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4- lapkyu ds ewyHkwr fl)kar (BASICS OF M ANAGEMENT) bdkbZ ,d ds rhu ikBksa esa lapkyu ds fofHké igywvksa ij fopkj fd;k x;k gSA bl bdkbZ esa ge dk;kZy; lapkyu rFkk lapkj&O;oLFkk ds O;kid {ks= dk la{ksi esa v/;;u djsaxsA bdkbZ nks ds igys ikB esa ge lapkyu ds ÁkjafHkd rFkk ewyHkwr fl)karksa dk v/;;u djsaxsA nwljs ikB esa ge vk/kqfud dk;kZy; lapkyu ds ÁkFkfed fl)karksa ij fopkj djsaxsA blesa vko';d vk/kkjHkwr ?kVd] vkWVkses'ku] lapkyu dk fooj.k vkfn igyw lfEefyr gksaxsA bl bdkbZ ds rhljs ikB esa le; lapkyu ds fl)karks ij fopkj fd;k tk,xkA

4-0

mÌs”;

(OBJECTIVES)

bl ikB dk v/;;u djus ij vki& • laxBu ds fl)kar] fo'ks"krk,¡ rFkk Lrj tku ik,¡xs • lapkyu ds fl)kar rFkk dk;ksZa ls voxr gksaxs • Áca/kdksa dh Hkwfedk o Áca/ku ;ksX;rk dk Kku ÁkIr djsaxs

4-1

ifjp;

(INTRODUCTION)

bl bdkbZ dk vkjfEHkd fcUnq lapkyu ds ewyHkwr fl)karks dks le>uk gS tks fd bl ikB dk lkjka'k gSA laxBu ds fo'ks"k y{k.k] Lrj] dk;Z Á.kkyh] Áca/kdksa dk dk;Z rFkk lapkyu dkS'ky vkfn fo"k;ksa ij Hkh bl ikB esa fopkj gksxk] D;ksafd ;g gesa dk;kZy; dh O;kid tkudkjh nsaxsA

4-2

laxBu

(ORGANIZATION)

Lakpkyu ;k O;oLFkkiu dk v/;;u djus ls igys gekjs fy, ;g ns[kuk vko';d gS fd laxBu esa Áca/kd dk dgk¡ rFkk D;k dk;Z gSA blfy, gesa laxBu ds ckjs esa tkuuk vfuok;Z gSA fdUghsa fo'ks"k mÌs';ksa dks ÁkIr djus ds fy, O;fDr;ksa dks lqO;ofLFkr <ax ls bdV~Bk djuk laxBu dh ljy ifjHkk"kk gSA laxBu ds fo'ks"k y{k.kksa rFkk fofHké Lrjksa dh tkudkjh bl ifjHkk"kk dk vFkZ le>us esa lgk;d gksxhA

4-2-1 laxBu dh fo” fo”ks"krk

(THE CHARACTERISTICS OF AN ORGANIZATION)

laxBu dbZ Ádkj ds gksrs gSa tSls cM+s vFkok NksVsA lHkh laxBuksa dh rhu fo'ks"krk,¡ gksrh gSa& 1


• mÌs”; &lk/kkj.kr% laxBu dk mÌs'; mldh dYiuk'kfDr] fof'k"V dk;Z vFkok fe'ku (mission) ;k y{; O;Dr djrk gSA • O;fDr &la & xBu }kjk fdlh Hkh dk;Z dks lQyrkiwoZd iwjk djus ds fy, dq'ky O;fDr;ksa dh vko';drk gksrh gSA • jpuk &ÁR;s & d laxBu dks dqN vko';d cukoV ;k jpuk rS;kj djuh pkfg, tks laxBu esa O;fDr;ksa ds Lohdk;Z O;ogkj dks ifjHkkf"kr djsaA

