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2- ÁHkkoksRiknd okrkZyki esa vkus okys O;o/kkuksa dks nwj djuk (OVERCOMING BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION) fiNys ikB esa okrkZyki ds fl+)kar o ÁfØ;k ls ifjp; djus ds ckn] vc ge ÁHkkoksRiknd okrkZyki rFkk mudks ÁkIr djus dh laHkkfor rduhd ds fo"k; esa v/;;u djsaxsA ge laxBu esa fofHké Ádkj ds okrkZyki ds fo"k; esa Hkh bl ikB esa v/;;u djsaxsA

2-0

mÌs”;

(OBJECTIVES)

bl ikB dk v/;;u djus ij ge fuEu ewyHkwr Kku ÁkIr dj ik,¡xs& • ÁHkkoksRiknd okrkZyki ds fofHké O;o/kku • bu O;o/kkuksa dks nwj djus dh rduhd • fdlh laxBu esa fofHké Ádkj ds okrkZyki ds cgko dh O;kid tkudkjh

2-1

ifjp;

(INTRODUCTION)

geus fiNys ikB esa lh[kk fd Hkstus okys dh lwpuk ÁkIr djus okys }kjk mlh :Ik esa le>uk gh okrkZyki dgykrk gSA bl ikB esa ge okrkZyki ÁfØ;k esa vkus okyh dfBukbZ;ksa rFkk mudks dSls nwj fd;k tk ldrk gS ds fo"k; esa tkudkjh ÁkIr djsaxsA ge lh[ksaxs& • okrkZyki esa vkus okyh ck/kk,¡A • ÁHkkoksRiknd okrkZyki ÁfØ;k esa vkus okyh ck/kk,¡ nwj djus dh fof/k;k¡A • laxBu esa okrkZyki dk cgkoA • 'kkldh; rFkk v/kZ'kkldh; okrkZykiA

2-2

okrkZyki ds O;o/kku (BARRIERS OF COMMUNICATION)

ÁHkkoksRiknd okrkZyki esa cgqr lh ck/kk,¡ gSa tks fdlh Hkh Lrj ij vk ldrh gSA vkb, ge ÁHkkoksRiknd okrkZyki dh lkekU; ck/kkvksa ij fopkj djssaA ;fn ;g ck/kk,¡ nwj dj nh tk,a rks lans'k Li"V :i ls le>k tk ldsxkA ÁHkkoksRiknd okrkZyki dh eq[; fopkj.kh; ck/kk,¡ ftu ij ;gk¡ ppkZ gksxh] os gSa & • fQYVfjax (Filtering) 1


• euksoSKkfud ?kVd (Psychological factors) • fMQSaflouSl (Defensiveness) • Hkk"kk (Language) • ;kstuk dk vHkko (Lack of planning)

2-2-1 fQYVfjax

(FILTERING)

fQYVfjax ls vfHkÁk; gS fd lans'k Hkstus okyk lwpuk dks bl Ádkj eSU;wIysV (manipulate) djss fd ÁkIrdrkZ lans'k dks vf/kd i{kkRed (favorable) n`f”V ls le>sA fQYVªs'ku }kjk lans'kdrkZ vÁlUu (unpleasant) lwpuk ds Hkkx dks fdlh gn rd Nqik ysrk gSA foKkiu esa Ák;% ;g rduhd Á;ksx esa ykbZ tkrh gSA vkius ns[kk gksxk fd cgqr ls foKkiuksa esa yqHkkus okys okns fd, tkrs gSaA vÁlUu dkj.k dks Nqik fy;k tkrk gS ;k mudks cgqr ckjhdh ls Nkik tkrk gS ftlls dksbZ mldks iwjh rjg u le> ldsA

2-2-2 euksoSKkfud ?kVd

(PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS)

lans'k ÁkIrdÙkkZ okrkZyki ÁfØ;k esa lans'k dks vius euksfoKku ds <ax ls le>rk gS tSls mldh ilan] vuqHko] i`"BHkwfe rFkk nwljh O;fDrxr fo'ks"krk,¡ vkfn le> dks ÁHkkfor djrh gSA vr% bl ?kVd dks okrkZyki ds le; ges'kk /;ku esa j[kuk pkfg,A

