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5- fQykesaV dk fuekZ.k rFkk mudh VsDl~pfj~ax (MANUFACTURE OF FILAMENT YARNS AND THEIR TEXTURING) igys ikB esa LVsiy /kkxksa dks cukuk rFkk ,saBu dk muds xq.kksa ij izHkko dk o.kZu fd;k x;k FkkA bl ikB eas fQykeaSV /kkxksa dk cukuk rFkk mlds xBu ij fopkj foe”kZ gksxkA vafre ikB esa QSalh /kkxksa ds cukus dk o.kZu fd;k tk;sxkA

5-0 mÌs”; bl ikB dk v/;;u djus ij vki fuEufyf[kr dks tkuus esa l{ke gksaxs %& •

fQykeSaV /kkxs D;k gSa ,oa mudh tkudkjhA

fHkUu fHkUu izdkj ds /kkxksa dh igpku djukA

fQykeSaV /kkxs cukus dh izfØ;k dh tkudkjh izkIr djukA

fQykeSaV /kkxksa ds xq.kksa dks tkuus esa ,saBu dh Hkwfedk dk KkuA

5-1 çLrkouk tSlk fd igys ikB esa crk;k x;k gS fd /kkxs NksVs LVsiy js”kksa ;k lYr fQykeSaVl ls cuk;k tkrk gSA NksVs LVsiy /kkxksa dks Liu ;kuZ Hkh dgk tkrk gSA rFkk ;s ;k rks lwr }kjk tc js”ks cgqr NksVs gksa ;k Åu }kjk ;k Åu ,oa lwr nksuksa ls] esa tc LVsiy gksa tks cgqr ls fQykeSaVl ls cus gksrs gSa] izkIr fd;s tkrs gSaA izd`fr esa ,d gh lrr fQykeSaVl izkIr gksrs gaS vkSj og gS js”ke ftldh yEckbZ ,d fdyksehVj ds vklikl gks ldrh gSA ekuo }kjk fufeZr lHkh js”ks lrr fQykeSaV gksrs gSa tc budks :bZ ;k Åu esa fefJr fd;k tkrk gS rks okafPNr NksVs&NksVs VqdM+s esa dkV fy;k tkrk gS rFkk fefJr /kkxs] js”kksa }kjk cuk;s tkrs gSaA bl izdkj dh lcls izfl) feJ.k iksyh,sLVj LVsiy js”kksa ds lkFk :bZ dk gksrk gSA tks izk;% 65@35 ;k 50@50 vuqikr esa fefJr fd;k tkrk gSA bl izdkj bl izfØ;k dks lhfyax dgk tkrk gSA Vlj js”ke ekuo fufeZr lrr fQykeSaV esa etcwr fØEil] dksVZl] ySIl ;k nwljh =aqfV;ka Mkydj mUgsa :ikUrfjr fd;k tk ldrk gSA budks VsD”p~MZ /kkxksa ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA ;gk¡ LVsaMMZ fQykeSaV /kkxksa ,oa VsD”p~MZ /kkxksa nksuksa dk v/;;u djsaxsA

5-2 /kkxksa ds izdkj & /kkxksa dk izkFkfed oxhZdj.k fQykeSaV ;k LVsiy /kkxs gSaA ;s js”kksa dh yEckbZ ij vk/kkfjr gS tSls dh igys fopkj fd;k x;k gSA a. fQykes fQykeaVs /kkxs& ;s yEcs lrr fQykeSaV ls cuk;s tkrs gSaA eksuksfQykeSV /kkxs ,d gh fQykeSaV ls cuk;s tkrs gSaA os de ,saBu ;k vf/kd ,saBu okys gks ldrs gSaA b-- LVsiy /kkxs & LVsiy ;k Liu /kkxs LVsiy js”kksa ls cuk;s tkrs gSaA NksVs gksus ds dkj.k mudks ,saBu }kjk ,d= j[k djds ,d yEck rFkk lrr js”kk cuk;k tkrk gsA tSlkfd igys ikB esa fl[kk;k x;k gSA 1


