Page 1

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

Issued September 2010

3

P60-238

6

1.1

9

1.4 1.6 0.6

25,572 63,658

By 26,160 64,575 Carmen DeNavas-Walt Bernadette D. Proctor 41,530 Jessica C. Smith 26,691

13.2

Current Population Reports

17.1

1.9 *

12.6 0.7 * Consumer

63,594

Income

59,149 41,259 26,891

1.1

9.2

1.2

0.9

1.0

7.5

1.1

1.0 14.3

7.6

1.3 * 1.1 11.8

59,925 40,898 27,013 1.2

18,979 57,555 40,207 27,612

16.7

1.9 * 1.5

11.9

0.9

0.7 10.0

1.0 10.1

1.2

1.5

1.2 12.7

1.2 11.4

1.3

13.1

1.4

1.2

1.1

9.6

37,335 21,977 58,865 39,843

9.2 0.7

9.0 1.0

9.0

9.2

34,421 19,890 57,783 38,789 27,779 35,316 20,538 58,155 39,792

1.6 * 1.2 13.2

1.3 12.7

1.4

13.8

37,773 22,425 59,369 39,143

0.9

0.8 15.4

0.9

15.2

37,913 22,561 59,506

0.7 15.2 0.9

8.0 1.0

6.7

1.0

9.1

0.9

9.8 1.1

9.8

1.2

9.9

1.1

8.0 1.0

8.1

1.1

8.1

1.2 10.4

1.1 10.2

1.2

10.8

39,750 23,355 58,754

15.6

1.3 15.2

1.4

15.6

39,479 23,221

1.1

8.6

8.6 0.9

8.9

39,923 23,100 57,861 41,195 23,330 56,633

38,789 27,779 71,616

1.2

1.0 18.8

1.7

39,792 27,798 69,858

1.7

1.3 14.1

0.7 14.0

39,843 28,203 70,785

1.9 * 1.4 12.9

1.0 13.1

0.7 * 0.6 12.4

1.2 11.7

1.2

0.9 10.8

0.8 11.0

1.1

1.0 14.3

1.3 13.9

1.4

1.3 * 1.1 11.8

1.2 11.7

1.3

39,143 27,995 71,520 59,506 38,900 27,995 71,968 57,861 38,768 27,691 71,428 56,633 38,531 28,421 73,762

1.9 * 1.5

9.0

0.7

58,754 39,521 29,309 74,161

0.9

0.7 10.0

1.0 10.1

1.2

23,221 58,818 40,906 29,931 73,170

1.5

1.2 12.7

1.2 11.4

1.3

1.2

23,702 60,193 41,249 29,829 24,661 59,441 40,843 41,021 24,474 59,663 40,412 24,312

13.1

9.2

1.1

9.6

1.3 12.7

1.4

13.8

0.8 15.4

0.9

15.2

1.0

6.7

1.0

9.1

1.3

1.2

9.9

1.3

8.1

1.2 1.4

40,213 23,820

1.6

39,498 U.S. Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration U.S. CENSUS BUREAU

Helping You Make Informed Decisions

9.0 1.0 13.2

23,708 58,922 40,861

USCENSUSBUREAU

9.2 0.7


Acknowledgments Carmen DeNavas-Walt, with the assistance of Margaret E. Richardson and Melissa A. Stringfellow, prepared the income section of this report under the direction of Edward J. Welniak, Jr., Chief of the Income Statistics Branch. Bernadette D. Proctor prepared the poverty section under the direction of Trudi J. Renwick, Chief of the Poverty Statistics Branch. Jessica C. Smith prepared the health insurance coverage section under the direction of Brett O’Hara, Chief of the Health and Disability Statistics Branch. Charles T. Nelson, Assistant Division Chief for Economic Characteristics, and Jennifer Cheeseman Day, Assistant Division Chief for Employment Characteristics, both of the Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division, provided overall direction. Adelle D. Berlinger, George M. Mitcham, Tim J. Marshall, and Gregory D. Weyland, Demographic Surveys Division, processed the Current Population Survey 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplement file. Donna K. Benton, Kirk E. Davis, Thy K. Le, and Chandararith R. Phe, all of the Survey Processing Branch, programmed and produced the detailed and publication tables. Danielle N. Castelo, Rebecca A. Hoop, and Matthew R. Herbstritt, under the supervision of David V. Hornick and Kimball T. Jonas, all of the Demographic Statistical Methods Division, conducted sample review. Thomas F. Moore, Chief of the Health Surveys and Supplements Branch, provided overall direction. Lisa Clement, Tim J. Marshall, Michelle Wiland, and Lisa Paska, Demographic Surveys Division, and Roberto Picha and Agatha Jung,Technologies Management Office, prepared and programmed the computer-assisted interviewing instrument used to conduct the Annual Social and Economic Supplement. Additional people within the U.S. Census Bureau also made significant contributions to the preparation of this report. Barton Baker, Ashley Edwards, Suzanne Macartney, Laryssa Mykyta, Ashley Provencher, Jessica L. Semega, Bruce H. Webster, Jr., John Hisnanick, Len Norry, and Judith Waldrop reviewed the contents. Census Bureau field representatives and telephone interviewers collected the data. Without their dedication, the preparation of this report or any report from the Current Population Survey would be impossible. Linda Chen, Jamie A. Stark, and Donald J. Meyd, of the Administrative and Customer Services Division, Francis Grailand Hall, Chief, provided publications and printing management, graphics design and composition, and editorial review for print and electronic media. General direction and production management were provided by Claudette E. Bennett, Assistant Division Chief.


Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

Issued September 2010 P60-238

U.S. Department of Commerce Gary Locke, Secretary Vacant, Deputy Secretary Economics and Statistics Administration Rebecca M. Blank, Under Secretary for Economic Affairs U.S. CENSUS BUREAU Robert M. Groves, Director


Suggested Citation DeNavas-Walt, Carmen, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Jessica C. Smith, U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, P60-238, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2010.

ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS ADMINISTRATION

Economics and Statistics Administration Rebecca M. Blank, Under Secretary for Economic Affairs

U.S. CENSUS BUREAU Robert M. Groves, Director Thomas L. Mesenbourg, Deputy Director and Chief Operating Officer Howard Hogan, Associate Director for Demographic Programs David S. Johnson, Chief, Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division


Contents TEXT Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Source of Estimates and Statistical Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supplemental Poverty Measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . State and Local Estimates of Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dynamics of Economic Well-Being . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 1 1 2 3 4

Income in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Highlights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Household Income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Race and Hispanic Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Age of Householder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Nativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Residence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Income Inequality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Equivalence-Adjusted Income Inequality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Work Experience and Earnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Per Capita Income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Poverty in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Highlights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact of the 2007 Economic Downturn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Race and Hispanic Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Residence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Work Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Families . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Depth of Poverty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ratio of Income to Poverty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Income Deficit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alternative/Experimental Poverty Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . National Academy of Sciences (NAS)-Based Measures and   Estimates of the Effect of Benefits and Taxes . . . . . . . . . CPS Table Creator II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14 14 14 16 16 16 17 17 17 18 18 19 19 20

Health Insurance Coverage in the United States . . . . . . . . Highlights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . What Is Health Insurance Coverage? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Type of Coverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Race and Hispanic Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Economic Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Work Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Children’s Health Insurance Coverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Residence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22 22 22 24 25 25 27 27 27 27 28 28

20 21

Comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Additional Data and Contacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 iii


TEXT TABLES 1. Income and Earnings Summary Measures by Selected Characteristics: 2008 and 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. Change in Real Median Income and Earnings, Number of Workers, and Percentage of   Full-Time, Year-Round Workers During Income Years Surrounding Recessions by Sex:   1969 to 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3. Income Distribution Measures Using Money Income and Equivalence-Adjusted Income: 2008 and 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4. People and Families in Poverty by Selected Characteristics: 2008 and 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5. Change in Poverty During Income Years Surrounding Recessions: 1969 to 2009 . . . . . . . 16 6. People With Income Below Specified Ratios of Their Poverty Thresholds by Selected Characteristics: 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 7. Income Deficit or Surplus of Families and Unrelated Individuals by Poverty Status:   2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 8. People Without Health Insurance Coverage by Selected Characteristics: 2008 and 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 9. People Without Health Insurance Coverage by Selected Characteristics:   2007 and 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 FIGURES 1. Real Median Household Income by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1967 to 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2. Female-to-Male Earnings Ratio and Median Earnings of Full-Time, Year-Round Workers 15 Years and Older by Sex: 1960 to 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3. Total and Full-Time, Year-Round Workers With Earnings by Sex: 1967 to 2009 . . . . . . . . . 13 4. Number in Poverty and Poverty Rate: 1959 to 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5. Poverty Rates by Age: 1959 to 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 6. Demographic Makeup of the Population at Varying Degrees of Poverty: 2009 . . . . . . . . . 19 7. Number Uninsured and Uninsured Rate: 1987 to 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 8. Coverage by Type of Health Insurance: 2008 and 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 9. Uninsured Children by Poverty Status, Household Income, Age, Race and Hispanic   Origin, and Nativity: 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

iv Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau


APPENDIXES Appendix A. Estimates of Income ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������31 How Income Is Measured ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������31 Recessions ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������31 Annual Average Consumer Price Index Research Series (CPI-U-RS) Using Current Methods   All Items: 1947 to 2009 ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������32 Cost-of-Living Adjustment������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������32 Appendix B. Estimates of Poverty ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������55 How Poverty Is Calculated������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������55 Poverty Thresholds for 2009 by Size of Family and Number of Related Children   Under 18 Years��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������55 Weighted Average Poverty Thresholds in 2009 by Size of Family������������������������������������������������55 Appendix C. Estimates of Health Insurance Coverage��������������������������������������������������������������69 Quality of Health Insurance Coverage Estimates��������������������������������������������������������������������������69 National surveys and health insurance coverage����������������������������������������������������������������������69 Reporting of coverage through major federal health insurance programs��������������������������������69 APPENDIX TABLES A-1. Households by Total Money Income, Race, and Hispanic Origin of Householder: 1967 to 2009 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������33 A-2. Selected Measures of Household Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2009 ����������������������������������������40 A-3. Selected Measures of Equivalence-Adjusted Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2009 ����������������������45 A-4. Number and Real Median Earnings of Total Workers and Full-Time, Year-Round Workers   by Sex and Female-to-Male Earnings Ratio: 1960 to 2009������������������������������������������������������50 A-5. Number of Workers With Earnings and Median Earnings by Work Experience, Sex, and   Selected Characteristics: 2002 to 2009����������������������������������������������������������������������������������51 B-1. Poverty Status of People by Family Relationship, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2009������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������56 B-2. Poverty Status of People by Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2009 ����������������������������62 B-3. Poverty Status of Families, by Type of Family: 1959 to 2009 ��������������������������������������������������68 C-1. Health Insurance Coverage: 1987 to 2009 ������������������������������������������������������������������������������71 C-2. Health Insurance Coverage by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1999 to 2009����������������������������������72 C-3. Health Insurance Coverage by Age: 1999 to 2009 ������������������������������������������������������������������76

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 v


Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 Introduction This report presents data on income, poverty, and health insurance coverage in the United States based on information collected in the 2010 and earlier Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplements (CPS ASEC) conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. Summary of findings: • The median household income in 2009 was not statistically different from the 2008 median in real terms.1 • The poverty rate increased between 2008 and 2009. • The uninsured rate and number of people without health insurance increased between 2008 and 2009. These results were not uniform across groups. For example, between 2008 and 2009, real median household income declined for non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks, while the changes for Asians and Hispanics were not 1 All income values are adjusted to reflect 2009 dollars. “Real” refers to income after adjusting for inflation. The adjustment is based on percentage changes in prices between 2009 and earlier years and is computed by dividing the annual average Consumer Price Index Research Series (CPI-U-RS) for 2009 by the annual average for earlier years. The CPI-U-RS values for 1947 to 2009 are available in Appendix A and on the Internet at <www.census.gov/hhes /www/income/data/incpovhlth/2009/p60no238 _appacpitable.pdf>. Consumer prices between 2008 and 2009 fell by 0.4 percent.

U.S. Census Bureau

Source of Estimates and Statistical Accuracy The data in this report are from the 2010 Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement (CPS ASEC) and were collected in the 50 states and the District of Columbia and do not represent residents of Puerto Rico and U.S. island areas.* It is based on a sample of about 100,000 addresses. The estimates in this report are controlled to independent national population estimates by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin for March 2010. The population controls used to prepare estimates for 1999 to 2009 were based on the results from Census 2000 and are updated annually using administrative records for such things as births, deaths, emigration, and immigration. The CPS is a household survey primarily used to collect employment data. The sample universe for the basic CPS consists of the resident civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States. People in institutions, such as prisons, long-term care hospitals, and nursing homes, are not eligible to be interviewed in the CPS. Students living in dormitories are only included in the estimates if information about them is reported in an interview at their parents’ home. The sample universe for the CPS ASEC is slightly larger than that of the basic CPS since it includes military personnel who live in a household with at least one other civilian adult, regardless of whether they live off post or on post. All other Armed Forces are excluded. For further documentation about the CPS ASEC, see <www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf>. Most of the data from the CPS ASEC were collected in March (with some data collected in February and April). The estimates in this report (which may be shown in text, figures, and tables) are based on responses from a sample of the population and may differ from actual values because of sampling variability or other factors. As a result, apparent differences between the estimates for two or more groups may not be statistically significant. All comparative statements have undergone statistical testing and are significant at the 90 percent confidence level unless otherwise noted. Further information about the source and accuracy of the estimates is available at <www.census.gov/hhes/www/p60_238sa.pdf>. * U.S. island areas include American Samoa, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Virgin Islands of the United States.

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 1


statistically significant.2 The poverty rate increased for non-Hispanic Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics, while the change for Asians was not statistically significant. Additionally, for health insurance, the uninsured rate and number of uninsured increased for non-Hispanic Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics, while the changes for 2 Federal surveys now give respondents the option of reporting more than one race. Therefore, two basic ways of defining a race group are possible. A group such as Asian may be defined as those who reported Asian and no other race (the race-alone or single-race concept) or as those who reported Asian regardless of whether they also reported another race (the race-aloneor-in-combination concept). The body of this report (text, figures, and tables) shows data using the first approach (race alone). The appendix tables show data using both approaches. Use of the single-race population does not imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing data. The Census Bureau uses a variety of approaches. In this report, the term “non-Hispanic White” refers to people who are not Hispanic and who reported White and no other race. The Census Bureau uses non-Hispanic Whites as the comparison group for other race groups and Hispanics. Because Hispanics may be any race, data in this report for Hispanics overlap with data for race groups. Being Hispanic was reported by 12.9 percent of White householders who reported only one race, 2.9 percent of Black householders who reported only one race, and 2.0 percent of Asian householders who reported only one race. The small sample size of the Asian population and the fact that the CPS does not use separate population controls for weighting the Asian sample to national totals contribute to the large variances surrounding estimates of this group. This means that for some estimates for the Asian population, we are unable to detect statistically significant changes from the previous year. The American Community Survey (ACS), based on a much larger sample size of the population, is a better source for estimating and identifying changes for small groups of the population, such as the Asian population. The householder is the person (or one of the people) in whose name the home is owned or rented and the person to whom the relationship of other household members is recorded. If a married couple owns the home jointly, either the husband or the wife may be listed as the householder. Since only one person in each household is designated as the householder, the number of householders is equal to the number of households. This report uses the characteristics of the householder to describe the household. Data users should exercise caution when interpreting aggregate results for the Hispanic population or for race groups because these populations consist of many distinct groups that differ in socioeconomic characteristics, culture, and recency of immigration. In addition, the CPS does not use separate population controls for weighting the Asian sample to national totals. Data were first collected for Hispanics in 1972 and for Asians and Pacific Islanders in 1987. For further information, see <www.bls.census.gov /cps/ads/adsmain.htm>.

Asians were not statistically significant. These results are discussed in more detail in the three main sections of this report—income, poverty, and health insurance coverage. Each section presents estimates by characteristics such as race, Hispanic origin, nativity, and region. Other topics covered are earnings of workers,

including full-time, year-round workers; families in poverty; and health insurance coverage of children. The income and poverty estimates shown in this report are based solely on money income before taxes and do not include the value of noncash benefits, such as nutritional assistance,

Supplemental Poverty Measure On March 2, 2010, the Interagency Technical Working Group (which included representatives from the Bureau of Labor Statistics [BLS], U.S. Census Bureau, Economics and Statistics Administration, Council of Economic Advisers, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and Office of Management and Budget [OMB]) issued a series of suggestions to the Census Bureau and BLS on how to develop the Supplemental Poverty Measure. Their suggestions drew on the recommendations of a 1995 National Academy of Sciences report and the extensive research on poverty measurement conducted over the past 15 years. The new thresholds are not intended to assess eligibility for government programs and will not replace the official poverty thresholds. Instead, the new measure will serve as an additional indicator of economic well-being and will provide a deeper understanding of economic conditions and policy effects. The official poverty measure, which has been in use since the 1960s, estimates poverty rates by looking at a family’s or an individual’s cash income. The new measure will be a more complex statistic incorporating additional items, such as tax payments and work expenses, in its family resource estimates. Thresholds used in the new measure will be derived from Consumer Expenditure Survey expenditure data on basic necessities (food, shelter, clothing, and utilities) and will be adjusted for geographic differences in the cost of housing. Additional details can be found at <www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/SPM_TWGObservations.pdf>. The Census Bureau’s statistical experts, with assistance from BLS and in consultation with other appropriate agencies and outside experts, will be responsible for the measure’s technical design. Over 75 comments were received in response to a May 2010 federal register notice regarding the measure. The Census Bureau has embarked on an ambitious research agenda, which includes an assessment of alternative definitions of the poverty unit, an investigation of alternative data sources for geographic cost-of-living adjustments, and an evaluation of the reliability of the data from questions added to the Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS ASEC) in 2010. The Census Bureau plans to publish documentation on these and other technical aspects of the new measure before the end of this year. If the President’s budget initiative is approved, the Census Bureau will publish the first set of poverty estimates using the new approach in September 2011. Both the Census Bureau and the Interagency Technical Working Group consider the Supplemental Poverty Measure a work in progress and expect that there will be improvements to the statistic over time.

2 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau


Medicare, Medicaid, public housing, and employer-provided fringe benefits. Since the publication of the first official U.S. poverty estimates in 1964, there has been continuing debate about the best approach to measuring income and poverty in the United States. Recognizing that supplemental estimates of income and poverty can provide useful information to the public as well as to the federal government, in 2009, the Office of Management and Budget’s (OMB) Chief Statistician formed the Interagency Technical Working Group on Developing the Supplemental Poverty Measure. This group asked the Census Bureau, in cooperation with the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), to develop the new statistic. The measure is designed to obtain an improved understanding of the economic well-being of American families and how federal policies affect those living in poverty. The text box “Supplemental Poverty Measure” provides more information. The CPS is the longest-running survey conducted by the Census Bureau. The CPS ASEC asks detailed questions categorizing income into over 50 sources. The key purpose of the CPS ASEC is to provide timely and detailed estimates of income, poverty, and health insurance coverage and to measure change in those estimates at the national level. The CPS ASEC is the official source of the national poverty estimates calculated in accordance with OMB’s Statistical Policy Directive No. 14 (Appendix B). The Census Bureau also reports income, poverty, and health insurance coverage estimates based on data from the American Community Survey (ACS). The ACS is part of the 2010 Census program and has eliminated the need for a long-form census questionnaire. The ACS offers

U.S. Census Bureau

broad, comprehensive information on social, economic, and housing topics and provides this information at many levels of geography, particularly for local communities. Since the CPS ASEC produces more complete and thorough estimates of income and poverty, the Census Bureau recommends that people use it as the data source for national estimates. Estimates for income, poverty, health insurance coverage, and other economic characteristics at the state level can be found in forthcoming briefs based on data from the 2009 ACS. For more information on state

and local estimates, see the text box “State and Local Estimates of Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance.” The CPS ASEC provides reliable estimates of the net change, from one year to the next, in the overall distribution of economic characteristics of the population, such as income and earnings, but it does not show how those characteristics change for the same person, family, or household. Longitudinal measures of income, poverty, and health insurance coverage that are based on following the same people over time are available from the Survey of Income and

State and Local Estimates of Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance The U.S. Census Bureau presents annual estimates of median household income, poverty, and health insurance coverage by state and other smaller geographic units based on data collected in the American Community Survey (ACS). Single-year estimates are available for geographic units with populations of 65,000 or more. The ACS also produces estimates of income and poverty for counties and places with populations of 20,000 or more by pooling 3 years of data. Before the end of this year, 5-year income and poverty estimates will be available for all geographic units, including census tracts and block groups. (Since questions on health insurance coverage were added to the ACS in 2008, 3-year estimates for health insurance coverage will not be available until next year. Five-year health insurance coverage estimates for the smallest geographic units will be available in 2013.) The Census Bureau’s Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE) program also produces single-year estimates of median household income and poverty for states and all counties, as well as population and poverty estimates for school districts. These estimates are based on models using data from a variety of sources, including current surveys, administrative records, intercensal population estimates, and personal income data published by the Bureau of Economic Analysis. In general, SAIPE estimates have lower variances than ACS estimates but are released later because they incorporate ACS data in the models. Estimates for 2008 are available at <www.census.gov/did/www/saipe/index.html>. Estimates for 2009 will be available later this year. The Census Bureau’s Small Area Health Insurance Estimates (SAHIE) program produces model-based estimates of health insurance coverage rates for states and counties. The SAHIE program released 2007 estimates of health insurance coverage by age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, and income categories at the state level and by age, sex, and income categories at the county level in 2010. These estimates are available at <www.census.gov /did/www/sahie/index.html>.

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 3


Program Participation (SIPP). Estimates derived from SIPP data answer questions such as: • What percentage of households move up or down the income distribution over time? • How many people remain in poverty over time? • How long do people without health insurance tend to remain uninsured? The text box “Dynamics of Economic Well-Being” provides more information.

INCOME IN THE UNITED STATES Highlights • The real median household income in 2009 was $49,777, not statistically different from the 2008 median (Table 1 and Figure 1). • Real median income declined by 1.8 percent for family households and increased 1.6 percent for nonfamily households between 2008 and 2009 (Table 1).

Dynamics of Economic Well-Being The Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) provides monthly data about labor force participation, income sources and amounts, and health insurance coverage of individuals, families, and households during the time span covered by each of its panels. The data yield insights into the dynamic nature of these experiences and the economic mobility of U.S. residents.* For example, the data demonstrate that using a longer time frame to measure poverty (e.g., 4 years) yields, on average, a lower poverty rate than the annual measures presented in this report, while using a shorter time frame (e.g., 2 months) yields higher poverty rates. Some specific findings from the 2004 panel include: • The proportion of households in the bottom income quintile in 2004 that moved up to a higher quintile in 2007 (30.9 percent) was not statistically different from the proportion of households in the top quintile in 2004 that moved to a lower quintile in 2007 (32.2 percent). • Households with householders who had lower levels of education were more likely to remain in or move into a lower income quintile than households whose householders had higher levels of education. • Approximately 31.6 percent of the population had at least one spell of poverty lasting 2 or more months during the 4-year period from 2004 to 2007. • Chronic poverty was relatively uncommon, with 2.2 percent of the population living in poverty all 48 months of the period. More information based on these data is available in a series of reports titled the Dynamics of Economic Well-Being, as well as in table packages and working papers. The U.S. Census Bureau is in the process of reengineering the SIPP. The redesigned survey is expected to reduce respondent burden and attrition and deliver data on a timely basis, while addressing the same topic areas of the earlier SIPP panels. For more information, see <www.sipp.census.gov/sipp>. *The 2004 SIPP panel collected data from February 2004 through January 2008. The data are currently available for download. See the SIPP Web site for details <www.sipp.census.gov/sipp>.

4 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

• Real median income declined for Black households and non-Hispanic White households between 2008 and 2009, while the changes for Asian and Hispanic-origin households were not statistically different (Table 1 and Figure 1). • Native-born households and households maintained by a noncitizen had declines in real median income between 2008 and 2009.3 The changes in the median income of all foreign-born households and households maintained by a naturalized citizen were not statistically significant (Table 1). • The Midwest and West experienced declines in real median household income between 2008 and 2009 (2.1 percent and 1.9 percent, respectively).4 The changes in median household incomes in the Northeast and South were not statistically significant (Table 1). • The change in income inequality between 2008 and 2009 was not statistically significant, as measured by the shares of aggregate household income by quintiles and the Gini index (Tables 3 and A-2).5

3 Native-born households are those in which the householder was born in the United States, Puerto Rico, or the U.S. island areas of Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, or the Virgin Islands of the United States or was born in a foreign country but had at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. All other households are considered foreign born regardless of the date of entry into the United States or citizenship status. The CPS does not interview households in Puerto Rico. Of all householders, 86.8 percent were native born; 6.7 percent were foreign born, naturalized citizens; and 6.5 percent were noncitizens (the difference in the percentage of householders who were naturalized citizens and those who were noncitizens is not statistically significant). 4 The difference in the declines in median household income between the Midwest and West was not statistically significant. 5 For a discussion of these two income measures, see “What Are Shares of Aggregate Household Income and a Gini index?,” in Bishaw, Alemayehu and Jessica Semega, Income, Earnings, and Poverty Data From the 2007 American Community Survey, American Community Survey Reports, ACS-09, U.S. Census Bureau, August 2008, <www.census.gov/prod/2008pubs /acs-09.pdf>.

U.S. Census Bureau


Table 1.

Income and Earnings Summary Measures by Selected Characteristics: 2008 and 2009 (Income in 2009 dollars. Households and people as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf) 2008 Median income (dollars)

Characteristic Number (thousands)

Percentage change in real median income

20091 Median income (dollars)

90 percent confidence Number Estimate interval2 (±) (thousands)

90 percent confidence Estimate interval2 (±)

90 percent confidence Estimate interval2 (±)

HOUSEHOLDS      All households ����������������������������������

117,181

50,112

225

117,538

49,777

350

–0.7

0.68

Type of Household Family households����������������������������������������������   Married-couple������������������������������������������������   Female householder, no husband present������   Male householder, no wife present ���������������� Nonfamily households����������������������������������������   Female householder ��������������������������������������   Male householder ������������������������������������������

78,850 59,118 14,480 5,252 38,331 20,637 17,694

62,383 72,733 32,947 48,999 29,964 24,919 35,869

421 538 618 1,088 305 382 434

78,833 58,410 14,843 5,580 38,705 20,442 18,263

61,265 71,830 32,597 48,084 30,444 25,269 36,611

311 410 541 1,156 281 345 456

*–1.8 *–1.2 –1.1 –1.9 *1.6 1.4 *2.1

0.68 0.75 2.00 2.59 1.13 1.68 1.43

White������������������������������������������������������������������   White, not Hispanic ���������������������������������������� Black ������������������������������������������������������������������ Asian ������������������������������������������������������������������ Hispanic (any race)��������������������������������������������

95,297 82,884 14,595 4,573 13,425

52,113 55,319 34,088 65,388 37,769

249 369 723 2,271 796

95,489 83,158 14,730 4,687 13,298

51,861 54,461 32,584 65,469 38,039

253 459 648 2,084 826

–0.5 *–1.6 *–4.4 0.1 0.7

0.55 0.86 2.24 3.81 2.04

Age of Householder Under 65 years ��������������������������������������������������   15 to 24 years ������������������������������������������������   25 to 34 years ������������������������������������������������   35 to 44 years ������������������������������������������������   45 to 54 years ������������������������������������������������   55 to 64 years ������������������������������������������������ 65 years and older����������������������������������������������

92,346 6,357 19,302 22,171 24,633 19,883 24,834

56,575 32,148 51,205 62,715 64,105 57,048 29,631

339 615 534 941 929 872 369

92,268 6,233 19,257 21,519 24,871 20,387 25,270

55,821 30,733 50,199 61,083 64,235 56,973 31,354

321 693 551 536 929 714 372

*–1.3 *–4.4 *–2.0 *–2.6 0.2 –0.1 *5.8

0.66 2.29 1.20 1.41 1.65 1.60 1.47

Nativity of Householder Native born �������������������������������������������������������� Foreign born ������������������������������������������������������   Naturalized citizen������������������������������������������   Not a citizen����������������������������������������������������

101,585 15,596 7,668 7,928

50,862 43,328 51,328 37,807

244 1,018 946 1,052

102,039 15,499 7,834 7,666

50,503 43,923 51,975 36,089

252 1,234 859 865

*–0.7 1.4 1.3 *–4.5

0.55 3.01 2.02 2.84

Region Northeast������������������������������������������������������������ Midwest�������������������������������������������������������������� South������������������������������������������������������������������ West ������������������������������������������������������������������

21,309 26,282 43,423 26,166

54,140 49,922 45,417 54,876

1,101 533 444 864

21,479 26,390 43,611 26,058

53,073 48,877 45,615 53,833

924 711 464 895

–2.0 *–2.1 0.4 *–1.9

2.12 1.44 1.14 1.81

Residence Inside metropolitan statistical areas ������������������   Inside principal cities��������������������������������������   Outside principal cities������������������������������������ Outside metropolitan statistical areas 4��������������

97,865 39,065 58,800 19,315

51,656 44,029 57,684 40,630

244 562 577 660

98,379 38,850 59,529 19,159

51,522 44,852 56,582 40,135

255 569 428 642

–0.3 *1.9 *–1.9 –1.2

0.55 1.48 1.00 1.82

59,861 44,156

46,191 35,609

238 174

56,053 43,217

47,127 36,278

242 173

*2.0 *1.9

0.62 0.58

Race3 and Hispanic Origin of Householder

EARNINGS OF FULL-TIME, YEAR-ROUND   WORKERS Men with earnings���������������������������������������������� Women with earnings ����������������������������������������     See footnotes at end of table.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 5


Table 1.

