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Differentiated Instruction: Better Learning Through Better Instruction Presented by: Holly Wille & Dawn Voss High School Summit December 11, 2007


In Today’s Presentation


Getting to know you

THAT’S ME!


Differentiated Instruction (DI): a Definition “Differentiated instruction is a teaching philosophy based on the premise that teachers should adapt instruction to student differences….Teachers should modify their instruction to meet students’ varying readiness levels, learning preferences, and interests.” – Carol Ann Tomlinson, Associate Professor University of Virginia


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To ensure a fair selection, you all get the same test. You must all climb the tree.


Key Principles of a Differentiated Classroom 

The teacher is clear about what matters in subject matter.

The teacher understands, appreciates, and builds upon student differences.

Assessment and instruction are inseparable.

The teacher adjusts instruction in response to student readiness, interests, and learning style.

Goals of a differentiated classroom are maximum growth and individual success.

Flexibility is the hallmark of a differentiated classroom. Source: Tomlinson, C. (2000). Differentiating Instruction for Academic Diversity. San Antonio, TX: ASCD


Why Differentiate Instruction? 

Society is changing and so should our classrooms – Family dynamics – Technology – Values & influences

Classrooms are diverse; different learners need a variety of avenues to learn

Today’s workforce demands more

NCLB requires we increase achievement


Benefits of DI 

Decreases behavior problems

Stretches each student

Engages students for learning

Focuses on student rather than teacher

Creates variety

Offers choice


Today’s Focus Readiness

Growth Judy Rex presentation 2006

Interest

Motivation

Learning Style

Efficiency


Turn To How do you get to know your learners? How do you use this information?


Are they Ready?


Readiness  Know

where you want students to be

 Begin

where the students are

 Continually

assess your students


Types of Assessment 

Formal – – – –

Written pre-test Quiz Written paragraph Post-test

Informal – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

Entrance & exit tickets Word maps Thumbs up or down Windshield check Colored cups or cards That’s me Bell work Journaling Quick write Turn to Whip around pass Think pair share Over the shoulder checks Sentence stems


Differentiation by Readiness PE: Dribbling and Basketball 1 • Dribble from point A to point B in a straight line with one hand

• Switch to the other hand and repeat. • Use either hand and develop a new floor pattern from A to B (not a straight line) 2

ZIGZAG – • One hand • Other hand • Increased speed

• Change pattern to simulate going around opponents 3 In and out of pylons as fast as possible • Change hand • Increase speed 4

Dribble with one hand – and a partner playing defense. • Increase speed and use other hand

5

• Trade roles Through pylons, alternating hands, & partner playing defense • Increase speed • Trade roles

Judy Rex presentation 2006


Differentiation by Readiness Family & Consumer Science - equivalent measurements

Group 1 1) Study/review with the instructor using example/visual cues for measurements. 2) Match cards together-non threatening-teacher led 3) Play Old Maid or Memory Match.


Differentiation by Readiness Family & Consumer Science - equivalent measurements (continued)

Group 2 1) Without review sheet-take the deck and lay out all of the cards and make matches. In the end if all cards do not have a match then they can use the review sheet to find mistakes. 2) Use review sheet as needed-Play either Old Maid or Memory Match.


Differentiation by Readiness Family & Consumer Science - equivalent measurements (continued)

Group 3 1) No use of review sheet. Check that the deck they are using has even matches for equivalents. 2) Play Old Maid-checking other student’s matches as they lay them down.


Differentiation by Readiness English - To Kill a Mockingbird - Think Dots

LEVEL 1 1) Describe the setting of To Kill a Mockingbird. 2) Explain an example of person vs. person in To Kill a Mockingbird. 3) From whose point of view is the story told? What clues tell you? 4) In a Venn Diagram, compare and contrast one of the characters in To Kill a Mockingbird to a character in a different book. 5) How do the citizens of Maycomb react to Atticus’s decision to defend Tom Robinson? Write about two examples. 6) Find three examples of the following in To Kill a Mockingbird: similes, metaphors, and idioms. Create a list.


