }kjk mls dkxt+ ij çHkko”kkyh <ax ls cuk ldus esa l{ke gks x;s gSaA bl ikB ds eq[; fcanq gSa % • • • •

isM+ o ikS/kksa esa uewuksa dks igpkuukA eki esa vuqikr dk uewukA ifÙk;ksa ds LFkku fu/kZkj.k esa uewusA ifÙk;ksa] ia[kqfM+;ksa vkSj cht vkfn dh la[;k esa uewusA 10


• Qwyksa] lfCt;ksa] Qyksa vkSj chtksa ds vkdkj esa uewusA

7-6 Lo;a tk¡p Á” Á”uksa ds laHkkfor mŸkj 1. çÑfr esa ik;s tkus okys uewus fuEu çdkj gSa % • • • •

eki esa vuqikr dk uewukA ifÙk;ksa ds LFkku fu/kZkj.k esa uewusA ifÙk;ksa] ia[kqfM+;ksa vkSj cht vkfn dh la[;k esa uewusA Qwyksa] lfCt;ksa] Qyksa vkSj chtksa ds vkdkj esa uewusA

2. T;kferh; vkÑfr;ksa dh ljapuk o`f) ds fy, T;kferh esa lcls vYiO;;h (economical) Lof.kZe vuqikr 1%1-618 gSaA 3. Qhcksusfd la[;k ,sls la[;kvksa dh Js.kh gS ftlesa çR;sd la[;k nks la[;kvksa dk ;ksx gksrh gaS vkSj nks Øekxr la[;k dk vuqikr Lof.kZe vuqikr gS tSls& 1]2]3]5]8]13]21]34A 4. Qwyksa esa Qhcksusfd Js.kh fuEufyf[kr esa ns[kh tk ldrh gS % • mudh ia[kqfM+;ksa dh la[;k tSls& rhu ia[kqM+h okyk Vªhfy;e Qwy] ik¡p ia[kqM+h okyk VsEiy ¼pEik½ Qwy] rsjg ia[kqM+h okyk Mst+h Qwy vkfnA • lwjteq[kh ds chp esa chtksa dh O;oLFkk esa ftlesa bDdhl ?kM+h dh foijhr fn”kk esa vkSj pkSafrl ?kM+h dh fn”kk esa pØkdkj gksrs gSaA 5. Qyksa vkSj lfCt;ksa esa Qhcksusfd la[;k fn[krs gSa % • bldk ckgjh vkdkj] tSls& fHkUMh dh ik¡p lrg • vkSj dVk gqvk Hkkx] tSls& dsyk ftlesa rhu Hkkx gksrs gSa] vkSj lsc ftlesa ik¡p Hkkx gksrs gSaA 6. lrg VsDLkpj ds nks çdkj gSa % • usf=; (visual) VsDLkpj] tks vke] lsc] rjcwt] ykSdh bR;kfn ds fNyds ij ns[ks tk ldrs gSaA • Li”kZ Kku laca/kh (tactile) og VsDLkpj] tks larjk] vUukukkl] djsyk vksj QwyxksHkh ds fNyds vkfn ijA 7. lQsn dSyk fyyh (White Calla Lily) esa ,d ia[kqM+h vkSj ;wQksjfc;k (Euphorbia) esa nks ia[kqfM+;k¡ gksrh gSaA 8. fjDr LFkkuksa dh iwfrZ dfj;s & i) QkbykVSDlh] 8]5] QkbykVSDlh 11


ii) pØkdkj (spirals) c<+rh gqbZ] ?kM+h dh fn”kk esa] pØkdkj (spirals) ?kM+h dh

foijhr fn”kk esa iii) pØkdkj (spirals) Qhcksusfd (FIBONACCI) iv) 5-3

7-7 vH;klkFkZ Á'u (TERMINAL QUESTIONS) 1. Qwyksa esa ia[kqfM+;ksa dh la[;k vkSj mudh O;oLFkk ds uewuksa ds fo"k; ds ckjs esa fyf[k,A 2. dqN lfCt;ksa dk v/;;u dhft, vkSj ikuh ds jax o isLVy Øs;kWu dh lgk;rk ls iwjh vkSj dVh gqbZ lfCt;ksa dk v/;;u dhft,A 3. phM+ dksu o vUukukl esa 'kYdksa dh O;oLFkk dk uewuk crkb,A 4. QkbykVSDlh ds xq.kksa dks mnkgj.k dh lgk;rk ls le>kb,A 5. nks Qyksa dks jaxhu isflyksa] Ldsp isu vkSj ty jax dh lgk;rk ls iwjk o vk/kk dVk gqvk MªkW dfj;s rFkk mudk fooj.k fpf=r dfj, o 'ksfMax Hkh dfj;sA

7-8 lanHkZ ,ao v/;;u ;ksX; iqLrdas 1. Anonymous. 2006. The Complete Guide to Drawing and Painting. Quantum Publishing Ltd, London. 2. Dunnigan, D. 1987. Improve Your Painting. Foster Art Service, Inc., California. 3. Foster, W. 1997. The Art of Pastels. Walter Foster Publishing, Inc., California. 4. Powell, W.F. 1997. The Art of Drawing Still Life. Walter Foster Publishing, Inc, California.

7-9 'kCnkoyh 1. 2.

Lkjapuk 'ksfMax

cukoV Nk;k Ádk”k

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103-L-7-h