TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES OF DRAWING - I
THE ABILITY TO DRAW
THE TOOLS 1.6.1 1.6.2 1.6.3 1.6.4
PENCIL PEN BRUSHES COMPUTER
THE SURFACE MATERIALS FOR DRAWING
ASSIGNMENTS 1.8.1 1.8.2
CLASS ASSIGNMENTS HOME ASSIGNMENTS
1.10 POSSIBLE ANSWERS TO SELF-CHECK QUESTIONS 1.11 TERMINAL QUESTIONS 1.12 REFERENCES AND SUGGESTED FURTHER READING 1.13 GLOSSARY
1. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES OF DRAWING - I Drawing has been used since times immemorial as a medium of expression of thoughts that can not be expressed in words. Also, it had been a source of pacifying the inner urge of creativity of the human being since the time when man came into existence on this earth. The tools, techniques and media gradually became more and more advanced with the passage of time, but the spirit of creating the unimaginable and their source of inspiration remained unchanged. In the first lesson of this unit we will start with the historical background, and then describe the tools and techniques of drawing. In the next two lessons of this unit we will discuss the shading techniques and proper presentation of a design.
Objectives After going through this lesson, you will be able to know about
The history of Drawing
How the ability to draw is the first step in translating and expressing Design ideas.
About the tools and surface materials used for Drawing
How to use the tools, like pencil, pen and brush to draw simple lines.
Drawing is the visual expression of our experience of nature, of people, of things, and of environment. Drawing is one of the fundamentals of all creative work. It is the direct expression of the perception or conception of a form. Skill in drawing, as you will understand, is the fundamental building block of designing. So let us talk about this great skill which only the human beings can possess. A drawing may involve the artist in visualizing an object which is not yet in existence, but which is the beginning of a design and a development process. But for understanding design we should know its historical background or its existence on the earth. That’s why in this lesson we will study about the history of drawing and the basic tools required for this technique.
Everyone has the instinct to draw. In the beginning, mankind communicated through pictographic forms and symbols. For example, to express the moon, people drew a curve to depict its shape. It was natural for people to communicate in this way. Drawing is a basic human activity rooted in the collective psyche, nature and history of human civilization. Some of the earliest evidences of this type of human activity are the marks left by our forefathers on cave walls, tools and eating utensils. Artifacts and primitive signs in caves and other places show evidence of the use of drawings before language (Fig. 1.1). People have the instinct to communicate through drawing. But after words were invented, art became a secondary form of communication.
Fig. 1.1 Pre-Historic Drawings
Definition Let us now try to understand and define what constitutes drawing.
Drawing is the skill of recording, communicating, and designing the seen/unseen as a sketch, template, and/or model through the use of tools, such as, pencil, pen and brush and, most important of all, the extended human tool â€“ our hand. It will not be inappropriate to say that of all art skills, drawing has always been the most important and useful to nurture and to develop. In its simplest form, drawing consists of making a mark or leaving a trail on a surface. It is true that as an infant we begin to draw, even before we learn to read and write. In a way, writing is a special form of drawing. Everyone can draw, and develop the skill with practice.
The Ability to Draw
Learning to draw is largely a matter of practice and observation. So draw as much and as often as you can, and use your eyes all the time. Drawing is directly related to what we see and how much we are actually seeing, i.e. observing. The training of translating the seen and the observed facilitates the ability to draw. Drawing is the first step in translating and expressing any visual or idea. Hence it is an essential skill for a Design student. 3
Fig. 1.2 Nature Drawing
In Design Education, we begin with the first elementary skill that is drawing. Exploration through nature drawing (Fig. 1.2), perspective drawing (Fig. 1.3) and object drawing (Fig. 1.4), helps in achieving the accuracy of representation of form. It enables us to observe areas and trains our eyes to perceive in greater detail. This, in turn, aids in the development of the sense of expression. Therefore, drawing sketches is a very important tool for a designer.
Fig. 1.4 Object Drawing
Fig. 1.3 Perspective Drawing
Tools like pencil, pen, brushes, etc. are used for drawing the subject. Each tool and medium has its own strengths and advantages. Using and exploring each one of them will help in making a decision regarding the right choice of a tool for any given application.
Let us begin with an introduction to some basic tools that are used in drawing, such as, Pencil, Pen, Brush and Computer. B
1.6.1 Pencil The pencil is a good linear tool. Pencils come in many varieties, like charcoal, graphite, and coloured pencils. The graphite pencils are most commonly used and have a range of soft to hard grades, from 9B to 9H, with 9B being the softest as well as the darkest 4
Fig. 1.5 Holding the pencil: A. Writing position; B. Under palm position; C. Knife position
and 9H being the hardest. The HB pencil is dark and appropriate for sketching. The 2B pencil is softer and darker, while 4B and 6B are used for shading. The greater the pressure the darker the shade you will get. We are now moving closer to the actual process of drawing. Let us also familiarize ourselves with the correct method of holding the pencil (Fig. 1.5). The pencil should be sharpened to a point. The pencil should be held at a slight angle to the paper. It should never be perpendicular, as that will wear down the tip.