Income and Earnings Summary Measures by Selected Characteristics: 2008 and 2009—Con. (Income in 2009 dollars. Households and people as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf) 2008 Median income (dollars)

Characteristic Number (thousands) PER CAPITA INCOME5      Total3 �������������������������������������������������� White ����������������������������������������������������������������   White, not Hispanic ���������������������������������������� Black ������������������������������������������������������������������ Asian ������������������������������������������������������������������ Hispanic (any race)��������������������������������������������

301,483 240,852 197,159 38,076 13,315 47,485

Percentage change in real median income

20091 Median income (dollars)

90 percent confidence Number Estimate interval2 (±) (thousands) 26,862 28,394 31,194 18,336 30,177 15,615

161 185 216 326 916 292

304,280 242,403 197,436 38,624 14,011 48,901

90 percent confidence Estimate interval2 (±) 26,530 28,034 30,941 18,135 30,653 15,063

160 183 214 327 1,053 276

90 percent confidence Estimate interval2 (±) *–1.2 *–1.3 –0.8 –1.1 1.6 *–3.5

0.70 0.76 0.81 2.10 3.90 1.87

* Statistically different from zero at the 90 percent confidence level. 1 Medians are calculated using $2,500 income intervals. Beginning with 2009 income data, the Census Bureau expanded the upper income intervals used to calculate medians to $250,000 or more.  Medians falling in the upper open-ended interval are plugged with “$250,000.”  Before 2009, the upper open-ended interval was $100,000 and a plug of “$100,000” was used. 2 A 90 percent confidence interval is a measure of an estimate’s variability. The larger the confidence interval in relation to the size of the estimate, the less reliable the estimate. For more information, see “Standard Errors and Their Use” at <www.census.gov/hhes/www/p60_238sa.pdf> 3 Federal surveys now give respondents the option of reporting more than one race. Therefore, two basic ways of defining a race group are possible. A group such as Asian may be defined as those who reported Asian and no other race (the race-alone or single-race concept) or as those who reported Asian regardless of whether they also reported another race (the race-alone-or-in-combination concept). This table shows data using the first approach (race alone). The use of the single-race population does not imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing data. The Census Bureau uses a variety of approaches. Information on people who reported more than one race, such as White and American Indian and Alaska Native or Asian and Black or African American, is available from Census 2000 through American FactFinder. About 2.6 percent of people reported more than one race in Census 2000. Data for American Indians and Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders, and those reporting two or more races are not shown separately in this table. 4 The “Outside metropolitan statistical areas” category includes both micropolitan statistical areas and territory outside of metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas. For more information, see “About Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas” at <www.census.gov/population/www/estimates/aboutmetro.html>. 5 The data shown in this section are per capita incomes and their respective confidence intervals. Per capita income is the mean income computed for every man, woman, and child in a particular group. It is derived by dividing the total income of a particular group by the total population in that group (excluding patients or inmates in institutional quarters). Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2009 and 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

Figure 1.

Real Median Household Income by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1967 to 2009 80,000

Recession

2009 dollars

70,000 $65,469 60,000

Asian

50,000

$54,461 $49,777

White, not Hispanic All races

40,000

$38,039

Hispanic (any race)

$32,584

30,000 Black 20,000 10,000 0 1959

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2009

Note: Median household income data are not available prior to 1967. For information on recessions, see Appendix A. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1968 to 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

6 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau


Table 2.

Change in Real Median Income and Earnings, Number of Workers, and Percentage of Full-Time, Year-Round Workers During Income Years Surrounding Recessions by Sex: 1969 to 2009 (Income and earnings in 2009 dollars. Information for people 15 years and older beginning with 1980 and people 14 years and older for previous years. Before 1989, earnings are for civilian workers only. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)

Recessions1

December 2007, trough not yet   defined������������������������������������������������ March 2001 to November 2001������������ July 1990 to March 1991���������������������� January 1980 to July 1980 and July   1981 to November 1982 �������������������� November 1973 to March 1975������������ December 1969 to November 1970�����

PerChange in centage number of change workers with in real earnings median (in thousands) houseIncome hold years income Male Female

Change in number of full-time, yearround workers with earnings (in thousands) Male Female

Percentagepoint change in the percentage of full-time, year-round workers with earnings Male Female

Percentage change in median earnings of all workers Male Female

Percentage change in median earnings of full-time, yearround workers Male Female

2007 to 2009 1999 to 2002 1989 to 1991

*–4.2 *–2,548 *–1,323 *–6,931 *–2,396 * –3.5 * 1,178 358 462 * 1,005 *–4.2 –5 458 *–1,790 *1,096

*–6.1 –0.5 *–2.5

*–2.2 * 1.1 *1.4

*–4.1 * –2.6 *–6.0

*–2.8 * 7.6 1.0

*1.0 0.4 –1.0

–0.1 * 6.3 0.7

1978 to 1983 1973 to 1975 1969 to 1971

*–6.0 *–5.7 *–1.7

*–1.5 *–3.7 *–2.2

*4.2 –0.7 0.8

*–10.1 *–6.4 *–2.2

*6.4 1.6 *6.3

*–5.6 *–4.2 *1.5

1.0 –0.5 *2.6

*2,235 –170 *1,613

*4,710 492 *1,343 *–2,314 *748 –189

*4,252 257 *628

* Statistically significant at the 90 percent confidence level. 1 Recessions are determined by the National Bureau of Economic Research, a private research organization. Note: Income years are based on peak income year prior to or during the start of the recession and the trough income year near or after the end of the recession. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1970 to 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

• Both men and women, 15 years old and over, who worked full-time, year-round experienced increases in real median earnings between 2008 and 2009. The median earnings of men increased 2.0 percent, from $46,191 to $47,127; and the earnings of women increased by 1.9 percent, from $35,609 to $36,278.6 In 2009, the female-tomale earnings ratio was 0.77, not statistically different from the 2008 ratio (Table 1 and Figure 2). • The median earnings of all working males 15 years old and over was $36,331 in 2009, not statistically different from their 2008 median, while the earnings of their female counterparts increased by 1.9 percent, from $25,553 to $26,030 (Table A-4). • Real per capita income declined by 1.2 percent for the total population, 1.3 percent for Whites, and 3.5 percent for Hispanics between 6 The difference between the percentage increases in the earnings of men and women was not statistically significant.

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2008 and 2009.7 The changes for non-Hispanic Whites, Blacks, and Asians were not statistically significant (Table 1).8 Household Income Real median household income was $49,777 in 2009, not statistically different from the 2008 median. Since 2007, the year before the most recent recession, median household income has declined 4.2 percent (from $51,965) and is 5.0 percent below the median household income peak ($52,388) that occurred in 1999 (Tables 1, 2, and A-1).9 Though the trough of the recession that began in December 2007 has not yet been

7 The difference between the declines for the overall and White populations was not statistically significant. 8 Unlike medians, per capita and means are affected by extremely high and low incomes. 9 The difference between the percentage declines of 2007 to 2009 and 1999 to 2009 in median household income was not statistically significant. In addition, the difference between the 1999 and 2007 medians is not statistically significant. The median household income peak of $52,388 in 1999 and the $52,301 median household income in 2000 are not statistically different.

defined, the 4.2 percent income decline is:10 • Not statistically different from the declines in income for the years surrounding the two recessions lasting from March 2001 to November 2001 and from July 1990 to March 1991. • Larger than the 1.7 percent decline for the income years surrounding the December 1969 to November 1970 recession.11 • Smaller than the declines for the income years surrounding the January 1980 to July 1980 and July 1981 to November 1982 combined recessions (6.0 percent) and the November 1973 to March 1975 recession (5.7 percent) (Figure 1 and Tables 1, 2, and A-1).12 10 Recessions are determined by the National Bureau of Economic Research, a private research organization. See Appendix A for a list of peak and trough months. 11 Discussion is limited to recessions occurring after 1967, the first year that household income estimates were derived from the CPS ASEC. 12 The difference between the declines in income for the combined January 1980 to July 1980 and July 1981 to November 1982 recessions and the November 1973 to March 1975 recession was not statistically significant.

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 7


Race and Hispanic Origin Real median income declined for Black households and non-Hispanic White households between 2008 and 2009 (Table 1 and Figure 1); the changes for the Asian and Hispanic-origin households were not statistically significant. The decline for Black households was 4.4 percent, larger than the 1.6 percent decline for non-Hispanic White households. In comparison to the respective income peaks before the 2001 recession, 2009 household income was 5.0 percent lower for all races combined (from $52,388 in 1999), 4.2 percent lower for non-Hispanic Whites (from $56,843 in 1999), 11.8 percent lower for Blacks (from $36,952 in 2000), 5.7 percent lower for Asians (from $69,448 in 2000), and 7.9 percent lower for Hispanics (from $41,312 in 2000).13 Among the race groups, Asian households had the highest median income in 2009 ($65,469). The median income for non-Hispanic-White households was $54,461; for Black households it was $32,584; and for Hispanic households it was $38,039. Comparing the income of nonHispanic-White households to that of other households shows that the 2009 ratio of Asian to non-HispanicWhite income was 1.20, the ratio of Black to non-Hispanic-White income was 0.60, and the ratio of Hispanic to non-Hispanic-White income was 0.70. Between 1972 (the first year that income data for the Hispanic 13 Except for the differences between the decline for Blacks compared with the declines for non-Hispanic Whites and Asians and the difference between the declines for non-Hispanic Whites and Hispanics, the differences between the remaining declines were not statistically significant. For all races, the median household income peak of $52,388 in 1999 was not statistically different from the 2000 median of $52,301. For non-Hispanic Whites, the $56,843 income peak in 1999 was not statistically different from the 2000 median of $56,826. For Blacks, the $36,952 income peak in 2000 was not statistically different from the 1999 median of $35,928. For Hispanics, the $41,312 income peak in 2000 was not statistically different from the 2001 median of $40,665.

and non-Hispanic-White populations were collected in the CPS ASEC) and 2009, the Black-to-non-HispanicWhite income ratio increased from 0.58 to 0.60. Over the same period, the Hispanic-to-non-Hispanic-White income ratio declined from 0.74 to 0.70. Income data for the Asian population was first available in 1987. The Asian-to-non-Hispanic White income ratios for 1987 and 2009 were not statistically different, 1.14 and 1.20, respectively. Age of Householder Change in real median household income by age of the householder between 2008 and 2009 was not uniform across the age groups. The median income of households with householders under 65 declined (1.3 percent), while the income of households with householders 65 and older increased (5.8 percent). More precisely, declines in median income were experienced by households with householders aged 15 to 24 (4.4 percent decline), 25 to 34 (2.0 percent decline), and 35 to 44 (2.6 percent decline). Changes in the incomes of households with householders aged 45 to 54 and 55 to 64 were not statistically significant.14 Nativity Native-born households and households maintained by a noncitizen had declines in real median income between 2008 and 2009. The changes in the median income of foreignborn households and households maintained by a naturalized citizen were not statistically significant. The decline for native-born households was 0.7 percent, and for households maintained by a noncitizen, the decline was 4.5 percent. In 2009,

14 Except for the difference between the declines in the income of households with householders under 65 compared with the decline for those aged 15 to 24, the differences among the declines discussed in this paragraph were not statistically significant.

8 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

households maintained by naturalized citizens had the highest income, $51,975; followed by native-born households, $50,503; and noncitizen households, $36,089 (Table 1). Region15 Real median household income in the Midwest and West experienced declines of 2.1 percent and 1.9 percent between 2008 and 2009 (Table 1).16 The changes in the median incomes in the Northeast and South were not statistically significant. In 2009, households in the West ($53,833) and Northeast ($53,073) had the highest median household incomes, followed by the Midwest ($48,877) and the South ($45,615).17 Residence Between 2008 and 2009, both households inside and outside of principal cities within metropolitan areas experienced changes in real median income, but in opposite directions (Table 1). Households inside principal cities experienced a 1.9 percent increase in income, whereas households outside principal cities experienced a 1.9 percent decline. In 2009, households within metropolitan areas but outside principal cities had the highest median income ($56,582), and households outside metropolitan areas had the lowest ($40,135).

15 The Northeast region includes Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont. The Midwest region includes Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. The South region includes Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia, a state equivalent. The West region includes the states of Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. 16 The difference in the declines in median household income between the Midwest and West was not statistically significant. 17 The difference between the median household incomes for the West and Northeast was not statistically significant.

U.S. Census Bureau


Income Inequality The Census Bureau has traditionally used two methods to measure income inequality: (1) the shares of aggregate household income received by quintiles and (2) the Gini index. In addition to these measures, the Census Bureau also produces estimates of the ratio of income percentiles, the Theil index, the mean logarithmic deviation of income (MLD), and the Atkinson measures.18 The change in income inequality between 2008 and 2009 was not statistically significant as measured by the shares of aggregate household income by quintiles, the Gini index, the MLD, or Atkinson measures. The Theil index was the only inequality measure to show a statistically significant change—a 1.3 percent increase (Tables 3 and A-2). In 2009, the share of aggregate income received by the bottom quintile was 3.4 percent; the second quintile, 8.6 percent; the third, 14.6 percent; the fourth, 23.2 percent; and the highest quintile, 50.3 percent. Households in the lowest quintile had incomes of $20,453 or less; those in the second quintile had incomes ranging from $20,454 to $38,550; those in the third quintile had incomes ranging from $38,551 to $61,801; those in the fourth quintile had incomes ranging from $61,802 to $100,000; and those in the highest quintile had incomes of $100,001 or more. The Gini index was 0.468 in 2009. Except for the 1.5 percent decline in the Gini index between 2006 and 2007, there were no other statistically significant annual changes since 1993, the earliest year available for comparable measures of income inequality.19 Since 1993, the Gini 18 An article by Paul Allison, “Measures of Inequality,” American Sociological Review, 43, December 1977, pp. 865–880, provides an explanation of inequality measures. 19 Caution should be used in making direct comparisons with years earlier than 1993 because of substantial methodological changes in the 1994 CPS ASEC. In that year, the Census Bureau introduced computer-assisted interviewing and increased income reporting limits.

U.S. Census Bureau

index is up 3.1 percent. (Table A-2 lists historical money income inequality measures.)20 Between 2008 and 2009, the changes in the real household income at the 50th (median), 10th, and 90th percentiles were not statistically significant (Table A-2). However, comparing the change in household income between 1999, the year that household income peaked before the 2001 recession, and 2009 suggests income inequality is increasing. Income at the 50th and 10th percentiles declined—5.0 percent and 9.0 percent, respectively—while the change in income at the 90th percentile was not statistically significant. Between 1999 and 2009, the 90thto-the-10th-percentile income ratio increased from 10.42 to 11.36. Equivalence-Adjusted Income Inequality Another way to measure income inequality is using an equivalenceadjusted income estimate, which takes into consideration the number of people living in the household and how these people share resources and take advantage of economies of scale. For example, the money-incomebased distribution treats income of $30,000 for a single-person household and a family household similarly, while the equivalence-adjusted income of $30,000 for a single-person household would be more than twice the equivalence-adjusted income of $30,000 for a family household with two adults and two children. The equivalence adjustment used here is based on a three-parameter scale that reflects: 1. On average, children consume less than adults. 20 For further discussion of how high incomes reported in the CPS ASEC affect income distribution measures, see, Semega, Jessica and Ed Welniak, “Evaluating the Impact of Unrestricted Income Values on Income Distribution Measures Using the Current Population Survey’s Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC),” April 2007, <www.census.gov/hhes/www/income /publications/unrestrict-tables/index.html>.

2. As family size increases, expenses do not increase at the same rate. 3. The increase in expenses is larger for a first child of a single-parent family than the first child of a twoadult family.21 Table 3 shows several income inequality measures, including aggregate income shares and the Gini index, using both money income and equivalence-adjusted income for 2008 and 2009. For both 2008 and 2009, the Gini index is lower based on the equivalence-adjusted income estimate than under the traditional money-income estimate, suggesting a more equal income distribution. Comparing the shares of aggregate household income received by quintile historically shows higher shares of income in the lower quintiles and lower shares in the higher quintiles for equivalence-adjusted income than for money income. This redistribution would be expected because at the lower end of the income distribution there is a higher concentration of single-person households and smaller family sizes in relation to those at the upper end of the distribution. In 2009, the lowest quintile share of aggregate income for equivalenceadjusted income (3.4 percent) was not higher than the lowest quintile share of aggregate income for money income. This is the first time that shares of aggregate income in the lowest quintile for equivalenceadjusted income and money income were not statistically different.

21 The three-parameter scale used here is the same as the one used in the report The Effect of Taxes and Transfers on Income and Poverty in the United States: 2005, Current Population Reports, P60-232, U.S. Census Bureau, March 2007, <www.census.gov/prod/2007pubs/p60 -232.pdf>. The three-parameter scale was applied to the incomes of families and unrelated individuals and assigned to each family member or unrelated individual living within the household. For details on the derivation of the threeparameter scale, see Short, Kathleen, Experimental Poverty Measures: 1999, Current Population Reports, P60-216, U.S. Census Bureau, October 2001, <www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs /p60-216.pdf>.

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 9


Table 3.

Income Distribution Measures Using Money Income and Equivalence-Adjusted Income: 2008 and 2009 (For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf) 2008 Money income Measure

Shares of Aggregate   Income by Percentile Lowest quintile������������������� Second quintile ����������������� Middle quintile������������������� Fourth quintile������������������� Highest quintile �����������������   Top 5 percent����������������� Summary Measures Gini index of income   inequality������������������������� Mean logarithmic deviation   of income������������������������� Theil����������������������������������� Atkinson:   e=0.25���������������������������   e=0.50���������������������������   e=0.75���������������������������

2009

Equivalenceadjusted income

Estimate

90 percent confidence interval1 (±)

0.04 0.09 0.16 0.25 0.54 0.49

3.6 9.4 15.1 22.9 49.0 21.4

0.466

0.0045

0.541 0.398 0.096 0.188 0.285

Money income

Equivalenceadjusted income

Estimate

90 percent confidence interval1 (±)

0.03 0.07 0.11 0.17 0.36 0.31

3.4 8.6 14.6 23.2 50.3 21.7

0.451

0.0028

0.0104 0.0002

0.614 0.380

0.0018 0.0029 0.0038

0.092 0.183 0.287

Estimate

90 percent confidence interval1 (±)

3.4 8.6 14.7 23.3 50.0 21.5

Percentage change

Estimate

90 percent confidence interval1 (±)

0.04 0.09 0.16 0.25 0.55 0.49

3.4 9.2 15.0 22.9 49.4 21.7

0.468

0.0046

0.0077 0.0001

0.550 0.403

0.0012 0.0019 0.0026

0.097 0.190 0.288

Money income

Equivalenceadjusted income

Estimate

90 percent confidence interval1 (±)

Estimate

90 percent confidence interval1 (±)

0.03 0.07 0.11 0.17 0.36 0.33

– – –0.7 –0.4 0.6 0.9

1.27 1.24 1.23 1.24 1.25 2.61

*–5.6 *–2.1 –0.7 – 0.8 1.4

0.96 0.87 0.85 0.84 0.83 1.76

0.458

0.0028

0.4

1.11

*1.6

0.72

0.0105 0.0002

0.665 0.394

0.0081 0.0001

1.7 *1.3

2.22 0.05

*8.3 *3.7

1.52 0.04

0.0018 0.0030 0.0039

0.095 0.190 0.300

0.0012 0.0020 0.0026

1.1 1.0 1.0

2.16 1.75 1.55

*3.3 *3.8 *4.5

1.47 1.22 1.06

– Represents or rounds to zero. * Statistically different from zero at the 90 percent confidence level. 1 A 90 percent confidence interval (C.I.) is a measure of an estimate’s variability. The larger the confidence interval in relation to the size of the estimate, the less reliable the estimate. For more information, see “Standard Errors and Their Use” at <www.census.gov/hhes/www/p60_238sa.pdf>. Source: U. S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2009 and 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

(Table A-3 lists historical equivalenceadjusted inequality measures.) For equivalence-adjusted income, between 2008 and 2009, there was an increase in the Gini index and the redistribution of aggregate income shares, suggesting an increase in income inequality. Specifically, between 2008 and 2009, for the lowest quintile, the aggregate share of income decreased from 3.6 percent to 3.4 percent; and for the second quintile, the aggregate share of income declined from 9.4 percent to 9.2 percent. The changes between 2008 and 2009 in the aggregate shares for the middle, fourth, and highest quintiles were not statistically significant. Each income inequality summary measure based on the

equivalence-adjusted income distribution showed a statistically significant increase between 2008 and 2009 (Table 3). The Gini index increased from 0.451 in 2008 to 0.458 in 2009—the second annual significant increase. The MLD, which measures the gap between the median and average income, increased 8.3 percent between 2008 and 2009. The Theil index is similar to the Gini index in that it is a single statistic that summarizes the dispersion of income across the entire income distribution. The Theil index increased from 0.380 to 0.394 between 2008 and 2009. The Atkinson measure, useful in determining which end of the distribution contributed most to inequality, increased between 2008 and 2009 for both high and low values of the epsilon (e)

10 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

parameter.22 Between 2008 and 2009, the Atkinson measure calculated with an e=0.25 increased by 3.3 percent; and with e=0.75, it increased 4.5 percent.23 Table A-3 shows equivalence-adjusted measures of income distribution for income years 1967 to 2009.24 Over the 1967-to-2009 period, all equivalence-adjusted inequality measures increased more than the 22 Higher values for the epsilon parameter (e) when calculating the Atkinson measure increases sensitivity of changes at the lower end of the distribution, while lower values increase sensitivity of changes at the upper end of the distribution. 23 The difference between the percentage changes in the Atkinson measure based on e=0.25 and e=0.75 was not statistically significant. 24 This is the first year a historical series of equivalence-adjusted income inequality has been produced back to 1967.

U.S. Census Bureau


Figure 2.

Female-to-Male Earnings Ratio and Median Earnings of Full-Time, Year-Round Workers 15 Years and Older by Sex: 1960 to 2009 90

Earnings in thousands (2009 dollars), ratio in percent

Recession

80

77 percent

70

Female-to-male earnings ratio

60 50

$47,127 Earnings of men

40

$36,278

30

Earnings of women

20 10 0 1959

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2009

Note: Data on earnings of full-time, year-round workers are not readily available before 1960. For information on recessions, see Appendix A. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1961 to 2009 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

money income inequality measures. The equivalence-adjusted Gini index increased 23.8 percent compared with 17.9 percent for the money income Gini index; the equivalenceadjusted MLD increased 88.9 percent compared with 44.7 percent for the money income MLD; the equivalenceadjusted Theil index increased 58.9 percent compared with 40.4 percent for the money income Theil index; and the equivalence-adjusted Atkinson measure increased at e=0.25 by 55.7 percent, at e=0.50 by 53.2 percent, and e=0.75 by 54.6 percent compared with 36.6 percent, 32.9 percent, and 30.9 percent, respectively for the money income Atkinson measure at each epsilon.25 25 The differences between the percentage changes in the equivalence-adjusted Atkinson measure based on each epsilon were not statistically significant. The difference between the percentage changes in the money income Atkinson measure based on e=0.50 and e=0.75 was not statistically significant.

U.S. Census Bureau

Work Experience and Earnings The number of working men and women aged 15 and older with earnings decreased between 2008 and 2009—men decreased by 2.1 million to 81.9 million and women decreased by 1.6 million to 73.0 million (Figure 3 and Table A-4). The number of full-time, year-round workers also decreased.26 The number of men who worked full-time, year-round decreased by 3.8 million (to 56.1 million), and the number of women who worked full-time, year round

26 A full-time, year-round worker is a person who worked 35 or more hours per week (fulltime) and 50 or more weeks during the previous calendar year (year-round). For school personnel, summer vacation is counted as weeks worked if they are scheduled to return to their job in the fall. For detailed information on work experience, see Table PINC-05, “Work Experience in 2010—People 15 Years Old and Over by Total Money Earnings in 2010, Age, Race, Hispanic Origin, and Sex” at <www.census.gov/hhes /www/income/dinctabs.html>.

decreased by about 939,000 (to 43.2 million) between 2008 and 2009. An estimated 68.4 percent of working men with earnings and 59.2 percent of working women with earnings worked full-time, year-round in 2009, a decline of 2.8 percentage points for men (from 71.2 percent in 2008); for women, the change was not statistically significant. The 2009 median earnings of all working men aged 15 and older, regardless of work experience, was $36,331, not statistically different from the 2008 median in real terms; while that of their female counterparts increased by 1.9 percent to $26,030 (Table A-4). Meanwhile, both men and women who worked full-time, yearround experienced increases in real median earnings between 2008 and 2009. Median earnings increased 2.0 percent for full-time, year-round working men (from $46,191 to $47,127)

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 11


and 1.9 percent for women who worked full-time, year-round (from $35,609 to $36,278).27 In 2009, the female-to-male earnings ratio of fulltime, year-round workers was 0.77, not statistically different from the 2008 ratio (Table 1 and Figure 2). Since 2007, the year before the most recent recession, the number of working men with earnings decreased by 2.5 million (from 84.5 million to 81.9 million). The number of working women with earnings decreased by 1.3 million (from 74.3 million to 73.0 million) (Figure 3 and Table A-4). Between 2007 and 2009, the real median earnings of male workers declined by 4.1 percent (from $37,898 to $36,331) and for female workers by 2.8 percent (from $26,770 to $26,030). Though the trough of the recession that began in December 2007 has not yet been defined, no other set of income years surrounding the recessions dating from 1969 to the present has experienced such a large decline in the number of workers, or in the percentage-point declines in the percentage of male and female full-time, year-round workers (Figure 3 and Tables 2 and A-4). In addition, 2007 to 2009 is the only period (dating from 1969 to present) showing a decline in women’s real median earnings. For men, the 2007 to 2009 decline in real median earnings is: • Larger than the declines in earnings for the income years surrounding the March 2001 to November 2001 recession (2.6 percent decline) and the December 1969 to November 1970 recession (2.2 percent decline).28 27 The differences among the percentage increases in the earnings of full-time, year-round working men compared with the increases for total working women and women working fulltime, year-round were not statistically different. The difference between the 2009 median earnings of all working men and of full-time, year-round working women was not statistically significant. 28 The difference between the declines in earnings for the income years surrounding the March 2001 and November 2001 recession and the December 1969 to November 1970 recession was not statistically significant.

• Smaller than the declines in earnings for the income years surrounding the recession lasting from July 1990 to March 1991 (6.0 percent decline); the January 1980 to July 1980 and July 1981 to November 1982 combined recessions (10.1 percent decline); and the November 1973 to March 1975 recession (6.4 percent decline).29 Between 2007 and 2009, the real median earnings of full-time, yearround male workers increased by 1.0 percent (from $46,669 to $47,127); the change was not statistically significant for full-time, year-round female workers, with a median of $36,278 in 2009. However, between 2007 and 2009, the number of males working full-time, year-round with earnings decreased by 6.9 million; the number of females working full-time, year-round with earnings decreased by 2.4 million. Since the CPS ASEC is not a longitudinal survey, we cannot determine how the loss of these 9.3 million workers (who worked full-time, year-round in 2007 and did not work in 2009, or who worked full-time, year-round in 2007 and in 2009 worked less than full-time, year-round) affected median earnings (Tables 2 and A-4). Examining the change between 2007 and 2009 in the number of workers with earnings by characteristics such as age, educational attainment, occupation, and class of worker shows that, in many cases, the number of male workers with earnings declined. Although the same can be said for their female counterparts, there were some cases in which the number of female workers increased. Between 2007 and 2009, the number of male workers with earnings in the age groups 15 to 24 and 25 to 44 declined by 1.3 million and 29 The difference between the declines in earnings for income years surrounding the July 1990 to March 1991 recession and the November 1973 to March 1975 recession was not statistically significant.

12 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

1.4 million, respectively. For female workers with earnings, declines were evident in these age groups as well, 766,000 and 1.3 million, respectively; while the number of female workers 45 to 64 years old increased by 579,000 (Table A-5).30 Declines were evident in the number of male workers with earnings between 2007 and 2009 within the educational attainment categories of some college, no degree (678,000 decline), ninth to twelfth grade, nongraduate (348,000 decline), and those with less than a ninth grade education (234,000 decline). Declines were evident for female workers with earnings within the categories high school graduate (639,000 decline) and some college, no degree (646,000 decline); while female workers with an associate’s degree or bachelor’s degree or more increased (gains of 365,000 and 514,000, respectively).31 The occupation groups with statistically significant declines in the number of male workers with earnings between 2007 and 2009 were construction and extraction occupations (1.0 million decline), transportation and material-moving occupations (709,000 decline), production occupations (634,000 decline), and sales and related occupations (586,000 decline). Statistically significant declines in the number of female workers with earnings by occupation group occurred in management, business, and financial operations occupations (413,000 decline); office and administrative support occupations (1.3 million decline); and production occupations (712,000 30 The following differences among the declines in number of workers were not statistically significant: the decline in the number of men 15 to 24 compared with the declines for men 25 to 44 and women 25 to 44, the decline in the number of men 25 to 44 compared with the declines for women 15 to 24 and 25 to 44, the decline in the number of women 15 to 24 compared with that for women 25 to 44. 31 All of the differences among the declines discussed in this paragraph were not statistically significant. In addition, the differences between the increases in the number of women with an associate’s degree and those with a bachelor’s degree were not statistically significant.

U.S. Census Bureau


Figure 3.

Total and Full-Time, Year-Round Workers With Earnings by Sex: 1967 to 2009 90

Numbers in millions

Recession

80 70 60 Male workers

50

Male full-time, 40 year-round workers Female workers

30 20 10

Female full-time year-round workers

0 1959

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2009

Note: Data on number of workers not readily available before 1967. People 15 years old and older beginning in 1980 and people 14 years old and older as of the following year for previous years. Before 1989, data are for civilian workers only. For information on recessions, see Appendix A. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1968 to 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

decline). Between 2007 and 2009, women gained jobs in professional and related occupations (658,000 gain); service occupations (646,000 gain); and farming, fishing, and forestry occupations (87,000 gain).32 32 Except for the following differences, the differences among the declines in this paragraph were not statistically significant: The difference between the decline in the number of females in production occupations compared with the declines for males in sales and related occupations and females in office and administrative support occupations; the difference between the decline in the number of males in construction and extraction occupations and females in management, business, and financial operations occupations; and the difference between the decline in the number of females in office and administrative support occupations compared with the declines in the number of females in management, business, and financial operations occupations and males in production occupations and transportation and material-moving occupations. In addition, the difference between the increases in the number of females in professional and related occupations and those in service occupations was not statistically significant.

U.S. Census Bureau

By class of worker, between 2007 and 2009, declines in the number of male workers with earnings occurred in the private wage and salary (2.3 million decline) and self-employed (426,000 decline) worker categories (Table A-5). For female workers with earnings, a decline of 1.4 million occurred in the private wage and salary worker category (Table A-5). Per Capita Income33

between 2008 and 2009.34 In 2009, the per capita income for the overall population was $26,530; for Whites it was $28,034; for nonHispanic Whites, $30,941; for Blacks, $18,135; for Asians, $30,653; and for Hispanics, $15,063.35 Per capita income declined 1.3 percent for Whites and 3.5 percent for Hispanics (Table 1).36 The changes for nonHispanic Whites, Blacks, and Asians were not statistically significant.

Real per capita income declined by 1.2 percent for the total population

33 The per capita income data presented in this report are not directly comparable with estimates of personal per capita income prepared by the Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Department of Commerce. The lack of correspondence stems from the differences in income definition and coverage. For further details, see <www.census.gov/hhes/www/income /compare1.html>.

34 Unlike medians, per capita and means are affected by extremely high and low incomes. 35 The difference between the per capita incomes of the non-Hispanic-White and Asian populations was not statistically significant. 36 The difference between the declines for the overall and White populations was not statistically significant.