4-2-2 laxBu ds fofHké Lrj

(THE LEVELS OF AN ORGANIZATION)

ge laxBu ds lnL;ksa dk nks Ádkj ls o.kZu dj ldrs gSaA ÁFke iafDr (frontline) ds deZpkjh os gksrs gSa tks lh/ks ukSdjh ;k fu;r dk;Z ij O;fDrxr :Ik ls dk;Z djrs gSa rFkk mudk nwljksa dk dke fujh{k.k djus dk mŸkjnkf;Ro ugha gksrkA Áca/kd (manager) laxBu esa nwljs O;fDr;ksa ds fØ;kdykiksa dks funsZf'kr djrs gSaA Áca/kdksa dks Ák;% f'k[kj] e/; rFkk ÁFke iafDr esa Js.khc) fd;k tkrk gSA ÁFke iafDr lapkyd ¼ftudks lqijokbtj (supervisor) dgk tkrk gS½ deZpkjh ds nSfud fØ;kdykiksa dks funZsf'kr djrs gSaA e/; Øe ds lapkyd ÁFke iafDr rFkk mPp Lrj ds chp dk Áfrfuf/kRo djrs gSaA Ák;% ;g lapkyd mPp Lrj }kjk fn, x, y{; dks fuEu Lrj }kjk fØ;kafor djus ds fy, mŸkjnk;h gksrs gSaA mPp Lrj ds lapkyd fu.kZ; ysus dh ÁfØ;k rFkk laxBu dh fn'kk fu/kkZj.k rFkk laxBu dh uhfr fu/kkZj.k esa mŸkjnk;h gksrs gSaA

Lo;a tkap Á”u

(SELF ASSESSMENT QUESTION)

1- ÁR;sd laxBu dh rhu ewyHkwr fo'ks"krk,¡ dkSu lh gSa\ 2- Áca/kdksa dk oxhZdj.k fdl Ádkj fd;k tk ldrk gS\

4-3

lapkyu@O;oLFkkiu

(MANAGEMENT)

vkb, vc ge lapkyu ;k O;oLFkkiu (management) dk vFkZ le>rs gSaA ;g ,d ÁfØ;k gS ftlds }kjk nwljs O;fDr;ksa ls dk;Z djk;k tkrk gSA bl ÁfØ;k dk l{ke rFkk ÁHkkoh gksuk vko';d gSA

4-3-1 dk;Z dq”kyrk rFkk ÁHkkodkjh

(EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS)

l{ke rFkk ÁHkkodkjh 'kCn dh foLr`r tkudkjh vko';d gSA buiqV (input) rFkk vkmViqV (output) dks /;ku esa j[krs gq, fu.kZ; yhft, fd] fd;k x;k fu/kkZfjr dk;Z ÁHkkodkjh (efficient) gS ;k ugha gSA blfy, ,fQ'ks;UV (efficient) dk vFkZ gqvk ^^dk;Z dks Bhd <ax ls djuk**A

4-3-2 ÁHkkodkjh dk vFkZ ^^Bhd dke djuk** (EFFECTIVENESS MEANS “DOING THE RIGHT THINGS”)

laxBu dks dk;Zdq'ky rFkk ÁHkkoh cukus esa lapkyd dh Hkwfedk vR;f/kd egŸoiw.kZ gSA D;k dksbZ laxBu dk;Z dq'kyrk ds fcuk ÁHkkoh gks ldrk gS\ blds foijhr gksus ls D;k gks ldrk gS\ bu Á'uksa dk mŸkj nsus ds fy, ge ,d dkWyst dk mnkgj.k ysrs gSa tks dEI;wVj f'k{kk Ánku djrk gSA dkWyst vius fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds fy, bl ÁfØ;k dks 'kh?kz iwjk djus esa l{ke gks 2


ldrk gS ijUrq ;fn fo|kFkhZ vko';d dq'kyrk ÁkIr ugha dj ldrs rks og dkWyst ÁHkkoh ugha gks ldsxkA ;gk¡ ;g /;ku nsuk vko';d gS fd mPp dq'kyrk fo'ks"k :Ik ls lapkyu ls tqM+h gqbZ gSA v;ksX; lapkyu Hkh Ák;% vdq'kyrk rFkk fu”Qyrk nksuksa Ánku dj ldrk gSA

4-3-3 lapkyu dh xfrfof/k;k¡

(MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES)