/kkxs dks iqu% muds xBu ds vk/kkj ij lk/kkj.k /kkxs rFkk tfVy /kkxksa esa oxhZd`r fd;k x;k gSA ckn okys /kkxksa dks ukosYVh /kkxs Hkh dgk tkrk gSA lk/kkj.k /kkxksa dk vkdkj ,d leku rFkk lrg le gksrh gSA os vkdkj esa le rFkk izfr ;wfuV yEckbZ es iwjh y0 esa ld leku gksrs gSaA QSalh /kkxksa dk xBu vfu;fer gksrk gSA lk/kkj.kr% /kkxksa dk oxhZdj.k /kkxksa dh fxurh ds vk/kkj ij gksrk gSA tSls flaxy IykbZ ;k dksMZ /kkxsA c-- flaxy /kkxk& /kkxk ;g fQykeSaV dks lk/kkj.k laxzg ;k LVsiy js”kksa ls cuk;k tkrk gSA ;g cquus ds fy, mi;qDr gksrk gSA d. IykbZ /kkxs &tc nks ;k nks ls vf/kd /kkxksa dks ijLij ,saBk tkrk gS] mudks IykbZ /kkxs dgrs gSaA mudks 2 IykbZ] 3 IykbZ] 4 IykbZ] vkfn ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA IykbZ /kkxs ,d e”khu }kjk cuk;s tkrs gSa ftls Dabbling Machine ;k Doubler dgrs gSaA flykbZ ds lHkh /kkxs] IykbZ /kkxks ls curs gSaA flaxy /kkxksa dks ,saBu esa dj vf/kd etcwr rFkk le /kkxk cuk;k tk ldrk gSA e. Cord /kkxs & tc nks ;k vf/kd IykbZ okys /kkxksa dks ,d lkFk ,asBu nh tkrh gS rks ifj.kke dksMZ ;kuZ gksrk gSA ;s /kkxs dM+s] etcwr rFkk “kfDr”kkyh gksrs gSaA dksMZ ;kuZ jcM+ Vk;jksa dks etcwr cukus rFkk jLlh cukus ds dke es iz;qDr gksrk gSA

fp= 5-1 dksMZ ;kuZ /kkxksa dh mijksDr izdkjksa ds vrfjDr cgqr ls /kkxs gSa tSls VsD”pMZ /kkxsA bl ikB esa ckn esa v?;;u fd;k tk;sxkA

Lo;a Lo;a tk¡p iz”u 1- vki js”ks dh yEckbZ ds vk/kkj ij /kkxksa dk oxhZdj.k dSls djsaxs\ 2- IykbZ ;kuZ dSls cuk;s tkrs gSa\

5.3 fQykesUV js”kksa ls /kkxs dk fuekZ.k

(Manufacture of filament

yarns) 5.3.1

js”ke lw=

(Silk yarn)

tSlk fd igys dgk x;k gS] ÁÑfr }kjk mRikfnr ,d ek= vfofPNé fQykesUV rUrq js”ke gSA js”ke dss dhM+s (Silkworm) dqdwu (Cocoon) dk mRiknu djrs gSaA js”ke ds fQykesaV rarq dks ^fQ+ypj* (Filature) uked ,d fuekZ.k ;a= esa dqdwu (Cocoons) dks [kksydj ÁkIr 2


fd;k tkrk gSA xksan (Sericin) dks eqyk;e djus ds fy, <s+j lkjs dqdwu dks xeZ ty esa j[kk tkrk gS rFkk fQykesaV rarq ds fdukjksa (Ends) dks ÁkIr djus ds fy, lrg dks gYds ls cz”k (Brush) fd;k tkrk gSA bu fdukjksa dks bdV~Bk djds ,d ^xkbM^ (Guide) ds ek/;e ls lw= :Ik esa ykdj ,d jhy (Reel) uked pØ (Wheel) ij yisVk tkrk gSA bl Ádkj bl ÁfØ;k dks jhfyax (Reeling) dgk tkrk gSA ,d Valj js”ke jhfyax ;a= fp= 4-9 esa Ánf”kZr gSA

fp= 55-2 js'ke jhfyax

vxyh çfØ;k FkzksbZax (Throwing) gSA tc fQykesaV rarq dks ,d lkFk djds jhy ij [khapk tkrk gS] mlh le; fQykesaV rarqvksa dks vkil esa c¡k/k dj j[kus ds fy, ,saBu dh fØ;k Hkh dh tk ldrh gSA FkzksbZax fØ;k ds ifj.kkeLo:Ik ÁkIr /kkxs dks Fkzksu /kkxk (Thrown Yarn) dgrs gSaA VwVs dqdwu ls ÁkIr js”ke ds NksVs VqdM+ksa ;k dqdwu (Cocoon) ds ckgjh ,oa Hkhrjh fdukjksa ds js”ke ds js”ks dh drkbZ mlh fof/k ls dh tkrh gS tSlh dikl dh drkbZ gksrh gSA