Differentiation by Readiness English - To Kill a Mockingbird - Think Dots (continued)

LEVEL 2

1) Describe how the setting of To Kill a Mockingbird has influenced the story so far. 2) Explain at least three types of conflict with examples in To Kill a Mockingbird. 3) In what ways would the story be different if told from another character’s point of view? Give support for your opinion. “If only ______________ had been telling the story, it would have been different…” 4) In a Venn Diagram, compare and contrast the Ewells family and the Cunninghams family to a family in another movie. 5) In a newspaper article, explain how the local reaction to Atticus’s decision to defend Tom Robinson reflects the time period in which the novel takes place. Writer the newspaper article as it would have appeared during the setting of the novel. 6) What effect do the similes, metaphors, and idioms Harper Lee uses have on a reader’s understanding of the novel? Explain your thought in a critic’s blurb.


Differentiation by Readiness English - To Kill a Mockingbird - Think Dots (continued)

LEVEL 3 1)Describe at least three ways the setting is reflected in the context of To Kill a Mockingbird. 2)Explain the most significant sources of conflict in To Kill a Mockingbird. 3)In your opinion, what does the point of view tell you about Harper Lee? 4)In a Venn Diagram, compare and contrast Scout as a narrator to another narrator of a movie or story. 5)Apply the quote “What is right is not always popular. What is popular is not always right” as an epigraph to a short essay explaining Atticus Finch’s decision to defend Tom Robinson. 6)What kind of writing style does Harper Lee have? Provide examples to illustrate your point.


Differentiation by Readiness Math - Algebra Operations - Rainbow Red

Orange

Yellow

Green

Blue

Purple

3(2+4)5

1000 - 3 x 7 2

4+3(7+9)

10 + 3 x 4 2

6x23

85 + 9 x 2

10 + 20 Ö ( 2 + 3 ¥ 6)

7+9¥(2+3)

6 + 5 ¥ ( 4 ¥ 2 )2

3 ( 4 ¥ 3 - 2 )2

3(2+4)2

1000 - 3 x 7 2

2[4+6(3¥5-4)]-3(30-3)

[ (3-1) 3 + (3-1) 4 ] 2

3 [2 + 4 ( 5 + 2 ) ]

10 + 20 Ö ( 2 + 3 ¥ 6)

7+9¥(2+3)

X

4X + 3Y Evaluate if X = 10 and Y = 7

27 - 2R - R Evaluate if R = 3

4 + 3P Evaluate if P = 7

3X + 9 Evaluate if X= 5

2W Evaluate if W = 10

X

X

7% = 7 x 0.01 19% = 19 x 0.01 4.2% = 4.2 x 0.01 Find the pattern.

10 x 0 = 0 8.9 x 0 = 0 15/5 x 0 = 0 Find the pattern.

x+y=y+x Give one example.

x/x = 1 Give one example.

X

X

X

What is the P(King) in a deck of cards?

What is the P(rolling 1, 2, 5, or 6)?

What is the probability of flipping a heads?

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

If the P(A) = 1/4 and P(B) If P(have a test) = 80%, = 1/3, then which event is then what is more likely to occur? P(not have a test)?

X

What does relative frequency mean?


QUICK WRITE (1 minute) Think of a lesson you will teach tomorrow and jot down some ideas of how you could differentiate by readiness.


Speak their language!


“My teacher isn’t qualified to teach spelling! She spells U ‘y-o-u’. She spells BRB ‘r-e-t-u-r-n’. She spells BFN ‘g-o-o-d-b-y-e-’…”


Ways to incorporate interest 

Create interest within a lesson – Give choice within content – Give choice for the final product

Use general interests – Incorporate interests outside of school

Hook student interest through relevance


Differentiation By Interest Band - Transcribing Music

Purpose: encourage enthusiasm for planning; improve rhythmic literacy; improve pitch training  Pick a song of your choice – Once comfortable with an easy, well known song, they can branch out to country, hip-hop, punk or T.V. theme songs 

Select a part of the song to learn – chorus, verse, or phrase

  

Figure out time signature and starting pitch Transcribe pitches/rhythm Play piece once transcribed


Differentiation By Interest Chemistry - Introduction - Shape Up

In your own words, define chemistry.

Make a chemistry connection to your life and discuss the concepts it involves.

Discuss why it might be important to take a chemistry class before a biology class.

Create a detailed class description for a chemistry class. Choose a career that has a basis in chemistry. Write an ad for the classifieds of a newspaper.

Flip through your text book and find a topic you want to study and tell me why.

Draw a picture or diagram that defines chemistry.

Conduct a basic chemistry demonstration and explain the big ideas it represents. Choose to read page 19, 76, or 110. Answer the analysis question on the page of your choice.