ÁR;sd lapkyd dks pkj ewyHkwr xfrfof/k;k¡ fu"iknu djuh gksrh gSA • ;kstuk cukuk & y{; ifjHkkf"kr djuk] y{;ksa dks ÁkIr djus ds fy;s j.kuhfr cukuk rFkk xfrfof/k;ksa dks ,dhd`r rFkk lefUor djus ds fy;s ;kstuk fodflr djukA mPp Lrj ds lapkyd laxBu ds lHkh y{;ksa dks ifjHkkf"kr djrs gSaA • usr`Ÿo & y{; ÁkIr djus ds fy, deZpkfj;ksa dks Ásfjr djuk rFkk mudk ekxZ&n'kZu djukA vktdy ;g fdlh Hkh Áca/kd ds fy, eq[; vfuok;Z ;ksX;rk gSA • O;ofLFkr djuk & ;g fuf'pr djuk fd D;k dk;Z djuk gS\ dk;Z dkSu djsxk\ dk;ksZa dks dSls lewgksa esa fd;k tk,xk\ dkSu fdldks fjiksZV djsxk\ rFkk dgk¡ ij fu.kZ; fy;k tk,xk\ • fu;af=r djuk & laxBu ds y{; ÁkIr djus ds fy, dk;Z dh Áxfr tk¡pukA ;fn dk;Z ds ifj.kke vk'kk ds vuqdwy ugha gSa rks lapkyd dk mŸkjnkf;Ro gS fd og ;g fuf'pr djsa fd laxBu lgh fn'kk esa fØ;k,¡ okfil yk,A

4-4

Áca/kd ds drZO;ksa dh lkoZHkkSfedrk (UNIVERSALITY OF MANAGEMENT JOB) • laxBu esa Áca/kd dh Hkwfedk mlds laxBu esa Lrj ds vuqlkj fHké gksrh gSA • Áca/kd dk dk;Z ykHkdkjh rFkk ykHk&jfgr laxBuksa esa lkekU;r% ,d tSlk gksrk gSA • Áca/kd vf/kd lkekU; gS ;k vf/kd fo'ks"kK gS ;g laxBu ds vkdkj ij fuHkZj djrk gSA • Lakpkyu ds lHkh fl)kar lkoZHkkSfed (universal) ugha gksrsA • Lakpkyu ds fl)kar lHkh ns'kksa esa leku (uniform) ugha gksrsA

geus lHkh Ádkj ds laxBuksa esa Áca/kd ds dk;Z lkekU; crk, gSa ijUrq Áca/kd dk dk;Z fØ;k ds egŸo ij vk/kkfjr gksrk gSA tSls ofj"B Áca/kd ÁFke&Lrj ds Áca/kd ls vf/kd ;kstuk laca/kh dk;Z ns[krk gSA blh Ádkj Áca/kd dk Lrj laxBu esa tSls&tSls ofj"B gksrk tkrk gS og dk;Z dh ns[kHkky ls vf/kd le; ;kstuk cukus ij O;; djrk gSA fQj Hkh] lHkh Áca/kd ;kstuk] usr`Ro] fu;a=.k rFkk O;oLFkk djus dk fu.kZ; ysrs gSa ijUrq ÁR;sd xfrfof/k ij O;; fd;k x;k le; leku ugha gksrk rFkk Áca/kdh; xfrfof/k ds okLrfod rŸo Áca/kd ds Lrj ds vuqlkj cny tkrs gSaA vki pkgs ykHkÁn ;k ykHkjfgr (non-profit) laxBu esa dk;Zjr gksa] fQj Hkh vki ls ;kstuk] O;oLFkk] usr`Ro rFkk fu;a=.k visf{kr (expected) gSA laxBu pkgs ykHkdkjh gks ;k ugha] vPNs ifj.kke dh vis{kk ges'kk dh tkrh gSA

3


4-4-1 Áca/kd ds le; dk forj.k

(DISTRIBUTION OF MANAGERS TIME)

vkb, ge Áca/kd }kjk fofHké xfrfof/k;ksa ij le; vkoaVu (distribution) ij vf/kd xEHkhjrk ls fopkj djsaA ,d mPp Lrj dk Áca/kd ;kstuk dk;Z ij yxHkx 28% le; O;; djrk gS tcfd ÁFke Lrj dk Áca/kd dsoy 15% le; ;kstuk ij O;; djrk gSA blh Ádkj mPp Lrj dk Áca/kd usr`Ro xfrfof/k ij 22% le; O;rhr djrk gS tcfd ÁFke Lrj dk Áca/kd vf/kdrj le; (51%) deZpkfj;ksa dks dk;Z ds fy;s Ásfjr djus rFkk muds lkFk dke djus esa O;rhr djrk gSA