2-2-3 fMQSaflouSl

(DEFENSIVENESS)

tc ÁkIrdÙkkZ lans'kdÙkkZ ds lans'k dks /kedh ds :Ik esa le>rk gS] rc Ák;% os ÁHkkoksRiknd okrkZyki dks jksdus dh ÁfrfØ;k gSA mnkgj.k ds fy;s laxBu ds uhps ds Lrj (lower level) ls mPp Lrj (upper level) esa tc okrkZyki gksrh gaS rks v/khuLFk deZpkjh] Mj ;k fgpfdpkgV ds dkj.k vius fopkj Lora= :i ls O;Dr ugha dj ldrs ;k QhM cSd (feed back) Bhd ugha nsrsA

2-2-4 Hkk"kk

(LANGUAGE)

okrkZyki ÁfØ;k ds fy;s Hkk"kk /;kuiwoZd pquuh pkfg, D;ksafd ,slk u djus ls lans'k esa felvUMjLVSafMax (misunderstanding) ;k fodkj (distortion) gks ldrk gSA gesa ;kn j[kuk pkfg, fd fofHké O;fDr ,d gh “kCn ds fHké&fHké vFkZ dj ldrs gSaA 'kCnksa ds vFkZ fHké&fHké lH;rk esa fHké gks ldrs gSaA okrkZyki ds le; bu lc rF;ksa dks /;ku esa j[kuk pkfg,A mnkgj.k ds fy,& ,d tutkrh; xzke esa O;fDr >hy ds ikuh dks ihus ds fy, Á;ksx djrs gSaA “kklu ;g vuqHko djrk gS fd dqN le; ckn ;g ikuh ihus ;ksX; ugha jgsxkA blfy, ljdkj ogk¡ ij ,d lwpuk iV~V (board) yxk nsrh gS “Unsafe water, Do not Consume” fQj Hkh tutkrh; yksx (tribal) ikuh ihrs jgrs gSaA ,slk blfy, gksrk gS D;ksafd lwpuk vaxzsth Hkk"kk esa fy[kh Fkh ftlls tu tkrh; yksx vufHkK Fks blfy, Hkk"kk dh vufHkKrk ds dkj.k lans'k ÁHkkoksRiknd (effective) ugh gqvkA 2


2-2-5 ;kstuk dk vHkko

(LACK OF PLANNING)

;kstuk dk vHkko det+ksj okrkZyki ;k okrkZyki vlQy gksus dk ,d egŸoiw.kZ dkj.k gSA okrkZyki ,d tfVy ÁfØ;k gSA ,d vPNs okrkZdkj ds fy;s vko';d gS fd og • vius fopkjksa dk lkQ&lkQ Áfriknu (deliver) djsA • lans'k ÁkIrdrkZ dh ;ksX;rkvksa (capabilities) dks le>sA • lans'k dks dSls xyr le>k tk ldrk gS bldk iwokZuqeku yxk dj Bhd ls ÁLrqr djsaA • le>us okyh laf{kIr rFkk =qfVghu Hkk"kk dk Á;ksx gksA bl lcds fy, vPNh ;kstuk rFkk okrkZyki dkS'ky (skill) pkfg, tks vuqHko (experience) ls gh ÁkIr gksrk gSA

Lo;a tkap Á”u (SELF ASSESSMENT QUESTION) 1- okrkZyki dh fofHké ck/kk,¡ D;k gSa\ okrkZyki fdl dkj.k viw.kZ ;k vi;kZIr gks ldrk gSA

2-3

O;o/kku nwj djuk

(OVERCOMING BARRIERS)