Differentiation By Interest Social Studies - Civil War

While studying the civil war, students read and discussed the text, looked at many primary documents, had guest speakers, and visited a battlefield. Purpose: To look for examples and principles related to culture, conflict change and interdependence in the Civil War. They were to select a topic of real interest to them and explore it throughout the unit. Topics of interest that applied to the student: •music

•reading

•travel •mysteries •families

•food •people

•books •sports/recreation •heroes/ villains •cartoons

•medicine •teenagers

•humor

•clothing


Differentiation by Interest Speech - Thanksgiving - RAFT ROLE

AUDIENCE

FORMAT

TOPIC

Turkey

The Axe

Last words

My last requests

Horn of Plenty

Other table settings

Introduction

No one knows what I do

Pilgrim’s Wife

Husband

List of Complaints

I’m preparing food for how many?

Axe in the shed

Other tools

Speech to Inform

Time to look sharp!

Cranberries

Grocery shoppers

Speech to Persuade

I’m sweet – buy me!

Stuffing

Cook

Begging

You’re putting me WHERE?????


Differentiation by Interest Environmental Science - Water (current events)

  

Discuss drought in Georgia Show news clip concerning water crisis Assign roles – media, homeowner, small business owner, plumber, ecologist, governor

Using his/her role – Read an article and reflect on the impact using their role’s point of view – Research advantages/consequences to possible solutions for the water crisis

Present solutions in a public forum


Differentiation by Interest Clothing - Sewing - Contract Student will contract for 4 total points: once per letter area. A = 1 point * Unfitted Clothing Item-pants, hat, skirt, shorts, mittens, scarf etc. * Clothing item mainly dependent on one body measurement. * Basics seam and finishes C = 3 points contracted * Detailed Dress or outfit/costume * Fitted Coat or Jacket * Advancement of skills in level B. E = 1 point or contracted for 2 * Creative Use of Textile/Craft/

B = 2 points * Fitted Pants or Skirt * Shirt with collar/sleeves/buttonholes zipper, etc. * Zippers/buttonholes/collars/gathers/ Tucks/pleats D = 1 point (½ point each) (MUST DO) * Repair Projects-2 Different Parts/Areas or Methods


Sentence Stems Current events that could spark interest in my students are‌. I could use these interesting current events in a lesson about‌.


Knowing Yourself To what extent is your learning style reflected in your teaching style?


“As we start a new school year, Mr. Smith, I just want you to know that I’m an Abstract-Sequential learner and trust that you’ll conduct yourself accordingly!”


“Have some respect for my learning style!”


Learning Style 

Conduct surveys to collect data – Multiple intelligences: musical, verbal/linguistic, logical interpersonal, intrapersonal, kinesthetic, visual/spatial – Sternberg: creative, practical, analytical – Modality: visual, verbal, kinesthetic – Jung, 4MAT, Array: social interaction and personality

Use data to purposefully group students – Like grouping – Unlike grouping – Whole group


Resources for learning profiles        

www.e2c2.com/fileupload.asp MI, Sternberg, modality & array interaction surveys http://www.learning-styles-online.com/ MI with graphs http://www.engr.ncsu.edu/learningstyles/ilsweb.html global vs sequential http://www.rrcc-online.com/~psych/LSInventory.html Sternberg’s survey http://ttc.coe.uga.edu/surveys/ MI survey & others http://www.brookhavencollege.edu/learningstyle/modality_test.html sensory modality http://www.humanmetrics.com/cgi-win/JTypes1.htm personality assessment http://www.cse.fau.edu/~maria/COURSES/CAP5100-UI/LearningStyles.html 4mat personality type – group dynamics