4-4-2 Áca/kdksa dh Hkwfedk

(THE ROLE THAT MANAGERS PLAY)

laxBu dk vkdkj laxBu esa Áca/kd ds dk;Zdyki dks ÁHkkfor djrk gSA fo'ks"k :Ik ls NksVs O;kikfjd Áfr"Bku esa tks O;fDrxr rFkk ykHkÁn gksrs gSa rFkk ftuesa deZpkfj;ksa dh la[;k 500 ls de gksrh gSA vktdy dukMk dh vFkZO;oLFkk esa ^NksVs O;kikj* dk jkst+xkj nsus esa vf/kd ;ksxnku gSA cM+s rFkk NksVs laxBuksa ds Áca/kdksa dk egŸo mudh laxBu esa Hkwfedk ij vk/kkfjr gksrk gSA NksVs O;olk; esa lapkyd ^^ÁoDrk (spokesperson)** ds :Ik esa gksrk gSA bu Áca/kdksa dk vf/kd le; cká funsZf'kr dk;ksZa ij O;; gksrk gS tSls & xzkgdksa ls cSBd djuk] cSadksa ls /ku ÁkIr djuk] u;s lqvolj [kkstuk rFkk mUufr ds cnyko vkfn dk Áca/k djukA bl Ádkj NksVs O;kikj esa Áca/kd vf/kdrj ,d tujfyLV (generalist) gksrk gSA nwljh vksj cM+s Áfr"Bkuksa ds Áca/kd vf/kdrj vkarfjd dk;Z dk funsZ'ku djrs gSa] tSls Áfr"Bku dh dkSu lh bdkbZ;ksa dks miyC/k lalk/kuksa dk fdruk Hkkx nsuk gksxkA vr% nksuksa Ádkj ds Áfr"Bkuksa] ¼cM+s rFkk NksVs½ esa Áca/kdkas ds eq[;r% leku fØ;kdyki gksrs gSaA vUrj dsoy ;g gS fd og dSls dk;Z djrs gSa rFkk ÁR;sd xfrfof/k ij fdruk le; O;; djrs gSaA

4-4-3 Áca/kd ,oa fu.kZ;

(MANAGERS AND DECISIONS)

Áca/kdksa dks fu.kZ; ysus ds fy, vko';d gksrk gS& • • • •

ladViw.kZ leL;kvksa dh igpku djukA mi;qDr vk¡dM+s laxzg rFkk mudk Á;ksxA lwpuk dk fo'ys"k.k djukA dk;Z djus dk mŸke <ax pquukA

fu.kZ; ysuk lapkyu dk ,d lkoZHkkSfed dk;Z{ks= gSA ÁR;sd Áca/kd dks y{; fu/kkZfjr djus] ukSdjh (jobs) dk <k¡pk rS;kj djus] fdldks fdrus le; ds fy, ukSdjh ij j[kuk gS rFkk ;fn dk;Z Án'kZu ;kstuk ds vuqlkj ugha gS rks mls lgh fn'kk nsus ds fy, fu.kZ; ysus gksrs gSaA Js"B Áca/kd os gksrs gSa tks ladViw.kZ leL;kvksa dks igpku] mfpr lwpukvksa ds vk/kkj ij mudks nwj djus dk dk;Z pqurs gSaA

4-4-4 Áca/kd ,oa cnyko

(MANAGERS AND CHANGES)

cnyko (change) esa lkekU; jgus ds fy, Áca/kdksa esa fuEu xq.k gksus vko';d gSaA • psat ,tsaV (change agent) gksukA • xfr'khy okrkoj.k esa dke djus dh ;ksX;rk gksukA 4


• yphykiu rFkk xzg.kdŸkkZ gksukA Áca/kdksa dk nwljk lkoZHkkSfed {ks= gS cnyko (change) dks lEHkkyuk rFkk mi;qDr O;ogkj djukA vktdy ds okrkoj.k esa cnyko viokn ugha vfirq fu;e gSA lQy Áca/kd dks blfy;s vius nSfud dk;ksZa esa yphyk rFkk vuqdwy gksuk pkfg,A

4-5

lapkyu dkS”ky

(MANAGEMENT SKILLS)

Áca/kd }kjk lapkyu ds pkj ekSfyd xfrfof/k;k¡ & ;kstuk] O;oLFkkiu] funsZ'ku o fu;a=.k gksrh gSA vkidks ;g Hkh tkudkjh gksuh pkfg, fd ladViw.kZ {ks=ksa ls lacaf/kr dbZ vU; Áca/ku ;ksX;rk,¡ D;k gSa\

4-5-1 lkekU; lapkyu dkS”ky

(GENERAL MANAGEMENT SKILLS)