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 13


POVERTY IN THE UNITED STATES37

24.7 percent to 25.8 percent), and for Hispanics (from 23.2 percent to 25.3 percent). For Asians, the 2009 poverty rate (12.5 percent) was not statistically different from the 2008 poverty rate (Table 4).38

Highlights • The official poverty rate in 2009 was 14.3 percent—up from 13.2 percent in 2008. This was the second statistically significant annual increase in the poverty rate since 2004 (Table 4 and Figure 4). • In 2009, 43.6 million people were in poverty, up from 39.8 million in 2008—the third consecutive annual increase in the number of people in poverty (Table 4 and Figure 4). • Between 2008 and 2009, the poverty rate increased for nonHispanic Whites (from 8.6 percent to 9.4 percent), for Blacks (from OMB determined the official definition of poverty in Statistical Poverty Directive 14. Poverty thresholds are updated each year using the change in the average annual Consumer Price Index for All Consumers (CPI-U). Since the average annual CPI-U for 2009 was lower than the average annual CPI-U for 2008, poverty thresholds for 2009 are slightly lower (0.4 percent) than the corresponding thresholds for 2008. Appendix B provides a more detailed description of how the Census Bureau calculates poverty. 37

• The poverty rate in 2009 (14.3 percent) was the highest poverty rate since 1994 but was 8.1 percentage points lower than the poverty rate in 1959, the first year for which poverty estimates are available (Figure 4). • The number of people in poverty in 2009 (43.6 million) is the largest number in the 51 years for which poverty estimates have been published (Figure 4). • Between 2008 and 2009, the poverty rate increased for children under the age of 18 (from 19.0 percent to 20.7 percent) and people aged 18 to 64 (from 11.7 percent to 12.9 percent), but decreased for

38 The poverty rate for Blacks was not statistically different from that of Hispanics.

people aged 65 and older (from 9.7 percent to 8.9 percent) (Table 4).39 Impact of the 2007 Economic Downturn The poverty rate and the number in poverty increased by 1.9 percentage points and 6.3 million between 2007 and 2009 (Table 5). The increase in the overall poverty rate was: • Larger than the increase in the poverty rate during the November 1973 to March 1975 recession.40 • Smaller than the increase in the poverty rates associated with the January 1980 to July 1980 and July 1981 to November 1982 combined recessions. Between 2007 and 2009, the child poverty rate and the number in poverty increased by 2.7 percentage points and 2.1 million. 39 Since unrelated individuals under 15 are excluded from the poverty universe, there are 460,000 fewer children in the poverty universe than in the total civilian noninstitutionalized population. 40 The apparent changes in the poverty rates across the March 2001 to November 2001 and December 1969 to November 1970 recessions were not statistically different from zero.

Figure 4.

Number in Poverty and Poverty Rate: 1959 to 2009 50

Recession

Numbers in millions, rates in percent

45

43.6 million Number in poverty

40 35 30 25 20

Poverty rate 15

14.3 percent

10 5 0 1959

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2009

Note: The data points are placed at the midpoints of the respective years. For information on recessions, see Appendix A. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1960 to 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

14 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau


Table 4.

People and Families in Poverty by Selected Characteristics: 2008 and 2009 (Numbers in thousands, confidence intervals [C.I.] in thousands or percentage points as appropriate. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf) 2008

2009

Below poverty Characteristic Total Number PEOPLE      Total ������������������������������������������������ Family Status In families ������������������������������������������������������   Householder������������������������������������������������   Related children under 18��������������������������    Related children under 6 ������������������������ In unrelated subfamilies����������������������������������   Reference person ��������������������������������������   Children under 18 �������������������������������������� Unrelated individuals��������������������������������������   Male������������������������������������������������������������   Female�������������������������������������������������������� Race3 and Hispanic Origin White��������������������������������������������������������������   White, not Hispanic ������������������������������������ Black�������������������������������������������������������������� Asian�������������������������������������������������������������� Hispanic (any race)���������������������������������������� Age Under 18 years ���������������������������������������������� 18 to 64 years������������������������������������������������ 65 years and older������������������������������������������ Nativity Native born ���������������������������������������������������� Foreign born ��������������������������������������������������   Naturalized citizen��������������������������������������   Not a citizen������������������������������������������������ Region Northeast�������������������������������������������������������� Midwest���������������������������������������������������������� South�������������������������������������������������������������� West �������������������������������������������������������������� Residence Inside metropolitan statistical areas ��������������   Inside principal cities����������������������������������   Outside principal cities�������������������������������� Outside metropolitan statistical areas4 ���������� Work Experience    Total, 16 years and older ������������������������ All workers������������������������������������������������������   Worked full-time, year-round ����������������������   Less than full-time, year-round������������������� Did not work at least 1 week�������������������������� FAMILIES      Total ������������������������������������������������ Type of Family Married-couple����������������������������������������������� Female householder, no husband present ���� Male householder, no wife present����������������

90 percent 1 C.I. (±)

Change in poverty2

Below poverty

Percent

90 percent 1 C.I. (±)

Total

Number

90 percent 1 C.I. (±)

Percent

90 percent 1 C.I. (±)

Number

Percent

301,041

39,829

701

13.2

0.2

303,820

43,569

732

14.3

0.2

*3,740

*1.1

248,301 78,874 72,980 24,884 1,207 452 712 51,534 25,240 26,293

28,564 8,147 13,507 5,295 555 207 341 10,710 4,759 5,951

607 192 353 231 89 54 61 228 139 158

11.5 10.3 18.5 21.3 46.0 45.7 47.8 20.8 18.9 22.6

0.2 0.2 0.5 0.9 5.4 8.9 6.2 0.3 0.5 0.5

249,384 78,867 73,410 25,104 1,357 521 747 53,079 26,269 26,811

31,197 8,792 14,774 5,983 693 253 423 11,678 5,255 6,424

633 201 366 244 99 60 68 242 147 166

12.5 11.1 20.1 23.8 51.1 48.7 56.6 22.0 20.0 24.0

0.3 0.3 0.5 0.9 5.1 8.3 6.0 0.3 0.5 0.5

*2,634 *644 *1,267 *688 *138 47 *82 *968 *496 *473

*1.0 *0.8 *1.6 *2.6 5.1 2.9 *8.7 *1.2 *1.1 *1.3

240,548 196,940 37,966 13,310 47,398

26,990 17,024 9,379 1,576 10,987

592 479 337 145 348

11.2 8.6 24.7 11.8 23.2

0.2 0.2 0.8 1.1 0.7

242,047 197,164 38,556 14,005 48,811

29,830 18,530 9,944 1,746 12,350

621 499 345 152 363

12.3 9.4 25.8 12.5 25.3

0.3 0.2 0.8 1.1 0.7

*2,841 *1,506 *565 *169 *1,363

*1.1 *0.8 *1.1 0.6 *2.1

74,068 189,185 37,788

14,068 22,105 3,656

359 536 134

19.0 11.7 9.7

0.5 0.3 0.4

74,579 190,627 38,613

15,451 24,684 3,433

372 563 130

20.7 12.9 8.9

0.5 0.3 0.3

*1,383 *2,579 *–223

*1.7 *1.3 *–0.8

264,314 36,727 15,470 21,257

33,293 6,536 1,577 4,959

650 345 171 301

12.6 17.8 10.2 23.3

0.2 0.9 1.0 1.3

266,223 37,597 16,024 21,573

36,407 7,162 1,736 5,425

678 361 179 315

13.7 19.0 10.8 25.1

0.3 0.9 1.1 1.3

*3,114 *626 160 *466

*1.1 *1.3 0.6 *1.8

54,123 65,589 110,666 70,663

6,295 8,120 15,862 9,552

292 319 458 360

11.6 12.4 14.3 13.5

0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5

54,571 65,980 112,165 71,103

6,650 8,768 17,609 10,542

296 335 479 376

12.2 13.3 15.7 14.8

0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5

*355 *648 *1,747 *990

0.6 *0.9 *1.4 *1.3

253,048 97,217 155,831 47,993

32,570 17,222 15,348 7,259

643 481 456 390

12.9 17.7 9.8 15.1

0.3 0.5 0.3 0.8

256,028 97,725 158,302 47,792

35,655 18,261 17,394 7,914

672 496 484 407

13.9 18.7 11.0 16.6

0.3 0.5 0.3 0.8

*3,085 *1,039 *2,046 *656

*1.1 *1.0 *1.1 *1.4

236,024 158,317 104,023 54,294 77,707

27,216 10,085 2,754 7,331 17,131

587 372 197 319 477

11.5 6.4 2.6 13.5 22.0

0.2 0.2 0.2 0.6 0.6

238,095 154,772 99,306 55,466 83,323

29,625 10,680 2,641 8,039 18,944

609 382 193 333 499

12.4 6.9 2.7 14.5 22.7

0.3 0.2 0.2 0.6 0.5

*2,409 *595 –113 *708 *1,814

*0.9 *0.5 – *1.0 *0.7

78,874

8,147

192

10.3

0.2

78,867

8,792

201

11.1

0.3

*644

*0.8

59,137 14,482 5,255

3,261 4,163 723

112 128 50

5.5 28.7 13.8

0.2 1.0 1.0

58,428 14,857 5,582

3,409 4,441 942

114 133 57

5.8 29.9 16.9

0.2 1.0 1.1

*147 *278 *219

*0.3 *1.1 *3.1

– Represents or rounds to zero.   * Statistically different from zero at the 90 percent confidence level. 1 A 90 percent confidence interval is a measure of an estimate’s variability. The larger the confidence interval in relation to the size of the estimate, the less reliable the estimate. For more information, see “Standard Errors and Their Use” at <www.census.gov/hhes/www/p60_238sa.pdf>. 2 Details may not sum to totals because of rounding. 3 Federal surveys now give respondents the option of reporting more than one race. Therefore, two basic ways of defining a race group are possible. A group such as Asian may be defined as those who reported Asian and no other race (the race-alone or single-race concept) or as those who reported Asian regardless of whether they also reported another race (the race-alone-or-in-combination concept). This table shows data using the first approach (race alone). The use of the single-race population does not imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing data. The Census Bureau uses a variety of approaches. Information on people who reported more than one race, such as White and American Indian and Alaska Native or Asian and Black or African American, is available from Census 2000 through American FactFinder. About 2.6 percent of people reported more than one race in Census 2000. Data for American Indians and Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders, and those reporting two or more races are not shown separately. 4 The “Outside metropolitan statistical areas” category includes both micropolitan statistical areas and territory outside of metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas. For more information, see “About Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas” at <www.census.gov/population/www/estimates/aboutmetro.html>. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2009 and 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 15


Table 5.

Change in Poverty During Income Years Surrounding Recessions: 1969 to 2009 (Numbers in thousands. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf) Recessions1 Income years December 2007, trough not yet defined �������������������������������������������������������� March 2001 to November 2001���������������������������������������������������������������������� July 1990 to March 1991�������������������������������������������������������������������������������� January 1980 to July 1980 and July 1981 to November 1982������������������������ November 1973 to March 1975���������������������������������������������������������������������� December 1969 to November 1970���������������������������������������������������������������

Change in number of people in Change in poverty poverty rate

2007 to 2009 1999 to 2002 19892 to 1991 1978 to 1983 1973 to 1975 1969 to 1971

*6,293 *1,779 *3,293 *10,806 *2,904 *1,412

*1.9 0.2 *1.2 *3.9 *1.2 0.4

Change in number of children in poverty

Change in child poverty rate

*2,127 –147 *1,187 *3,980 *1,462 *860

*2.7 –0.4 *1.7 *6.4 *2.7 *1.3

* Statistically different from zero at the 90 percent confidence level. 1 Recessions are determined by the National Bureau of Economic Research, a private research organization. 2 For comparability purposes, the 1989 poverty rate used in this calculation (13.1 percent) is based on data that reflect the implementation of the 1990 decennial census population controls. This poverty rate is different from the poverty rate shown in Table B-1, which is based on 1980 census population controls. Note: Income years are based on peak income year prior to or during the start of the recession and the trough income year near or after the end of the recession. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1970 to 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

Race and Hispanic Origin

Age

Both the poverty rate and the number in poverty increased for non-Hispanic Whites from 2008 to 2009 (9.4 percent and 18.5 million in 2009—up from 8.6 percent and 17.0 million in 2008) (Table 4). The poverty rate for non-Hispanic Whites was lower than the poverty rates for other race groups. Non-Hispanic Whites accounted for 42.5 percent of the people in poverty, compared with 64.9 percent of the total population.

Between 2008 and 2009, both the poverty rate and the number in poverty increased for people aged 18 to 64 (from 11.7 percent and 22.1 million to 12.9 percent and 24.7 million). Both the poverty rate and the number in poverty decreased for people aged 65 and older (from 9.7 percent and 3.7 million to 8.9 percent and 3.4 million) (Table 4 and Figure 5).

For Blacks, the poverty rate and the number in poverty increased to 25.8 percent and 9.9 million in 2009, higher than 24.7 percent and 9.4 million in 2008. For Asians, the 2009 poverty rate (12.5 percent) was not statistically different from the 2008 rate, while the number of Asians in poverty increased from 1.6 million in 2008 to 1.7 million in 2009. Both the number in poverty and the poverty rate increased for Hispanics—12.4 million or 25.3 percent were in poverty in 2009, up from 11.0 million or 23.2 percent in 2008.41

Both the poverty rate and the number in poverty increased for children under the age of 18 (from 19.0 percent and 14.1 million in 2008 to 20.7 percent and 15.5 million in 2009). The poverty rate for children was higher than the rates for people aged 18 to 64 and those aged 65 and older (Table 4). Children comprised 35.5 percent of people in poverty but only 24.5 percent of the total population. Related children are related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption and are not themselves householders or spouses of householders.42 Both the poverty rate and the number in poverty increased for related children under the age of 18 (from 18.5 percent and 13.5 million in 2008 to Official poverty estimates for children are compiled in two ways—estimates for “all children” and estimates for “related children.” In 2009, “all children” included 1.2 million more children than “related children.” 42

41 The poverty rate for Blacks was not statistically different from that of Hispanics.

16 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

20.1 percent and 14.8 million in 2009). For related children under the age of 18 in families with a female householder, 44.4 percent were in poverty compared with 11.0 percent of related children in married-couple families.43 Both the poverty rate and the number in poverty increased for related children under the age of 6 (from 21.3 percent and 5.3 million in 2008 to 23.8 percent and 6.0 million in 2009). Of related children under the age of 6 in families with a female householder, 54.3 percent were in poverty—four times the rate of related children in married-couple families (13.4 percent). Nativity Of all people, 87.6 percent were native born and 12.4 percent were foreign born. The poverty rate and the number in poverty for the native-born population increased from 12.6 percent and 33.3 million in 2008 to 13.7 percent and 36.4 million in 2009. Among the foreign-born population, 19.0 percent or 7.2 million people lived in poverty in 2009—up from 17.8 percent or 6.5 million people in 2008 (Table 4). 43 In the text of this report, families with a female householder with no husband present will be referred to as families with a female householder. Families with a male householder with no wife present will be referred to as families with a male householder.

U.S. Census Bureau


Figure 5.

Poverty Rates by Age: 1959 to 2009 50

Recession

Percent

45 40 35

65 years and older

30 25

Under 18 years

20

20.7 percent

15

12.9 percent 8.9 percent

10 18 to 64 years

5 0 1959

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2009

Notes: The data points are placed at the midpoints of the respective years. For information on recessions, see Appendix A. Data for people aged 18 to 64 and 65 and older are not available from 1960 to 1965. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1960 to 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

Of the foreign-born population, 42.6 percent were naturalized U.S. citizens; the remaining were not U.S. citizens. The poverty rate and the number in poverty in 2009 for naturalized U.S. citizens were 10.8 percent and 1.7 million, estimates not statistically different from 2008. The poverty rate and the number in poverty for those who were not U.S. citizens rose to 25.1 percent and 5.4 million in 2009â&#x20AC;&#x201D;up from 23.3 percent and 5.0 million in 2008. Region The poverty rate increased from 2008 to 2009 in three of the four regions, while all four regions had increases in the number of people in poverty. The Midwest poverty rate increased from 12.4 percent to 13.3 percent, and the number in poverty increased from 8.1 million to 8.8 million; the South increased from 14.3 percent to 15.7 percent and from 15.9 million to 17.6 million; and the West increased from 13.5 percent to 14.8 percent and from 9.6 million to 10.5 million. The 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

poverty rate for the Northeast was 12.2 percent (not statistically different from the 2008 rate), while the number in poverty increased from 6.3 million in 2008 to 6.7 million in 2009. Residence Inside metropolitan statistical areas, the poverty rate and the number of people in poverty were 13.9 percent and 35.7 million in 2009â&#x20AC;&#x201D;up from 12.9 percent and 32.6 million in 2008. Among those living outside metropolitan areas, the poverty rate and the number in poverty were 16.6 percent and 7.9 million in 2009â&#x20AC;&#x201D;up from 15.1 percent and 7.3 million in 2008. Between 2008 and 2009, the poverty rate for people in principal cities increased from 17.7 percent to 18.7 percent, while the number in poverty increased from 17.2 million to 18.3 million. Within metropolitan areas, people in poverty were more likely to live in principal cities. While 38.2 percent of all people living in metropolitan areas in 2009 lived in principal cities,

51.2 percent of poor people in metropolitan areas lived in principal cities. For those inside metropolitan areas but not in principal cities, the poverty rate and the number in poverty rose from 9.8 percent and 15.3 million to 11.0 percent and 17.4 million. Work Experience Among all workers aged 16 and older, both the poverty rate and the number in poverty increased to 6.9 percent and 10.7 million from 6.4 percent and 10.1 million. Between 2008 and 2009, the increase in poverty among workers was driven almost entirely by those who worked less than full-time, year-round.44 Both the percentage and number in poverty increased among less than full-time, year-round workers from 13.5 percent and 7.3 million to 14.5 percent and 8.0 million. For full-time, year-round 44 The increase between the 2008 and 2009 estimates for all workers and for less than fulltime, year-round workers were not statistically different from each other.

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 17


Table 6.

People With Income Below Specified Ratios of Their Poverty Thresholds by Selected Characteristics: 2009 (Numbers in thousands, confidence intervals [C.I.] in thousands or percentage points as appropriate. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf) Income-to-poverty ratio Under 0.50

Characteristic

     All people���������������������������

Under 1.00

Percent

90 percent C.I.1 (±)

Under 1.25

Total

Number

90 percent C.I.1 (±)

Number

90 percent C.I.1 (±)

Percent

90 percent C.I.1 (±)

Number

90 percent C.I.1 (±)

Percent

90 percent C.I.1 (±)

303,820

19,028

505

6.3

0.2

43,569

732

14.3

0.2

56,840

815

18.7

0.3

74,579 29,313 41,085 40,447 44,387 19,172 16,223 38,613

6,914 3,039 2,845 1,967 1,961 719 587 994

264 124 122 102 102 62 56 72

9.3 10.4 6.9 4.9 4.4 3.8 3.6 2.6

0.4 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2

15,451 6,071 6,123 4,756 4,421 1,792 1,520 3,433

372 168 175 156 150 97 90 130

20.7 20.7 14.9 11.8 10.0 9.3 9.4 8.9

0.5 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.3

19,588 7,523 7,884 6,197 5,718 2,349 2,074 5,507

406 183 196 176 169 111 104 160

26.3 25.7 19.2 15.3 12.9 12.3 12.8 14.3

0.5 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.4

242,047 197,164 38,556 14,005 48,811

12,620 8,009 4,607 866 5,081

416 334 247 109 255

5.2 4.1 11.9 6.2 10.4

0.2 0.2 0.6 0.8 0.5

29,830 18,530 9,944 1,746 12,350

621 499 345 152 363

12.3 9.4 25.8 12.5 25.3

0.3 0.2 0.8 1.1 0.7

39,509 24,853 12,483 2,232 15,980

702 572 377 170 392

16.3 12.6 32.4 15.9 32.7

0.3 0.3 0.9 1.2 0.8

249,384 78,867 73,410 25,104 1,357 53,079 26,269 26,811

12,559 3,625 6,418 2,751 451 6,019 2,900 3,119

415 118 255 170 80 159 105 109

5.0 4.6 8.7 11.0 33.2 11.3 11.0 11.6

0.2 0.1 0.3 0.7 4.8 0.3 0.4 0.4

31,197 8,792 14,774 5,983 693 11,678 5,255 6,424

633 201 366 244 99 242 147 166

12.5 11.1 20.1 23.8 51.1 22.0 20.0 24.0

0.3 0.2 0.5 0.9 5.1 0.3 0.5 0.5

41,144 11,620 18,857 7,437 771 14,924 6,598 8,326

714 241 401 269 105 286 168 194

16.5 14.7 25.7 29.6 56.8 28.1 25.1 31.1

0.3 0.2 0.5 1.0 5.1 0.4 0.5 0.5

Age Under 18 years ��������������������������������� 18 to 24 years����������������������������������� 25 to 34 years����������������������������������� 35 to 44 years����������������������������������� 45 to 54 years����������������������������������� 55 to 59 years����������������������������������� 60 to 64 years����������������������������������� 65 years and older����������������������������� Race2 and Hispanic Origin White�������������������������������������������������   White, not Hispanic ����������������������� Black������������������������������������������������� Asian������������������������������������������������� Hispanic (any race)��������������������������� Family Status In families �����������������������������������������   Householder�����������������������������������   Related children under 18�������������    Related children under 6 ����������� In unrelated subfamilies��������������������� Unrelated individuals�������������������������   Male�����������������������������������������������   Female�������������������������������������������

1 A 90 percent confidence interval is a measure of an estimate’s variability. The larger the confidence interval in relation to the size of the estimate, the less reliable the estimate. For more information see “Standard Errors and Their Use” at <www.census.gov/hhes/www/p60_238sa.pdf>. 2 Federal surveys now give respondents the option of reporting more than one race. Therefore, two basic ways of defining a race group are possible. A group such as Asian may be defined as those who reported Asian and no other race (the race-alone or single-race concept) or as those who reported Asian regardless of whether they also reported another race (the race-alone-or-in-combination concept). This table shows data using the first approach (race alone). The use of the single-race population does not imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing data. The Census Bureau uses a variety of approaches. Information on people who reported more than one race, such as White and American Indian and Alaska Native or Asian and Black or African American, is available from Census 2000 through American FactFinder. About 2.6 percent of people reported more than one race in Census 2000. Data for American Indians and Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders, and those reporting two or more races are not shown separately.

Note: Details may not sum to totals because of rounding. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

workers, the percentage and number in poverty in 2009 were not statistically different from 2008—2.7 percent and 2.6 million.45 Among those who did not work at least one week last year, the poverty rate and the number in poverty increased to 22.7 percent and 18.9 million in 2009 from 22.0 percent and 17.1 million in 2008 (Table 4). 45 A full-time, year-round worker is a person who worked 35 or more hours per week (fulltime) and 50 or more weeks during the previous calendar year (year-round). For school personnel, summer vacation is counted as weeks worked if they are scheduled to return to their job in the fall.

Families The poverty rate and the number of families in poverty were 11.1 percent and 8.8 million in 2009 compared with 10.3 percent and 8.1 million in 2008 (Table 4). The poverty rate and the number of families in poverty increased across all types of families: married-couple families (5.8 percent and 3.4 million in 2009 from 5.5 percent and 3.3 million in 2008); families with a female householder (29.9 percent and 4.4 million in 2009 from 28.7 percent and 4.2 million in 2008); and families with a male householder (16.9 percent and

18 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

942,000 in 2009 from 13.8 percent and 723,000 in 2008). Depth of Poverty Categorizing a person as “in poverty” or “not in poverty” is one way to describe his or her economic situation. The income-to-poverty ratio and the income deficit or surplus describe additional aspects of economic well-being. While the poverty rate shows the proportion of people with income below the appropriate poverty threshold, the income-to-poverty ratio gauges the depth of poverty. It shows how close a family’s income

U.S. Census Bureau


Figure 6.

Demographic Makeup of the Population at Varying Degrees of Poverty: 2009 (Percent) Total population

24.5

12.7

62.7

Children under 18 years old People 18 to 64 years old

Population with incomes below 50 percent of thresholds

36.3

58.4

Population with incomes below 100 percent of thresholds

35.5

56.7

Population with incomes below 125 percent of thresholds

34.5

55.8

5.2

People 65 years and older

7.9

9.7

Note: Details may not sum to 100 percent because of rounding. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

is to their poverty threshold. The income-to-poverty ratio is reported as a percentage that compares a family’s or an unrelated person’s income with the appropriate poverty threshold. For example, a family with an incometo-poverty ratio of 110 percent has income that is 10 percent above their poverty threshold. The income deficit or surplus shows how many dollars a family’s or an unrelated person’s income is below (or above) their poverty threshold. For those with an income deficit, the measure is an estimate of the dollar amount necessary to raise a family’s or a person’s income to their poverty threshold. Ratio of Income to Poverty Table 6 presents the number and percentage of people with specified income-to-poverty ratios—those below 50 percent of poverty (“Under 0.50”), those below 100 percent of poverty (“Under 1.00,” also called “in poverty”), and those below 125 percent of poverty (“Under 1.25”).

U.S. Census Bureau

In 2009, 6.3 percent of all people, or 19.0 million people, had income below one-half of their poverty threshold, up from 5.7 percent and 17.1 million in 2008. This group represented 43.7 percent of the poverty population in 2009. The percentage and number of people with income below 125 percent of their threshold was 18.7 percent and 56.8 million, up from 17.9 percent and 53.8 million in 2008. For children under the age of 18 in 2009, 9.3 percent and 6.9 million lived in families with income below 50 percent of their poverty threshold, up from 8.5 percent and 6.3 million in 2008. The percentage and number of children living in families with income below 125 percent of their poverty threshold in 2009 was 26.3 percent and 19.6 million, up from 25.0 percent and 18.6 million in 2008 (Table 6). The demographic makeup of the population differs at varying degrees of poverty. Children represented 24.5 percent of the overall population, 35.5 percent of the people in poverty, and 36.3 percent of the people with income below 50 percent of their

poverty threshold. On the other hand, the elderly represented 12.7 percent of the overall population, 7.9 percent of the people in poverty, and 5.2 percent of those with income below 50 percent of their poverty threshold. For people with income below 125 percent of their poverty threshold, 34.5 percent were children while 9.7 percent were elderly (Figure 6).46 Income Deficit The income deficit for families in poverty (the difference in dollars between a family’s income and its poverty threshold) averaged $9,042 in 2009, which was not statistically different from the 2008 estimate. The average income deficit was larger for families with a female householder ($9,218) than for married-couple families ($8,820) (Table 7).47

46 The percentage of children below 100 percent of poverty was not statistically different from the percentage of children below 50 percent of poverty. 47 The income deficit for families in poverty was not statistically different from the income deficit for families with a female householder or married-couple families.

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 19


Table 7.

Income Deficit or Surplus of Families and Unrelated Individuals by Poverty Status: 2009 (Numbers of families and unrelated individuals in thousands, deficits and surpluses and their confidence intervals [C.I.] in dollars. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)

Size of deficit or surplus

Average deficit or surplus (dollars)

Characteristic

Under Total $500

$500 $1,000 $2,000 $3,000 $4,000 $5,000 $6,000 $7,000 $8,000 to to to to to to to to or $999 $1,999 $2,999 $3,999 $4,999 $5,999 $6,999 $7,999 more

Deficit or surplus per capita (dollars)

Estimate

90 percent C.I.1 (±)

Estimate

90 percent C.I.1 (±)

Below Poverty Threshold, Deficit All families�������������������������������������������� 8,792   Married-couple families�������������������� 3,409   Families with a female householder,    no husband present������������������������ 4,441   Families with a male householder,    no wife present�������������������������������� 942 Unrelated individuals���������������������������� 11,678   Male�������������������������������������������������� 5,255   Female���������������������������������������������� 6,424

268 108

306 158

667 309

657 271

509 239

563 190

542 201

526 177

472 164

4,282 1,590

9,042 8,820

118 202

2,548 2,211

54 76

130

123

286

313

201

320

287

273

262

2,247

9,218

160

2,776

81

30 594 266 328

25 524 198 325

72 1,505 661 844

74 968 359 609

68 1,105 454 651

53 632 262 370

53 549 226 322

77 633 348 285

45 426 175 251

445 4,743 2,304 2,439

9,018 6,158 6,443 5,926

352 64 95 86

2,972 6,158 6,443 5,926

192 165 262 219

70,075 55,020

264 94

303 137

581 284

652 363

749 393

696 361

768 414

737 430

794 64,531 69,125 454 52,089 77,406

544 22,201 651 24,419

303 336

10,416

137

134

238

223

282

257

259

232

270

735 11,891

317

4,640 41,401 21,014 20,387

33 527 187 340

32 956 478 478

60 1,256 507 749

65 1,148 415 733

74 1,324 675 649

78 1,175 523 652

95 1,086 442 644

75 1,198 514 684

70 4,059 47,769 1,688 16,779 980 31,751 31,398 411 31,398 369 16,906 35,333 630 35,333 611 14,846 27,343 523 27,343

717 572 895 724

Above Poverty Threshold, Surplus All families��������������������������������������������   Married-couple families��������������������   Families with a female householder,    no husband present������������������������   Families with a male householder,    no wife present�������������������������������� Unrelated individuals����������������������������   Male��������������������������������������������������   Female����������������������������������������������

8,383 34,898

1 A 90 percent confidence interval is a measure of an estimate’s variability. The larger the confidence interval in relation to the size of the estimate, the less reliable the estimate. For more information see “Standard Errors and Their Use” at <www.census.gov/hhes/www/p60_238sa.pdf>. Note: Details may not sum to totals because of rounding. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

The average income deficit per capita for families with a female householder ($2,776) was higher than for married-couple families ($2,211). The income deficit per capita is computed by dividing the average deficit by the average number of people in that type of family. Since families with a female householder were smaller, on average, than married-couple families, the larger per capita deficit for femalehouseholder families reflects their smaller average family size as well as their lower average family income. For unrelated individuals in poverty, the average income deficit was $6,158 in 2009. The $5,926 deficit for women was lower than the $6,443 deficit for men.48 48 The average income deficit for unrelated individuals was not significantly different from the income deficit for unrelated men or unrelated women.

Alternative/Experimental Poverty Measures The poverty estimates in this report are based on money income before taxes, do not include the value of noncash benefits, and use the official poverty thresholds. The money income measure does not completely capture the economic well-being of individuals and families; and there are many questions about the adequacy of the official poverty thresholds. Families and individuals also derive economic well-being from noncash benefits, such as food and housing subsidies, and their disposable income is determined by both taxes paid and tax credits received. The official poverty thresholds developed more than 40 years ago do not take into account rising standards of living or such things as child care expenses, other work-related expenses,

20 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

variations in medical costs across population groups, or geographic differences in the cost of living. Poverty estimates using the new Supplemental Poverty Measure, which the Census Bureau expects to publish for the first time in September 2011, will address these concerns. For more details, see the text box “Supplemental Poverty Measure” on page 2. National Academy of Sciences (NAS)Based Measures and Estimates of the Effect of Benefits and Taxes The Census Bureau currently computes several alternative measures of income and poverty which fall into two categories: 1) poverty measures based on the 1995 recommendations of the National Academy of Sciences Panel on Poverty and Family Assistance called NAS-based measures

U.S. Census Bureau


and 2) other income and poverty estimates in the Effect of Benefits and Taxes on Income and Poverty series (R&D). The NAS-based measures use both alternative poverty thresholds and an expanded income definition. The R&D estimates use the official thresholds but examine the impact of adding or subtracting specific components from an enhanced definition of income. The Census Bureau will release estimates for these alternative measures for 2009 at a later date. Estimates for 2008 for the R&D series can be found at <www.census.gov/hhes/www /cpstables/032009/rdcall/toc.htm> and 2008 estimates for the NAS-based measures can be found at <www.census.gov/hhes/www /povmeas/tables.html>. The Census Bureau also makes ­available a research file that provides microdata with variables used to construct the NAS-based alternative measures, available at <www.census.gov/hhes/www /povmeas/datafiles.html>, and an expanded version of the CPS ASEC public-use file that includes estimates of the value of taxes and noncash

U.S. Census Bureau

benefits, available at <www.bls .census.gov/cps_ftp.html#cpsmarch>. Both microdata files are currently available for 2008. Data for 2009 will be released before the end of the year. CPS Table Creator II CPS Table Creator II is a Web-based tool designed to help researchers explore alternative income and ­poverty measures. The tool is available from a link on the Census Bureau’s poverty Web site <www.census.gov/hhes/www /cpstc/apm/cpstc_altpov.html>. Table Creator II allows researchers to produce poverty and income estimates using their own combinations of threshold and resource definitions and to see the incremental impact of the addition or subtraction of a single resource element. For example: • If the cash value of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits were added to the money income of families, this would move the family resources of 2.2 million people above the official poverty line in 2008. • Taking into account the value of the federal Earned Income Tax Credit would reduce the number of

children classified as poor in 2008 by 2 million. • In 2008, the number of elderly people in poverty would be higher by 13 million people if Social Security payments were excluded from money income, more than quadrupling the number of elderly people in poverty. Researchers can also estimate poverty rates using alternative poverty thresholds. Many other countries use relative poverty measures with thresholds that are based on a percentage of median or mean income.49 Table Creator II allows researchers to estimate poverty rates using a relative poverty threshold calculated as any percentage of mean or median equivalence-adjusted income. For example, using poverty thresholds based on 50 percent of median income rather than the official poverty thresholds would increase the overall poverty rate in 2008 from 13.2 percent to 21.9 percent.

