PRESENTATION OF DRAWING
TRACING AND TRANSFERRING A MOTIF 3.3.1
MOUNTING OF A DRAWING 3.4.1
INTRODUCTION TO QUICK SKETCHING
ASSIGNMENTS 3.6.1 3.6.2
CLASS ASSIGNMENTS HOME ASSIGNMENTS
POSSIBLE ANSWERS TO SELF-CHECK QUESTIONS
3.10 REFERENCES AND SUGGESTED FURTHER READING 3.11 GLOSSARY
3. PRESENTATION GUIDELINES After being introduced to the tools and techniques of drawing in the first two lessons of first unit of this course, you will learn about proper presentation of a design in this lesson.
Objectives This lesson will enable you to:
Make and maintain your drawing or sketch neatly.
Trace and transfer motif or drawing from a print onto another paper according to chosen orientation.
Make a presentable drawing by mounting it on mount board.
Start drawing with quick sketches of nature around you.
Any drawing exploration will gain a lot from a neat and orderly presentation. It is very important especially as a designer that your work should be presented in a way that it tells itself to a viewer what you are going to explain through your drawing. Whatever you do on paper shows your attitude towards work. Suppose you have made a beautiful design with good colour scheme and motifs, but if your presentation is not up to the mark, it will spoil all your efforts for your design. It is very important to take care of your equipment and supplies as you go along. In this lesson, you shall get some information on neat presentation (cleanup, erase, avoid stains, copy/cut & paste etc.). You shall also learn about tracing and transferring a motif, mounting of a drawing, quick sketching, etc.
Presentation of Drawing Some helpful tips on use of tools and presentation of drawing:
Sharpen the pencil with a blade (Fig. 3.1), giving it a longer lead with a little more even thickness to the lead, gradually ending in a point (Fig. 3.2), instead of a sharp pyramidal point.
Use the eraser firmly but gently over the paper (Fig. 3.3). Avoid erasing off a whole layer of paper. 2
Fig. 3.1 Sharpening the point of pencil with a blade
Fig. 3.2 Sharpened point of pencil
The eraser edge should be clean and without any residual dirt or graphite powder of a previous attempt at erasing. For this, it may be necessary to rub it over a clean piece of paper first (Fig. 3.4). If the problem persists, i.e. it deposits a dirty patch on the paper when used, it is better to slice the portion of the eraser off with a blade and then use the new exposed surface of the eraser.
Fig. 3.3 Use of eraser
Fig. 3.4 Rubbing the eraser over a clean piece of paper
It will always be helpful to have a loose bond sheet around. This will be helpful in checking the tools. Also when kept under the hand while drawing, it protects the rest of the paper from any staining due to perspiration or dirt on the hands.
Each drawing exploration should have the name, date, subject and course, and drawing number in a box at the right corner of the sheet of paper. This box is called the Title Box.
Tracing and Transferring a Motif
An important skill for a drawing and design student is the skill in choosing and tracing a motif for further application in a surface design. 3.3.1 Demonstration •
For this, you will need to work with tracing sheet or butter paper, as their semi-transparency allows visibility of the motif underneath.
The tracing will be done with a dark and soft pencil; usually 2 B is good enough.
Now place the printed or drawn motif that is to be replicated.
Fix the tracing paper, suitably sized over it with the help of paper clips, holding down at least 2 diagonal points of the tracing paper to the sheet under it.
Use a 2B pencil and draw over the form lines and detail lines of the motif, maintaining a firm and even pressure. If the line breaks at a point, just continue by drawing further. The quality of line drawn should be even and dark. 3
After the motif has been drawn or traced, remove the paper from the clips. This tracing sheet will now be turned over, i.e. its back becomes the front, so that the motif in front can be transferred on a work-sheet.
With a dark pencil, rub a patch and go over the motif lines as are seen from underneath. Cover all line details that need to be replicated. Once again, turn the tracing front side to face up.
Now take the sheet on which the motif has to be transferred (in this case a 1/4 Imperial cartridge sheet). Place the front face up of the tracing over the work-sheet paper. Align the corners and the right angle of the two sheets and fix them together with paper clips.
The motif can now be transferred by drawing over the motif lines exactly as they are, and the motif through pencil lead patch on the back side will get transferred on to the work sheet.
In this way the motif may be transferred or replicated 4–5 times at best, before the tracing sheet will tear through. Using a soft pencil will make tracing motifs easier and with a lot less pressure.
Self-check Questions 1.
Fill in the blanks i) ii) iii) iv)
One will need to work with____________________ as their ______________allows visibility of the motif underneath. Use the ______ firmly but gently over the paper. The ______ edge should be clean and without any ____________________. The tracing will be done with a _____________; usually ____ is good enough.