ÁHkkoiw.kZ Áca/kd dks fuEu pkj lkekU; ;ksX;rkvksa esa fuiq.k gksuk pkfg,% • /kkj.kk dh fuiq.krk (Conceptual skills) - ;g tfVy leL;kvksa dk fo'ys"k.k djus dh ;ksX;rk dks n'kkZrk gSA /kkj.kk dh fuiq.krk ls Áca/kd dks fopkjksa dks ,d txg ,d= (fit) djus rFkk lgh fu.kZ; ysus esa lgk;rk feyrh gSA • O;fDrxr dkS'ky (Interpersonal skill) feydj dke djus] le>us] tk¡pus rFkk nwljksa dks ¼O;fDrxr ;k lkewfgd :Ik esa ½ dke ds fy, Ásfjr djus dh ;ksX;rk gksrh gSA • lHkh Áca/kdksa dks fof'k"V rduhdh Kku dks Á;ksx esa ykus dh dq'kyrk gksuh pkfg,A • vUr esa Áca/kdkas esa jktuhfrd dq'kyrk Hkh gksuh pkfg, ftlls og Bhd <ax ls lEidZ LFkkfir dj ldsaA jktuhfr esa dq'ky Áca/kd vdq'ky jktuhfr Áca/kd ls vf/kd lalk/ku ÁkIr dj ldrs gSaA

4-5-2 fof” fof”k"V lapkyu dkS”ky

(SPECIFIC MANAGEMENT SKILLS)

vuqla/kku }kjk lapkyd ds fof'k"V O;ogkj ds 6 lSV dh igpku dh gS tks lapkyd ds ¼50 Áfr'kr ls vf/kd½ ÁHkko dks n'kkZrs gSaA • Áfr"Bku ds okrkoj.k rFkk lalk/kuksa ds fu;a=.k esa & Áca/kd }kjk fØ;k'khyrk rFkk lalk/kuksa ds vk/kkj ij laxBu ds y{;ksa dk lkQ rFkk lgh Kku gksuk pkfg,A • Áca/k rFkk lg;ksx & lapkyd dk;ksZa dks O;ofLFkr djrk gS rFkk tgk¡ Hkh dk;Z gks jgk gS muls ijLij lg;ksx djrk gSA • Lkwpukvksa dh ns[kjs[k (handling information) & Áca/kd lwpukvksa rFkk ijLij okrkZyki }kjk leL;kvksa dh igpku djrk gSA og cnyrs okrkoj.k dks le>rk gS rFkk ÁHkkoh fu.kZ; ysrk gSA • fodkl rFkk méfr & Áca/kd dsoy viuk gh fodkl rFkk méfr ugha djrk gS] vfirq vius deZpkfj;ksa dh méfr ij Hkh /;ku nsrk gSA • deZpkfj;ksa dks Ásfjr djuk rFkk fojks/k dks fu;af=r djuk & Áca/kd Ásj.kk ds /kukRed (positive) igyqvksa dks c<+kok nsrk gS ftlls deZpkjh yxu ls dk;Z djrs gSa rFkk ijLij la?k"kZ lekIr gksrk gSA • fo'ks"k leL;kvksa dks gy djuk & Áca/kd vius fu.kZ;ksa dk mŸkjnkf;Ro ysrk gS rFkk deZpkfj;ksa ds fu.kZ; djus dh dq'kyrk dks fuf'pr djrk gSA 5


4-6

lapkyu ;ksX;rk,¡

(MANAGEMENT COMPETENCIES)

vk/kqfud ;qx esa Lakpkyu ÁfØ;k dks ÁHkko'kkyh :Ik ls djus ds fy, vko';d dkS'ky dks ^^;ksX;rk** dgk tkrk gSA lapkyu dh ;ksX;rk] dq'ky Kku dk lewg rFkk O;ogkj ls lacaf/kr gSA ;w-ds- (U.K) esa] e/; Lrj ds Áca/kdksa dh ;ksX;rkvksa dk v/;;u fd;k x;kA bl v/;;u ds vuqlkj e/; Lrj ds lapkydkas ds fy;s vko';d gSA • • • • • • • • • •