49 For example, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) uses a poverty threshold of 50 percent of median income. The European Union defines poverty as an income below 60 percent of the national median of equalized disposable income after social transfers.

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 21


HEALTH INSURANCE COVERAGE IN THE UNITED STATES Highlights • The percentage of people without health insurance increased to 16.7 percent in 2009 from 15.4 percent in 2008. The number of uninsured people increased to 50.7 million in 2009 from 46.3 million in 2008 (Table 8 and Figure 7).50 • The number of people with health insurance decreased to 253.6 million in 2009 from 255.1 million in 2008. This is the first year that the number of people with health insurance has decreased since 1987, the first year that comparable health insurance data were collected. The number of people covered by private health insurance decreased to 194.5 million in 2009 from 201.0 million in 2008. The number of people covered by government health insurance increased to 93.2 million in 2009 from 87.4 million in 2008 (Table C-1). • Between 2008 and 2009, the percentage of people covered by private health insurance decreased from 66.7 percent to 63.9 percent (Figure 8 and Table C-1). The percentage of people covered by employment-based health insurance decreased to 55.8 percent in 2009, from 58.5 percent in 2008. The percentage of people covered by employment-based health insurance is the lowest since 1987, the

50 For a brief description of how the Census Bureau collects and reports on health insurance data, see the text box “What Is Health Insurance Coverage?” For a discussion of the quality of ASEC health insurance coverage estimates, see Appendix C.

What Is Health Insurance Coverage? The Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement (CPS ASEC) asks about health insurance coverage in the previous calendar year. Specifically, the survey asks separate questions about the major types of health insurance. People who answer “no” to each of the coverage questions are then asked to verify that they were, in fact, not covered by any type of health insurance. For reporting purposes, the U.S. Census Bureau broadly classifies health insurance coverage as private coverage or government coverage. Private health insurance is a plan provided through an employer or a union or purchased by an individual from a private company. Government health insurance includes such federal programs as Medicare, Medicaid, and military health care; the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP); and individual state health plans.* People were considered “insured” if they were covered by any type of health insurance for part or all of the previous calendar year. They were considered “uninsured” if, for the entire year, they were not covered by any type of health insurance. Research shows health insurance coverage is underreported in the CPS ASEC for a variety of reasons. Annual retrospective questions appear to cause few problems when collecting income data (possibly because the interview period is close to when people pay their taxes). However, because health insurance coverage status can change over the course of a year, answering questions about this long reference period may lead to response errors. For example, some people may report their insurance coverage status at the time of their interview rather than their coverage status during the previous calendar year. Compared with other national surveys, the CPS ASEC’s estimate of the number of people without health insurance more closely approximates the number of people who were uninsured at a specific point in time during the year than the number of people uninsured for the entire year. There are several ongoing projects aimed at improving the quality of health coverage data from the CPS ASEC, including cognitive research and field testing to improve the wording of the CPS ASEC health coverage questions. For more information on the quality of CPS ASEC health insurance estimates, see Appendix C, “Estimates of Health Insurance Coverage.” For a comparison between health insurance coverage rates from the major federal surveys, see How Many People Lack Health Insurance and for How Long? (Congressional Budget Office, May 2003) at <www.cbo.gov /doc.cfm?index=4210> and People With Health Insurance: A Comparison of Estimates From Two Surveys, SIPP Working Paper 243, June 2004, at <www.census.gov/sipp/workpapr/sp243.pdf>. *Types of insurance are not mutually exclusive; people may be covered by more than one during the year.

22 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau


Table 8.

People Without Health Insurance Coverage by Selected Characteristics: 2008 and 2009 (Numbers in thousands, confidence intervals [C.I.] in thousands or percentage points as appropriate. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf) 2008

2009

Uninsured

Characteristic

Change in ­ ninsured1 u

Uninsured

Total

Number

90 percent C.I.2 (±)

Percent

90 percent C.I.2 (±)

Total

Number

90 percent C.I.2 (±)

Percent

90 percent C.I.2 (±)

Number

Percent

     Total �����������������������������������������

301,483

46,340

529

15.4

0.2

304,280

50,674

549

16.7

0.2

*4,335

*1.3

Family Status In families �����������������������������������������������   Householder�����������������������������������������   Related children under 18�������������������    Related children under 6 ����������������� In unrelated subfamilies��������������������������� Unrelated individuals�������������������������������

248,301 78,874 72,980 24,884 1,207 51,975

35,248 10,535 7,025 2,142 300 10,791

472 170 222 124 46 172

14.2 13.4 9.6 8.6 24.9 20.8

0.2 0.2 0.3 0.5 3.3 0.3

249,384 78,867 73,410 25,104 1,357 53,539

38,228 11,586 7,202 2,275 364 12,082

489 178 225 127 51 181

15.3 14.7 9.8 9.1 26.8 22.6

0.2 0.2 0.3 0.5 3.2 0.3

*2,981 *1,050 177 134 *64 *1,290

*1.1 *1.3 0.2 0.5 1.9 *1.8

Race3 and Hispanic Origin White�������������������������������������������������������   White, not Hispanic ����������������������������� Black ������������������������������������������������������� Asian������������������������������������������������������� Hispanic (any race)���������������������������������

240,852 197,159 38,076 13,315 47,485

34,890 21,322 7,284 2,344 14,558

470 377 257 147 323

14.5 10.8 19.1 17.6 30.7

0.2 0.2 0.6 1.1 0.7

242,403 197,436 38,624 14,011 48,901

38,399 23,658 8,102 2,409 15,820

490 395 269 149 332

15.8 12.0 21.0 17.2 32.4

0.2 0.2 0.7 1.0 0.7

*3,509 *2,336 *818 65 *1,263

*1.4 *1.2 *1.8 –0.4 *1.7

Age Under 65 years ���������������������������������������   Under 18 years �����������������������������������   18 to 24 years �������������������������������������   25 to 34 years �������������������������������������   35 to 44 years �������������������������������������   45 to 64 years ������������������������������������� 65 years and older�����������������������������������

263,695 74,510 28,688 40,520 41,322 78,655 37,788

45,693 7,348 8,200 10,754 8,035 11,355 646

526 227 239 273 237 280 68

17.3 9.9 28.6 26.5 19.4 14.4 1.7

0.2 0.3 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.2

265,667 75,040 29,313 41,085 40,447 79,782 38,613

49,998 7,513 8,923 11,963 8,759 12,840 676

546 229 249 287 247 297 70

18.8 10.0 30.4 29.1 21.7 16.1 1.8

0.2 0.3 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.2

*4,305 165 *723 *1,209 *723 *1,485 30

*1.5 0.1 *1.9 *2.6 *2.2 *1.7 –

Nativity Native born ��������������������������������������������� Foreign born �������������������������������������������   Naturalized citizen�������������������������������   Not a citizen�����������������������������������������

264,733 36,750 15,475 21,274

34,036 12,304 2,792 9,511

465 331 161 293

12.9 33.5 18.0 44.7

0.2 0.8 0.9 1.0

266,674 37,606 16,024 21,581

37,694 12,980 3,044 9,936

486 340 168 299

14.1 34.5 19.0 46.0

0.2 0.7 0.9 1.0

*3,658 *677 *252 *425

*1.3 *1.0 1.0 *1.3

Region Northeast������������������������������������������������� Midwest��������������������������������������������������� South������������������������������������������������������� West �������������������������������������������������������

54,191 65,672 110,845 70,775

6,277 7,588 20,154 12,321

205 223 357 284

11.6 11.6 18.2 17.4

0.4 0.3 0.3 0.4

54,654 66,096 112,312 71,218

6,789 8,770 22,105 13,011

212 237 370 290

12.4 13.3 19.7 18.3

0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4

*512 *1,181 *1,951 *690

*0.8 *1.7 *1.5 *0.9

Residence Inside metropolitan statistical areas �������   Inside principal cities���������������������������   Outside principal cities������������������������� Outside metropolitan statistical areas4 ���

253,399 97,364 156,036 48,083

39,023 17,963 21,060 7,317

493 348 375 277

15.4 18.4 13.5 15.2

0.2 0.3 0.2 0.5

256,383 97,856 158,527 47,897

43,028 19,270 23,758 7,646

514 360 396 283

16.8 19.7 15.0 16.0

0.2 0.3 0.2 0.5

*4,006 *1,307 *2,699 329

*1.4 *1.2 *1.5 *0.7

Household Income Less than $25,000����������������������������������� $25,000 to $49,999��������������������������������� $50,000 to $74,999��������������������������������� $75,000 or more �������������������������������������

55,814 69,621 57,525 118,523

13,673 14,908 8,034 9,725

306 319 237 260

24.5 21.4 14.0 8.2

0.5 0.4 0.4 0.2

58,159 71,340 58,381 116,400

15,483 15,278 9,352 10,561

324 322 255 270

26.6 21.4 16.0 9.1

0.5 0.4 0.4 0.2

*1,811 369 *1,318 *836

*2.1 – *2.1 *0.9

Work Experience    Total, 18 to 64 years old������������������� All workers����������������������������������������������� Worked full-time, year-round��������������� Less than full-time, year-round ����������� Did not work��������������������������������������������

189,185 148,463 100,626 47,837 40,723

38,345 27,772 14,723 13,049 10,573

505 444 336 318 289

20.3 18.7 14.6 27.3 26.0

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.6 0.6

190,627 145,184 95,808 49,376 45,443

42,485 29,263 14,589 14,674 13,222

524 454 335 335 321

22.3 20.2 15.2 29.7 29.1

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.6 0.6

*4,140 *1,491 –134 *1,625 *2,649

*2.0 *1.4 *0.6 *2.4 *3.1

– Represents or rounds to zero. * Statistically different from zero at the 90 percent confidence level. Details may not sum to totals because of rounding. A 90 percent confidence interval is a measure of an estimate’s variability. The larger the confidence interval in relation to the size of the estimate, the less reliable the estimate. For more information, see “Standard Errors and Their Use” at <www.census.gov/hhes/www/p60_238sa.pdf>. 3 Federal surveys now give respondents the option of reporting more than one race. Therefore, two basic ways of defining a race group are possible. A group such as Asian may be defined as those who reported Asian and no other race (the race-alone or single-race concept) or as those who reported Asian regardless of whether they also reported another race (the race-alone-or-in-combination concept). This table shows data using the first approach (race alone). The use of the single-race population does not imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing data. The Census Bureau uses a variety of approaches. Information on people who reported more than one race, such as White and American Indian and Alaska Native or Asian and Black or African American, is available from Census 2000 through American FactFinder. About 2.6 percent of people reported more than one race in Census 2000. Data for American Indians and Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders, and those reporting two or more races are not shown separately. 4 The “Outside metropolitan statistical areas” category includes both micropolitan statistical areas and territory outside of metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas. For more information, see “About Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas” at <www.census.gov/population/www/estimates/aboutmetro.html>. 1 2

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2009 and 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 23


Figure 7.

Number Uninsured and Uninsured Rate: 1987 to 2009 55

Numbers in millions, rates in percent

Recession 50.7 million

50 45 40 Number uninsured

35 30 25 20

16.7 percent

15 Uninsured rate

10 5 0

1987

1990

1993

19961

19992

2002

2005

2009

1

The data for 1996 through 2003 were revised using an approximation method for consistency with the revision to the 2004 and 2005 estimates. Implementation of Census 2000-based population controls occurred for the 2000 ASEC, which collected data for 1999. These estimates also reflect the results of follow-up verification questions, which were asked of people who responded “no” to all questions about specific types of health insurance coverage in order to verify whether they were actually uninsured. This change increased the number and percentage of people covered by health insurance, bringing the CPS more in line with estimates from other national surveys.

2

Notes: Respondents were not asked detailed health insurance questions before the 1988 CPS. The data points are placed at the midpoints of the respective years. For information on recessions, see Appendix A. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1988 to 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

first year that comparable health insurance data were collected. The number of people covered by employment-based health insurance decreased to 169.7 million in 2009, from 176.3 million in 2008. • The percentage of people covered by government health insurance programs increased to 30.6 percent in 2009, from 29.0 percent in 2008 (Figure 8 and Table C-1). This is the highest percentage of people covered by government health insurance programs since 1987. The percentage and number of people covered by Medicaid increased to 15.7 percent or 47.8 million in 2009, from 14.1 percent or 42.6 million in 2008. The percentage and number of people covered by Medicaid is the highest since 1987. The percentage and number of

people covered by Medicare in 2009 (14.3 percent and 43.4 million) were not statistically different from 2008.51 • In 2009, 10.0 percent of children under 18, or 7.5 million, were without health insurance. These estimates were not statistically different from the 2008 estimates (Table 8). The uninsured rate for children in poverty (15.1 percent) was greater than the rate for all children.52 • Between 2008 and 2009, the uninsured rate and the number of uninsured for non-Hispanic Whites 51 The percentage and number of people covered by Medicaid in 2009, 15.7 percent and 47.8 million, were higher than the percentage and number of people covered by Medicare in 2009, 14.3 percent and 43.4 million. 52 The number of uninsured children in poverty in 2009 was not statistically different from the number in 2008.

24 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

increased from 10.8 percent and 21.3 million to 12.0 percent and 23.7 million. The uninsured rate and the number of uninsured for Blacks increased from 19.1 percent and 7.3 million to 21.0 percent and 8.1 million (Table 8). • The percentage and number of uninsured Hispanics increased to 32.4 percent and 15.8 million in 2009, from 30.7 percent and 14.6 million in 2008 (Table 8). Type of Coverage Most people (55.8 percent) were covered by an employment-based health insurance plan for some or all of 2009. The rate of employment-based coverage in 2009 was lower than the rate in 2008. This is the lowest rate of employment-based coverage since 1987, the first year that comparable U.S. Census Bureau


Race and Hispanic Origin Figure 8.

Coverage by Type of Health Insurance: 2008 and 2009 2008 2009

Private insurance

Any private plan

*

Employment-based

*

Direct-purchase

Government insurance

Any government plan

*

Medicare Medicaid

Age

*

Military health care1

*

No insurance

Not covered

*

0

10

20

30

40 Percent

50

60

70

80

* Statistically different at the 90 percent confidence level. 1 Military health care includes Tricare and CHAMPVA (Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Department of Veterans Affairs), as well as care provided by the Department of Veterans Affairs and the military. Note: The estimates by type of coverage are not mutually exclusive; people can be covered by more than one type of health insurance during the year. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2009 and 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

health insurance data were collected (Table C-1). The rate of private coverage decreased to 63.9 percent in 2009, from 66.7 percent in 2008 (Figure 8). This was the lowest rate of private coverage since 1987. The number of people covered by private insurance also decreased to 194.5 million in 2009, from 201.0 million in 2008. The percentage of people covered by government health programs increased to 30.6 percent in 2009, from 29.0 percent in 2008. This was the highest rate of government coverage since 1987. The number of

U.S. Census Bureau

In 2009, the uninsured rate and the number of uninsured for non-Hispanic Whites increased to 12.0 percent and 23.7 million, from 10.8 percent and 21.3 million in 2008 (Table 8). The uninsured rate and the number of uninsured for Blacks in 2009 were higher than in 2008, at 21.0 percent and 8.1 million. The uninsured rate and the number of uninsured for Asians in 2009 were not statistically different from 2008, at 17.2 percent and 2.4 million.54 Among Hispanics, the uninsured rate and the number of uninsured increased to 32.4 percent and 15.8 million in 2009 from 30.7 percent and 14.6 million in 2008.

people covered by government health programs also increased to 93.2 million in 2009, from 87.4 million in 2008. The percentage of people with Medicaid coverage (15.7 percent) was higher in 2009 than in 2008. This was the highest rate of Medicaid coverage since 1987. The number of people covered by Medicaid also increased in 2009 to 47.8 million, from 42.6 million in 2008. In contrast, the percentage and number of people with Medicare coverage in 2009 was not statistically different from 2008, at 14.3 percent and 43.4 million.53 In 2009, 11.2 percent of people had no coverage other than Medicaid.

The uninsured rate for those under 65 increased in 2009 to 18.8 percent from 17.3 percent in 2008. In 2009, the percentage of children under 18 without health insurance (10.0 percent) was not statistically different from the percentage reported in 2008. The uninsured rate in 2009 for those aged 65 and older (1.8 percent) was also not statistically different from the rate in 2008. The uninsured rate increased for other age groups from 2008 to 2009. For those aged 18 to 24, the rate increased to 30.4 percent from 28.6 percent. For those aged 25 to 34, the rate increased to 29.1 percent from 26.5 percent. For those aged 35 to 44, the rate increased to 21.7 percent from 19.4 percent. For those aged 45 to 64, the rate increased to 16.1 percent from 14.4 percent. Since 2007, the year before the most recent recession, the uninsured rate of people under 65 increased to 18.8

53 The percentage and number of people covered by Medicaid in 2009, 15.7 percent and 47.8 million, were higher than the percentage and number of people covered by Medicare in 2009, 14.3 percent and 43.4 million. 54 Due to the small sample size, the changes in uninsured rates for Asians are better interpreted when viewed over a longer time period.

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 25


Table 9.

People Without Health Insurance Coverage by Selected Characteristics: 2007 and 2009 (Numbers in thousands, confidence intervals [C.I.] in thousands or percentage points as appropriate. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf) 2007

2009

Uninsured

Characteristic

Change in uninsured1

Uninsured

Total

Number

90 percent C.I.2 (±)

Percent

90 percent C.I.2 (±)

Total

Number

90 percent C.I.2 (±)

Percent

90 percent C.I.2 (±)

Number

Percent

     Total �����������������������������������������

299,106

45,657

526

15.3

0.2

304,280

50,674

549

16.7

0.2

*5,017

*1.4

Family Status In families �����������������������������������������������   Householder�����������������������������������������   Related children under 18�������������������    Related children under 6 ����������������� In unrelated subfamilies��������������������������� Unrelated individuals�������������������������������

245,443 77,908 72,792 24,543 1,516 52,147

34,629 10,272 7,802 2,555 363 10,665

468 168 233 135 51 171

14.1 13.2 10.7 10.4 23.9 20.5

0.2 0.2 0.3 0.5 2.9 0.3

249,384 78,867 73,410 25,104 1,357 53,539

38,228 11,586 7,202 2,275 364 12,082

489 178 225 127 51 181

15.3 14.7 9.8 9.1 26.8 22.6

0.2 0.2 0.3 0.5 3.2 0.3

*3,599 *1,314 *–600 *–280 1 *1,417

*1.2 *1.5 *–0.9 *–1.3 2.9 *2.1

Race3 and Hispanic Origin White�������������������������������������������������������   White, not Hispanic ����������������������������� Black ������������������������������������������������������� Asian ������������������������������������������������������� Hispanic (any race)���������������������������������

239,399 196,768 37,775 13,268 46,026

34,300 20,548 7,372 2,234 14,770

466 370 258 144 321

14.3 10.4 19.5 16.8 32.1

0.2 0.2 0.7 1.0 0.7

242,403 197,436 38,624 14,011 48,901

38,399 23,658 8,102 2,409 15,820

490 395 269 149 332

15.8 12.0 21.0 17.2 32.4

0.2 0.2 0.7 1.0 0.7

*4,099 *3,110 *731 175 *1,050

*1.5 *1.5 *1.5 0.4 0.3

Age Under 65 years ���������������������������������������   Under 18 years �����������������������������������   18 to 24 years �������������������������������������   25 to 34 years �������������������������������������   35 to 44 years �������������������������������������   45 to 64 years ������������������������������������� 65 years and older�����������������������������������

262,316 74,403 28,398 40,146 42,132 77,237 36,790

44,971 8,149 7,991 10,329 7,717 10,784 686

523 238 236 267 232 273 70

17.1 11.0 28.1 25.7 18.3 14.0 1.9

0.2 0.3 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.2

265,667 75,040 29,313 41,085 40,447 79,782 38,613

49,998 7,513 8,923 11,963 8,759 12,840 676

546 229 249 287 247 297 70

18.8 10.0 30.4 29.1 21.7 16.1 1.8

0.2 0.3 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.2

*5,027 *–636 *932 *1,634 *1,042 *2,056 –10

*1.7 *–0.9 *2.3 *3.4 *3.3 *2.1 –0.1

Nativity Native born ��������������������������������������������� Foreign born �������������������������������������������   Naturalized citizen�������������������������������   Not a citizen�����������������������������������������

261,842 37,264 15,050 22,214

33,269 12,388 2,651 9,737

460 333 157 296

12.7 33.2 17.6 43.8

0.2 0.7 0.9 1.0

266,674 37,606 16,024 21,581

37,694 12,980 3,044 9,936

486 340 168 299

14.1 34.5 19.0 46.0

0.2 0.7 0.9 1.0

*4,425 *592 *393 199

*1.4 *1.3 *1.4 *2.2

Region Northeast������������������������������������������������� Midwest��������������������������������������������������� South������������������������������������������������������� West �������������������������������������������������������

54,031 65,480 109,710 69,883

6,143 7,495 20,210 11,809

202 221 358 278

11.4 11.4 18.4 16.9

0.4 0.3 0.3 0.4

54,654 66,096 112,312 71,218

6,789 8,770 22,105 13,011

212 237 370 290

12.4 13.3 19.7 18.3

0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4

*647 *1,275 *1,895 *1,201

*1.1 *1.8 *1.3 *1.4

Residence Inside metropolitan statistical areas �������   Inside principal cities���������������������������   Outside principal cities������������������������� Outside metropolitan statistical areas4 ���

251,363 96,874 154,489 47,743

38,497 17,935 20,563 7,160

490 348 370 274

15.3 18.5 13.3 15.0

0.2 0.3 0.2 0.5

256,383 97,856 158,527 47,897

43,028 19,270 23,758 7,646

514 360 396 283

16.8 19.7 15.0 16.0

0.2 0.3 0.2 0.5

*4,531 *1,335 *3,196 *486

*1.5 *1.2 *1.7 *1.0

Household Income Less than $25,000����������������������������������� $25,000 to $49,999��������������������������������� $50,000 to $74,999��������������������������������� $75,000 or more �������������������������������������

55,267 68,915 58,355 116,568

13,539 14,515 8,488 9,115

304 315 243 252

24.5 21.1 14.5 7.8

0.5 0.4 0.4 0.2

58,159 71,340 58,381 116,400

15,483 15,278 9,352 10,561

324 322 255 270

26.6 21.4 16.0 9.1

0.5 0.4 0.4 0.2

*1,944 *762 *864 *1,446

*2.1 0.4 *1.5 *1.3

Work Experience    Total, 18 to 64 years old������������������� All workers�����������������������������������������������   Worked full-time, year-round ���������������   Less than full-time, year-round������������� Did not work��������������������������������������������

187,913 148,603 105,244 43,359 39,310

36,822 26,840 15,692 11,148 9,981

497 438 346 295 282

19.6 18.1 14.9 25.7 25.4

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.6 0.6

190,627 145,184 95,808 49,376 45,443

42,485 29,263 14,589 14,674 13,222

524 454 335 335 321

22.3 20.2 15.2 29.7 29.1

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.6 0.6

*5,663 *2,422 *–1,104 *3,526 *3,241

*2.7 *2.1 0.3 *4.0 *3.7

* Statistically different from zero at the 90 percent confidence level. 1 Details may not sum to totals because of rounding. 2 A 90 percent confidence interval is a measure of an estimate’s variability. The larger the confidence interval in relation to the size of the estimate, the less reliable the estimate. For more information, see “Standard Errors and Their Use” at <www.census.gov/hhes/www/p60_238sa.pdf>. 3 Federal surveys now give respondents the option of reporting more than one race. Therefore, two basic ways of defining a race group are possible. A group such as Asian may be defined as those who reported Asian and no other race (the race-alone or single-race concept) or as those who reported Asian regardless of whether they also reported another race (the race-alone-or-in-combination concept). This table shows data using the first approach (race alone). The use of the single-race population does not imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing data. The Census Bureau uses a variety of approaches. Information on people who reported more than one race, such as White and American Indian and Alaska Native or Asian and Black or African American, is available from Census 2000 through American FactFinder. About 2.6 percent of people reported more than one race in Census 2000. Data for American Indians and Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders, and those reporting two or more races are not shown separately. 4 The “Outside metropolitan statistical areas” category includes both micropolitan statistical areas and territory outside of metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas. For more information, see “About Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas” at <www.census.gov/population/www/estimates/aboutmetro.html>. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2008 and 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

26 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau


percent from 17.1 percent in 2007.55 The uninsured rate of children under 18 decreased to 10.0 percent in 2009 from 11.0 percent in 2007 (Table 9). The uninsured rate of people aged 65 and older in 2009 was not statistically different from the rate in 2007, at 1.8 percent. However, other age groups experienced increases in uninsured rates. Specifically, the uninsured rate of those aged 18 to 24 increased to 30.4 percent in 2009 from 28.1 percent in 2007. For those aged 25 to 34, the uninsured rate increased to 29.1 percent in 2009 from 25.7 percent in 2007. The uninsured rate for those aged 35 to 44 was 21.7 percent in 2009, up from 18.3 percent in 2007. For those aged 45 to 64, the uninsured rate was 16.1 percent in 2009, up from 14.0 percent in 2007. Nativity The uninsured rate and the number of uninsured for the native-born population increased to 14.1 percent and 37.7 million in 2009 from 12.9 percent and 34.0 million in 2008 (Table 8). The uninsured rate and the number of uninsured for the foreign-born population increased to 34.5 percent and 13.0 million in 2009 from 33.5 percent and 12.3 million in 2008. Among the foreign-born population, the uninsured rate increased for noncitizens in 2009 to 46.0 percent from 44.7 percent in 2008. The uninsured rate in 2009 for naturalized citizens (19.0 percent) was not statistically different from the rate in 2008. The number of uninsured noncitizens increased to 9.9 million in 2009 from 9.5 million in 2008. The number of uninsured naturalized citizens increased to 3.0 million in 2009 from 2.8 million in 2008. The proportion of the foreign-born population without health insurance in 2009 was nearly 55 The 2008 uninsured rates for those under 65, those aged 18 to 24, and those aged 65 and older were not statistically different from their rates in 2007 (17.3 percent, 28.6 percent, and 1.7 percent, respectively).

U.S. Census Bureau

two and one-half times that of the native-born population in 2009. Economic Status The uninsured rate is higher among people with lower incomes (Table 8). In 2009, 26.6 percent of people in households with annual incomes less than $25,000 had no health insurance coverage. In 2009, the uninsured rates decreased as household income increasedâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;21.4 percent of people in households with incomes ranging from $25,000 to $49,999 were uninsured; 16.0 percent of people in households with incomes ranging from $50,000 to $74,999 were uninsured; and 9.1 percent of people in households with incomes of $75,000 or more were uninsured. Among the four household income groups, the uninsured rate in 2009 was not statistically different from 2008 for households with incomes ranging from $25,000 to $49,999. In 2009, the uninsured rate for people in households with incomes less than $25,000 increased to 26.6 percent from 24.5 percent in 2008. The uninsured rate for households with incomes ranging from $50,000 to $74,999 increased to 16.0 percent in 2009 from 14.0 percent in 2008. The uninsured rate for people in households with incomes of $75,000 or more increased to 9.1 percent in 2009 from 8.2 percent in 2008. Work Experience Between 2008 and 2009, the uninsured rate for workers aged 18 to 64 (people who worked at some time during the year) rose from 18.7 percent to 20.2 percent. The number of workers who were uninsured increased from 27.8 million to 29.3 million. In 2009, full-time, year-round workers were more likely to be covered by health insurance (84.8 percent) than those who worked less than full-time, year-round (70.3 percent) or nonworkers (70.9

percent).56, 57 Among full-time, yearround workers in 2009, the uninsured rate increased to 15.2 percent from 14.6 percent in 2008. The number of uninsured among full-time, yearround workers (14.6 million) was not statistically different from 2008. Among less-than-full-time-year-round workers, the uninsured rate and the number of uninsured increased to 29.7 percent and 14.7 million in 2009 from 27.3 percent and 13.0 million in 2008. Similarly, the uninsured rate and the number of uninsured nonworkers increased to 29.1 percent and 13.2 million in 2009 from 26.0 percent and 10.6 million in 2008.58 In 2009, the uninsured rate of fulltime, year-round workers (15.2 percent) was not statistically different from 2007, the first year before the most recent recession (Table 9). The uninsured rate of less-than-full-timeyear-round workers increased to 29.7 percent in 2009 from 25.7 percent in 2007 (Table 9). The uninsured rate of those who did not work increased to 29.1 percent in 2009 from 25.4 percent in 2007. Childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Health Insurance Coverage In 2009, the uninsured rate and the number of children under the age of 18 without health insurance (10.0 percent and 7.5 million) were not statistically different from 2008 (Table 8). Uninsured rates for children varied by poverty status, age, race, and Hispanic origin. Figure 9 shows that children aged 12 to 17 had a higher 56 A full-time, year-round worker is a person who worked 35 or more hours per week (fulltime) and 50 or more weeks during the previous calendar year (year-round). For school personnel, summer vacation is counted as weeks worked if they are scheduled to return to their job in the fall. 57 The 2009 insured rate for those who worked less than full-time, year-round (70.3 percent) was not statistically different from the 2009 insured rate for nonworkers (70.9 percent). 58 The percentage of uninsured part-time workers (29.7 percent) was not statistically different from the percentage of uninsured nonworkers (29.1 percent) in 2009.

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 27


uninsured rate (11.3 percent) than those under 6 (9.2 percent).59 In 2009, children in poverty were more likely to be uninsured (15.1 percent) than all children (10.0 percent). In 2009, the uninsured rates were 7.0 percent for non-Hispanic White children, 11.5 percent for Black children, 10.0 percent for Asian children, and 16.8 percent for Hispanic children.60 These 2009 uninsured rates were not statistically different from the respective rates in 2008.