5.3.2

ekuo&fufeZr fQykesUV /kkxs

(Man-made filament yarns)

ekuo &fufeZr fQykesaV rarqvksa ds mRiknu ij bl ikB~;Øe ds ikB 1 esa igys fopkj fd;k x;k FkkA tSlk fd ogk¡ o.kZu fd;k x;k Fkk] ,sls fQykesaV dk mRiknu æohHkwr drkbZ (Melt Spinning) }kjk vFkok foy;u drkbZ (Solvent Spinning) }kjk gksrk gSA mnkgj.kkFkZ ikWfy,LVj ,oa uk;ykWu fQykesaV æohHkwr drkbZ }kjk fufeZr gksrs gSaA tcfd foLdkst+ js;kWu rFkk ,fØfyd fQykesaV rarqvksa dk mRiknu foy;u drkbZ }kjk gksrk gSA mnkgj.k ds fy,] tSlk fd fp= 1-4 esa fn[kk;k x;k gS] fLiujsV (Spinneret) ls ,d cM+h la[;k esa æohHkwr drs gq, fQykesaV (Melt-Spun Filaments) fudyrs gSa vkSj os vusd iSdst (Packages) ij yisVs tkrs gSaA æohHkwr drkbZ dh xfr cnyrh jgrh gS tSls 600 ehVj Áfr feuV ls 8000 ehVj Áfr feuVA vis{kkd`r de xfr ij dkrs fQykesaV rarqvksa dk vk.kfod vuqLFkkiu (Molecular 3


Orientation) de gksrk gS vkSj blfy, muesa mfpr ç;ksx ds fy, vko”;d xq.k ugha gksrs gSaA vr% mUgsa ,d MªkbZax e”khu (Drawing Machine) ij mudh ewy yEckbZ dh vis{kk tSls 3 ls 8

xquk rd [khapk tkrk gSA ,slh gh ,d e”khu fp= 4-10 esa Ánf”kZr gSA vf/kd xfr ij fQykesaV rarqvksa dks MªkbZax djus ls vis{kkd`r de [khapus dh vko”;drk iM+rh gSA

fp= 55-3 MªkbZax e'khu e'khu

MªkbZax e”khu ls lnSo ,saBu nsus okyk ;a= tqM+k ugha gks ldrk gSA lkekU;r% fQykesaV rarqvksa dk mRiknu de ,saBu ds lkFk fd;k tkrk gS vkSj vkxs py dj bu ij ,d vyx çfØ;k vkSj vf/kd ,saBu Hkh fn;k tkrk gSA fQykesaV rarqvksa dh drkbZ Liu dh vis{kk cgqr vf/kd lko/kkuh ,oa ns[kHkky ek¡xrh gS D;ksafd bu js”kksa esa ,saBu dk Lrj cgqr de gksrk gS ,oa ;g js”ks fpdus vkSj dksey ÁÑfr ds gksrs gSaA Á;ksx esa vkus okys lokZf/kd lkekU; ikWfy,LVj fQykesaV rarqvksa ds :Ik fuEu gSaA 1- 76@24@0 vFkkZr~ 76 Msfu;j] 24 fQykesaV] 0 ,saBuA 2- 80@34@0 vFkkZr~ 80 Msfu;j] 34 fQykesaV] 0 ,saBuA fQykesaV rarq esa ,saBu dh ek=k esa cgqr ifjorZu ns[ks tkrs gSaA Á;ksx ds Ádkj dks /;ku esa j[krs gq;s ,saBu dh ek=k fu/kkZfjr dh tkrh gSA Áfr bdkbZ yEckbZ esa ,saBu dh la[;k ds vk/kkj ij /kkxksa dks rhu oxksZa esa foHkkftr fd;k tk ldrk gSA 1- de ,saBu okys /kkxs % 230 ,saBu rd Áfr ehVj 2- e/;e ,saBu okys /kkxs % 230 ls 900 ,saBu Áfr ehVj 3- vf/kd ,saBu okys /kkxs % 900 ,saBu ls vf/kd ,saBu Áfr ehVj dqN Áeq[k Á;ksx okys ,saBu ;qDr ekuo&fufeZr /kkxksa dk ckus ds :Ik esa Á;ksx gsrq ,saBu 150 ,saBu Áfr ehVj ,oa rkus ds :Ik esa Á;ksx gsrq 150 ls 230 ,saBu Áfr ehVj fn;k tkrk gSA mudk Á;ksx 600 ls 800 ,saBu@ehVj ds lkFk eyey dk fuekZ.k fd;k tkrk gS ftldk Á;ksx gYds ifj/kkuksa esa gksrk gSA blh Ádkj 1500 ls 2300 ,saBu Áfr ehVj ds /kkxksa ds lkFk Øsi (crepe) oL= dks fufeZr fd;k tkrk gSA