lsok ;k mRiknu esa méfr ds voljksa dks igpkuus dh ;ksX;rk j[kukA dk;Z{ks= esa lalk/kuksa dh vkiwfrZ cuk, j[kukA ;kstuk dh xfrfof/k;ksa ds ewY; ij fu;a=.k j[kukA O;; ds ÁLrkoksa dk vkSfpR; fl) djukA Hkfo"; ds fy, deZpkfj;ksa dh vko';drk rFkk dq'ky] ;ksX; deZpkfj;ksa dk p;u fuf'pr djukA laxBu dh méfr ds fy, Lo;a dks rFkk deZpkfj;ksa dks rS;kj djukA lewg (team)] ÁR;sd O;fDr ;k Áca/kdksa esa dk;Z dh ftEesnkjh lkSaiuk] ;kstuk cukuk rFkk muds }kjk fd, x, dk;Z dk ewY;kadu djukA lgk;rk rFkk fo'okl }kjk ÁHkkodkjh dk;Z laca/k (working relationship) cukuk rFkk mudks vkSj lqn`<+ djukA fu.kZ; ysus ds fy, lwpuk ÁkIr djuk rFkk mudk ewY;kadu djukA leL;kvksa dks gy djus ds fy, lwpuk,¡ bdV~Bh djuk] lkewfgd fopkj foe'kZ rFkk lHkk,sa vk;ksftr djukA

4-6-1 O;kikj esa Áca/kd dk egŸo (IMPORTANCE OF MANAGERS IN THE BUSINESS)

• ,d vPNk Áca/kd laxBu dks lQyrk dh vksj ys tk ldrk gSA • v;ksX; Áca/kd blds foijhr dk;Z djrk gSA • mŸkjnkf;Ro rFkk tokcnsgh c<+us ls Áca/kd dk osru Hkh c<+rk gSA ,d vPNk Áca/kd fruds dks lksus esa cny ldrk gS] ijUrq v;ksX; Áca/kd blds foijhr dk;Z djrk gSA Áca/kd dks ÁFke Lrj ds deZpkfj;ksa ls cgqr vf/kd osru feyrk gSA vPNs Áca/kd dks laxBu mPp o ykHknk;d iSdst (package) nsus dks ijLij rS;kj jgrs gSaA

4-6-2 lapkyu ds egŸo dks le>uk (IMPORTANCE OF UNDERSTANDING MANAGEMENT)

• lapkyu laxBu esa ÁR;sd O;fDr dks ÁHkkfor djrk gSA • laxBu dk Bhd Ádkj ls lapkyu u gksus ls og lQy ugha gksxkA • ,d vPNk lapkyu vusd ?kVdksa dk feJ.k gksrk gSA 6


dukMk (Canada) rFkk mŸkjh vesfjdk (North America) ds O;kikfjd okrkoj.k esa ;ksX; lapkydksa dh vR;f/kd egŸkk gSA lkekU;r% Áca/kdks dks ukWu&Áca/kd (non-manager) ls vf/kd ykHk miyC/k gksrs gSaA

Lo;a tkap Á” Á”u

(SELF ASSESSMENT QUESTION)

3- ÁR;sd Áca/kd ds pkj ewyHkwr dk;Z D;k gSa\ 4- ,d ÁHkkoh Áca/kd esa D;k ;ksX;rk,¡ gksuh pkfg,\

4-7

dk;kZy; lapkyu

(OFFICE MANAGEMENT)