Figure 9.

Uninsured Children by Poverty Status, Household Income, Age, Race and Hispanic Origin, and Nativity: 2009 All children Children in poverty Household Income

Less than $25,000 $25,000 to $49,999 $50,000 to $74,999 $75,000 or more Age

Under 6 years 6 to 11 years

Region The Northeast had the lowest uninsured rate in 2009, followed by the Midwest, the West, and the South (Table 8). Between 2008 and 2009, the uninsured rates increased in all four regionsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;11.6 percent to 12.4 percent in the Northeast; 11.6 percent to 13.3 percent in the Midwest; 17.4 percent to 18.3 percent in the West; and 18.2 percent to 19.7 percent the South. Between 2008 and 2009, the number of uninsured in all four regions increasedâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;6.3 million to 6.8 million in the Northeast; 7.6 million to 8.8 million in the Midwest; 12.3 million to 13.0 million in the West; and 20.2 million to 22.1 million in the South.61 Residence The uninsured rate for people living inside metropolitan statistical areas increased to 16.8 percent in 2009 from 15.4 percent in 2008 (Table 8). The uninsured rate in 2009 for people living outside metropolitan areas The uninsured rate for children under the age of 6 (9.2 percent) was not statistically different from the uninsured rate for children aged 6 to 11 (9.5 percent). 60 In 2009, the uninsured rate for Black children was not statistically different from the uninsured rate for Asian children. 61 The 2009 uninsured rate for the West (18.3 percent) was not statistically different from the 2008 uninsured rate for the South (18.2 percent). The 2008 uninsured rate for the Northeast (11.6 percent) was not statistically different from the 2008 uninsured rate for the Midwest (11.6 percent). 59

12 to 17 years Race1 and Hispanic origin

White, not Hispanic Black Asian Hispanic (any race) Nativity

Native born Naturalized citizen Not a citizen 0

5

10

15 20 Percent

25

30

35

1

Federal surveys now give respondents the option of reporting more than one race. This figure shows data using the race-alone concept. For example, Asian refers to people who reported Asian and no other race. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

increased to 16.0 percent from 15.2 percent in 2008. In 2009, the uninsured rate was higher among people living in principal cities (19.7 percent) than among people living inside metropolitan areas but outside principal cities (15.0 percent). COMMENTS The Census Bureau welcomes the comments and advice of data and report users. If you have suggestions or comments on the income and poverty data, please write to: Charles T. Nelson Assistant Division Chief, Economic Characteristics Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division

28 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau Washington, DC 20233-8500 or send e-mail to <charles.t.nelson@census.gov> If you have suggestions or comments on the health insurance coverage data, please write to: Jennifer Cheeseman Day Assistant Division Chief, Employment Characteristics Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division U.S. Census Bureau Washington, DC 20233-8500 or send e-mail to <jennifer.cheeseman.day @census.gov>.

U.S. Census Bureau


Additional Data and Contacts Detailed tables, historical tables, press releases, and briefings are available electronically on the U.S. Census Bureau’s income, poverty, and health insurance Web sites. The Web sites may be accessed through the Census Bureau’s home page at <www.census.gov> or directly at <www.census.gov/hhes/www/income/income.html> for income data, <www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/poverty.html> for poverty data, and <www.census.gov/hhes/www/hlthins/hlthins.html> for health insurance data. The Current Population Survey (CPS) Table Creator <www.census.gov /hhes/www/cpstc/cps_table_creator.html> gives you the ability to create customized tables from the CPS Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC). You can generate estimates using your own definitions of income and poverty with CPS Table Creator II <www.census.gov/hhes/www/cpstc /apm/cpstc_altpov.html>. Microdata are available for download by clicking “Data Tools” on the Census Bureau’s home page and then clicking the “DataFerrett” link. Technical methods have been applied to CPS microdata to avoid disclosing the identities of individuals from whom data were collected. For assistance with income, poverty, or health insurance data or questions about them, contact the Data Integration Division’s Information Resources and Dissemination Branch at 301-763-3242 or toll-free at 1-866-758-1060, or search your topic of interest using the Census Bureau’s “Question and Answer Center” found at <ask.census.gov>.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 29


APPENDIX A. ESTIMATES OF INCOME How Income Is Measured For each person 15 years and older in the sample, the Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) asks questions on the amount of money income received in the preceding calendar year from each of the following sources: 1. Earnings 2. Unemployment compensation 3. Workersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; compensation 4. Social security 5. Supplemental security income 6. Public assistance 7. Veteransâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; payments 8. Survivor benefits 9. Disability benefits

Recessions Peak month

Year

Trough month

Year

November

1948

October

1949

July

1953

May

1954

August

1957

April

1958

April

1960

February

1961

December

1969

November

1970

November

1973

March

1975

January

1980

July

1980

July

1981

November

1982

July

1990

March

1991

March

2001

November

2001

December

2007

Source:â&#x20AC;&#x192; National Bureau of Economic Research Cambridge, MA 02138 <www.nber.org>

10. Pension or retirement income 11. Interest 12. Dividends 13. Rents, royalties, and estates and trusts 14. Educational assistance 15. Alimony 16. Child support 17. Financial assistance from outside of the household 18. Other income It should be noted that although the income statistics refer to receipts during the preceding calendar year, the demographic characteristics, such as age, labor force status, and household composition, are as of the survey date. The income of the household does not include amounts received by people who were members during all or part of the previous year if these people no longer resided in the household at the time of the

U.S. Census Bureau

interview. The Current Population Survey (CPS) collects income data for people who are current residents but did not reside in the household during the previous year. Data on income collected in the ASEC by the U.S. Census Bureau cover money income received (exclusive of certain money receipts such as capital gains) before payments for personal income taxes, social security, union dues, Medicare deductions, etc. Therefore, money income does not reflect the fact that some families receive noncash benefits, such as food stamps, health benefits, subsidized housing, and goods produced and consumed on the farm. In addition, money income does not reflect the fact that noncash benefits are also received by some nonfarm residents, which often take the form of the use of business transportation and facilities, full or partial payments by business for retirement programs, medical

and educational expenses, etc. Data users should consider these elements when comparing income levels. Moreover, readers should be aware that for many different reasons there is a tendency in household surveys for respondents to underreport their income. Based on an analysis of independently derived income estimates, the Census Bureau determined that respondents report income earned from wages or salaries more accurately than other sources of income, and that the reported wage and salary income is nearly equal to independent estimates of aggregate income. Recessions Recessions are defined by the National Bureau of Economic Research. Peak and trough months of recent recessions are shown in the text box above. The data points in the time series charts in this report use July as a reference.

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 31


Cost-of-Living Adjustment

Annual Average Consumer Price Index Research Series (CPI-U-RS) Using Current Methods All Items: 1947 to 2009 Year 1947����������������������������� 1948����������������������������� 1949����������������������������� 1950����������������������������� 1951����������������������������� 1952����������������������������� 1953����������������������������� 1954����������������������������� 1955����������������������������� 1956����������������������������� 1957����������������������������� 1958����������������������������� 1959����������������������������� 1960����������������������������� 1961����������������������������� 1962����������������������������� 1963����������������������������� 1964����������������������������� 1965����������������������������� 1966����������������������������� 1967����������������������������� 1968����������������������������� 1969����������������������������� 1970����������������������������� 1971����������������������������� 1972����������������������������� 1973����������������������������� 1974����������������������������� 1975����������������������������� 1976����������������������������� 1977����������������������������� 1978�����������������������������

CPI-U-RS1 index (December 1977 = 100) 37.5 40.5 40.0 40.5 43.7 44.5 44.8 45.2 45.0 45.7 47.2 48.5 48.9 49.7 50.2 50.7 51.4 52.1 52.9 54.4 56.1 58.3 60.9 63.9 66.7 68.7 73.0 80.3 86.9 91.9 97.7 104.4

Year 1979���������������������������� 1980���������������������������� 1981���������������������������� 1982���������������������������� 1983���������������������������� 1984���������������������������� 1985���������������������������� 1986���������������������������� 1987���������������������������� 1988���������������������������� 1989���������������������������� 1990���������������������������� 1991���������������������������� 1992���������������������������� 1993���������������������������� 1994���������������������������� 1995���������������������������� 1996���������������������������� 1997���������������������������� 1998���������������������������� 1999���������������������������� 2000���������������������������� 2001���������������������������� 2002���������������������������� 2003���������������������������� 2004���������������������������� 2005���������������������������� 2006���������������������������� 2007���������������������������� 2008���������������������������� 2009����������������������������

CPI-U-RS1 index (December 1977 = 100) 114.4 127.1 139.2 147.6 153.9 160.2 165.7 168.7 174.4 180.8 188.6 198.0 205.1 210.3 215.5 220.1 225.4 231.4 236.4 239.7 244.7 252.9 260.0 264.2 270.1 277.4 286.7 296.1 304.5 316.2 315.0

In order to accurately assess changes in income and earnings over time, an adjustment for changes in the cost of living is required. The Census Bureau uses the research series of the Consumer Price Index (CPI-U-RS), provided by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics for 1977 through 2009, to adjust for changes in the cost of living. The indexes used to make the constant dollar conversions are shown in the text box “Annual Average Consumer Price Index Research Series (CPI-U-RS) Using Current Methods All Items: 1947 to 2009.”

1 The Census Bureau uses the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Consumer Price Index Research Series (CPI-U-RS) for 1977 through 2009. The Census Bureau derived the CPI-U-RS for years before 1977 by applying the 1977 CPI-U-RS-to-CPI-U ratio to the 1947-to-1976 CPI-U.

Note: Data users can compute the percentage changes in prices between earlier years’ data and 2009 data by dividing the annual average CPI-U-RS for 2009 by the annual average for the earlier year(s). For more information on the CPI-U-RS, see <www.bls.gov/cpi/cpirsdc.htm>.

32 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau


U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 33

See footnotes at end of table.

ALL RACES 20091. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20042. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19994. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1998. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1997. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1996. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19955. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19946. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19937. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19928. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1989. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1988. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19879. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1986. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198510 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198411 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1983. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1982. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1981. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1979 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1978. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1977. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197613 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197514 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197414, 15. . . . . . . . . . . . 1973. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197216 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197117 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1970. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1969. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1968. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196718 . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Race and Hispanic origin of householder and year

117,538 117,181 116,783 116,011 114,384 113,343 112,000 111,278 109,297 108,209 106,434 103,874 102,528 101,018 99,627 98,990 97,107 96,426 95,669 94,312 93,347 92,830 91,124 89,479 88,458 86,789 85,407 83,918 83,527 82,368 80,776 77,330 76,030 74,142 72,867 71,163 69,859 68,251 66,676 64,778 63,401 62,214 60,813

Number (thousands) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Total 13.0 13.4 12.9 12.6 13.0 13.3 13.2 12.9 12.4 12.1 11.8 12.7 13.2 13.7 13.7 14.6 15.1 15.0 14.5 14.0 13.7 14.5 14.8 15.1 15.3 15.4 15.9 16.2 15.8 15.5 14.8 14.6 15.2 15.3 15.8 14.9 14.9 15.6 16.5 16.3 15.9 16.2 17.8

Under $15,000 11.9 12.0 11.3 11.2 11.5 11.6 11.6 11.4 11.4 11.1 11.3 11.4 11.8 12.3 12.2 12.6 12.6 12.5 12.3 11.8 11.6 11.6 11.7 11.7 12.4 12.7 13.1 12.7 13.2 12.7 12.3 12.9 13.1 13.0 13.0 12.5 12.2 12.1 12.3 11.8 11.7 12.2 12.1

$15,000 to $24,999 11.1 11.0 10.5 11.1 10.8 11.0 10.9 10.6 10.5 10.5 10.9 10.7 11.3 11.2 11.4 11.5 11.0 11.1 11.3 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.2 11.5 11.7 11.9 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.1 12.1 11.6 11.9 12.3 12.3 11.9 11.4 11.6 12.1 12.0 11.9 12.6 13.7

$25,000 to $34,999 14.1 14.1 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.1 14.0 14.5 14.8 14.5 14.0 14.5 14.4 14.7 15.0 14.8 15.8 15.5 15.9 15.7 15.0 15.0 15.3 15.3 16.0 16.3 16.3 16.7 16.2 16.4 15.8 16.2 16.8 16.4 17.3 18.2 16.9 17.5 18.7 19.2 19.1 20.4 20.0

$35,000 to $49,999 18.1 17.6 18.0 18.2 18.1 18.1 17.7 18.0 17.9 18.4 18.4 18.7 18.8 18.8 19.2 19.0 18.5 19.3 19.3 20.0 20.1 20.1 20.1 20.4 20.1 19.9 20.2 20.5 20.8 21.4 21.9 21.8 21.7 22.4 22.3 22.0 22.7 22.8 22.5 22.7 23.4 22.8 22.1

$50,000 to $74,999

Percentage distribution

11.5 11.9 12.0 11.6 12.1 12.0 12.2 12.5 12.6 12.7 12.8 12.6 12.2 12.3 12.1 11.6 11.7 12.1 12.0 12.2 12.4 12.3 12.3 12.2 11.9 11.7 11.1 10.9 11.2 11.5 12.1 12.2 11.8 11.4 11.0 11.3 11.8 11.1 10.3 10.4 10.5 9.6 8.3

11.9 11.9 12.7 12.5 12.0 11.9 12.3 12.3 12.2 12.3 12.5 12.0 11.4 10.7 10.6 10.3 10.0 9.7 9.9 9.9 10.6 10.1 10.0 9.5 8.8 8.5 7.9 7.7 7.8 7.8 7.9 7.8 7.0 6.8 6.2 6.8 7.4 6.8 5.7 5.6 5.7 4.7 4.4

4.4 4.3 4.7 4.7 4.3 4.4 4.4 4.2 4.3 4.5 4.3 4.0 3.7 3.5 3.1 3.2 3.0 2.7 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.0 2.7 2.6 2.3 2.2 2.0 1.9 1.6 1.6 1.9 1.9 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.1 1.2 1.1 0.9 0.9

3.8 3.7 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.9 3.8 4.0 3.4 3.1 2.8 2.6 2.6 2.3 2.1 1.9 2.1 2.2 1.9 1.9 1.7 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.8

$75,000 $100,000 $150,000 to $200,000 to to $99,999 $149,999 $199,999 and over 49,777 50,112 51,965 51,278 50,899 50,343 50,519 50,563 51,161 52,301 52,388 51,100 49,309 48,315 47,622 46,175 45,665 45,888 46,269 47,637 48,279 47,433 47,071 46,488 44,898 44,074 42,747 43,048 43,163 43,892 45,325 45,452 43,758 43,483 42,773 43,923 45,360 44,462 42,636 43,055 43,391 41,836 40,108

Value 213 136 145 220 170 223 219 166 156 164 245 302 228 244 275 210 213 217 223 243 266 232 222 241 243 201 194 194 226 226 215 184 164 161 174 169 173 170 165 158 160 151 146

Standard error

Median income (dollars)

67,976 68,164 69,940 70,819 69,597 68,662 68,886 68,976 70,521 71,165 70,462 68,145 66,214 64,148 62,802 61,731 60,556 58,177 58,242 59,505 60,996 59,266 58,539 57,434 55,255 54,002 51,990 51,879 51,565 52,202 53,842 53,496 51,909 51,147 49,947 51,365 52,458 51,748 49,035 49,301 49,366 47,331 44,858

Value

243 241 244 273 263 259 252 259 281 280 366 368 370 359 344 332 327 244 240 251 266 265 240 233 219 199 194 192 188 191 204 205 158 158 156 161 160 160 156 158 155 151 146

Standard error

Mean income ­(dollars)

(Income in 2009 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. Households as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)

Households by Total Money Income, Race, and Hispanic Origin of Householder: 1967 to 2009â&#x20AC;&#x201D;Con.

Table A-1.


34 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

See footnotes at end of table.

2001. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19994. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1998. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1997. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1996. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19955. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19946. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19937. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19928. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1989. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1988. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19879. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1986. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198510 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198411 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1983. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1982. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1981. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1979 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1978. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1977. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197613 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197514 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197414, 15. . . . . . . . . . . . 1973. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197216 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197117 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1970. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

WHITE20

20091. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20042. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

WHITE ALONE19

Race and Hispanic origin of householder and year

90,682 90,030 88,893 87,212 86,106 85,059 84,511 83,737 82,387 81,795 81,675 80,968 80,163 79,734 78,519 77,284 76,576 75,328 74,376 73,182 72,845 71,872 70,766 68,028 66,934 65,353 64,392 62,984 61,965 60,618 59,463 57,575

95,489 95,297 95,112 94,705 93,588 92,880 91,962 91,645

Number (thousands)

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Total

11.0 10.8 10.3 11.0 11.6 11.9 11.9 12.7 13.0 12.9 12.4 12.0 11.8 12.4 12.7 13.2 13.5 13.5 13.8 14.4 13.9 13.6 13.1 13.0 13.6 13.7 14.1 13.4 13.5 14.1 15.0 14.9

11.4 11.8 11.2 10.9 11.3 11.7 11.6 11.4

Under $15,000

11.1 10.8 11.0 10.9 11.5 11.9 11.8 12.1 12.2 12.1 12.0 11.5 11.2 11.1 11.2 11.2 11.9 12.1 12.6 12.1 12.6 12.1 11.7 12.3 12.3 12.4 12.5 11.9 11.6 11.4 11.7 11.2

11.6 11.7 11.1 10.8 11.1 11.2 11.1 11.0

$15,000 to $24,999

10.1 10.3 10.8 10.5 11.0 11.0 11.3 11.4 10.8 11.0 11.2 11.1 11.1 11.4 11.1 11.3 11.5 11.8 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.0 11.9 11.4 11.7 12.1 12.1 11.6 11.0 11.2 11.8 11.6

10.8 10.7 10.3 10.9 10.7 10.9 10.8 10.4

$25,000 to $34,999

14.8 14.4 14.1 14.5 14.4 14.8 15.2 15.0 15.9 15.8 16.0 16.0 15.2 15.2 15.4 15.4 16.2 16.6 16.7 16.9 16.5 16.6 16.0 16.3 16.9 16.6 17.5 18.4 17.0 17.8 19.0 19.5

14.2 14.0 14.0 14.1 14.3 14.0 14.0 14.3

$35,000 to $49,999

18.2 18.6 18.8 19.2 19.2 19.4 19.7 19.5 19.4 19.9 19.9 20.6 20.8 20.9 21.0 21.1 20.8 20.8 21.1 21.3 21.6 22.3 22.8 22.7 22.6 23.3 23.1 23.0 23.6 23.7 23.4 23.7

18.7 18.1 18.3 18.7 18.4 18.4 18.1 18.4

$50,000 to $74,999

Percentage distribution

13.1 13.2 13.3 13.2 12.7 12.9 12.7 12.1 12.4 12.8 12.6 12.9 13.0 12.9 13.1 12.8 12.4 12.3 11.7 11.6 11.8 12.1 12.7 12.8 12.5 12.1 11.7 11.8 12.5 11.8 10.9 11.0

12.0 12.5 12.5 12.1 12.7 12.5 12.7 13.1 12.8 13.0 13.2 12.6 12.1 11.3 11.2 11.0 10.6 10.4 10.6 10.5 11.2 10.8 10.7 10.1 9.5 9.1 8.5 8.2 8.4 8.4 8.5 8.2 7.5 7.3 6.6 7.4 7.9 7.3 6.2 6.0

12.6 12.5 13.3 13.3 12.6 12.6 13.0 13.0 4.6 4.8 4.4 4.3 4.0 3.8 3.4 3.4 3.3 2.9 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.2 2.9 2.9 2.5 2.4 2.1 2.0 1.7 1.8 2.0 2.1 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.7 1.6 1.2 1.3

4.7 4.6 5.0 4.9 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.4 4.2 4.1 4.3 3.8 3.5 3.0 2.8 2.8 2.5 2.3 2.0 2.3 2.4 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.6 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.1 0.9 0.9

4.1 4.0 4.3 4.3 4.3 3.9 4.1 4.0

$75,000 $100,000 $150,000 to $200,000 to to $99,999 $149,999 $199,999 and over

53,934 54,700 54,485 53,764 51,930 50,586 49,984 48,700 48,178 48,245 48,485 49,686 50,784 50,144 49,594 48,874 47,351 46,497 44,829 45,067 45,605 46,306 47,523 47,250 46,015 45,550 44,731 45,936 47,539 46,645 44,596 44,844

51,861 52,113 53,912 53,907 53,347 52,982 53,216 53,755

Value

253 242 275 269 329 261 261 273 281 234 235 228 247 296 249 237 253 234 203 205 210 238 226 208 193 189 163 173 181 179 170 173

154 151 159 156 233 208 209 218

Standard error

Median income (dollars)

73,313 73,804 73,023 71,236 69,159 66,695 65,305 64,451 63,270 60,804 60,701 61,905 63,536 61,794 61,040 59,826 57,523 56,230 54,148 54,017 53,727 54,308 55,965 55,478 53,937 53,115 51,792 53,268 54,486 53,761 50,811 51,026

70,544 70,921 72,756 73,518 72,473 71,436 71,825 71,735

Value

315 316 413 419 421 395 379 375 365 271 264 277 294 291 264 256 241 218 211 211 204 208 223 223 174 171 170 173 173 174 165 168

272 273 277 306 300 294 288 292

Standard error

Mean income ­(dollars)

(Income in 2009 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. Households as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)

Households by Total Money Income, Race, and Hispanic Origin of Householder: 1967 to 2009â&#x20AC;&#x201D;Con.

Table A-1.


U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 35

See footnotes at end of table.

2001. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19994. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1998. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1997. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1996. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19955. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19946. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19937. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19928. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1989. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1988. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19879. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1986. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198510 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198411 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1983. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1982. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1981. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1979 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1978. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1977. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197613 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197514 . . . . . . . . . . . . .

WHITE, NOT   HISPANIC 20

2009 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2004 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

WHITE ALONE,   NOT HISPANIC 19

1969. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1968. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196718 . . . . . . . . . . . . .

WHITE20—Con.

Race and Hispanic origin of householder and year

80,818 80,527 79,819 78,577 77,936 77,240 76,932 77,004 75,697 75,107 75,625 75,035 74,495 74,067 73,120 72,067 71,540 70,586 69,648 69,214 68,996 68,106 67,203 64,836 63,721 62,365 61,533

83,158 82,884 82,765 82,675 82,003 81,628 81,148 81,166

56,248 55,394 54,188

Number (thousands)

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

100.0 100.0 100.0

Total

10.6 10.4 9.8 10.2 10.7 11.1 10.9 11.9 12.2 12.1 11.8 11.4 11.2 11.8 12.1 12.7 13.0 13.0 13.2 13.9 13.6 13.3 12.9 12.8 13.4 13.4 13.8

10.6 10.9 10.6 10.4 10.8 11.1 11.1 10.9

14.5 14.8 16.2

Under $15,000

10.6 10.2 10.5 10.4 11.1 11.3 11.3 11.7 11.8 11.7 11.6 11.1 11.0 10.7 10.8 10.8 11.4 11.8 12.4 11.8 12.4 11.9 11.6 12.2 12.1 12.1 12.2

11.0 11.2 10.5 10.2 10.5 10.7 10.5 10.5

10.9 11.4 11.4

$15,000 to $24,999

9.8 10.0 10.4 10.2 10.6 10.7 10.9 11.2 10.6 10.7 11.1 11.0 10.9 11.2 10.9 11.2 11.4 11.7 12.0 12.1 12.2 11.8 11.7 11.2 11.5 12.0 12.0

10.3 10.2 9.8 10.5 10.2 10.4 10.3 10.0

11.5 12.3 13.4

$25,000 to $34,999

14.3 14.1 13.7 14.2 14.3 14.7 15.1 14.9 15.7 15.7 16.0 15.9 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 16.2 16.6 16.6 16.9 16.4 16.6 15.9 16.2 16.8 16.5 17.4

14.0 13.6 13.6 13.7 13.9 13.6 13.7 13.9

19.3 20.9 20.6

$35,000 to $49,999

18.3 18.6 18.9 19.4 19.4 19.7 20.2 19.8 19.8 20.1 20.1 20.8 21.0 21.2 21.3 21.4 21.1 21.0 21.4 21.6 21.9 22.6 23.0 22.9 22.8 23.5 23.3

18.8 18.4 18.3 18.7 18.5 18.5 18.2 18.5

24.5 23.8 23.2

$50,000 to $74,999

Percentage distribution

13.4 13.6 13.7 13.7 13.2 13.4 13.1 12.5 12.7 13.3 13.0 13.3 13.3 13.2 13.4 13.2 12.8 12.6 12.0 11.8 12.0 12.4 12.9 13.0 12.8 12.4 11.9

12.4 13.0 12.9 12.5 13.2 13.0 13.1 13.5

11.2 10.1 8.8

13.5 13.6 13.8 13.3 12.8 11.9 11.8 11.4 11.1 10.8 11.0 10.9 11.7 11.2 11.1 10.4 9.8 9.4 8.7 8.5 8.7 8.6 8.7 8.4 7.7 7.5 6.8

13.4 13.3 14.2 14.0 13.3 13.3 13.7 13.7

6.1 5.0 4.6

4.9 5.1 4.7 4.5 4.2 4.0 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.1 3.3 3.3 3.5 3.3 3.0 3.0 2.7 2.5 2.2 2.1 1.8 1.8 2.1 2.2 1.8 1.7 1.5

5.1 4.9 5.4 5.3 4.9 5.0 5.0 4.7

1.2 1.0 0.9

4.5 4.4 4.6 4.0 3.7 3.2 3.0 3.0 2.7 2.4 2.2 2.4 2.5 2.2 2.1 2.0 1.7 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.0 0.9

4.4 4.4 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.3 4.4 4.3

0.9 0.7 0.8

$75,000 $100,000 $150,000 to $200,000 to to $99,999 $149,999 $199,999 and over

56,100 56,826 56,843 55,771 54,068 52,800 51,957 50,271 49,951 49,864 49,643 50,822 51,876 51,525 50,958 49,985 48,415 47,462 45,981 45,822 46,263 47,126 48,192 48,140 46,928 46,479 45,068

54,461 55,319 56,814 55,769 55,797 55,539 55,719 55,918

45,284 43,560 41,826

Value

233 228 359 321 282 362 271 266 292 309 244 237 254 303 284 258 247 263 (NA) 230 235 108 267 253 264 271 239

279 224 256 200 189 254 269 219

166 162 152

Standard error

Median income (dollars)

75,653 76,050 75,417 73,517 71,375 68,712 67,434 66,093 64,938 62,348 62,003 63,277 64,809 63,056 62,234 61,013 58,643 57,207 55,570 54,811 54,403 55,022 56,612 56,133 54,604 53,797 52,426

73,240 73,821 75,706 76,324 75,375 74,103 74,507 74,058

51,197 49,033 46,498

Value

343 341 447 449 (NA) (NA) 404 392 387 288 276 286 317 296 289 280 266 256 (NA) 235 226 248 248 241 258 240 254

299 302 305 337 333 322 316 315

171 162 157

Standard error

Mean income ­(dollars)

(Income in 2009 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. Households as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)

Households by Total Money Income, Race, and Hispanic Origin of Householder: 1967 to 2009—Con.

Table A-1.


36 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

15,212 15,056 14,976 14,709 14,399 14,151 13,969 13,778

14,730 14,595 14,551 14,354 14,002 13,809 13,629 13,465

13,315 13,174 12,838 12,579 12,474 12,109 11,577 11,655 11,281 11,269 11,083 10,671 10,486 10,561 10,192 9,922 9,797 9,480

BLACK ALONE OR   IN COMBINATION 20091. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20042. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

BLACK ALONE21 20091. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20042. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

BLACK20 2001. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19994. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1998. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1997. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1996. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19955. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19946. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19937. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19928. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1989. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1988. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19879. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1986. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198510 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198411 . . . . . . . . . . . . .

See footnotes at end of table.

60,164 59,236 58,005

Number (thousands)

WHITE, NOT   HISPANIC20—Con. 197414, 15. . . . . . . . . . . . 1973. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197216 . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Race and Hispanic origin of householder and year

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

100.0 100.0 100.0

Total

22.1 21.0 22.0 24.4 24.4 25.8 26.0 27.7 30.0 30.7 30.4 29.1 28.2 30.1 30.5 30.1 29.7 30.7

23.5 23.6 23.6 23.4 23.9 24.3 23.6 23.3

23.4 23.5 23.6 23.2 23.8 24.2 23.5 23.1

13.2 13.4 13.9

Under $15,000

14.5 14.4 14.5 15.3 14.8 15.8 15.6 16.1 15.6 15.8 15.3 15.1 14.9 15.7 15.4 15.8 16.5 17.5

15.4 15.0 14.1 14.6 15.5 14.6 14.8 14.9

15.4 14.9 14.0 14.5 15.5 14.6 14.8 14.9

11.6 11.4 11.1

$15,000 to $24,999

12.8 12.9 12.7 12.7 13.6 12.4 13.2 12.2 12.5 12.1 11.5 12.2 13.1 12.4 12.6 12.6 13.3 13.2

13.4 13.7 12.4 13.3 12.3 12.8 13.0 12.4

13.4 13.7 12.3 13.3 12.3 12.7 13.0 12.4

11.4 10.7 11.0

$25,000 to $34,999

15.5 15.4 14.1 14.4 14.7 14.5 14.4 13.6 15.1 14.1 14.6 14.4 13.9 13.7 15.0 14.4 14.3 14.5

14.6 15.0 14.5 14.3 14.6 15.1 14.5 15.9

14.5 15.1 14.6 14.4 14.5 15.1 14.4 15.9

18.3 16.9 17.6

$35,000 to $49,999

16.1 17.2 16.3 15.5 16.1 15.4 16.0 15.0 13.4 14.6 15.2 15.4 15.7 14.0 14.0 14.8 14.7 13.2

15.1 14.9 16.3 16.0 15.9 15.7 15.7 14.9

15.2 14.9 16.2 16.0 15.9 15.8 15.7 14.9

23.1 23.7 24.0

$50,000 to $74,999

Percentage distribution

9.1 8.8 9.0 8.4 8.7 8.4 7.8 7.9 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.3 7.1 7.5 6.7 6.7 6.8 6.5

8.7 8.1 8.6 8.1 8.3 8.2 8.5 8.7

8.7 8.1 8.6 8.2 8.3 8.3 8.5 8.7

12.1 12.8 12.0

7.1 7.2 7.6 6.7 5.7 5.7 5.5 5.5 4.7 4.3 4.6 5.0 5.6 4.9 4.4 4.4 3.7 3.7

6.3 6.6 7.4 7.0 6.6 6.4 7.0 6.8

6.3 6.6 7.4 7.0 6.7 6.5 7.0 6.8

7.6 8.1 7.6

1.7 1.9 2.7 1.8 1.3 1.2 0.9 1.3 1.2 0.9 1.0 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.0 0.7 0.7 0.6

1.8 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.7 1.8 1.9

1.8 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.7 1.8 1.9

1.5 1.7 1.7

1.1 1.2 1.1 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.1

1.2 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.3

1.2 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3

1.1 1.3 1.1

$75,000 $100,000 $150,000 to $200,000 to to $99,999 $149,999 $199,999 and over

35,704 36,952 35,928 33,315 33,379 31,966 31,295 30,093 28,552 28,092 28,884 29,712 30,202 28,585 28,307 28,158 28,171 26,488

32,584 34,088 35,086 34,010 33,904 34,174 34,573 34,607

32,750 34,215 35,267 34,183 34,009 34,333 34,624 34,787

46,328 47,958 47,310

Value

420 490 669 522 574 629 534 560 564 574 607 678 615 596 542 553 547 509

394 439 491 256 331 355 450 466

418 437 481 253 324 315 435 458

228 224 225

Standard error

Median income (dollars)

47,550 48,798 49,512 44,864 43,923 44,187 42,484 41,875 39,801 38,121 38,462 39,477 40,076 39,161 38,221 37,778 36,756 35,326

46,046 46,356 48,239 48,007 46,645 46,141 46,802 47,704

46,280 46,502 48,446 48,397 46,945 46,284 47,018 48,089

53,868 55,095 54,384

Value

502 494 711 599 630 863 727 601 661 517 502 533 544 571 526 513 477 435

525 496 538 594 507 500 501 551

516 486 530 594 511 492 498 560

235 233 243

Standard error

Mean income ­(dollars)

(Income in 2009 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. Households as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)

Households by Total Money Income, Race, and Hispanic Origin of Householder: 1967 to 2009—Con.