4


5-4

fQykesUV o LVsiy js”ks

(Filaments Vs. Staple Fiber)

;g /;ku nsus ;ksX; gS fd ukbykWu dk mi;ksx vf/kdka”kr% fQykesaV rarqvksa ds :Ik esa gksrk gS rFkk ,sfØfyd dk mi;ksx vf/kdrj LVsiy ds :i esa gksrk gSA ikWfy,lVj dh ek¡x fQykesaV ,oa fQykesaV LVsiy nksuksa :Ik esa gS ftlesa ls fQykesaV rarq dk mRiknu LVsiy (Staple Yarn) dh vis{kk vf/kd gSA ekuo&fufeZr js”kksa dk Á;ksx dkQh lhek rd dikl ,oa Åu tSls ÁkÑfrd js”kksa ds lkFk feJ.k ds fy, gksrk gSA tSlk fd igys crk;k tk pqdk gS] dikl ikWfy,LVj lafeJ.k dk mi;sskx cM+s iSekus ij ifj/kku ds fuekZ.k gsrq gksrk gS blfy, ikWfy,LVj fQykesaV rarqvksa dks Hkkjh ek=k esa ^LVsiy^ ds :Ik esa dkVk tkrk gSA blh Ádkj ,sfØfyd rarq d`f=e Åu ds :Ik esa tkuk tkus yxk gS vkSj blhfy;s mRikfnr ,sfØfyd fQykesaV rarqvksa dks Hkh vf/kdka”kr% LVsiy ds :Ik esa dkVk tkrk gSA tgk¡ rd ukbykWu fQykesaV dk Á”u gS] mudk mi;ksx foLr`r :Ik ls eq[;r% vkS|ksfxd {ks= (Sector) esa rFkk gYds Hkkj okyk gksus ds dkj.k ifj/kku (Apparel) esa gksrk gSA ,d yEcs le; ls dsoy ukbykWu ds rarqvksa ls gh ifj/kku (Garments) cuk;s tk jgs gSaA 7 ls 15 Msfu;j okys fQykesUV (Monofilaments) }kjk fufeZr iwoZfu;r (Preset) oL=ksa dk Á;ksx efgykvksa ds LVkWfdaXl (Stockings) ds :i esa gksrk gS tks ukbykWu fQykesaV dh mPp ÁR;kLFkrk (Elasticity) ds dkj.k vfrmŸke vkdkj /kkj.k (Shape Retention) djus ds xq.k dk Án”kZu djrs gSaA Rkduhdh ,oa vkS|ksfxd {ks= esa ukbykWu oL=ksa dk mi;ksx duos;j csYV (Conveyer belt) rFkk ;k=k leku gsrq gYds Hkkj okys dSuokl] iSjk”kwV] jLlh ,oa tgkt dh jLlh bR;kfn ds fy;s cgqr fd;k tkrk gSA Vk;j dksMZ] VwFk cz”k (Tooth Brush) ,oa ft+ilZ (Zippers) ds fuekZ.k esa Hkh ukbykWu dk mi;ksx Hkkjh ek=k esa fd;k tkrk gSA

Lo;a tkap Á” Á”u

(Self check Questions)

1- ikWfy,LVj fQykesaV rarq ds nks lkekU;r% Ápfyr :Ik dkSu&dkSu ls gSa\ 2- ,saBu dh bdkbZ ds vk/kkj ij ,saBu ;qDr /kkxksa dk oxhZdj.k djsa\