dk;kZy; deZpkfj;ksa esa fuEufyf[kr okD;ksa ls ge lc ifjfpr gSa & ^^eq>s ekywe gS fd ;g oLrq ;gha ij dgha gS**] ^^eSa [kkst dj rqEgsa crykÅaxk fd ;g dgk¡ gS\]** og oLrq dgk¡ gS\ vkfnA ;g ladsrkRed laHkzkafr (chaos) gS tks dk;kZy; esa QSy jgh gS vkSj 'kk;n ;g fo"kk.kqvksa dh Hkk¡fr laxBu esa QSy jgh gksxhA vO;oLFkkiu rFkk vLr&O;Lr okrkoj.k fp<+kus okyk gksrk gSA ;g O;kikj ds fy, cqjk gksrk gS tSlk fd ;g lw= O;Dr djrk gS ^^vO;oLFkkiu c<+rk gS rks ykHk ?kVrk gSA** blfy, laHkzkafr dks fuEufyf[kr dk;kZy; ds ewyHkwr fl)karksa ds Á;ksx }kjk fu;af=r djuk cgqr vko';d gSA • dk;kZy; lapkyu ds fu;e cuk,¡ rFkk ikyu djsa & ;fn vki O;ofLFkr jguk pkgrs gSa rFkk dk;kZy; dk dke lqpk: :Ik ls pykuk pkgrs gSa rks fu;fer dk;Z ds fy, fu;fer ÁfØ;k viukuk vko';d gSA isij dk;Z (papers work) rFkk dk;Zi)fr pykus ds fy, fu;e cukb,A mnkgj.kkFkZ& ÁR;sd nLrkost tks dk;kZy; esa ÁkIr gks] mls fuiVkus ds ckn Qkby (file) dj nsuk pkfg,A vO;ofLFkr <+ax ls est ij <sj ugha yxkuk pkfg,A dk;kZy; dk flLVe (system) tSls dEI;wVj vkfn ij Hkh fu;a=.k j[kuk pkfg,A tc dHkh flLVe ØS'k (crash) gks tk, ;k dEI;wVj dk dksbZ fgLlk (part) [kjkc gks tk, rks dk;kZy; dks ekywe gksuk pkfg, fd D;k djuk gS rFkk fdldks cqykuk gSA • mŸkjnkf;Ro Li"V :Ik ls fu/kkZfjr djuk & dk;kZy; dk lgh lapkyu O;fDr;ksa ds ;g tkuus ij fuHkZj djrk gS fd fdl dk;Z ds fy;s dkSu mŸkjnk;h gS D;ksafd dk;kZy; esa O;fDr gh dk;Z djus ds fy, mŸkjnk;h gksrs gaSA mnkgj.kkFkZ lksfp, ;fn vkids O;kikj dh [kjhnnkjh dksbZ Hkh O;fDr dHkh Hkh djs rks D;k gksxk\ • vius O;kikj dk fooj.k jf[k, & dk;kZy; lapkyu dk fooj.k j[kuk ,d vklku ÁfØ;k gSA vius fooj.k (accessible) dks viMsV (update) j[kuk pkfg, A • vius dk;kZy; dk fujh{k.k dhft, rFkk dqN nsj voyksdu dhft, & dk;kZy; esa LFkku lqO;ofLFkr gS ;k ugha\ tc vki dk;kZy; esa ?kwers gSa rks dksbZ :dkoV ;k fdlh ls Vdjkus dk [krjk rks ugha gSA D;k est+ ij cSBdj Bhd ls dk;Z djuk vkjkenk;d gS \ D;k dke esa vkus okyh lHkh oLrq,¡ odZ Vscy (work table) ds ut+nhd gSa \ vktdy dk;kZy; esa cgqr lh oLrq,¡ vk jgh gSaA ,d lqO;ofLFkr dk;kZy; ds fy;s ;g lqfuf'pr djsa fd dk;kZy; dh lHkh oLrq,¡ vR;f/kd dq'ky rFkk lqjf{kr :Ik ls O;ofLFkr gkasA • fefJr dk;ksZa dks lwphc) djuk & tks dke vki ugha djuk pkgrs mls utj vankt djuk cgqr vklku gS rFkk cgqr ls O;fDr fefJr dk;Z djuk ilan ugha djrsA nqHkkZX;o'k ;fn dk;kZy; esa fdpu (kitchen) dh Hkk¡fr fefJr dk;Z u fd;k tk, rks 7


og Hkyh Ádkj dk;Z ugha dj ldrk gSA ;fn vki ,d NksVs O;kikjh gSa rFkk QqVdj dk;ksZa ds fy, fdlh O;fDr dks ugha yxk ldrs rks vki Lo;a ml dk;Z ds fy, fu;fer :Ik ls lIrkg esa ,d fnu fu;r dhft,A ,d lqcg ;k ,d 'kke dks viuk fjdkMZ lgh djus ij yxkb,A • Áfrfuf/k cukuk rFkk ckgj ds dk;Z djuk & ifjiw.kZ lalkj esa ÁR;sd O;fDr ogh dk;Z Hkyh Ádkj ls dj ldsxk ftlds ikl bl dk;Z dks djus dk le; gksxkA