1.6.2 Pen The pen in the shape of a feather quill originated during early Christian period. Unlike brush, which till then was the traditional tool to apply ink, the quill due to its hard tip and adaptable shape gave the artist greater scope for creating expressive and calligraphic marks. Drawing with ink came within reach for more common people due to its adaptability with use of quills/reeds. These have since been replaced with steel nibs used with fountain pens owing to the advancements in manufacturing processes. The pens come in many varieties: • • • • • • •
Crow quill, Reed pen or Dip pen holder with a variety of nibs Fountain Pen Felt Pen Micro tip Pen Ball Point Pen Marker Pen and Rapid graph Pens
Fig. 1.6 Bamboo pen (lower) and Reed pen (upper)
Fig. 1.7 Bold lines with: a. Bamboo pen (left and middle); b. Reed pen (right)
Reed, Bamboo pens and Dip pens with nibs are good for bold lines (Figs. 1.6 and 1.7). You can make or shape the nib of reed and Bamboo pens with the help of a blade, to suit your requirement. Dip pens like this work with both, water based and waterproof inks. Fountain pens also have a variety of interchangeable nibs that give a lot of flexibility to this tool. However, they have a storage tank for the ink. They can be used only with water based inks.
The quality of lines with these pens is varied and interesting, and the tools lend themselves to interesting line work. Felt pens and fiber pens are smoother in use than fountain pens and are a great help in quick sketches. They, however, tend to wear down quickly. Micro tip and ballpoint pens are cheap and have even thickness of the writing head. Rapidograph pens, like micro tips, have a uniform thickness. They use wet refillable inks and give a good deposit of ink on paper. The one disadvantage is that they have to be held at right angle to the paper.
Self-check Questions 1. Give the definition of drawing. 2. Name different kinds of drawing exploration that help in learning to observe and draw. 3. State whether True / False i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi)
Pencils are not available in many varieties. True / False 9B is the hardest and lightest pencil. True / False 2B pencil is softer and darker than 2H pencil. True / False In complete Pens are available in many varieties them. True / False Fountain, Marker and Rapidograph are the types of pencils. True / False Dip pens can work only with waterproof ink. True / False
1.6.3 Brush The brush has been used for generations to draw and write with inks (Fig. 1.8). It requires a considerable degree of skill for use as a drawing tool. Its greatest advantage is the smoothest flow of ink while drawing and the amazing range of line quality that one can achieve.
Fig. 1.8 Drawing lines using brush
To use the brush, hold it in different positions, sometimes vertical to the paper for fine lines made with its point; and sometimes almost horizontal to the paper for making broad strokes. Thereafter, move the brush from vertical to a tilt, while drawing the same line. You will discover that the range of line work with the brush is most varied and exciting. A brush is a very versatile tool. It is used with a wide variety of liquid and viscous media, like:
Ink: waterproof ink and water based ink Colours: watercolours, poster colours, oil colours, acrylic colours, etc.
Brushes have different hair types for use with these media – hog, sable, synthetic, etc. Basically, two types of brushes are available: Round (Fig. 1.9) Flat (Fig. 1.10)
Fig. 1.9 Round Brushes
Fig. 1.10 Flat Brushes
These are further available in various thicknesses for varied uses. You will find that the round brushes are more suitable for line work and fill work, whereas the flat brushes give a broad sweep of ink or colour, most often used for characteristic enhancement of a line in a drawing. 1.6.4 Computer Computer Aided Designing and Drawing has become extremely common these days. Today, almost all designers are using the computer as a designing and drawing tool in their day-to-day operations. By using specialized designing and drawing software, such as, AutoCAD, CorelDraw, PhotoShop, etc., the most complicated of drawing and designing works can be completed with greater accuracy and speed. Further, multiple options and variations of themes, as well as, of the same theme, can be generated with ease, leading to optimal drawing and design finalization.
The Surface Materials for Drawing
Drawing is done on a variety of surface materials. Some of the common ones are: Paper, Fabric, (cotton, silk etc), Canvas and Board. In this course, you will do all your explorations on paper. Later there will be some exercises of painting on fabric. The paper surfaces commonly used for the purpose of drawing are: • • • • •
Cartridge Ivory Bond Tracing and Mounting – Black, Grey and off-white
These are available in Imperial size. Drawing exploration may begin on a ½ or ¼ Imperial size. It is best used loosely fixed on a drawing board.
Self-check Questions 4. Write about reed, bamboo and dip pens. 5. List different types of Pencils, Pens, and Brush, each of which having distinct characteristics 6. What is the main advantage of using brush for drawing sketches? 7. Write the name of some designing software. 8. What are the commonly used paper surfaces for drawing?
Make a composition of lines in a 9X9 block, by using straight lines (Horizontal, vertical and diagonal), curved, zigzag and broken lines. You can use these lines by varying their width and shades (by applying different pressures).