Table A-1.


U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 37

See footnotes at end of table.

20091. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20042. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4,687 4,573 4,494 4,454 4,273 4,123 4,040 3,917

4,940 4,805 4,715 4,664 4,500 4,346 4,235 4,079

ASIAN ALONE OR   IN COMBINATION 20091. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20042. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ASIAN ALONE22

9,236 8,916 8,961 8,847 8,586 8,066 7,977 7,776 7,489 7,263 7,040 6,809 6,578 6,180 6,053 5,870 5,728

Number (thousands)

1983. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1982. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1981. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197912 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1978. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1977. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197613 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197514 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197414, 15. . . . . . . . . . . . 1973. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197216 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197117 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1970. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1969. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1968. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196718 . . . . . . . . . . . . .

BLACK20—Con.

Race and Hispanic origin of householder and year

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Total

11.7 12.1 10.3 10.1 11.2 10.2 13.1 10.2

11.7 11.9 10.3 10.0 11.1 10.2 13.1 10.4

32.2 31.7 31.6 30.6 28.9 28.6 27.8 28.6 30.1 28.2 27.5 29.1 29.9 28.9 27.9 29.1 32.5

Under $15,000

7.9 8.7 8.1 7.1 7.9 8.3 9.3 8.8

8.0 8.7 8.0 7.0 7.8 8.3 9.3 8.7

17.0 17.4 18.0 17.8 17.5 17.1 19.4 18.4 17.3 18.1 17.9 17.9 18.3 17.6 18.9 20.1 19.1

$15,000 to $24,999

8.2 8.2 7.5 8.5 7.2 8.1 6.0 8.1

8.2 8.3 7.4 8.4 7.2 8.1 6.2 8.1

13.4 13.2 13.2 13.6 13.8 12.9 14.1 13.9 13.6 14.6 15.0 14.5 14.7 15.4 15.7 15.5 16.9

$25,000 to $34,999

11.1 12.1 11.4 11.4 10.5 11.4 11.5 13.2

11.4 12.1 11.6 11.6 10.7 11.5 11.5 13.3

13.8 14.6 14.2 14.2 14.2 15.6 15.4 15.1 16.0 16.6 15.5 15.6 16.2 16.5 17.4 16.5 14.5

$35,000 to $49,999

16.9 15.1 17.0 17.1 18.6 19.0 16.8 18.1

16.6 15.2 17.1 17.3 18.4 19.0 16.9 18.3

13.8 14.7 13.8 14.2 15.2 14.7 14.4 15.5 15.2 14.1 15.7 14.7 13.7 14.2 13.6 12.9 11.8

$50,000 to $74,999

Percentage distribution

11.8 12.6 13.1 13.1 13.0 12.6 13.9 12.7

11.9 12.7 13.1 13.2 13.1 12.8 14.0 12.8

6.2 5.6 5.9 6.2 6.9 7.2 5.7 5.7 5.2 6.2 5.1 5.7 5.0 5.1 4.4 4.0 3.1

16.9 17.1 17.9 17.0 16.9 16.7 16.1 16.0

16.7 17.0 17.7 17.1 17.0 16.6 16.0 16.0

3.2 2.3 3.1 2.9 3.1 3.4 2.8 2.4 2.2 1.9 2.6 2.0 1.7 2.0 1.8 1.7 1.5

7.8 7.5 7.9 8.8 6.9 7.7 7.8 6.7

7.8 7.4 8.0 8.6 6.9 7.6 7.7 6.5

0.4 0.4 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.3

7.7 6.6 6.8 6.9 7.8 6.1 5.4 6.1

7.7 6.6 6.8 6.7 7.7 5.8 5.3 5.9

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.2

$75,000 $100,000 $150,000 to $200,000 to to $99,999 $149,999 $199,999 and over

65,469 65,388 68,382 68,338 67,125 65,298 64,958 62,745

65,073 65,318 68,148 67,979 67,074 65,236 64,448 62,338

25,439 25,541 25,591 26,677 27,901 28,395 27,154 27,085 26,853 27,318 27,983 27,227 26,343 27,295 27,372 25,686 24,285

Value

1,267 1,381 1,433 1,781 782 1,388 1,276 1,098

1,435 1,408 1,434 1,720 801 1,315 1,437 943

477 410 430 503 509 600 364 336 395 330 436 408 392 375 403 373 404

Standard error

Median income (dollars)

90,811 85,858 87,950 93,929 88,002 86,888 81,605 83,516

90,110 85,995 87,477 93,115 87,893 86,450 80,951 82,835

33,835 33,606 33,618 34,623 35,801 36,288 34,792 34,605 33,519 33,975 34,749 34,393 32,643 33,329 32,586 31,284 29,181

Value

1,845 1,497 1,552 2,021 1,552 1,681 1,445 1,629

1,770 1,481 1,496 1,949 1,534 1,632 1,392 1,575

418 420 407 426 441 474 310 308 297 302 345 367 335 360 347 330 326

Standard error

Mean income ­(dollars)

(Income in 2009 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. Households as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)

Households by Total Money Income, Race, and Hispanic Origin of Householder: 1967 to 2009—Con.

Table A-1.


38 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

See footnotes at end of table.

20091. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20042. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19994. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1998. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1997. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1996. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19955. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19946. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19937. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19928. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1989. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1988. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

HISPANIC   (ANY RACE)23

2001. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19994. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1998. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1997. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1996. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19955. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19946. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19937. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19928. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1989. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1988. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19879. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ASIAN AND   PACIFIC   ISLANDER20

Race and Hispanic origin of householder and year

13,298 13,425 13,339 12,973 12,519 12,178 11,693 11,339 10,499 10,034 9,579 9,060 8,590 8,225 7,939 7,735 7,362 7,153 6,379 6,220 5,933 5,910

4,071 3,963 3,742 3,308 3,125 2,998 2,777 2,040 2,233 2,262 2,094 1,958 1,988 1,913 (NA)

Number (thousands)

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Total

16.5 17.8 15.6 15.5 15.6 16.1 15.6 15.2 14.9 14.5 15.1 18.3 20.1 20.1 22.3 22.2 21.6 21.3 20.2 19.7 19.3 20.8

10.3 9.3 11.0 10.7 11.4 12.3 12.5 11.9 14.6 12.0 11.6 10.6 10.4 10.5 12.1

Under $15,000

15.2 14.8 14.7 14.5 15.2 15.1 15.5 14.9 15.0 15.1 15.3 15.3 15.3 17.5 17.1 16.3 16.7 16.6 16.6 16.5 14.5 15.5

8.0 7.7 7.2 8.7 8.5 9.1 9.8 10.2 9.4 10.2 8.7 9.5 8.2 11.5 12.3

$15,000 to $24,999

14.3 14.5 13.8 13.5 14.0 14.5 14.9 14.0 12.9 12.6 14.2 13.7 14.4 14.5 15.1 13.8 13.5 13.5 13.5 12.9 14.4 13.9

8.6 7.4 7.9 9.0 8.5 8.4 7.7 8.3 9.8 8.9 10.5 8.2 9.0 8.2 8.7

$25,000 to $34,999

15.4 16.4 16.5 17.1 17.2 16.6 16.5 17.1 17.9 17.6 16.8 17.3 15.9 15.5 15.8 15.7 17.9 16.9 16.9 17.6 16.2 16.2

12.8 12.4 13.0 13.1 12.5 12.2 13.9 13.4 13.4 12.9 14.7 12.5 13.1 13.6 11.3

$35,000 to $49,999

17.6 16.2 18.3 18.1 17.8 17.8 17.1 18.1 17.4 18.9 17.9 16.8 17.4 16.3 14.9 16.5 14.9 16.8 17.2 18.2 17.9 17.7

17.5 16.9 17.1 17.8 19.1 19.1 19.6 19.3 15.2 21.4 18.2 20.9 19.8 20.5 18.9

$50,000 to $74,999

Percentage distribution

9.1 9.0 10.0 9.3 9.3 9.0 9.5 9.6 10.6 10.4 10.1 8.9 7.9 8.1 8.0 7.6 8.1 8.0 8.1 7.8 9.5 8.6

12.7 14.8 13.7 13.7 13.7 12.8 13.7 13.2 14.5 11.9 13.9 14.0 15.8 12.1 12.9

7.8 7.5 7.5 8.0 7.2 7.4 7.3 7.6 7.6 7.3 7.4 6.6 6.0 5.4 4.9 5.7 5.3 5.1 5.3 5.3 5.9 4.9

16.3 16.4 14.6 16.7 16.2 16.7 13.6 13.9 15.1 14.7 13.9 15.4 14.5 15.3 15.8

2.2 2.4 2.2 2.6 2.2 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.0 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.5 1.2 1.4 1.0 1.1 1.6 1.3 1.5 1.6

7.5 8.7 7.7 5.8 6.0 5.6 4.7 5.2 4.6 4.6 5.0 5.4 4.7 5.4 5.0

1.7 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.7 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.1 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.9 0.8

6.3 6.4 7.8 4.5 4.0 3.7 4.4 4.5 3.4 3.4 3.6 3.6 4.5 2.9 2.8

$75,000 $100,000 $150,000 to $200,000 to to $99,999 $149,999 $199,999 and over

38,039 37,769 40,013 40,193 39,517 38,916 38,482 39,468 40,665 41,312 39,579 37,230 35,481 33,904 31,947 33,519 33,453 33,847 34,850 35,525 36,612 35,471

64,981 69,448 65,600 61,288 60,294 58,911 56,759 57,937 56,052 56,621 55,980 61,170 60,298 56,217 58,206

Value

502 484 538 537 392 545 535 575 516 595 575 718 633 657 696 623 672 700 725 729 710 899

1,551 1,185 2,312 1,706 1,676 2,111 1,424 2,195 2,757 1,634 1,806 1,812 1,630 2,310 2,164

Standard error

Median income (dollars)

52,229 51,376 52,581 53,803 51,791 52,095 51,860 53,518 53,772 54,777 51,994 50,305 47,814 46,290 43,604 45,199 44,277 43,171 44,343 44,501 46,752 45,286

88,635 90,672 86,747 79,122 78,470 76,976 77,182 75,225 73,443 70,175 71,075 73,837 74,959 70,284 (NA)

Value

573 532 553 617 521 637 574 715 680 788 923 1,070 965 1,071 978 1,128 931 679 710 733 803 960

2,092 1,882 2,199 2,285 2,432 2,761 3,114 2,681 2,957 1,929 2,095 2,090 2,181 2,099 (NA)

Standard error

Mean income ­(dollars)

(Income in 2009 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. Households as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)

Households by Total Money Income, Race, and Hispanic Origin of Householder: 1967 to 2009—Con.

Table A-1.


U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 39

5,642 5,418 5,213 4,883 4,326 4,085 3,980 3,906 3,684 3,291 3,304 3,081 2,948 2,897 2,722 2,655

Number (thousands)

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Total

21.4 21.1 21.6 22.1 23.1 22.6 19.5 19.9 17.8 17.9 18.5 20.9 20.4 17.2 15.9 16.9

Under $15,000

15.6 16.3 17.6 16.0 16.3 16.8 17.0 17.0 15.5 16.4 16.8 17.6 18.2 18.4 17.1 18.1

$15,000 to $24,999

13.5 14.0 13.3 13.8 14.6 14.5 14.5 15.2 15.6 15.2 16.0 15.6 15.6 14.7 17.4 16.2

$25,000 to $34,999

16.6 16.0 16.7 17.0 17.8 17.3 18.0 17.9 18.1 18.7 19.3 17.5 18.8 20.1 18.8 21.6

$35,000 to $49,999

17.1 17.5 16.8 17.3 16.2 16.6 17.6 17.3 19.0 19.4 18.5 18.3 18.3 19.2 20.6 17.8

$50,000 to $74,999

Percentage distribution

8.6 8.0 7.7 8.2 6.9 7.5 8.3 7.8 8.1 7.7 6.6 6.8 5.6 6.5 6.7 5.9

5.2 5.7 5.1 4.2 4.1 3.4 4.1 4.0 4.5 3.8 3.5 2.7 2.3 3.0 3.1 2.8

1.1 1.1 0.8 1.0 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.8 0.8 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.3

1.0 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.5 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.5

$75,000 $100,000 $150,000 to $200,000 to to $99,999 $149,999 $199,999 and over

34,925 34,267 33,201 33,411 32,556 32,392 34,623 33,832 35,911 35,613 34,328 32,799 32,134 34,936 35,142 35,200

Value

759 893 776 838 825 856 948 917 1,035 863 603 699 710 765 798 688

Standard error

Median income (dollars)

44,768 43,269 41,486 41,546 39,644 39,977 41,577 41,324 43,450 42,066 40,512 38,760 38,148 40,471 40,829 40,459

Value

829 711 675 810 761 811 794 823 873 851 625 631 678 659 665 688

Standard error

Mean income ­(dollars)

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1968 through 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

1 Median income is calculated using $2,500 income intervals. Beginning with 2009 income data, the Census Bureau expanded the upper income intervals used to calculate medians to $250,000 or more. Medians falling in the upper open-ended interval are plugged with "$250,000." Before 2009, the upper open-ended interval was $100,000 and a plug of "$100,000" was used. 2 Data have been revised to reflect a correction to the weights in the 2005 ASEC. 3 Implementation of a 28,000 household sample expansion. 4 Implementation of Census 2000-based population controls. 5 Full implementation of 1990 census-based sample design and metropolitan definitions, 7,000 household sample reduction, and revised editing of responses on race. 6 Introduction of 1990 census sample design. 7 Data collection method changed from paper and pencil to computer-assisted interviewing. In addition, the 1994 ASEC was revised to allow for the coding of different income amounts on selected questionnaire items. Limits either increased or decreased in the following categories: earnings limits increased to $999,999; social security limits increased to $49,999; supplemental security income and public assistance limits increased to $24,999; veterans' benefits limits increased to $99,999; child support and alimony limits decreased to $49,999. 8 Implementation of 1990 census population controls. 9 Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system. 10 Recording of amounts for earnings from longest job increased to $299,999. Full implementation of 1980 census-based sample design. 11 Implementation of Hispanic population weighting controls and introduction of 1980 census-based sample design. 12 Implementation of 1980 census population controls. Questionnaire expanded to show 27 possible values from 51 possible sources of income. 13 First year medians were derived using both Pareto and linear interpolation. Before this year, all medians were derived using linear interpolation. 14 Some of these estimates were derived using Pareto interpolation and may differ from published data, which were derived using linear interpolation. 15 Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system. Questionnaire expanded to ask 11 income questions. 16 Full implementation of 1970 census-based sample design. 17 Introduction of 1970 census sample design and population controls. 18 Implementation of new CPS ASEC processing system. 19 Beginning with the 2003 CPS, respondents were allowed to choose one or more races. White alone refers to people who reported White and did not report any other race category. The use of his single-race population does not imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing the data. The Census Bureau uses a variety of approaches. Information on people who reported more than one race, such as White and American Indian and Alaska Native or Asian and Black or African American, is available from Census 2000 through American FactFinder. About 2.6 percent of people reported more than one race in Census 2000. 20 For the years 2001 and earlier, the CPS allowed respondents to report only one race group. 21 Black alone refers to people who reported Black and did not report any other race category. 22 Asian alone refers to people who reported Asian and did not report any other race category. 23 Because Hispanics may be any race, data in this report for Hispanics overlap with data for racial groups. Being Hispanic was reported by 13.0 percent of White householders who reported only one race, 3.0 percent of Black householders who reported only one race, and 1.9 percent of Asian householders who reported only one race. Data users should exercise caution when interpreting aggregate results for the Hispanic population and for race groups because these populations consist of many distinct groups that differ in socioeconomic characteristics, culture, and recency of immigration. Data were first collected for Hispanics in 1972.

(NA) Not available.

19879. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1986. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198510 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198411 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1983. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1982. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1981. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1979 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1978. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1977. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197613 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197514 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197414, 15. . . . . . . . . . . . 1973. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197216 . . . . . . . . . . . . .

HISPANIC   (ANY RACE)23—Con.

Race and Hispanic origin of householder and year

(Income in 2009 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. Households as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)

Households by Total Money Income, Race, and Hispanic Origin of Householder: 1967 to 2009—Con.

Table A-1.


Table A-2.

Selected Measures of Household Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2009 (Income in 2009 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. For further explanation of income inequality measures, see Current Population Reports, Series P60-204, The Changing Shape of the Nation’s Income Distribution: 1947–1998. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf) Measures of income dispersion

20091

2008

2007

2006

2005

20042

2003

2002

2001

20003

19994

MEASURE Household Income at Selected   Percentiles 10th percentile limit����������������������������� 20th percentile limit����������������������������� 50th (median) ������������������������������������� 80th percentile limit����������������������������� 90th percentile limit����������������������������� 95th percentile limit�����������������������������

12,120 20,453 49,777 100,000 137,632 180,001

12,115 20,633 50,112 99,860 137,775 179,317

12,581 20,991 51,965 103,448 140,690 183,103

12,766 21,314 51,278 103,226 141,489 185,119

12,402 21,071 50,899 100,757 138,536 182,386

12,384 20,992 50,343 99,930 137,249 178,453

12,287 20,974 50,519 101,307 137,849 179,740

12,662 21,361 50,563 100,170 136,053 178,844

12,947 21,771 51,161 101,163 137,665 182,335

13,180 22,320 52,301 101,844 139,502 180,879

13,318 22,059 52,388 101,995 138,742 182,795

Household Income Ratios of   Selected Percentiles 90th/10th��������������������������������������������� 95th/20th��������������������������������������������� 95th/50th��������������������������������������������� 80th/50th��������������������������������������������� 80th/20th��������������������������������������������� 20th/50th���������������������������������������������

11.36 8.80 3.62 2.01 4.89 0.41

11.37 8.69 3.58 1.99 4.84 0.41

11.18 8.72 3.52 1.99 4.93 0.40

11.08 8.69 3.61 2.01 4.84 0.42

11.17 8.66 3.58 1.98 4.78 0.41

11.08 8.50 3.54 1.98 4.76 0.42

11.22 8.57 3.56 2.01 4.83 0.42

10.75 8.37 3.54 1.98 4.69 0.42

10.63 8.38 3.56 1.98 4.65 0.43

10.58 8.10 3.46 1.95 4.56 0.43

10.42 8.29 3.49 1.95 4.62 0.42

Mean Household Income of   Quintiles Lowest quintile������������������������������������� Second quintile ����������������������������������� Third quintile ��������������������������������������� Fourth quintile������������������������������������� Highest quintile �����������������������������������

11,552 29,257 49,534 78,694 170,844

11,612 29,405 49,942 79,457 170,408

11,949 30,457 51,691 81,839 173,763

12,077 30,614 51,301 81,201 178,904

11,707 30,057 50,871 80,014 175,335

11,633 29,765 50,431 79,518 171,965

11,658 29,947 50,834 80,463 171,527

11,911 30,284 51,032 80,271 171,382

12,280 30,855 51,647 80,978 176,848

12,651 31,588 52,603 81,774 177,203

12,763 31,339 52,457 81,644 174,106

3.4 8.6 14.6 23.2 50.3

3.4 8.6 14.7 23.3 50.0

3.4 8.7 14.8 23.4 49.7

3.4 8.6 14.5 22.9 50.5

3.4 8.6 14.6 23.0 50.4

3.4 8.7 14.7 23.2 50.1

3.4 8.7 14.8 23.4 49.8

3.5 8.8 14.8 23.3 49.7

3.5 8.7 14.6 23.0 50.1

3.6 8.9 14.8 23.0 49.8

3.6 8.9 14.9 23.2 49.4

0.468

0.466

0.463

0.470

0.469

0.466

0.464

0.462

0.466

0.462

0.458

0.550 0.403

0.541 0.398

0.532 0.391

0.543 0.417

0.545 0.411

0.543 0.406

0.530 0.397

0.514 0.398

0.515 0.413

0.490 0.404

0.476 0.386

0.097 0.190 0.288

0.096 0.188 0.285

0.095 0.185 0.281

0.099 0.192 0.289

0.098 0.192 0.289

0.097 0.190 0.286

0.095 0.187 0.283

0.095 0.186 0.279

0.098 0.189 0.282

0.096 0.185 0.275

0.092 0.180 0.268

85 107 213 311 638 879

83 107 136 305 580 919

84 115 145 310 610 886

88 117 220 390 601 1,066

84 117 170 353 590 1,228

84 118 223 353 558 1,041

84 117 219 372 591 830

85 122 166 273 536 851

89 120 156 293 522 916

89 127 164 299 605 1,159

90 122 245 318 582 1,018

Household Income Ratios of   Selected Percentiles 90th/10th��������������������������������������������� 95th/20th��������������������������������������������� 95th/50th��������������������������������������������� 80th/50th��������������������������������������������� 80th/20th �������������������������������������������� 20th/50th���������������������������������������������

0.095 0.063 0.022 0.010 0.030 0.003

0.091 0.063 0.023 0.010 0.029 0.003

0.089 0.064 0.021 0.009 0.031 0.003

0.090 0.069 0.025 0.011 0.032 0.003

0.090 0.076 0.028 0.010 0.031 0.003

0.088 0.069 0.025 0.011 0.032 0.003

0.091 0.062 0.021 0.011 0.032 0.003

0.083 0.062 0.022 0.009 0.030 0.003

0.083 0.063 0.023 0.010 0.029 0.003

0.085 0.070 0.026 0.009 0.029 0.003

0.083 0.065 0.024 0.010 0.029 0.003

Mean Household Income of   Quintiles Lowest quintile������������������������������������� Second quintile ����������������������������������� Third quintile ��������������������������������������� Fourth quintile������������������������������������� Highest quintile �����������������������������������

42 36 47 76 841

41 36 48 75 824

41 38 49 78 834

44 37 48 79 1,004

43 38 47 76 940

43 37 49 75 930

42 38 49 77 882

43 38 49 75 925

44 39 50 76 1,044

45 40 50 76 1,034

44 40 50 77 910

0.02 0.06 0.10 0.15 0.33

0.02 0.06 0.10 0.16 0.33

0.02 0.06 0.10 0.16 0.33

0.02 0.06 0.10 0.15 0.34

0.02 0.06 0.10 0.15 0.34

0.02 0.06 0.10 0.16 0.34

0.02 0.06 0.10 0.16 0.34

0.02 0.06 0.10 0.16 0.34

0.03 0.06 0.10 0.16 0.35

0.03 0.06 0.10 0.16 0.35

0.03 0.06 0.10 0.16 0.35

0.0028

0.0027

0.0027

0.0028

0.0029

0.0029

0.0028

0.0029

0.0030

0.0030

0.0041

0.0064 0.0001

0.0063 0.0001

0.0062 0.0001

0.0063 0.0002

0.0063 0.0001

0.0063 0.0001

0.0054 0.0001

0.0052 0.0001

0.0051 0.0002

0.0049 0.0002

0.0059 0.0001

0.0011 0.0018 0.0024

0.0011 0.0017 0.0023

0.0011 0.0018 0.0024

0.0014 0.0021 0.0027

0.0013 0.0020 0.0026

0.0013 0.0020 0.0026

0.0012 0.0018 0.0024

0.0012 0.0020 0.0025

0.0014 0.0022 0.0027

0.0013 0.0021 0.0026

0.0013 0.0021 0.0027

Shares of Household Income of   Quintiles Lowest quintile������������������������������������� Second quintile ����������������������������������� Third quintile ��������������������������������������� Fourth quintile������������������������������������� Highest quintile ����������������������������������� Summary Measures Gini index of income inequality����������� Mean logarithmic deviation of   income����������������������������������������������� Theil����������������������������������������������������� Atkinson:   e=0.25���������������������������������������������   e=0.50���������������������������������������������   e=0.75��������������������������������������������� STANDARD ERROR Household Income at Selected   Percentiles 10th percentile limit����������������������������� 20th percentile limit����������������������������� 50th (median) ������������������������������������� 80th percentile limit����������������������������� 90th percentile limit����������������������������� 95th percentile limit�����������������������������

Shares of Household Income of   Quintiles Lowest quintile������������������������������������� Second quintile ����������������������������������� Third quintile ��������������������������������������� Fourth quintile������������������������������������� Highest quintile ����������������������������������� Summary Measures Gini index of income inequality����������� Mean logarithmic deviation of   income����������������������������������������������� Theil����������������������������������������������������� Atkinson:   e=0.25���������������������������������������������   e=0.50���������������������������������������������   e=0.75���������������������������������������������   See footnotes at end of table.

40 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau


Table A-2.

Selected Measures of Household Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2009—Con. (Income in 2009 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. For further explanation of income inequality measures, see Current Population Reports, Series P60-204, The Changing Shape of the Nation’s Income Distribution: 1947–1998. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf) Measures of income dispersion

1998

1997

1996

19955

19946

19937

19928

1991

1990

1989

1988

MEASURE Household Income at Selected   Percentiles 10th percentile limit����������������������������� 20th percentile limit����������������������������� 50th (median) ������������������������������������� 80th percentile limit����������������������������� 90th percentile limit����������������������������� 95th percentile limit�����������������������������

12,747 21,179 51,100 98,561 133,123 173,728

12,279 20,520 49,309 95,273 130,133 168,626

12,129 20,103 48,315 92,587 125,306 162,727

12,125 20,124 47,622 91,012 122,561 157,919

11,489 19,215 46,175 89,936 121,482 157,172

11,235 18,954 45,665 88,142 119,482 152,953

11,234 18,873 45,888 86,886 116,159 148,318

11,399 19,338 46,269 87,173 116,544 148,055

11,645 19,886 47,637 87,826 117,886 150,735

12,025 20,203 48,279 89,707 120,178 153,241

11,436 19,830 47,433 88,146 116,731 149,207

Household Income Ratios of   Selected Percentiles 90th/10th��������������������������������������������� 95th/20th��������������������������������������������� 95th/50th��������������������������������������������� 80th/50th��������������������������������������������� 80th/20th��������������������������������������������� 20th/50th���������������������������������������������

10.44 8.20 3.40 1.93 4.65 0.41

10.60 8.22 3.42 1.93 4.64 0.42

10.33 8.10 3.37 1.92 4.61 0.42

10.11 7.85 3.32 1.91 4.52 0.42

10.57 8.18 3.40 1.95 4.68 0.42

10.64 8.07 3.35 1.93 4.65 0.42

10.34 7.86 3.23 1.89 4.60 0.41

10.22 7.66 3.20 1.88 4.51 0.42

10.12 7.58 3.16 1.84 4.42 0.42

9.99 7.59 3.17 1.86 4.44 0.42

10.21 7.52 3.15 1.86 4.45 0.42

Mean Household Income of   Quintiles Lowest quintile������������������������������������� Second quintile ����������������������������������� Third quintile ��������������������������������������� Fourth quintile������������������������������������� Highest quintile �����������������������������������

12,120 30,604 51,208 79,198 167,591

11,778 29,445 49,538 76,727 163,581

11,700 28,719 48,306 74,764 157,247

11,662 28,505 47,664 73,270 152,904

11,040 27,513 46,348 72,124 151,625

10,757 27,270 45,711 71,038 148,003

10,868 27,233 45,881 70,431 136,470

11,098 27,875 46,302 70,582 135,349

11,400 28,684 47,379 71,433 138,627

11,681 29,063 48,311 73,076 142,851

11,264 28,428 47,548 71,875 137,218

3.6 9.0 15.0 23.2 49.2

3.6 8.9 15.0 23.2 49.4

3.6 9.0 15.1 23.3 49.0

3.7 9.1 15.2 23.3 48.7

3.6 8.9 15.0 23.4 49.1

3.6 9.0 15.1 23.5 48.9

3.8 9.4 15.8 24.2 46.9

3.8 9.6 15.9 24.2 46.5

3.8 9.6 15.9 24.0 46.6

3.8 9.5 15.8 24.0 46.8

3.8 9.6 16.0 24.2 46.3

0.456

0.459

0.455

0.450

0.456

0.454

0.433

0.428

0.428

0.431

0.426

0.488 0.389

0.484 0.396

0.464 0.389

0.452 0.378

0.471 0.387

0.467 0.385

0.416 0.323

0.411 0.313

0.402 0.317

0.406 0.324

0.401 0.314

0.093 0.181 0.271

0.094 0.183 0.272

0.093 0.179 0.266

0.090 0.175 0.261

0.092 0.180 0.268

0.092 0.178 0.266

0.080 0.160 0.242

0.078 0.156 0.237

0.078 0.156 0.236

0.080 0.158 0.239

0.078 0.155 0.236

87 129 302 307 504 1,007

92 121 228 422 538 881

86 123 244 322 580 801

86 113 275 342 531 939

80 111 210 293 537 891

80 113 213 331 418 760

80 113 217 287 383 750

82 118 223 316 418 757

89 122 243 338 452 851

89 126 266 278 725 818

89 124 232 309 474 926

Household Income Ratios of   Selected Percentiles 90th/10th��������������������������������������������� 95th/20th��������������������������������������������� 95th/50th��������������������������������������������� 80th/50th��������������������������������������������� 80th/20th �������������������������������������������� 20th/50th���������������������������������������������

0.082 0.069 0.024 0.010 0.032 0.003

0.091 0.065 0.022 0.011 0.034 0.003

0.087 0.063 0.022 0.011 0.032 0.003

0.084 0.064 0.023 0.010 0.031 0.003

0.087 0.066 0.024 0.010 0.031 0.003

0.085 0.063 0.022 0.011 0.033 0.003

0.081 0.062 0.021 0.010 0.032 0.003

0.082 0.061 0.021 0.011 0.032 0.003

0.087 0.063 0.022 0.010 0.032 0.003

0.095 0.062 0.021 0.009 0.031 0.003

0.089 0.066 0.023 0.010 0.032 0.003

Mean Household Income of   Quintiles Lowest quintile������������������������������������� Second quintile ����������������������������������� Third quintile ��������������������������������������� Fourth quintile������������������������������������� Highest quintile �����������������������������������

43 41 50 75 949

43 39 48 72 974

39 38 48 69 947

41 38 46 70 892

40 37 46 72 894

39 38 45 70 895

39 39 45 66 496

40 38 45 66 473

41 40 45 67 522

42 40 47 68 576

42 40 47 66 523

0.03 0.06 0.11 0.17 0.35

0.03 0.06 0.11 0.17 0.35

0.03 0.07 0.11 0.17 0.35

0.03 0.07 0.11 0.17 0.35

0.03 0.07 0.11 0.17 0.36

0.03 0.07 0.11 0.17 0.36

0.03 0.07 0.12 0.18 0.35

0.03 0.07 0.12 0.18 0.34

0.03 0.07 0.12 0.18 0.35

0.03 0.07 0.12 0.18 0.35

0.03 0.07 0.12 0.18 0.35

0.0042

0.0043

0.0043

0.0043

0.0042

0.0042

0.0038

0.0038

0.0039

0.0040

0.0041

0.0069 0.0002

0.0067 0.0002

0.0064 0.0002

0.0063 0.0002

0.0061 0.0002

0.0061 0.0002

0.0055 0.0001

0.0056 0.0001

0.0053 0.0001

0.0053 0.0001

0.0055 0.0001

0.0015 0.0023 0.0029

0.0016 0.0025 0.0030

0.0016 0.0024 0.0030

0.0015 0.0024 0.0029

0.0015 0.0023 0.0028

0.0015 0.0024 0.0029

0.0007 0.0013 0.0019

0.0007 0.0012 0.0018

0.0007 0.0013 0.0018

0.0008 0.0014 0.0019

0.0008 0.0014 0.0020

Shares of Household Income of   Quintiles Lowest quintile������������������������������������� Second quintile ����������������������������������� Third quintile ��������������������������������������� Fourth quintile������������������������������������� Highest quintile ����������������������������������� Summary Measures Gini index of income inequality����������� Mean logarithmic deviation of   income����������������������������������������������� Theil����������������������������������������������������� Atkinson:   e=0.25���������������������������������������������   e=0.50���������������������������������������������   e=0.75��������������������������������������������� STANDARD ERROR Household Income at Selected   Percentiles 10th percentile limit����������������������������� 20th percentile limit����������������������������� 50th (median) ������������������������������������� 80th percentile limit����������������������������� 90th percentile limit����������������������������� 95th percentile limit�����������������������������

Shares of Household Income of   Quintiles Lowest quintile������������������������������������� Second quintile ����������������������������������� Third quintile ��������������������������������������� Fourth quintile������������������������������������� Highest quintile ����������������������������������� Summary Measures Gini index of income inequality����������� Mean logarithmic deviation of   income����������������������������������������������� Theil����������������������������������������������������� Atkinson:   e=0.25���������������������������������������������   e=0.50���������������������������������������������   e=0.75���������������������������������������������   See footnotes at end of table. U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 41


Table A-2.