ÁHkkoksRiknd okrkZyki ds fy, gesa fuEufyf[kr mi;ksxh ckrsa /;ku esa j[kuh pkfg,& • okrkZyki ds fy, mi;qDr ;kstuk cukuh pkfg,A gesa ekywe gksuk pkfg, fd gesa D;k] fdls rFkk dSls lans'k nsuk gSA • lans'kdrkZ dks ÁkIrdrkZ ds okrkoj.k dk Li"V Kku gksuk pkfg, rFkk mlesa Li"V :Ik ls tkuus dh ;ksX;rk gksuh pkfg, fd mldk lans'k ÁkIrdrkZ }kjk dSls le>k tk,xkA • lans'k Li"V] laf{kIr rFkk =qfVghu gksuk pkfg, D;ksafd tfVy okD; O;fDr dks Hkzfer dj nsrs gSaA • vkokt+ dh 'kSyh] Hkk"kk dk pquko] okrkZyki dk <ax] volj (occasion) ds vuqdwy gksuk pkfg,A • psgjs dh eqæk] 'kkjhfjd Hkk"kk] Hkkouk vkfn lans'k ls esy [kkus okys gksus pkfg,A • ;g irk yxkuk fd geus Li"V lans'k dk vknku&Ánku fd;k ;k ughaA blds fy;s dHkh&dHkh lans'k dk egŸoiw.kZ Hkkx nksgjk;k tkrk gS ;k ÁkIrdrkZ ls iwNk tkrk gS fd mlus D;k lans'k ÁkIr fd;kA • fyf[kr okrkZyki esa lans'kdrkZ dks lqfuf'pr djuk pkfg, fd mi;qDr O;kdj.k] fpUgksa dk Á;ksx gksA lans'k dh Hkk"kk Hkh bl Ádkj fy[kh tk, fd ÁkIrdrkZ] lans'kdrkZ dks ,d gh Hkko ls le>sA mnkgj.kkFkZ Beer eats, shoots and leaves rFkk Bear eats 3


shoots and leaves ÁR;{k :Ik ls leku vFkZ ugha gSA bldk dkj.k fojkefpUg (punctuation) dh xyrh gSA

ÁHkkoksRiknd okrkZyki dh fofHké ck/kkvksa rFkk mudks dSls nwj djuk gS ij fopkj djus ds ckn vc ge laxBu esa okrkZyki dk cgko fdl Ádkj gksrk gS] bldks laf{kIr :Ik ls le>saxsA

2-4

laxBu esa okrkZyki dk cgko (COMMUNICATION FLOW IN AN ORGANIZATION)

laxBu esa okrkZyki dk cgko dbZ Ádkj ls vFkkZr~ lh/kk (vertical)] likV (horizontal)] rFkk fod.kZ (diagonal) gks ldrk gSA

2-4-1 ofVZdy dE;wfuds”ku

(VERTICAL COMMUNICATION)

lh/kk okrkZyki inkuqØe vklhu O;fDr;ksa ds e/; gksrk gS rFkk blesa okrkZyki dk lapj.k Åij ls uhps dh rjQ ;k uhps ls Åij dh rjQ gksrk gSA MkmuoMZ (downward) okrkZyki vFkkZr Åij ls uhps okyk lcls vf/kd lkekU; gksrk gSA

2-4-2 MkmuoMZ dE;wfuds”ku

(DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION )

fupys Lrj ij okrkZyki dk lapj.k mPp inksa ls fupys in dh vksj gksrk gSA okrkZyki ds bl <ax esa funsZ'k] Hkk"k.k] laxks"Bh VsfyQksu okrkZ] i= uhfr bR;kfn vkrs gSaA vkids lanHkZ esa MkmuoMZ dE;wfuds'ku (communication) esUVj (mentor) ;k v/;kid ls vkidh vksj gks jgk gSA