5-5 fQykesaV /kkxksa esa ,asBu nsuk fQykesaV /kkxksa esa ,saBu dh ek=k foLr`r J`a[kyk gS rFkk mi;ksx ds izdkj dks n`f"V esa j[kdj nh tkrh gSA izfr bdkbZ y0 ds vk/kkj ij ,saBu nh tkrh gSA ,saBu ;qDr /kkxksa dks rhu oxksZ esa ckaVk x;k gSA 1- yks fV~oLV ;kuZ 230 ,asBu izfrehVj rd 2- e/;e ,saBu ;qDr /kkxs% 230 ls 900 ,saBu izfr eh0 rd 3- mPp ,saBu ;qDr /kkxs% 900 ,saBu izfr eh0 ls vf/kd fHkUu fHkUUk izdkj rFkk xBu ds ,asBu ;qDr /kkxksa dk mi;ksx cgqr c<+ x;k gSA rFkk blls cqukbZ rFkk fufVax oL=ksa dh Js.kh esa lq/kkj gqvk gSA ekuo fufeZr js”kksa dk eq[; mi;ksx ckus ds fy, 150 ,saBu izfrehVj rFkk rkus esa 150 ls 230 ,saBu izfr eh0 okys js”kksa dk gksrk gSA eyey cukus ds fy, 600 ls 800 ,saBu izfr eh0 gYds ifj/kku oL=ksa ds fy, rFkk Øsi 5


1500 ls 2300 izfr eh0 ,saBu ;qDr /kkxs dk iz;ksx gksrk gSA VsDlpMZ~ /kkxs ds fHkUu fHkUu izdkjksa ds cgqr ls mi;ksx gSA ftudk ckn esa Hkkx 5-7 esa o.kZu fd;k tk;sxkA tSlk fd vki tkurs gSa fd ekuo fufeZr js”kksa ls cus ,saBu ;qDr /kkxs esa izkd`frd js”kksa ls cus /kkxksa ls cgqr vf/kd vUrj gSA iwjh Js.kh ds ,saBu ;qDr /kkxs cukus ds cgqr ls vyx vyx izdkj ds Twisting Frames miyC/k gSA

5-6 d`f=e /kkxs dh dh lhek;sa lkekU;r% d`f=e js”kksa ls cuk /kkxk] fpduk ,oa pedhyk gksrk gS rFkk LVsiy js”kksa ls cuk /kkxk eksVk gksrk gS] pednkj ugha gksrkA fQj Hkh fQykeSaV /kkxksa dh dqN lhekc)rk gSA os d`f=e fn[kkbZ nsrs gS] eksVs ugha gksrs rFkk ikuh vo”kks’k.k dh de {kerk rFkk ikjxE; u gksus ds dkj.k iguus eas vkjkenk;d ugha gksrsA lrr fQykeSaV /kkxs dh l?kurk mudks fo”ks’k vknzZ tyok;q esa d"Vnk;d cuk nsrh gSA bl leL;k dks nwj djus dh nks fof/k;ka gSa js”kksa dks NksVh NksVh y0 esa dkV dj tSls LVsiy js”kksa esa fd;k tkrk gS] rFkk rd dkr dj /kkxs cuk;s tk ldrs gSaA nwljh fof/k ;g gS fd lrr fQykeSaV /kkxs dks VsDL”p~fjax ls lEcfU/kr fd;k tk;sA Liu /kkxs dh Hkkafr VSDL”p~MZ /kkxs Hkh diM+s dks okafPNr lq:fplEiUu] vkjkenk;d fVdkÅiu rFkk Li”kZ nsrk gSA vc bl izfØ;k dk o.kZu fd;k tk;sxkA

Lo;a tk¡p iz”u 3- izfr ;wfuV y0 ds vk/kkj ij ,saBu ;qDr /kkxs dk oxhZdj.k djksA 4- d`f=e js”ks okys /kkxs dh =qfV;ka crkvks\ 5- d`f=e fQykeSaV /kkxksa dh lhekc)rk dks dSls nwj fd;k tkrk gSA