Why mounting of a drawing is important?
Mounting of a Drawing
Mounting of a drawing is an important aspect of presentation. The drawings that have been finished by your best efforts will be mounted. This will help not only in providing a frame for presentation but also a backing for preserving the drawing. Some helpful tips for these activities are: 3.4.1 Demonstration •
The mount paper is usually a thicker paper, preferably in neutral shades of grey, sand or black colours, so as to set off the white of the sheet on which a subject has been drawn. 4
A uniform size of mounting makes it easy to store the drawings together.
Now, take a drawing that is finished. Make a box/frame around it with sufficient (at least 1.5”–2”) white space around it, mostly in a rectangle composition. Check that the box has right angle corners and all sides are straight and correct.
Cut the box around the drawing with a cutter. This is now ready for mounting.
On the mount paper, lightly draw a box of the same size as the drawing. This could be placed centrally, i.e. equidistant from all sides of the sheet or aligned closer to 1 or 2 sides.
Apply bonding solution to the back of the drawing in a smooth clean movement starting from the centre going to the sides. Cover the whole sheet with solution. Similarly, cover the box drawn as a guideline on the mount paper with the bonding solution. Place a loose paper edge next to an edge of the box line and then go over the edge with the solution. This way the bonding solution will not spill over the edge of the box.
Now the drawing is ready to be fixed to the mounting paper. Place a loose sheet over the mount paper so as to cover the box leaving only an edge above it. Turn the drawing over, align the edge, say the top edge, of the drawing paper to the box drawn on the mount paper. Gently press the edges down and fix together.
Holding the drawing sheet as a flap, remove the loose sheet of paper, and gently get the drawing sheet down on the mount paper, fixing with the other hand as you go along.
This drawing is now mounted on paper that provides it a presentation frame and a backing.
Introduction to Quick Sketching
You have begun an adventure in drawing. You have learnt about the tools and their usage. Most importantly, you can appreciate and exercise the control and flexibility of your hand. Let’s take the next step in learning to draw. You will recall, drawing flows from what we see, what we observe, and what we record. Seeing is not the same as looking. It involves logic, analysis and translating the subject into art. Different artists may draw the same subject differently, while having a lot of the primary features common, which establish the subject’s character. These common elements are: • • • •
The basic structure of the physical form and its volume, Proportions of height, width and depth, Angles and curves, and The texture and details
When you look at any subject, say an apple or a leaf, have you observed the following? The shape and form of the subject. The negative space around the subject. Tonal value of the subject and the shading and shadows. Perspective, i.e. the projecting and receding planes of the subject.
• • • •
On the first day of sketching and drawing, begin with a little walk and observation of plants outside. Try and appreciate various aspects of leaves, flowers, plants and trees. Look at the general sizes and volumes of plants and trees around you. 1. See carefully • • • • •
The different proportions of similar plants. The different shades of green colour. The different densities, particularly of leaves that gives an idea of their volume. The different sizes and shapes of leaves. Their stem or trunk and branches.
2. As you see and observe, you will find that every leaf, every plant, every tree is different, even when they are of the same kind. 3. The basic elements that form the character of same kind of subject are the similar features of physical form and volume, proportions, angles and curves, and texture and details, as we have earlier studied. These same elements will characterize the differences from other plant forms. 4. Now make a closer observation. Look at the leaves in the same plant (Fig. 3.5). While all leaves will have similar characteristics, each will still be different. From your point of observation, you will notice that: Fig. 3.5 Close observation
• • • •
of leaf Different sizes, similar but not same angles and curves. Different shading and shadows due to the angle of light falling on them. Different tones due to the projecting, receding or overlapping placement of the leaves, but similar texture and details. Different visibility of texture and details due to light and shadows.
So what have you seen and observed and what can you now begin to draw?
Self-check Questions 1. What do we need to observe when we begin drawing an object?
2. What are the characteristics that distinguish any plant or tree from the other? 3. What are the common primary features which are important to establish the subject’s character? 4. What will you notice, while observing the different leaves in the same plant?
Draw a leaf and trace it six times on ¼ imperial size of sheet. Now shade these leaves with different techniques. After completing the shading, mount this sheet.
3.6.1 Class assignments i) Take 5 set of leaves. Draw these in 3 different angles in pencil on ¼ imperial sheet of cartridge paper. This will be an exercise in quick sketching of these leaves. • • • • • • • •
Look at the leaves. Observe and see the leaves carefully. See the main characteristic features of shape, size, and the proportion of the leaves. See how the leaf joins to the stem, and then see the stem. See where the other leaf is starting from the stem. Is there any overlapping? Does the leaf come forward, i.e. projects towards you in orientation? Or does it go back, i.e. go backwards or recedes in the background?