2-4-3 vioMZ dE;wfuds”ku

(UPWARD COMMUNICATION)

v/khuLFk ls ofj"B rFkk laxBu esa inkuqØe ds vuqlkj ;g okrkZyki gksrk gSA vioMZ okrkZyki (upward communication) Ák;% lgHkkxh ;k yksdrkaf=d laxBukRed okrkoj.k esa gksrk gSA mnkgj.k ds rkSj ij v/khuLFk deZpkfj;ksa ls ofj"B vf/kdkfj;ksa ds ckjs esa QhM cSd (feed back) fy;k tkrk gSA vkids Lrj esa ;g okrkZyki vkidh vksj ls esUVlZ ;k v/;kid dh vksj gksxkA ,d VsDlVkby fMt+kbuj (Textile designer) ds fy, vioMZ] MkmuoMZ okrkZyki nksuksa gksuk cgqr vko';d gSA ofj"B rFkk v/khuLFk deZpkfj;ksa ds lkFk muds laca/k vPNs gksus pkfg,A mUgsa fu;kZrd (exporter) ls ysdj vius dkjhxj (worker) ;k fuekZ.kdŸkkZ rd] laca/kksa dks /;kuiwoZd laHkkyuk gksrk gSA

2-4-4 ysVjy dE;wfuds”ku

(LATERAL COMMUNICATION)

ysVjy okrkZyki laxBu ds ,d gh Lrj ds O;fDr;ksa esa gksrk gSA blesa lc O;fDr ,d gh ;k fHké&fHké foHkkxksa ds gks ldrs gSaA mnkgj.k ds fy;s foŸk (finance), ekuo lalk/ku (human resource) rFkk ekdsZfVax (marketing) esa ,d Lrj ds O;fDr tc ijLij okrkZyki djrs gSaA vkids Lrj esa ;fn okrkZyki vkids rFkk vkWfQl eSustesaV vFkok VSDlVkby fMt+kbfuax ds Nk=ksa ds chp gks] rks og ysVjy okrkZyki dgyk,xkA 4


2-4-5 Mk;Xuy dE;wfuds”ku

(DIAGONAL COMMUNICATION)

bl Ádkj dk okrkZyki nks laxBuksa ds e/; ;k ,d gh laxBu ds fHké&fHké foHkkxksa ds O;fDr;ksa ds chp gksrk gSA bl okrkZyki esa nksuksa lewgksa esa ijLij lh/kh tckonsgh ugha gksrhA laxBu esa okrkZyki djus ds fHké&fHké rjhdksa dks tkuus ds fy, ;g mfpr gS fd vkidks laf{kIr :Ik esa 'kkldh; rFkk v/kZ'kkldh; okrkZyki ls ifjfpr djk;k tk,A

Lo;a tkap Á”u (SELF ASSESSMENT QUESTION) 2- ,d laxBu esa fHké&fHké Ádkj ds okrkZyki dk o.kZu djsaA

2-5

'kkldh; rFkk v/kZ&”kkldh; okrkZyki (OFFICIAL AND SEMI-OFFICIAL COMMUNICATION)

2-5-1 'kkldh; okrkZyki

(OFFICIAL COMMUNICATION)

fdlh Hkh laxBu tSls vkWfQl] laLFkku] O;kikfjd gkml ;k dkj[kkus esa okrkZyki ,d fu/kkZfjr fof/kiwoZd <ax ;k lsV QkWesZV (set format) ds vuqlkj gksrk gSA ;g vkSipkfjd] O;ofLFkr] fuf'pr fn'kk] funsZ'kksa rFkk fu;eksa esa gksrk gSA ;g okrkZyki fyf[kr ;k ekSf[kd gks ldrk gSA mnkgj.kkFkZ& i=] fjiksVZ] ljdqyj (circular)] lekpkj i= vkfn fyf[kr okrkZyki ds :Ik gSa tcfd VsfyQksu ckrphr] ehfVax vkfn ekSf[kd okrkZyki ds varZxr vkrss gSaA

2-5-2 v)Z&”kkldh; okrkZyki

(SEMI-OFFICIAL COMMUNICATION)

fdlh Hkh laxBu esa vkSipkfjd okrkZyki ds lkFk&lkFk Ák;% vukSipkkfjd rFkk v)Z&vkSipkfjd ckrphr Hkh gksrh gSA blesa deZpkfj;ksa ds vusd O;fDrxr dk;Z lkfFk;ksa ;k vius v/;{k ;k mPp inkf/kdkfj;ksa ds ckjs esa ckrphr Hkh lfEefyr gksrh gSA ;g vukSipkfjd ;k v)Z&vkSipkfjd okrkZyki dk :Ik gSaA