Selected Measures of Household Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2009—Con. (Income in 2009 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. For further explanation of income inequality measures, see Current Population Reports, Series P60-204, The Changing Shape of the Nation’s Income Distribution: 1947–1998. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf) Measures of income dispersion

19879

1986

198510

1984

198311

1982

1981

1980

197912

1978

1977

MEASURE Household Income at Selected   Percentiles 10th percentile limit����������������������������� 20th percentile limit����������������������������� 50th (median) ������������������������������������� 80th percentile limit����������������������������� 90th percentile limit����������������������������� 95th percentile limit�����������������������������

11,265 19,507 47,071 87,353 115,242 146,172

11,170 19,133 46,488 85,859 112,687 143,974

11,210 18,898 44,898 82,843 108,659 136,881

11,202 18,680 44,074 81,365 107,025 134,691

10,760 18,317 42,747 78,998 103,393 129,971

10,801 17,927 43,048 77,683 102,445 128,232

10,998 18,158 43,163 77,619 101,391 124,914

11,153 18,533 43,892 78,019 101,373 125,556

11,303 19,274 45,325 79,851 103,364 129,029

11,523 19,063 45,452 79,317 102,586 126,890

11,291 18,487 43,758 77,380 98,691 122,518

Household Income Ratios of   Selected Percentiles 90th/10th��������������������������������������������� 95th/20th��������������������������������������������� 95th/50th��������������������������������������������� 80th/50th��������������������������������������������� 80th/20th��������������������������������������������� 20th/50th���������������������������������������������

10.23 7.49 3.11 1.86 4.48 0.41

10.09 7.53 3.10 1.85 4.49 0.41

9.69 7.24 3.05 1.85 4.38 0.42

9.55 7.21 3.06 1.85 4.36 0.42

9.61 7.10 3.04 1.85 4.31 0.43

9.49 7.15 2.98 1.80 4.33 0.42

9.22 6.88 2.89 1.80 4.28 0.42

9.09 6.78 2.86 1.78 4.21 0.42

9.15 6.69 2.85 1.76 4.14 0.43

8.90 6.66 2.79 1.75 4.16 0.42

8.74 6.63 2.80 1.77 4.19 0.42

Mean Household Income of   Quintiles Lowest quintile������������������������������������� Second quintile ����������������������������������� Third quintile ��������������������������������������� Fourth quintile������������������������������������� Highest quintile �����������������������������������

11,076 28,148 47,060 71,133 135,278

10,781 27,734 46,410 69,914 132,332

10,672 27,046 44,893 67,528 126,139

10,689 26,624 44,120 66,429 122,148

10,342 25,980 42,954 64,457 118,343

10,223 25,868 42,820 63,683 116,800

10,414 25,942 42,975 64,061 114,432

10,682 26,585 43,870 64,631 115,236

11,031 27,436 45,234 66,381 119,130

11,119 27,306 45,087 66,047 117,917

10,753 26,467 43,781 64,148 114,393

3.8 9.6 16.1 24.3 46.2

3.8 9.7 16.2 24.3 46.1

3.9 9.8 16.2 24.4 45.6

4.0 9.9 16.3 24.6 45.2

4.0 9.9 16.4 24.6 45.1

4.0 10.0 16.5 24.5 45.0

4.1 10.1 16.7 24.8 44.3

4.2 10.2 16.8 24.7 44.1

4.1 10.2 16.8 24.6 44.2

4.2 10.2 16.8 24.7 44.1

4.2 10.2 16.9 24.7 44.0

0.426

0.425

0.419

0.415

0.414

0.412

0.406

0.403

0.404

0.402

0.402

0.414 0.311

0.416 0.310

0.403 0.300

0.391 0.290

0.397 0.288

0.401 0.287

0.387 0.277

0.375 0.274

0.369 0.279

0.363 0.275

0.364 0.276

0.077 0.155 0.238

0.077 0.155 0.237

0.075 0.151 0.231

0.073 0.147 0.225

0.072 0.147 0.226

0.072 0.146 0.226

0.070 0.141 0.220

0.069 0.140 0.216

0.070 0.141 0.216

0.069 0.139 0.213

0.069 0.139 0.213

88 125 222 299 417 681

89 126 241 334 514 601

86 124 243 272 463 1,142

84 113 201 289 368 673

86 115 194 261 456 621

86 115 194 289 393 739

129 117 226 231 380 695

127 122 226 272 430 666

126 131 215 230 414 713

126 132 184 294 340 693

121 129 164 227 467 600

Household Income Ratios of   Selected Percentiles 90th/10th��������������������������������������������� 95th/20th��������������������������������������������� 95th/50th��������������������������������������������� 80th/50th��������������������������������������������� 80th/20th �������������������������������������������� 20th/50th���������������������������������������������

0.088 0.060 0.020 0.010 0.033 0.003

0.093 0.059 0.018 0.011 0.034 0.003

0.085 0.077 0.028 0.010 0.032 0.003

0.079 0.056 0.020 0.010 0.030 0.003

0.088 0.056 0.019 0.010 0.031 0.003

0.084 0.062 0.021 0.010 0.032 0.003

0.114 0.059 0.020 0.009 0.030 0.003

0.110 0.057 0.019 0.010 0.031 0.003

0.108 0.059 0.020 0.009 0.031 0.003

0.102 0.059 0.020 0.010 0.033 0.003

0.102 0.056 0.018 0.009 0.032 0.003

Mean Household Income of   Quintiles Lowest quintile������������������������������������� Second quintile ����������������������������������� Third quintile ��������������������������������������� Fourth quintile������������������������������������� Highest quintile �����������������������������������

42 40 47 67 513

41 39 47 65 484

42 38 46 65 441

41 37 45 65 387

41 37 43 61 375

43 38 43 60 376

43 36 45 59 353

42 40 45 59 382

44 41 47 61 424

45 42 48 60 422

45 42 45 61 432

0.03 0.07 0.12 0.19 0.35

0.03 0.08 0.13 0.19 0.35

0.03 0.08 0.13 0.19 0.35

0.03 0.08 0.13 0.19 0.35

0.03 0.08 0.13 0.19 0.36

0.03 0.08 0.13 0.20 0.36

0.03 0.08 0.13 0.20 0.35

0.03 0.08 0.14 0.20 0.36

0.04 0.08 0.14 0.20 0.36

0.04 0.09 0.14 0.21 0.37

0.04 0.09 0.14 0.21 0.37

0.0038

0.0038

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0038

0.0038

0.0036

0.0038

0.0039

0.0039

0.0055 0.0001

0.0057 0.0001

0.0056 0.0001

0.0055 0.0001

0.0056 0.0001

0.0057 0.0001

0.0056 0.0001

0.0051 0.0001

0.0050 0.0001

0.0054 0.0001

0.0054 0.0001

0.0007 0.0013 0.0018

0.0007 0.0012 0.0018

0.0006 0.0011 0.0017

0.0006 0.0011 0.0016

0.0006 0.0011 0.0016

0.0006 0.0011 0.0017

0.0006 0.0011 0.0017

0.0006 0.0010 0.0016

0.0006 0.0011 0.0017

0.0006 0.0011 0.0016

0.0006 0.0011 0.0017

Shares of Household Income of   Quintiles Lowest quintile������������������������������������� Second quintile ����������������������������������� Third quintile ��������������������������������������� Fourth quintile������������������������������������� Highest quintile ����������������������������������� Summary Measures Gini index of income inequality����������� Mean logarithmic deviation of   income����������������������������������������������� Theil����������������������������������������������������� Atkinson:   e=0.25���������������������������������������������   e=0.50���������������������������������������������   e=0.75��������������������������������������������� STANDARD ERROR Household Income at Selected   Percentiles 10th percentile limit����������������������������� 20th percentile limit����������������������������� 50th (median) ������������������������������������� 80th percentile limit����������������������������� 90th percentile limit����������������������������� 95th percentile limit�����������������������������

Shares of Household Income of   Quintiles Lowest quintile������������������������������������� Second quintile ����������������������������������� Third quintile ��������������������������������������� Fourth quintile������������������������������������� Highest quintile ����������������������������������� Summary Measures Gini index of income inequality����������� Mean logarithmic deviation of   income����������������������������������������������� Theil����������������������������������������������������� Atkinson:   e=0.25���������������������������������������������   e=0.50���������������������������������������������   e=0.75���������������������������������������������   See footnotes at end of table.

42 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau


Table A-2.

Selected Measures of Household Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2009—Con. (Income in 2009 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. For further explanation of income inequality measures, see Current Population Reports, Series P60-204, The Changing Shape of the Nation’s Income Distribution: 1947–1998. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf) Measures of income dispersion

197613

197514

197414, 15

1973

197216

197117

1970

1969

1968

196718

MEASURE Household Income at Selected   Percentiles 10th percentile limit����������������������������� 20th percentile limit����������������������������� 50th (median) ������������������������������������� 80th percentile limit����������������������������� 90th percentile limit����������������������������� 95th percentile limit�����������������������������

11,154 18,526 43,483 75,648 97,002 119,967

11,092 18,124 42,773 73,802 94,609 116,463

11,404 19,065 43,923 75,839 97,791 120,037

11,327 18,973 45,360 77,723 100,325 124,921

10,816 18,570 44,462 75,655 97,205 121,759

10,144 17,946 42,636 71,784 92,091 113,995

9,987 18,180 43,055 72,273 92,060 114,243

10,221 18,491 43,391 71,897 91,226 112,759

9,963 17,954 41,836 68,554 86,449 107,251

9,152 16,845 40,108 66,481 84,449 106,684

Household Income Ratios of   Selected Percentiles 90th/10th��������������������������������������������� 95th/20th��������������������������������������������� 95th/50th��������������������������������������������� 80th/50th��������������������������������������������� 80th/20th��������������������������������������������� 20th/50th���������������������������������������������

8.70 6.48 2.76 1.74 4.08 0.43

8.53 6.43 2.72 1.73 4.07 0.42

8.58 6.30 2.73 1.73 3.98 0.43

8.86 6.58 2.75 1.71 4.10 0.42

8.99 6.56 2.74 1.70 4.07 0.42

9.08 6.35 2.67 1.68 4.00 0.42

9.22 6.28 2.65 1.68 3.98 0.42

8.93 6.10 2.60 1.66 3.89 0.43

8.68 5.97 2.56 1.64 3.82 0.43

9.23 6.33 2.66 1.66 3.95 0.42

Mean Household Income of   Quintiles Lowest quintile������������������������������������� Second quintile ����������������������������������� Third quintile ��������������������������������������� Fourth quintile������������������������������������� Highest quintile �����������������������������������

10,804 26,451 43,500 63,171 111,806

10,545 25,903 42,498 61,753 109,028

10,917 27,134 43,727 63,153 111,890

10,956 27,547 45,183 65,002 116,304

10,468 27,039 44,128 63,353 113,735

9,880 26,111 42,338 60,190 106,651

9,820 26,600 42,833 60,377 106,888

9,993 26,979 43,112 60,388 106,138

9,758 26,162 41,496 57,883 100,584

8,984 24,891 39,737 55,599 100,059

4.3 10.3 17.0 24.7 43.7

4.3 10.4 17.0 24.7 43.6

4.3 10.6 17.0 24.6 43.5

4.2 10.4 17.0 24.5 43.9

4.1 10.4 17.0 24.5 43.9

4.1 10.6 17.3 24.5 43.5

4.1 10.8 17.4 24.5 43.3

4.1 10.9 17.5 24.5 43.0

4.2 11.1 17.6 24.5 42.6

4.0 10.8 17.3 24.2 43.6

0.398

0.397

0.395

0.400

0.401

0.396

0.394

0.391

0.386

0.397

0.361 0.271

0.361 0.270

0.352 0.267

0.355 0.270

0.370 0.279

0.370 0.273

0.370 0.271

0.357 0.268

0.356 0.273

0.380 0.287

0.068 0.137 0.211

0.067 0.136 0.210

0.067 0.134 0.207

0.068 0.136 0.210

0.070 0.140 0.216

0.068 0.138 0.214

0.068 0.138 0.214

0.067 0.135 0.209

0.067 0.135 0.208

0.071 0.143 0.220

120 132 161 262 341 691

115 134 174 313 428 627

122 162 169 214 353 792

121 161 173 249 363 568

119 159 170 295 489 767

116 155 165 349 262 459

121 161 158 187 297 567

123 164 160 199 351 698

121 161 151 223 464 482

117 156 146 263 624 453

Household Income Ratios of   Selected Percentiles 90th/10th��������������������������������������������� 95th/20th��������������������������������������������� 95th/50th��������������������������������������������� 80th/50th��������������������������������������������� 80th/20th �������������������������������������������� 20th/50th���������������������������������������������

0.099 0.059 0.020 0.010 0.032 0.004

0.097 0.059 0.019 0.010 0.035 0.004

0.096 0.068 0.022 0.009 0.036 0.004

0.100 0.063 0.018 0.010 0.037 0.004

0.109 0.070 0.021 0.010 0.038 0.004

0.107 0.060 0.016 0.011 0.040 0.004

0.115 0.064 0.017 0.008 0.037 0.004

0.113 0.066 0.020 0.008 0.036 0.004

0.115 0.060 0.016 0.009 0.036 0.004

0.136 0.065 0.016 0.010 0.040 0.004

Mean Household Income of   Quintiles Lowest quintile������������������������������������� Second quintile ����������������������������������� Third quintile ��������������������������������������� Fourth quintile������������������������������������� Highest quintile �����������������������������������

45 41 45 58 428

43 40 43 58 431

47 43 43 59 435

47 47 47 60 470

46 46 46 60 495

47 43 43 57 468

49 44 44 59 483

47 47 41 57 491

49 43 43 54 459

45 45 39 51 500

0.04 0.09 0.15 0.21 0.37

0.04 0.09 0.15 0.21 0.38

0.04 0.09 0.15 0.21 0.38

0.04 0.09 0.15 0.22 0.39

0.04 0.09 0.15 0.22 0.39

0.04 0.10 0.16 0.22 0.39

0.04 0.10 0.16 0.23 0.40

0.04 0.10 0.16 0.23 0.40

0.04 0.11 0.17 0.23 0.40

0.04 0.10 0.17 0.23 0.41

0.0041

0.0056

0.0066

0.0040

0.0069

0.0063

0.0078

0.0066

0.0042

0.0044

0.0054 0.0001

0.0059 0.0001

0.0058 0.0001

0.0057 0.0001

0.0060 0.0001

0.0061 0.0001

0.0060 0.0001

0.0058 0.0001

0.0057 0.0001

0.0060 0.0001

0.0006 0.0011 0.0017

0.0007 0.0012 0.0018

0.0006 0.0011 0.0017

0.0007 0.0012 0.0017

0.0007 0.0013 0.0018

0.0007 0.0013 0.0019

0.0007 0.0013 0.0019

0.0008 0.0014 0.0020

0.0007 0.0012 0.0018

0.0008 0.0014 0.0020

Shares of Household Income of   Quintiles Lowest quintile������������������������������������� Second quintile ����������������������������������� Third quintile ��������������������������������������� Fourth quintile������������������������������������� Highest quintile ����������������������������������� Summary Measures Gini index of income inequality����������� Mean logarithmic deviation of   income����������������������������������������������� Theil����������������������������������������������������� Atkinson:   e=0.25���������������������������������������������   e=0.50���������������������������������������������   e=0.75��������������������������������������������� STANDARD ERROR Household Income at Selected   Percentiles 10th percentile limit����������������������������� 20th percentile limit����������������������������� 50th (median) ������������������������������������� 80th percentile limit����������������������������� 90th percentile limit����������������������������� 95th percentile limit�����������������������������

Shares of Household Income of   Quintiles Lowest quintile������������������������������������� Second quintile ����������������������������������� Third quintile ��������������������������������������� Fourth quintile������������������������������������� Highest quintile ����������������������������������� Summary Measures Gini index of income inequality����������� Mean logarithmic deviation of   income����������������������������������������������� Theil����������������������������������������������������� Atkinson:   e=0.25���������������������������������������������   e=0.50���������������������������������������������   e=0.75���������������������������������������������   See footnotes on next page. U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 43


1 Medians are calculated using $2,500 income intervals. Beginning with 2009 income data, the Census Bureau expanded the upper income intervals used to calculate medians to $250,000 or more. Medians falling in the upper open-ended interval are plugged with “$250,000.” Before 2009, the upper open-ended interval was $100,000 and a plug of “$100,000” was used. 2 Data have been revised to reflect a correction to the weights in the 2005 ASEC. 3 Implementation of a 28,000 household sample expansion. 4 Implementation of Census 2000-based population controls. 5 Full implementation of 1990 census-based sample design and metropolitan definitions, 7,000 household sample reduction, and revised editing of responses on race. 6 Introduction of 1990 census sample design. 7 Data collection method changed from paper and pencil to computer-assisted interviewing. In addition, the 1994 ASEC was revised to allow for the coding of different income amounts on selected questionnaire items. Limits either increased or decreased in the following categories: earnings limits increased to $999,999; social security limits increased to $49,999; supplemental security income and public assistance limits increased to $24,999; veterans’ benefits limits increased to $99,999; child support and alimony limits decreased to $49,999. 8 Implementation of 1990 census population controls. 9 Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system. 10 Recording of amounts for earnings from longest job increased to $299,999. Full implementation of 1980 census-based sample design. 11 Implementation of Hispanic population weighting controls and introduction of 1980 census-based sample design. 12 Implementation of 1980 census population controls. Questionnaire expanded to allow the recording of up to 27 possible values from a list of 51 possible sources of income. 13 First year medians were derived using both Pareto and linear interpolation. Before this year, all medians were derived using linear interpolation. 14 Some of these estimates were derived using Pareto interpolation and may differ from published data, which were derived using linear interpolation. 15 Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system. Questionnaire expanded to ask 11 income questions. 16 Full implementation of 1970 census-based sample design. 17 Introduction of 1970 census sample design and population controls. 18 Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1968 to 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

44 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau


U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 45 0.02 0.04 0.07 0.10 0.22

STANDARD ERRORS Shares of Equivalence-Adjusted   Income of Quintiles Lowest quintile���������������������������������������������������������������������� Second quintile �������������������������������������������������������������������� Third quintile ������������������������������������������������������������������������ Fourth quintile���������������������������������������������������������������������� Highest quintile ��������������������������������������������������������������������

  See footnotes at end of table.

Summary Measures Gini index of income inequality�������������������������������������������� Mean logarithmic deviation of income���������������������������������� Theil�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� Atkinson:   e=0.25������������������������������������������������������������������������������   e=0.50������������������������������������������������������������������������������   e=0.75������������������������������������������������������������������������������

0.092 0.183 0.287

0.095 0.190 0.300

0.0017 0.0047 0.0001 0.0007 0.0012 0.0016

0.0017 0.0050 0.0001 0.0007 0.0012 0.0016

0.02 0.04 0.07 0.10 0.22

0.451 0.614 0.380

3.6 9.4 15.1 22.9 49.0

2008

0.458 0.665 0.394

3.4 9.2 15.0 22.9 49.4

2009

Summary Measures Gini index of income inequality�������������������������������������������� Mean logarithmic deviation of income���������������������������������� Theil�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� Atkinson:   e=0.25������������������������������������������������������������������������������   e=0.50������������������������������������������������������������������������������   e=0.75������������������������������������������������������������������������������

MEASURES Shares of Equivalence-Adjusted   Income of Quintiles Lowest quintile���������������������������������������������������������������������� Second quintile �������������������������������������������������������������������� Third quintile ������������������������������������������������������������������������ Fourth quintile���������������������������������������������������������������������� Highest quintile ��������������������������������������������������������������������

Measures of income dispersion

0.0008 0.0012 0.0016

0.0017 0.0046 0.0001

0.02 0.05 0.07 0.10 0.22

0.090 0.178 0.279

0.445 0.589 0.371

3.7 9.6 15.3 22.9 48.5

2007

0.0009 0.0014 0.0018

0.0018 0.0046 0.0001

0.02 0.05 0.07 0.10 0.22

0.095 0.186 0.288

0.454 0.608 0.397

3.7 9.4 15.0 22.5 49.4

2006

0.0009 0.0013 0.0017

0.0018 0.0047 0.0001

0.02 0.05 0.07 0.10 0.22

0.094 0.185 0.289

0.452 0.620 0.389

3.7 9.5 15.1 22.7 49.1

2005

0.0009 0.0014 0.0018

0.0018 0.0046 0.0001

0.02 0.05 0.07 0.10 0.22

0.092 0.183 0.286

0.449 0.612 0.385

3.7 9.5 15.2 22.8 48.8

20041

0.0008 0.0012 0.0016

0.0018 0.0045 0.0001

0.02 0.05 0.07 0.11 0.22

0.091 0.180 0.281

0.447 0.594 0.376

3.7 9.5 15.2 22.9 48.6

2003

0.0008 0.0013 0.0017

0.0018 0.0043 0.0001

0.02 0.05 0.07 0.11 0.22

0.091 0.178 0.277

0.445 0.575 0.377

3.8 9.6 15.3 22.8 48.5

2002

0.0010 0.0015 0.0018

0.0019 0.0043 0.0001

0.02 0.05 0.07 0.10 0.22

0.093 0.182 0.280

0.448 0.577 0.393

3.9 9.6 15.2 22.4 49.0

2001

0.0009 0.0014 0.0017

0.0019 0.0041 0.0001

0.02 0.05 0.07 0.10 0.22

0.091 0.177 0.272

0.443 0.545 0.382

4.0 9.8 15.2 22.4 48.7

20002

(For further explanation of income inequality measures, see Current Population Reports, Series P60-204, The Changing Shape of the Nation’s Income Distribution: 1947–1998. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)

Selected Measures of Equivalence-Adjusted Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2009

Table A-3.

0.0009 0.0014 0.0019

0.0018 0.0052 0.0001

0.02 0.05 0.07 0.11 0.22

0.089 0.175 0.270

0.443 0.542 0.371

3.9 9.7 15.3 22.7 48.5

19993


46 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

0.02 0.05 0.07 0.11 0.22

STANDARD ERRORS Shares of Equivalence-Adjusted   Income of Quintiles Lowest quintile���������������������������������������������������������������������� Second quintile �������������������������������������������������������������������� Third quintile ������������������������������������������������������������������������ Fourth quintile���������������������������������������������������������������������� Highest quintile ��������������������������������������������������������������������

  See footnotes at end of table.

Summary Measures Gini index of income inequality�������������������������������������������� Mean logarithmic deviation of income���������������������������������� Theil�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� Atkinson:   e=0.25������������������������������������������������������������������������������   e=0.50������������������������������������������������������������������������������   e=0.75������������������������������������������������������������������������������

0.090 0.177 0.273

0.090 0.177 0.274

0.0019 0.0053 0.0001 0.0010 0.0016 0.0021

0.0019 0.0053 0.0001 0.0010 0.0016 0.0020

0.02 0.05 0.08 0.11 0.23

0.443 0.549 0.379

3.8 9.8 15.4 22.6 48.4

1997

0.442 0.556 0.377

3.8 9.8 15.4 22.7 48.2

1998

Summary Measures Gini index of income inequality�������������������������������������������� Mean logarithmic deviation of income���������������������������������� Theil�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� Atkinson:   e=0.25������������������������������������������������������������������������������   e=0.50������������������������������������������������������������������������������   e=0.75������������������������������������������������������������������������������

MEASURES Shares of Equivalence-Adjusted   Income of Quintiles Lowest quintile���������������������������������������������������������������������� Second quintile �������������������������������������������������������������������� Third quintile ������������������������������������������������������������������������ Fourth quintile���������������������������������������������������������������������� Highest quintile ��������������������������������������������������������������������

Measures of income dispersion

0.0010 0.0016 0.0020

0.0019 0.0050 0.0001

0.02 0.05 0.08 0.11 0.23

0.089 0.174 0.267

0.440 0.524 0.374

3.9 9.8 15.5 22.8 48.0

1996

0.0010 0.0015 0.0019

0.0019 0.0049 0.0001

0.02 0.05 0.08 0.11 0.23

0.086 0.169 0.261

0.435 0.509 0.360

4.0 9.9 15.6 22.9 47.6

19954

0.0010 0.0015 0.0019

0.0019 0.0046 0.0001

0.02 0.05 0.08 0.11 0.23

0.088 0.172 0.264

0.438 0.513 0.366

3.9 9.8 15.6 22.9 47.9

19945

0.0009 0.0015 0.0019

0.0019 0.0046 0.0001

0.02 0.05 0.08 0.11 0.23

0.088 0.173 0.265

0.438 0.516 0.367

3.8 9.8 15.6 23.1 47.7

19936

0.0005 0.0008 0.0013

0.0018 0.0042 0.0001

0.02 0.05 0.08 0.12 0.22

0.075 0.152 0.239

0.415 0.456 0.303

4.0 10.3 16.3 23.7 45.6

19927

0.0004 0.0008 0.0012

0.0018 0.0040 0.0001

0.02 0.05 0.08 0.12 0.22

0.073 0.147 0.229

0.408 0.430 0.292

4.2 10.5 16.5 23.7 45.1

1991

0.0005 0.0009 0.0013

0.0018 0.0038 0.0001

0.02 0.05 0.07 0.11 0.20

0.073 0.147 0.227

0.408 0.418 0.296

4.3 10.6 16.4 23.6 45.2

1990

0.0005 0.0009 0.0013

0.0019 0.0039 0.0001

0.02 0.05 0.07 0.11 0.21

0.074 0.148 0.229

0.410 0.423 0.302

4.3 10.5 16.3 23.4 45.5

1989

(For further explanation of income inequality measures, see Current Population Reports, Series P60-204, The Changing Shape of the Nation’s Income Distribution: 1947–1998. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)

Selected Measures of Equivalence-Adjusted Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2009—Con.

Table A-3.

0.0006 0.0010 0.0014

0.0018 0.0039 0.0001

0.02 0.05 0.08 0.11 0.20

0.071 0.143 0.223

0.404 0.406 0.288

4.3 10.6 16.5 23.8 44.8

1988


U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 47 0.03 0.06 0.09 0.13 0.23

STANDARD ERRORS Shares of Equivalence-Adjusted   Income of Quintiles Lowest quintile���������������������������������������������������������������������� Second quintile �������������������������������������������������������������������� Third quintile ������������������������������������������������������������������������ Fourth quintile���������������������������������������������������������������������� Highest quintile ��������������������������������������������������������������������

  See footnotes at end of table.

Summary Measures Gini index of income inequality�������������������������������������������� Mean logarithmic deviation of income���������������������������������� Theil�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� Atkinson:   e=0.25������������������������������������������������������������������������������   e=0.50������������������������������������������������������������������������������   e=0.75������������������������������������������������������������������������������

0.073 0.149 0.237

0.070 0.142 0.221

0.0018 0.0044 0.0001 0.0004 0.0008 0.0013

0.0018 0.0038 0.0001 0.0005 0.0008 0.0012

0.03 0.06 0.09 0.13 0.23

0.407 0.465 0.293

4.0 10.6 16.6 24.0 44.8

1986

0.400 0.404 0.283

4.3 10.7 16.7 23.8 44.4

19878

Summary Measures Gini index of income inequality�������������������������������������������� Mean logarithmic deviation of income���������������������������������� Theil�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� Atkinson:   e=0.25������������������������������������������������������������������������������   e=0.50������������������������������������������������������������������������������   e=0.75������������������������������������������������������������������������������

MEASURES Shares of Equivalence-Adjusted   Incomes of Quintiles Lowest quintile���������������������������������������������������������������������� Second quintile �������������������������������������������������������������������� Third quintile ������������������������������������������������������������������������ Fourth quintile���������������������������������������������������������������������� Highest quintile ��������������������������������������������������������������������

Measures of income dispersion

0.0004 0.0008 0.0012

0.0018 0.0042 0.0001

0.03 0.06 0.09 0.13 0.23

0.072 0.147 0.233

0.404 0.453 0.286

4.1 10.7 16.6 23.9 44.7

19859

0.0004 0.0007 0.0012

0.0018 0.0042 0.0001

0.03 0.06 0.09 0.13 0.23

0.070 0.144 0.230

0.400 0.451 0.277

4.2 10.8 16.8 24.2 44.1

1984

0.0004 0.0007 0.0012

0.0018 0.0043 0.0001

0.03 0.06 0.09 0.13 0.23

0.070 0.145 0.233

0.401 0.462 0.278

4.1 10.7 16.9 24.2 44.2

198310

0.0004 0.0007 0.0012

0.0018 0.0044 0.0001

0.03 0.06 0.09 0.13 0.23

0.069 0.143 0.231

0.396 0.465 0.273

4.2 10.9 17.0 24.2 43.8

1982

0.0004 0.0007 0.0012

0.0018 0.0042 0.0001

0.03 0.06 0.10 0.13 0.23

0.065 0.134 0.216

0.384 0.429 0.256

4.6 11.2 17.2 24.2 42.9

1981

0.0003 0.0007 0.0011

0.0019 0.0036 0.0001

0.03 0.07 0.10 0.13 0.23

0.061 0.125 0.200

0.374 0.377 0.243

4.9 11.5 17.3 24.1 42.3

1980

0.0004 0.0007 0.0011

0.0021 0.0034 0.0001

0.03 0.07 0.10 0.13 0.23

0.061 0.123 0.195

0.371 0.360 0.242

5.0 11.6 17.3 23.9 42.2

197911

0.0004 0.0007 0.0011

0.0022 0.0036 0.0001

0.03 0.07 0.10 0.13 0.23

0.060 0.121 0.192

0.369 0.352 0.239

5.2 11.7 17.2 23.8 42.1

1978

(For further explanation of income inequality measures, see Current Population Reports, Series P60-204, The Changing Shape of the Nation’s Income Distribution: 1947–1998. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)

Selected Measures of Equivalence-Adjusted Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2009—Con.