Organizing the Information Learner Profile Card Test Data

Lexile

Auditory, Visual, Kinesthetic Analytical, Creative, Practical Modality

Sternberg Student’s Interests

Multiple Intelligence Preference Gardner

Array Inventory


Compiling the Data Gr ade

Algebra

7 8

Trans

Geometry

x x

7

x

Reflective

Sensing

Visual

Global

Active

Intuitive

Visual

Global

Active

Sensing

Visual

Sequential

9

x

Active

Sensing

Visual

Global

9

x

Active

Sensing

Verbal

Global

Active

Intuitive

Visual

Global

Active

Sensing

Visual

Sequential

Reflective

Intuitive

Visual

Global

Active

Intuitive

Visual

Global

Active

Sensing

Visual

Global

Reflective

Sensing

Visual

Global

8

x

7 8

x x

9 8 9

x x x


Organizing the Data 8

x

Reflective

Intuitive

Visual

Global

8

x

Active

Intuitive

Visual

Global

8

x

Active

Intuitive

Visual

Global

8

x

Reflective

Intuitive

Visual

Global

8

x

Active

Sensing

Visual

Global

8

x

Active

Intuitive

Visual

Global

8

x

Reflective

Sensing

Verbal

Sequential


Differentiation by Learning Style Math - Exponential Equations

Global: (Whole to Parts) – – – –

Skim chapter to explore exponential equations Show examples of when exponentials are used Show connection to linear equations/compound interest Begin defining parts of linear equations

Sequential: (Parts to Whole) – – – – –

Define parts of linear equation Show possible graphs Define parts of exponential equation Show possible graphs Explain differences and similarities


Differentiation by Learning Style 8th Grade Careers - Job Hunting Process

Purpose: to review the job hunting process 

Verbal - Compose a letter, telephone script or conversation you might have with someone searching for a job

Visual - Create a poster to show how to hunt for a job

Kinesthetic - Search online or go to local business to begin your own search for an after school job


Differentiation by Learning Style English Literature - The Pearl

Analytical - Sort and classify Steinbeck’s use of good and evil in The Pearl

Practical - Explain approximately 5-7 examples of good and evil and compare them to events in your life

Creative - Invent or design a way to portray the use of good and evil in The Pearl


Differentiation by Learning Style Life Science - Characteristics of Life - RAFT

Role

Audience

Format

Topic

Rock

gravel road

advertisement

I’m not living but I matter

Mr. Putz

students

song

Staying alive

Worm

soil

letter

I’m alive and you’re not, but you need me and I need you

Candle

smelly locker

diary entry

I may look alive but I’m not


Differentiation by Learning Style English - To Kill A Mockingbird Verbal/Linguistic: Write a newsletter with several short articles about the theme Logical/Mathematical: Create a handout / directory for future students that provides a detailed explanation of the mockingbird theme, with all of the references made to mockingbirds or songbirds. Bodily/Kinesthetic: Create puzzle pieces that show how all of the references made to mockingbirds come together to provide the novel’s theme. Musical: Identify the situations in the novel that depict the mockingbird theme and select songs that could play in the background of those events during a movie or play based on the novel. Visual/Spatial: Create a collage that includes pictures and descriptions to explain the theme. Intrapersonal: Write a journal explaining your own, personal interpretation or personal connection to Lee’s theme. Interpersonal: Pretend as if our group has not read the novel and explain the mockingbird theme to us. Perhaps you write it out for us, perhaps you talk to a couple of us, or perhaps you address the entire class.


Check for Understanding Thumbs up? Thumbs down? Thumbs sideways?


THUMBS UP

I am all over this!


THUMBS SIDEWAYS

Life is OK right now!


THUMBS DOWN

Would you speak my language please?


Things to Remember 

Know your learner; Use the information

DI does not have to be a project

You don’t have to use a specific DI tool


What Differentiated Instruction… IS 

Differentiated instruction is more QUALITATIVE than quantitative. Differentiated instruction is STUDENT CENTERED. Differentiated instruction is a BLEND of whole class, group, and individual instruction.

Judy Rex presentation 2006

 

IS NOT Individual instruction Just modifying grading systems and reducing work loads More work for the "good" students and less and different for the "poor" students A replacement of quality curriculum


DI MUST HAVES: a model to follow 

Identify objectives

Determine essentials skills

Know your learner

Align lesson objectives to learner profiles

Continually assess

Decide how students will demonstrate mastery


Just Go!


For more information: Holly Wille - Science teacher hwille@edge-cole.k12.ia.us Dawn Voss - Math teacher dvoss@edge-cole.k12.ia.us Edgewood-Colesburg Website www.edge-cole.k12.ia.us


Special Thanks To:          

Eileen Bergan Melanie Gast Mike Putz Hazel Martin Kim Shields Shirley Lindauer Kelly Egan Melissa Yocum Luke Nielsen Ed Klamfoth

Family/Consumer Science English Speech Careers Band Counselor Social Studies Art English Administration


Exit Ticket What is one thing you will try to use? What are you still unsure about? Any suggestions or ideas for us?


Brain Based Tools 1-10