2-6

nŸk dk;Z

2-6-1 d{kk dk;Z

(ASSIGNMENTS) (CLASS ASSIGNMENTS)

i) lkewfgd okn&fookn ds ek/;e ls ikfjokfjd okrkoj.k esa ÁHkkoksRiknd okrkZyki dh

Áeq[k ck/kkvksa dh igpku dhft,A ii) budks nwj djus ds fy, vkids D;k lq>ko gSa\ ifjokj ds fofHké lnL;ksa dss chp

okrkZyki lq/kkj djus ds fy, lq>koksa ds dqN fcUnq cukb,A

2-6-2 x`g dk;Z

(HOME ASSIGNMENTS)

i) ÁFke lsesLVj ds dkslZ ds ckjs esa vius fopkjksa dks Li"V djrs gq, ,d ÁLrqrhdj.k (presentation) nhft, o vius esUVj (mentor) ds le{k ÁLrqr djsaA tks dqN geus

tkuk blds ckjs esa 20 iafDr;ksa esa vius fopkj fyf[k, tks vkidh n`f"V dks ÁHkko'kkyh rFkk fof'k"V :Ik ls ÁdV djrs gksaA 5


2-7

lkjka”k

(SUMMING UP)

vkb, geus tks dqN vkt d{kk esa lh[kk mldk laf{kIr o.kZu djsa • okrkZyki dh ck/kk,¡A • okrkZyki dh ck/kkvksa dks dSls nwj fd;k tk,A • laxBu esa okrkZyki ds dbZ Ádkj tSls lapj.k ;k ¶yks (flow) gSA o lh/kk o lekUrj o Mk;Xuy o “kkldh; rFkk v)Z'kkldh; okrkZyki

2-8

Lo;a tkap Á” Á”uksa ds laHkkfor mŸkj (POSSIBLE ANSWERS TO SELF ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS) 1. ÁHkkoksRiknd okrkZyki dh eq[; ck/kk,¡& a. b. c. d. e.

fQYVfjax euksoSKkfud ?kVd fMQSaflouSl Hkk"kk ;kstuk dh deh

2. laxBu esa okrkZyki dk lapj.k ¶yks (flow) gks ldrk gSA a. b. c. d. e.

2-9

lh/kk okrkZyki uhps dh vksj Åij dh vksj ySVªy okrkZyki Mk;Xuy okrkZyki

vH;klkFkZ Á” Á”u

(TERMINAL QUESTION)

1. foKkiu nsus okyh dEifu;ksa }kjk ÁHkkoksRiknd okrkZyki dh fdl ck/kk dk tkucw> dj

Á;ksx fd;k tkrk gS] ,d mnkgj.k nsaA 2. ÁHkkoksRiknd okrkZyki ds egŸoiw.kZ ?kVd dkSu&dkSu ls gSa\

2-10 lanHkZ ,oa v/;;u ;ksX; iqLrdsa (REFERENCE AND SUGGESTED FURTHER READING) 1. D” Souza, Y.H., (1999) Communication Today & Tomorrow, Discovery Publishing House, New Delhi. 2. Narula, U. 2006 Communications Models Atlantic Publishers & Distributers (P) Ltd. New Delhi.

6


2-11 'kCnkoyh

(GLOSSARY)

1. cSfj;jl (Barriers)

O;o/kku@ck/kk,¡ ;k :dkoVsa

2. MkmuoMZ (Downward)

Åij ls uhps dh rjQ

3. vioMZ (Upward)

uhps ls Åij dh rjQ

4. fQfYVfjax (Filtering) ½

i`Fkd djuk lkekU;r% lq/kkj ds fy,

5. eSU;qIysV (Manipulate)

vius vuqlkj ifjorZu djukA

7

102-L-2-h  

• bu O;o/kkuksa dks nwj djus dh rduhd • 'kkldh; rFkk v/kZ'kkldh; okrkZykiA • laxBu esa okrkZyki dk cgkoA • fQYVfjax (Filtering) • ÁHkkoksRik...