Take a deep breath and begin drawing. •
• • •
Keep your eye on the leaves (the subject). Let the pencil move on the paper in a fluid movement. Do not deliberate much and try not to look at the pencil. For next 1/2 hour, draw these leaves in line form, in quick sketches. You may be able to explore up to 3 -5 sketches. You will now begin to get the feel of the leaf shape. While drawing each sketch, you may begin from a focal point, i.e. the stem; or you may begin from the outer shape or contour of the leaf. Try both approaches. In so doing, you will begin to see space within the leaf, and then the space outside the leaf, i.e. the positive and the negative spaces. Your line drawings of the leaves (in quick explorations) should be complete in its full form and composition. 7
As a next step, draw 3 quick sketches of the same leaves using ink and then water colour each. 3.6.2 Home assignments i) Draw sketches of 3 different kinds of flowers at 3 different angles in pencil. ii) Draw 3 quick sketches of flowers using ink and then watercolour each. The drawings of flower exploration are to be done on 1/2 Imperial cartridge sheet.
Summing Up Salient points of the lesson are:
Any drawing exploration will gain a lot from a neat and orderly presentation. Do learn to take care of your equipment and supplies as you go along.
You have learnt about the inputs regarding neat presentation (clean-up, erase, avoid stains, cut and paste etc.).
An important skill for a drawing and design student is the skill in picking and tracing a motif for further application in replication in a surface design.
Mounting of a drawing is an important aspect of presentation.
You were also introduced to observing the nature around us and quick sketching.
Possible Answers to Self-check Questions a. tracing sheet or butter paper, semi-transparency b. Eraser c. Eraser d. dark and soft pencil, 2 B
Mounting of a drawing is an important aspect of presentation. The drawings that have been finished by your best efforts will be mounted. This will help not only in providing a frame for presentation but also a backing for preserving the drawing.
When we begin drawing an object, say, a leaf or a plant, we need to see and carefully observe how it looks as per 8
• • • •
Its shape and form. The negative space around the subject, which gives an idea of its size and proportion. Tonal value of the subject and the shading and shadows, where we see the colour, and the light and shadow falling on it. Perspective, i.e. the projecting and receding planes of the subject, which tells us how close or far, is the subject or parts of the subject from us.
4. The characteristics that distinguish a plant or a tree from the other are • • • •
The basic structure of the physical form , i.e. in it’s parts and it’s whole and their volume, Proportions of height, width and depth, Angles and curves, and The texture and details on its surface.
5. The basic structure of the physical form and its volume, • • •
Proportions of height, width and depth, Angles and curves, and The texture and details
6. From your point of observation, you will notice that: • • • •
Different sizes, similar but not same angles and curves. Different shading and shadows due to the angle of light falling on them. Different tones due to the projecting, receding or overlapping placement of the leaves, but similar texture and details. Different visibility of texture and details due to light and shadows.
Why is it important to have neat and orderly presentation?
What do you understand by clean-up?
Why is it necessary to master the skill of tracing a motif?
What do you understand by Mounting of a Drawing?
3.10 References and Suggested Further Reading 1.
Cameron, J. 2002. The Artist’s Way. Putnam, New York.
Ching, F.D.K. 1996. Design Drawing. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 9
Edwards, B. 1986. Drawing on The Artistâ€™s Within. Simon & Schuster Inc, New York.
Edwards, B. 1989. Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain. Tarcher, New York.
Escher, M.C. and Oth. 1986. Escher on Escher: Exploring the Infinite. Harry N. Abrams, New York.
Gill, R.W. 1990. The Thames and Hudsonâ€™s Manual of Rendering with Pen and Ink. W.W. Norton & Co., New York.
Locher, J.L. 1992. Escher: The Complete Graphic Work. Thames & Hudson Ltd., New York.
Noordzij, G. 2000. Letter Letter: An Inconsistent Collection of Tentative Theories That Do Not Claim Any Other Authority Than That of Common Sense. Hartley & Marks Publishers, Inc., New York.
Paton, R and Neilsen, I. (Eds.) 1999. Visual Representation & Interpretation. Springer Verlag, Berlin.
10. Stanyer,P. and Rosenberg,T. 1996. Landscape Drawing From First Principles. Bookmart, New York. 11. Turner,J.R. 1984. Drawing with Confidence. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. 12. Wood, J.R. 1992. Handbook of Illustration. Design Press, New York.
3.11 Glossary 1.
At equal distance
Something forming strengthening
The feel of a surface