5-7 fQykes fQykesaV /kkxs dks VsDLpMZ LpMZ djuk& ;fn ge iksfy,LVj eYVhfQykeSaV /kkxk ysa ysa 76/24/0 rFkk mlesa 3000 ,saBu izfrehVj nsa rFkk mlds ckn mls Lora= NksM+ ns arks ,saBu yqIr gks tk;saxhA ;fn ,saBu;qDr /kkxksa dks blh fLFkfr esa rki ls lsV izfØ;k djk;h tk;s rks ,saBu fLFkj jgsxhA /kkxs dh izfØ;k djus ds Ik”pkr~ mldh =qfV;ka fn[kkbZ nsxh rFkk /kkxs dks [kqyh lajpuk iznku djsaxhA ;g VªLV LVªsDp~MZ FkeksZiykfLVd eYVhfQykeSaV /kkxs dh VsDl”p~fjax dh fof/k gSA ;g VsD”p~fjax dh ,d /khek izfØ;k gSA vktdy VsDl”p~fjax dh fof/k m|ksaxksa esa izpfyr gSA mlesa VsDLp~fjax 1000 eh0 feuV dh xfr ls dh tkrh gSA bl fof/k dk fu;e fp= 5-4 ds ek/;e ls le>k;k x;k gSA

6


a

b

fp= 55--4 VsDLpfjax dk fl)kUr fQykesaV (b) xfr”khy /kkxk

(a) fLFkj

fp= 5-4 v esa fLFkj fQykeSaV gS ftlds nksuksa fljs ,d fLiaMy ds e/; esa ca/ks gq, gSaA tSls gh fLiMay dks fn[kkbZ xbZ fn”kk esa ?kqek;k tkrk gS] rks uhps ds Hkkx esa s twist rFkk Åij ds Hkkx esa z twist mRiUUk gks tkrk gSA fp= 5-4 c esa fn[kk;k x;k Ldsp n”kkZbZ xbZ fn”kk eas] ?kwers gq, xfr”khy /kkxs dk gSA ;fn vc VjhX;s dk iz;ksx fd;k tk;s rks uhps ds Hkkx esa ,saBu vk;sxk rFkk Åij ds Hkkx esa /kkxs dh ,saBu [kqy tk;sxhA D;ksafd /kkxk Åij dh vksj pyrk gSA tSlk fd fp= esa fn[kk;k x;k gSA dkj.k ;g gS fd leku rFkk foijhr ,sBu mij ds Hkkx esa iSnk gksrh gSA rFkk VsDLpfjax /kkxs ds y{k.k mRiUu gks tkrs gSaA

fp= 55-5 VsDLpfjax e” e”khu

fp= 5-5 ds ijh{k.k ;s ;g Li"V gks tkrk gS fd VsDLpfjax e”khu esa ?kqekus okyh fLiaMy yxh gSA ;g d`f=e ,saBu VsDLp~fjax e”khu gS tks mPp xfr ij VsDLp~MZ /kkxk cukrh gSA cuk;s x;s vyx vyx fMxzh dk <hykiu fofHkUu rki dh izfØ;k dk ifj.kke gSA 7


;g /;ku esa j[kus ;ksX; gS fd eYVhfQykesaV /kkxs dh rqyuk esa VsDLp~j /kkxksa esa ok;q rFkk ikuh dh ikjxE;rk cgqr vf/kd gksrh gSA eYVhfQykeSaV iksyh,sLVj rFkk ukbyksu ds VsDLp~MZ fd;s /kkxs vkjke rFkk Qhy dh VeZ esa Liu /kkxs LihV~l fo;j cukus rFkk iksyh,sLVj VsDLp~MZ /kkxs Mªsl lkexzh ds fy, cgqr mRre ekus tkrs gSaA

fp= 55-6 VsDLpMZ /kkxs

5-8 nRr dk;Z 5-8-1 d{kk dk;Z 1- eYVhfQykeSaV /kkxs ds D;k dfe;ka gSA mUgsa fdl izdkj ds ifj/kku ds fy, iz;ksx esa yk;k tkrk gS rFkk mudks dSls nwj fd;k tkrk gS\