For understanding the basic tools, we will use each tool to draw simple lines. These exercises will be done on a bond sheet used horizontally. 1.8.1 Class assignments i) Use an HB/B pencil, and draw freehand, at least, 1 whole page each of the following: • • • •
Straight lines – From left to right Straight lines – From top to bottom Curved lines Inclined lines, of approximately 300 or 600
ii) With a fountain pen, draw freehand at least 1 whole page each of the following: • •
Straight lines from left to right Straight lines from top to bottom
iii) We will now try out the Brush as a tool for drawing. Take a thicker paper like Cartridge Paper in 1/4 Imperial size, a No. 6 Round Brush in sable hair and a pot of waterproof black ink. Use the Brush to draw lines that are continuous and may be as long as the ink will run. Note that a brush full of ink will draw a dense line; and a dry brush will produce a broken line. 8
• • •
Make dots in a line with the brush, in varying thicknesses. Make freehand lines, horizontally, on the paper. Make freehand lines, vertically on the paper.
1.8.2 Home assignments i) Using a 2B pencil, draw freehand lines on 5 sheets each • • • • • • •
Straight lines – From Left to right Straight lines – From right to left Straight lines – From top to bottom Straight lines – From bottom to top Curved lines Inclined lines, of approx. 300 or 600 Zig zag lines
ii) Draw the following sets of freehand lines on two 1/4 imperial cartridge sheets using a fountain pen and ink: • • •
Curved lines Freehand inclined Lines, at approximately 30o or 60o Zig zag lines
iii) Draw the following sets of drawings on one 1/4 imperial cartridge sheet, each using a brush and ink: • • •
Curved lines, horizontally Curved lines, vertically With a round brush and a flat brush 5/16”, explore strokes and freely drawn alphabets or simple forms in different positions of brush.
By now you must have gained insight into several aspects of drawing, its history, definition, tools and applications. The salient points to remember are: i) While drawing with pencil: • • •
Start the line drawing at one end and try to carry the line till the other edge of the paper (¼ Imperial sheets). Try and maintain equal distance amongst the lines. The line should be drawn in a single, continuous attempt, with no stops or breaks or overdrawing. If it does break, stop. Start a fresh line and try to draw a continuous line. Use uniform pressure on the pencil or other tools.
ii) While drawing with pen: • • •
Space the lines evenly and neatly. Draw a continuous line. Do not overdraw, or break the line. Use even pressure on the nib. 9
Be careful of ink forming blobs. Any such blob can be neatly scraped with a blade. Do not attempt to erase ink at all.
iii) While drawing with brush: • • • • •
Space the lines neatly. Do not hold the brush too tightly. Do remember to wash the ink out of your brushes with turpentine oil immediately after use. The brush will get spoilt, if this is not done. Be careful of ink forming blobs. Any such blob can be neatly scraped with a blade. Do not attempt to erase ink at all.
1.10 Possible Answers to Self-check Questions 1. Drawing is the skill of recording, communicating, and designing the seen/unseen as a sketch, template, and/or model through the use of tools, such as, pencil, pen and brush and, most important of all, the extended human tool – our hand. 2. Tools like pencil, pen, brushes, etc. are used for drawing the subject. Each tool and medium has its own strengths and advantages. Using and exploring each one of them will help in making a decision regarding the right choice of a tool for any given application. 3. a. False False
4. Reed, Bamboo pens and Dip pens with nibs are good for bold lines (Figs. 1.6 and 1.7). You can make or shape the nib of reed and Bamboo pens with the help of a blade, to suit your requirement. Dip pens like this work with both, water based and waterproof inks. 5. Pencil – a) Lead Pencil -- According to the hardness of the lead, there are 2H, H, HB, 2B, 3B, 4B, 5B, 6B etc. pencils available b) Coloured Pencil Pen - The pens come in many varieties: • • • • • • •
Crow quill, Reed pen or Dip pen holder with a variety of nibs Fountain Pen Felt Pen Micro tip Pen Ball Point Pen Marker Pen and Rapidograph Pens
Brush – Brushes have different hair types for use with different colour media – hog, sable, synthetic, etc. Basically, two types of brushes are available: • •
6. Hard lead pencils like 2H and H will be used to draw light lines 7. AutoCAD, CorelDraw and Photoshop etc. 8. Cartridge, Ivory, Bond, Tracing and Mounting – Black, Grey and off-white.
1.11 Terminal Questions 1. Define drawing. 2. How is drawing related to textile designing and printing? 3. Name the three basic tools of drawing. 4. Which pencil would you use to draw light lines? 5. Mention special features of the various types of pens. 6. Name two designing and drawing softwares. 7. What is the main advantage of using brush for drawing sketches?
1.12 References and Suggested Further Reading 1. Anonymous. 2006. The Complete Guide to Drawing and Painting. Quantum Publishing Ltd. London. 2. Wood, J.R. 1992. Handbook of Illustration. Design Press, New York.
1.13 Glossary 1. Perception
The Knowledge gained via senses
Characterized by the use of pictographs
Mind and thought
A bird's feather made into a pen
Able to move freely in all directions
A movement in an arc, drag 11