4-8

nŸk dk;Z

4-8-1 d{kk dk;Z

(ASSIGNMENTS) (CLASS ASSIGNMENTS)

i) lapkyu fdls dgrs gSa\ rFkk lapkyu dq'kyrk o ;ksX;rk ij lkewfgd okn&fookn dk

Áca/k dhft,A

4-8-2 x`g dk;Z

(HOME ASSIGNMENTS)

i) laxBu esa fHké&fHké Lrj D;k gSa rFkk Áca/kd bl lanHkZ esa fdl Ádkj ;ksxnku djrk

gS\

4-9

lkjka”k

(SUMMING UP)

bl ikB esa lapkyu ds ewyHkwr fl)karksa dk fooj.k fn;k x;k gSA laxBu dh ifjHkk"kk ds ckn lapkyd dh Hkwfedk] dq'kyrk rFkk ;ksX;rk dk foLr`r o.kZu fd;k x;k gSA laxBu ds fofHké Lrj rFkk Áca/kd fdl Ádkj bu Lrjksa ij viuk ;ksX;nku ÁkIr djrs gSa dks foLrkj ls le>k;k x;k gSA var esa dk;kZy; lapkyu Hkh la{ksi esa le>k;k x;k gSA

4-10 Lo;a tkap Á” Á”uksa ds laHkkfor mŸkj (POSSIBLE ANSWERS TO SELF ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS) 1. izR;sd laxBu dh ewyHkwr rhu fo”ks’krk,a bl izdkj gS %&

d½ mÌs';

[k½ O;fDr

x½ <+k¡pk

2. Áca/kdksa dk oxhZdj.k

d½ ÁFke Lrj Áca/kd [k½ e/; Lrj Áca/kd

x½ mPp inklhu Áca/kd

3. Áca/kd ds ewyHkwr dk;ksZa es

d½ ;kstuk cukuk [k½ usr`Ro djuk

x½ laxfBr djuk

?k½ fu;a=.k djuk

4. ,d izHkkoh Áca/kd es

d½ ladYiuk dk dkS'ky [k½ ijLij O;ogkj dh ;ksX;rk

x½ rduhdh ;ksX;rk

?k½ usVofdZax dh ;ksX;rk 8


4-11 vH;klkFkZ Á” Á”u

(TERMINAL QUESTIONS)

1. lapkydksa dks fu.kZ; ysus ds fy;s D;k vko';d gS \ 2. ,d laxBu esa e/; Lrj ds Áca/kdksa dh D;k Hkwfedk gksrh gS \

4-12 lanHkZ ,oa v/;;u ;ksX; iqLrdsa (REFERENCES AND SUGGESTED FURTHER READING) 1. Sachdeva, S. and Mourya, M.L., (2004), Management Concept and Practices, Y.K. Publishers, Agra. 2. Saksena S.C., (1999), Business Administration and Management, Sahitya Bhawan Publication, Agra.

4-13 'kCnkoyh

(GLOSSARY)

1. buiqV (Input)

fdlh ;kstuk vkfn esa yxk;k x;k lk/kuA

2. ;ksX;rk (Competency)

dk;Z djus esa l{kerkA

3. /kkj.kk (Concepts)

Lo:Ik ;k fl)kar

4. ÁHkkodkjh (Effectiveness)

ÁHkko ;k cnyko ykus dh {kerk gksukA

5. dk;Z dq'kyrk (Efficient)

ifj.kke ykus esa iw.kZr% l{keA

6. lkoZHkkSfedrk (Universality)

lc fLFkfr;ksa esa ,d lekuA

7. ÁFke iafDr (Front line)

lewg esa lcls vkxs iM+us okysA

8. bUVjilZuy (Interpersonal)

nks yksxksa esa vkilh laca/kA

9. viMsV (Update)

lwpuk dks vkt ds le; ds vuqlkj cukukA

10. odZ Vscqy (Work table)

dk;Z djus dk LFkyA

11. ;ksX;rk,¡ (Competency)

fdlh dk;Z dks djus esa l{keA

12. fe'ku (Mission)

fu/kkZfjr y{;A

13. ykHkjfgr (Non profit)

tgk¡ ykHk u gks jgk gksA

14. ykHkÁn (Profit)

ftl laxBu dks ykHk gks jgk gksA

15. psat ,tsaV (Change agent)

cnyko ds fy, ges'kk rS;kj jgukA 9


16. tujfyLV (Generalist)

lHkh Ă dkj ds lkekU; dk;Z djus okykA

17. iSdst (Package)

/ku] osru o vU; lqfo/kkvksa dk lewg iSdst dgykrk gSA

18. odZ Vscy (Work table)

dk;Z djus dk LFky ;k LFkkuA

10

102-L-4-h  

• lapkyu ds fl)kar rFkk dk;ksZa ls voxr gksaxs bl ikB dk v/;;u djus ij vki&amp; • laxBu ds fl)kar] fo'ks"krk,¡ rFkk Lrj tku ik,¡xs • Áca/kdk...