5-8-2 x`g dk;Z 1- eYVhfQykeSaV /kkxs ds mRiknu ij ,d fuca/k fy[kksA

5-9 lkjka”k fQykeSaVl ls cuk;s x;s /kkxs diM+k cukus ds fy, egRoiw.kZ VsDlVkby lkexzh gSA bl ikB esa js”ke rFkk ekuofufeZr js”kksa ls fQykeSaV /kkxs cukus dk v/;;u fd;k x;k A ifj/kku cukus ds fy, fQykeSaV /kkxksa dh lhekc)rk rFkk mudks nwj djus dh nks fof/k;ksa dk o.kZu fd;k x;kA igyh fof/k mudks LVsiy js”kksa esa dkVuk rFkk muls /kkxs cukuk ;k muds feJ.k }kjk rFkk nwljh fof/k ds vuqlkj ¶ySV /kkxs ls VsDLp~MZ /kkxs] d`f=e fV~oLV VsDLpfjax i)fr }kjk cuk dj bu lHkh dk bl ikB esa v/;;u fd;k x;kA

5-10 Lo;a tk¡p iz”uksa ds laHkkfor mRrj 1- y0 ds vk/kkj ij /kkxksa dk oxhZdj.k gS & lrr yEcs fQykeSaV ls cus fQykeSaV ls cus /kkxs rFkk LVsiy /kkxsA 2- IykbZ okys /kkxs lk/kkj.k /kkxksa dks ,d e”khu }kjk bdV~Bs djds cuk;s tkrs gSa ftls Mcfyax e”khu ;k Mcyj dgrs gSaA 3- iksfyLVj fQykesaV /kkxksa dh nks lkekU; :Ik gSA 1- 76@24@0 76 Msfu;j] 24 fQykeSaV] 0 ,saBu 2- 80@34@0 80 Msfu;j] 34 fQykeSaV] 0 ,saBu 8


4- izfr bdkbZ y0 esa ,sBuksa ds vk/kkj ij ,sBu ;qDr /kkxks dk fuEufyf[kr rhu Jsf.k;ksa es ckaVk tkrk gS 1- de ,asBu ;qDr /kkxs% 230 ,saBu izfr ehVj rdA 2- e/;e ,asBu ;qDr /kkxs 230 ls 900 ,saBu izfr ehVj 3- mPp ,asBu;qDr ;k dBksj /kkxs 90 izfr ehVj ls mij 5- d`f=e js”kksa okys /kkxs fn[kus esa d`f=e eksVsiu dh deh rFkk ikuh dh de ikjxE;rk ds dkj.k diM+s iguus esa vkjkenk;d ugha gksrsA 6- d`f=e js”kksa okys /kkxksa dh lhekc)rk dks nwj djus dh nks fof/k;ka gSA js”kksa dks NksVh y0 es dkV ldrs gSa tSls LVsiy js”kksa dks djrs gSa rFkk rc mudks /kkxs ds :Ik esa dkrk tkrk gSA mudks nwljs vkjke nsus okys js”kksa tSls :bZ ds lkFk CySaM fd;k tk ldrk gSA rFkk /kkxs cuk;s tk ldrs gSaA 1- nwljh fof/k lrr fQykeSaV /kkxs dh VsDLpfjax djuk gSA

5-11 vH;klkFkZ ç” ç”u 1- VsDLpMZ /kkxs rFkk muds y{k.kksa ij ,d fuca/k fy[kksA 2- fQykeSaV /kkxs cukus dh izfdz;k dk o.kZu djksA

5-12 lanHkZ ,oa v/;;u ;ksX; iqLrdsa 1- Corbman, B.P. 1983. Textiles: fibse to fabric, 6th Ed. Mc Grow Book Company Singapore. 2- Gulragani, ML (Ed) 1993. Chemical Processing of selk, textile Deptt. IIT Delhi. 3- Joseph, ML 1966 introduction to textile science Holi. Renehest and Winston Ltd, California. 4- Usenko, V 1979, Processing of Man- made fibres, Mir Publishess, Moscow. 5- Wynne, A 1997. Textiles. Macanillan Education Ltd, London.

5-13 'kCnkoyh 123-

dksu CySaMsM QSfczd LVsªaFk

,d vk/kkj ftl ij ;kuZ ca/kk gksrk gS nks ;k nks ls vf/kd izdkj ds js”kksa ls cuk diM+k ruko ds izfrjks/k dh {kerk 9

101-L-5-h  

• fQykeSaV /kkxs D;k gSa ,oa mudh tkudkjhA • fQykeSaV /kkxs cukus dh izfØ;k dh tkudkjh izkIr djukA • fHkUu fHkUu izdkj ds /kkxksa dh igpku d...

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