Table A-3.

0.0004 0.0007 0.0011

0.0022 0.0036 0.0001

0.03 0.07 0.10 0.13 0.23

0.060 0.122 0.192

0.369 0.353 0.240

5.2 11.6 17.3 23.9 42.1

1977


48 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

0.03 0.07 0.10 0.14 0.23

STANDARD ERRORS Shares of Equivalence-Adjusted   Income of Quintiles Lowest quintile����������������������������������������������������������������������� Second quintile ��������������������������������������������������������������������� Third quintile ������������������������������������������������������������������������� Fourth quintile����������������������������������������������������������������������� Highest quintile ���������������������������������������������������������������������

  See footnotes on next page.

Summary Measures Gini index of income inequality��������������������������������������������� Mean logarithmic deviation of income����������������������������������� Theil��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� Atkinson:   e=0.25�������������������������������������������������������������������������������   e=0.50�������������������������������������������������������������������������������   e=0.75�������������������������������������������������������������������������������

0.059 0.121 0.191

0.059 0.120 0.190

0.0018 0.0039 0.0001 0.0004 0.0007 0.0011

0.0018 0.0036 0.0001 0.0004 0.0007 0.0011

0.03 0.07 0.10 0.14 0.23

0.367 0.352 0.238

5.3 11.7 17.3 23.8 42.0

197513

0.365 0.352 0.235

5.3 11.7 17.4 23.9 41.8

197612

Summary Measures Gini index of income inequality��������������������������������������������� Mean logarithmic deviation of income����������������������������������� Theil��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� Atkinson:   e=0.25�������������������������������������������������������������������������������   e=0.50�������������������������������������������������������������������������������   e=0.75�������������������������������������������������������������������������������

MEASURES Shares of Equivalence-Adjusted   Incomes of Quintiles Lowest quintile����������������������������������������������������������������������� Second quintile ��������������������������������������������������������������������� Third quintile ������������������������������������������������������������������������� Fourth quintile����������������������������������������������������������������������� Highest quintile ���������������������������������������������������������������������

Measures of income dispersion

0.0004 0.0007 0.0011

0.0018 0.0037 0.0001

0.04 0.07 0.10 0.14 0.23

0.058 0.117 0.185

0.361 0.337 0.231

5.4 11.9 17.4 23.8 41.6

197413, 14

0.0004 0.0007 0.0011

0.0018 0.0036 0.0001

0.04 0.07 0.10 0.14 0.24

0.059 0.120 0.189

0.367 0.339 0.239

5.3 11.8 17.2 23.6 42.0

1973

0.0004 0.0008 0.0012

0.0018 0.0039 0.0001

0.03 0.07 0.10 0.14 0.24

0.061 0.124 0.196

0.370 0.360 0.245

5.2 11.7 17.2 23.6 42.3

197215

0.0004 0.0008 0.0012

0.0018 0.0039 0.0001

0.04 0.07 0.10 0.14 0.24

0.060 0.122 0.194

0.367 0.362 0.242

5.2 11.8 17.2 23.6 42.1

197116

0.0004 0.0008 0.0012

0.0018 0.0038 0.0001

0.04 0.07 0.10 0.14 0.24

0.060 0.122 0.193

0.365 0.358 0.240

5.3 11.9 17.3 23.6 41.9

1970

0.0005 0.0008 0.0012

0.0018 0.0036 0.0001

0.04 0.07 0.10 0.14 0.24

0.058 0.118 0.187

0.361 0.339 0.236

5.4 12.0 17.4 23.6 41.6

1969

0.0004 0.0007 0.0011

0.0018 0.0035 0.0001

0.04 0.07 0.10 0.14 0.24

0.058 0.117 0.185

0.359 0.338 0.231

5.4 12.1 17.4 23.5 41.5

1968

(For further explanation of income inequality measures, see Current Population Reports, Series P60-204, The Changing Shape of the Nation’s Income Distribution: 1947–1998. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)

Selected Measures of Equivalence-Adjusted Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2009—Con.

Table A-3.

0.0005 0.0008 0.0012

0.0018 0.0036 0.0001

0.04 0.07 0.10 0.14 0.25

0.062 0.124 0.196

0.370 0.357 0.249

5.2 11.9 17.1 23.3 42.5

196717


U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 49

Data have been revised to reflect a correction to the weights in the 2005 ASEC. Implementation of a 28,000 household sample expansion. 3 Implementation of Census 2000-based population controls. 4 Full implementation of 1990 census-based sample design and metropolitan definitions, 7,000 household sample reduction, and revised editing of responses on race. 5 Introduction of 1990 census sample design. 6 Data collection method changed from paper and pencil to computer-assisted interviewing. In addition, the 1994 ASEC was revised to allow for the coding of different income amounts on selected questionnaire items. Limits either increased or decreased in the following categories: earnings limits increased to $999,999; social security limits increased to $49,999; supplemental security income and public assistance limits increased to $24,999; veteransâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; benefits limits increased to $99,999; child support and alimony limits decreased to $49,999. 7 Implementation of 1990 census population controls. 8 Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system. 9 Recording of amounts for earnings from longest job increased to $299,999. Full implementation of 1980 census-based sample design. 10 Implementation of Hispanic population weighting controls and introduction of 1980 census-based sample design. 11 Implementation of 1980 census population controls. Questionnaire expanded to allow the recording of up to 27 possible values from a list of 51 possible sources of income. 12 First year medians were derived using both Pareto and linear interpolation. Before this year, all medians were derived using linear interpolation. 13 Some of these estimates were derived using Pareto interpolation and may differ from published data, which were derived using linear interpolation. 14 Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system. Questionnaire expanded to ask 11 income questions. 15 Full implementation of 1970 census-based sample design. 16 Introduction of 1970 census sample design and population controls. 17 Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1968 to 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

2

1


Table A-4.

Number and Real Median Earnings of Total Workers and Full-Time, Year-Round Workers by Sex and Female-to-Male Earnings Ratio: 1960 to 2009 (People 15 years old and older beginning in 1980 and people 14 years old and older as of the following year for previous years. Before 1989 earnings are for civilian workers only. Earnings in 2009 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf) Total workers Male Year

Number of workers (thousands) With earnings Total

Full-time, year-round workers Female

Median earnings (dollars) Standard Value error

Number of workers (thousands) With earnings Total

Male

Median earnings (dollars) Standard Value error

Number of workers (thousands) With earnings Total

Female Median earnings (dollars) Standard Value error

Number of workers (thousands) With earnings Total

Median Femaleearnings to(dollars) male Stanearndard ings error Value ratio

20091���������������������� 2008����������������������� 2007����������������������� 2006����������������������� 2005����������������������� 20042���������������������� 2003����������������������� 2002����������������������� 2001����������������������� 20003����������������������

81,979 84,088 84,532 83,980 82,987 81,503 80,554 80,548 80,300 80,572

81,934 84,039 84,482 83,928 82,934 81,448 80,508 80,500 80,209 80,494

36,331 36,429 37,898 38,169 37,740 36,886 37,375 37,732 37,999 38,551

118 107 110 114 309 183 92 98 96 97

73,063 74,600 74,382 73,761 72,544 72,016 71,446 71,500 71,308 71,758

72,972 74,538 74,295 73,683 72,476 71,930 71,372 71,411 71,232 71,657

26,030 25,553 26,770 26,028 25,352 25,273 25,662 25,549 25,262 25,244

93 97 94 163 157 90 94 89 96 96

56,072 59,875 63,000 63,070 61,515 60,103 58,784 58,774 58,728 59,619

56,053 59,861 62,984 63,055 61,500 60,088 58,772 58,761 58,712 59,602

47,127 46,191 46,669 44,959 45,471 46,326 47,428 47,010 46,372 46,399

147 144 155 94 99 102 105 291 313 126

43,253 44,163 45,640 44,682 43,369 42,414 41,922 41,900 41,651 41,744

43,217 44,156 45,613 44,663 43,351 42,380 41,908 41,876 41,639 41,719

36,278 35,609 36,312 34,590 35,003 35,474 35,831 36,010 35,395 34,205

105 106 106 197 89 90 97 95 200 127

0.770 0.771 0.778 0.769 0.770 0.766 0.755 0.766 0.763 0.737

19994���������������������� 1998����������������������� 1997����������������������� 1996����������������������� 19955���������������������� 19946���������������������� 19937���������������������� 19928���������������������� 1991����������������������� 1990�����������������������

79,360 77,323 76,731 76,165 74,681 74,326 73,287 73,142 72,064 72,380

79,322 77,295 76,694 76,121 74,619 74,264 73,198 73,120 72,040 72,348

38,720 37,788 35,768 35,101 34,963 33,856 32,805 32,808 33,569 34,240

187 306 163 167 221 265 191 172 169 162

71,153 68,950 67,851 66,744 65,657 64,803 63,808 62,535 61,959 61,946

71,053 68,846 67,736 66,661 65,557 64,706 63,660 62,408 61,796 61,732

23,738 23,281 22,274 21,819 21,413 20,499 20,312 20,262 19,788 19,489

209 212 144 148 143 187 199 201 192 127

58,318 56,957 54,933 53,801 52,675 51,597 49,838 48,554 47,987 49,181

58,299 56,951 54,909 53,787 52,667 51,580 49,818 48,551 47,888 49,171

46,846 46,448 44,870 43,757 44,016 44,157 44,446 45,231 45,186 44,033

175 175 428 157 161 177 171 171 339 329

40,890 38,819 37,715 36,457 35,502 34,182 33,552 33,296 32,491 31,758

40,871 38,785 37,683 36,430 35,482 34,155 33,524 33,241 32,436 31,682

33,876 33,986 33,276 32,276 31,440 31,779 31,788 32,017 31,566 31,535

145 155 207 226 191 157 140 153 151 202

0.723 0.732 0.742 0.738 0.714 0.720 0.715 0.708 0.699 0.716

1989����������������������� 1988����������������������� 19879���������������������� 1986����������������������� 198510 �������������������� 198411 �������������������� 1983����������������������� 1982����������������������� 1981����������������������� 1980�����������������������

72,093 70,496 69,624 68,783 67,852 66,513 65,216 64,827 65,362 64,861

72,045 70,467 69,545 68,728 67,809 66,454 65,138 64,730 65,233 64,730

35,702 35,911 35,795 35,070 33,798 33,478 32,896 32,808 34,082 34,724

174 197 262 260 257 187 180 186 195 240

61,586 60,873 59,557 57,932 56,592 55,596 53,413 52,299 52,504 51,988

61,338 60,658 59,356 57,686 56,296 55,226 53,108 51,820 51,940 51,448

19,601 19,332 19,182 18,702 17,733 17,058 16,845 16,403 16,343 16,417

130 138 126 155 179 165 123 120 118 134

49,698 48,303 47,048 45,912 44,952 43,836 41,548 40,135 41,811 41,923

49,678 48,285 47,013 45,912 44,943 43,808 41,528 40,105 41,773 41,881

45,648 46,442 46,863 47,159 45,995 45,653 44,786 44,981 45,847 46,127

187 204 195 202 268 234 205 190 161 233

31,428 31,334 29,982 28,493 27,470 26,587 25,288 23,845 23,488 23,025

31,340 31,237 29,912 28,420 27,383 26,466 25,166 23,702 23,329 22,859

31,348 30,674 30,545 30,309 29,702 29,062 28,481 27,774 27,157 27,750

210 220 143 159 156 171 174 188 113 121

0.687 0.660 0.652 0.643 0.646 0.637 0.636 0.617 0.592 0.602

197912 �������������������� 1978����������������������� 1977����������������������� 197613 �������������������� 197514 �������������������� 197414, 15������������������ 1973����������������������� 197216 �������������������� 197117 �������������������� 1970�����������������������

63,539 63,101 61,959 60,703 59,509 60,102 59,816 58,194 57,303 56,265

63,422 62,903 61,704 60,450 59,268 59,752 59,438 57,774 56,886 55,821

35,889 36,608 35,585 35,308 35,067 35,556 37,463 36,640 34,891 35,256

240 178 184 161 188 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

50,398 49,214 47,333 45,659 43,725 43,694 42,835 40,723 39,910 39,682

49,839 48,398 46,194 44,565 42,926 42,650 41,583 39,470 38,485 38,273

16,499 15,838 15,070 14,725 14,329 14,244 14,102 14,590 14,102 13,458

140 145 132 137 152 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

42,469 41,078 39,325 38,214 37,316 (NA) 39,643 38,234 36,868 36,193

42,437 41,036 39,263 38,184 37,267 37,916 39,581 38,184 36,819 36,132

46,848 47,461 47,156 46,119 46,246 46,536 48,268 46,778 44,388 44,199

184 163 222 182 181 200 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

22,248 21,131 19,544 18,372 17,738 (NA) 17,547 16,976 16,353 15,805

22,082 20,914 19,238 18,073 17,452 16,945 17,195 16,675 16,002 15,476

27,951 28,211 27,786 27,760 27,201 27,342 27,336 27,066 26,414 26,240

143 157 126 137 138 133 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

0.597 0.594 0.589 0.602 0.588 0.588 0.566 0.579 0.595 0.594

1969����������������������� 1968����������������������� 196718 �������������������� 196619 �������������������� 196520 �������������������� 1964����������������������� 1963����������������������� 196221 �������������������� 196122 �������������������� 1960�����������������������

55,700 55,095 54,412 53,016 (NA) 51,978 51,039 50,639 49,854 50,033

55,273 54,026 53,222 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

35,684 34,807 33,802 34,181 32,179 31,869 33,902 30,531 29,592 28,521

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

39,060 38,279 36,971 35,295 (NA) 33,146 32,188 31,418 30,433 30,585

37,737 35,695 34,391 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

13,262 13,573 13,201 13,689 13,809 12,939 12,459 12,190 11,740 11,592

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

37,055 37,099 36,695 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

37,008 37,068 36,645 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

43,733 41,409 40,327 39,699 38,038 37,504 36,648 35,750 35,108 34,023

(NA) 15,678 (NA) 15,336 (NA) 15,141 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

15,374 15,013 14,846 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

25,743 24,082 23,302 22,849 22,794 22,183 21,603 21,199 20,801 20,643

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

0.589 0.582 0.578 0.576 0.599 0.591 0.589 0.593 0.592 0.607

(NA) Not available. 1 Medians are calculated using $2,500 income intervals. Beginning with 2009 income data, the Census Bureau expanded the upper income intervals used to calculate medians to $250,000 or more. Medians falling in the upper open-ended interval are plugged with “$250,000.”  Before 2009, the upper open-ended interval was $100,000 and a plug of “$100,000” was used. 2 The 2004 data have been revised to reflect a correction to the weights in the 2005 ASEC. 3 Implementation of a 28,000 household sample expansion. 4 Implementation of Census 2000-based population controls. 5 Full implementation of 1990 census-based sample design and metropolitan definitions, 7,000 household sample reduction, and revised editing of responses on race. 6 Introduction of 1990 census sample design. 7 Data collection method changed from paper and pencil to computer-assisted interviewing. In addition, the 1994 ASEC was revised to allow for the coding of different income amounts on selected questionnaire items. Limits either increased or decreased in the following categories: earnings limits increased to $999,999; social security limits increased to $49,999; supplemental security income and public assistance limits increased to $24,999; veterans’ benefits limits increased to $99,999; child support and alimony limits decreased to $49,999. 8 Implementation of 1990 census population controls. 9 Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system. 10 Recording of amounts for earnings from longest job increased to $299,999. Full implementation of 1980 census-based sample design. 11 Implementation of Hispanic population weighting controls and introduction of 1980 census-based sample design. 12 Implementation of 1980 census population controls. Questionnaire expanded to allow the recording of up to 27 possible values from a list of 51 possible sources of income. 13 First year medians were derived using both Pareto and linear interpolation. Before this year, all medians were derived using linear interpolation. 14 Some of these estimates were derived using Pareto interpolation and may differ from published data, which were derived using linear interpolation. 15 Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system. Questionnaire expanded to ask 11 income questions. 16 Full implementation of 1970 census-based sample design. 17 Introduction of 1970 census sample design and population controls. 18 Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system. 19 Questionnaire expanded to ask eight income questions. 20 Implementation of new procedures to impute missing data only. 21 Full implementation of 1960 census-based sample design and population controls. 22 Introduction of 1960 census-based sample design. Implementation of first hotdeck procedure to impute missing income entries. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1961 through 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

50 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau


U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 51 71,657 3,207 5,311 21,810 11,849 5,990 23,490

83,928 80,214 12,271 37,823 30,120 3,714

2006

72,216 3,013 4,872 21,701 12,414 6,294 23,921

84,482 80,546 12,266 37,389 30,891 3,936

2007

72,297 2,989 4,826 21,712 12,445 6,325 23,999

84,039 79,860 11,743 37,195 30,923 4,179

2008

70,995 2,779 4,524 21,761 11,736 6,197 23,997

81,934 77,753 10,939 36,028 30,786 4,181

20092

43,380 22,215 26,314 36,349 43,708 47,758 67,656

37,732 38,049 11,762 41,702 48,984 23,460

Estimate

  See footnotes at end of table.

84,482 63,517 10,366 10,574 25

84,039 63,635 10,168 10,230 6

81,934 61,185 10,586 10,148 15

37,732 36,348 47,745 39,416 (X)

43,487 21,820 25,886 36,633 43,019 47,179 66,619

37,375 37,668 12,145 41,110 49,408 24,104

Estimate

98 116 374 1,281 (X)

37,375 35,885 48,645 42,332 (X)

64,672 60,270 19,815 38,328 30,019 18,876 31,376 39,535 35,395 29,412 41,032

42,758 22,789 25,270 35,910 43,386 46,414 66,160

36,886 37,926 11,931 41,017 47,964 23,379

Estimate

92 106 245 402 (X)

36,886 35,510 48,210 39,149 (X)

65,319 58,163 19,780 40,038 30,125 18,916 30,806 39,901 34,941 30,243 42,469

43,292 22,570 26,580 35,252 43,014 46,566 66,464

37,740 38,553 11,969 39,869 49,452 23,752

Estimate

183 108 417 1,574 (X)

1,133 248 221 369 338 554 259 445 213 328 1,929

37,740 34,966 46,863 40,663 (X)

67,054 57,983 21,028 38,280 29,042 15,965 30,043 39,593 34,332 29,352 41,012

43,444 22,424 25,630 35,185 42,764 45,172 65,434

38,169 38,503 12,136 39,838 49,418 25,511

Estimate

309 105 530 379 (X)

322 754 327 647 319 767 256 327 242 260 858

38,169 34,924 48,065 43,351 (X)

65,119 59,746 21,944 39,143 28,534 17,709 31,902 39,369 33,502 28,429 41,556

309 38,169

287 230 471 134 671 492 230

309 127 167 136 444 635

Standard error

Standard error

42,971 21,377 25,939 35,971 41,467 46,758 65,455

37,898 38,163 12,244 41,078 48,594 28,401

Estimate

114 315 438 269 (X)

281 363 201 352 446 571 370 357 197 272 1,281

41,241 20,889 23,741 33,807 40,104 44,906 65,702

36,429 36,729 11,044 39,409 46,792 25,273

Estimate

2008

37,898 35,734 48,389 42,644 (X)

110 346 313 283 (X)

36,429 34,960 46,881 37,648 (X)

67,262 1,036 65,030 58,666 359 59,895 21,612 157 20,267 38,606 497 36,520 30,682 503 27,890 17,042 437 19,346 31,251 174 30,663 38,127 324 37,633 33,544 344 31,957 29,352 576 27,497 43,219 683 45,213

110 36,429

95 240 349 362 290 489 988

110 111 163 331 216 953

Standard error

2007

114 37,898

94 190 479 444 205 811 203

114 115 140 217 239 1,078

2006

Median earnings (in 2009 dollars) 2005

183 37,740

261 299 224 129 588 296 979

183 318 160 142 167 528

Standard error

20041

92 36,886

129 383 265 135 260 295 380

92 92 152 161 181 490

Standard error

539 267 194 834 360 632 246 1,169 202 334 2,078

2003

98 37,375

122 336 234 141 238 563 395

98 99 210 256 186 792

Standard error

80,500 80,508 81,448 82,934 83,928 60,977 60,658 60,974 62,321 63,345 9,745 9,928 10,098 10,093 9,968 9,770 9,915 10,368 10,512 10,599 8 8 8 8 16

70,630 3,277 4,944 21,717 11,913 6,088 22,691

82,934 79,386 12,304 37,664 29,417 3,549

2005

Class of Worker of Longest Job    Total ������������������������������������������������������ Private wage and salary ������������������������������ Government wage and salary���������������������� Self-employed���������������������������������������������� Unpaid family������������������������������������������������

69,320 3,251 4,871 21,551 11,674 5,869 22,105

81,448 77,944 12,128 37,441 28,375 3,504

20041

12,101 11,903 11,639 12,422 12,431 12,621 10,159 12,737 63,243 1,068 12,493 12,763 12,971 12,959 13,670 13,680 13,651 13,890 60,766 259 10,936 11,065 11,278 11,520 11,351 11,801 11,753 11,915 19,973 212 8,972 8,865 8,847 8,832 9,151 8,983 8,847 8,397 40,109 818 5,197 5,286 5,236 5,309 5,289 5,261 5,167 5,222 30,719 380 931 979 989 958 905 1,013 950 962 19,345 547 8,916 8,798 9,461 9,999 10,385 9,816 9,314 8,784 31,839 240 5,068 5,069 5,215 5,239 5,119 5,213 5,370 5,180 38,621 420 7,357 7,171 7,215 6,973 7,074 6,953 6,744 6,319 33,557 517 7,857 7,892 7,927 8,048 7,967 8,450 8,539 7,741 28,971 500 671 718 671 676 586 692 752 789 42,006 1,022

68,227 3,091 4,802 20,680 11,846 5,721 22,088

80,508 77,192 12,281 37,356 27,555 3,316

2003

80,500 80,508 81,448 82,934 83,928 84,482 84,039 81,934 37,732

68,153 3,074 5,159 20,558 12,188 5,405 21,770

80,500 77,315 12,347 37,851 27,118 3,184

2002

2002

Occupation of Longest Job    Total, 15 years and older ���������������������� Management, business, and financial   operations �������������������������������������������������� Professional and related������������������������������ Service �������������������������������������������������������� Sales and related������������������������������������������ Office and administrative support ����������������  Farming, fishing, and forestry ���������������������� Construction and extraction�������������������������� Installation, maintenance, and repair������������ Production���������������������������������������������������� Transportation and material-moving ������������  Armed Forces ����������������������������������������������

Educational Attainment    Total, 25 years and older ���������������������� Less than 9th grade�������������������������������������� 9th to 12th, nongraduate������������������������������ High school graduate (including GED) �������� Some college, no degree������������������������������ Associate’s degree �������������������������������������� Bachelor’s degree or more ��������������������������

Age    Total, 15 years and older ���������������������� Under 65 years ��������������������������������������������   15 to 24 years ������������������������������������������   25 to 44 years ������������������������������������������   45 to 64 years ������������������������������������������ 65 years and older����������������������������������������

TOTAL WORK EXPERIENCE Males

Characteristic

Number with earnings (thousands)

41,089 19,386 22,222 32,272 40,387 44,757 62,394

36,331 36,576 10,414 37,936 46,815 27,937

Estimate

107 141 327 811 (X)

647 439 170 346 575 752 176 691 201 422 1,391

36,331 34,353 47,409 36,081 (X)

61,495 57,496 20,564 36,017 29,009 17,044 27,577 38,445 31,381 27,128 42,355

107 36,331

95 195 397 418 199 624 345

107 107 146 380 234 906

Standard error

118 335 416 378 (X)

262 719 180 432 754 606 559 801 212 275 1,957

118

99 399 247 126 205 760 425

118 119 158 340 239 1,123

Standard error

20092

(Earnings in 2009 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf. Comparable data for occupation categories not available prior to 2002 due to change in occupation designations and definitions)

Number of Workers With Earnings and Median Earnings by Work Experience, Sex, and Selected Characteristics: 2002 to 2009

Table A-5.


52 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

2005

63,303 1,449 2,982 17,423 11,866 7,265 22,318

74,295 70,995 10,991 31,913 28,091 3,300

2007

63,598 1,578 2,972 17,382 11,524 7,569 22,574

74,538 71,105 10,939 31,487 28,678 3,432

2008

62,747 1,493 2,787 16,784 11,220 7,630 22,832

72,972 69,515 10,225 30,620 28,670 3,457

20092

29,663 14,566 17,052 24,148 27,990 31,564 44,482

25,549 25,859 8,688 28,977 31,403 13,451

Estimate

89 97 413 422 (X)

Class of Worker of Longest Job Total �������������������������������������������������������� 71,411 71,372 71,930 72,476 73,683 74,295 74,538 72,972 25,549 Private wage and salary ������������������������������ 53,941 53,885 54,095 54,783 55,432 55,710 55,976 54,305 24,617 Government wage and salary���������������������� 12,528 12,333 12,581 12,453 12,899 13,292 13,268 13,438 35,547 Self-employed���������������������������������������������� 4,928 5,145 5,247 5,227 5,328 5,287 5,288 5,220 19,390 Unpaid family������������������������������������������������ 14 10 8 13 24 6 6 8 (X)

  See footnotes at end of table.

29,738 15,135 15,972 24,210 28,011 31,339 44,129

25,662 25,991 8,454 29,288 31,432 13,896

Estimate

29,346 14,251 15,865 23,792 27,982 31,107 44,781

25,273 25,746 8,441 29,099 30,974 13,410

Estimate

25,662 24,639 35,443 18,996 (X)

94 101 211 435 (X)

25,273 24,240 34,997 20,583 (X)

44,622 580 45,201 37,680 177 39,316 13,465 113 13,634 16,274 379 16,322 27,642 224 26,768 9,331 682 10,138 18,722 2,202 21,809 39,032 2,013 35,277 21,653 421 22,187 17,856 439 17,429 36,673 1,204 (X)

29,123 13,769 16,561 23,201 27,671 32,423 44,479

25,352 25,939 8,738 28,880 30,997 13,910

Estimate

90 100 202 1,030 (X)

430 484 116 396 192 1,059 1,861 798 456 520 (X)

25,352 24,084 34,759 18,748 (X)

45,579 39,026 13,907 17,248 26,890 11,332 23,189 36,268 21,290 17,722 34,004

29,082 15,378 16,130 22,988 27,946 30,948 44,422

26,028 26,628 8,776 28,699 32,060 16,015

Estimate

157 96 190 333 (X)

244 207 187 249 213 1,019 1,603 2,034 374 375 1,950

26,028 23,981 35,041 21,804 (X)

48,437 38,447 14,270 17,127 27,255 12,004 20,427 40,083 21,653 17,540 (X)

157 26,028

103 326 286 127 182 502 158

157 159 172 140 326 488

Standard error

30,554 14,973 15,903 23,128 28,110 31,604 43,830

26,770 27,134 9,269 29,814 32,181 16,256

Estimate

163 146 471 283 (X)

329 204 202 228 135 544 1,435 2,178 215 398 (X)

29,162 13,536 14,651 22,213 26,343 30,748 44,198

25,553 25,931 8,760 28,773 30,701 14,758

Estimate

26,770 25,450 35,980 21,514 (X)

94 176 369 253 (X)

25,553 24,228 35,421 20,007 (X)

46,959 292 45,914 39,569 467 38,889 15,392 206 14,268 17,343 208 16,098 27,242 127 26,170 11,130 1,557 10,211 25,271 1,808 18,832 37,424 1,619 29,385 21,811 282 20,966 18,958 656 17,729 (X) (X) (X)

29,867 13,957 15,675 22,468 26,833 30,598 44,490

26,030 26,290 8,950 29,046 31,164 17,379

Estimate

97 161 213 530 (X)

26,030 24,722 35,581 20,166 (X)

45,597 39,890 14,298 16,328 27,307 10,599 20,285 34,103 20,900 17,018 33,277

93 178 215 456 (X)

334 318 193 220 136 867 1,818 1,461 207 319 3,116

93

176 371 219 165 202 213 512

93 94 173 271 135 604

Standard error

20092

97 26,030

191 420 352 126 175 204 528

97 98 170 274 127 477

Standard error

327 446 197 198 140 994 2,018 2,174 293 491 (X)

2008

94 25,553

194 439 233 120 176 201 160

94 95 189 266 128 453

Standard error

2007

163 26,770

96 467 260 112 170 496 157

163 121 194 134 136 430

Standard error

2006

Median earnings (in 2009 dollars) 2005

90 25,352

100 388 361 128 308 328 438

90 162 123 131 156 301

Standard error

20041

94 25,273

104 487 365 149 322 253 409

94 96 122 146 156 332

Standard error

2003

89 25,662

169 281 362 131 317 260 204

89 91 131 230 157 384

Standard error

296 172 123 408 138 737 2,236 1,664 418 461 (X)

71,411 71,372 71,930 72,476 73,683 74,295 74,538 72,972 25,549

62,412 1,596 3,219 17,751 11,557 7,071 21,219

73,683 70,646 11,272 31,812 27,563 3,037

2006

2002

9,053 9,033 9,006 9,126 9,654 9,793 9,951 9,380 43,949 16,556 17,071 17,129 17,234 17,796 18,393 18,868 19,051 37,904 14,665 14,510 14,944 15,374 15,500 15,482 16,178 16,128 14,168 9,113 8,792 9,182 9,315 9,295 9,245 9,028 9,039 16,769 16,269 16,252 15,980 15,839 15,737 15,951 15,344 14,603 26,627 307 321 315 281 270 262 275 349 11,873 243 249 319 279 274 270 236 249 21,722 256 246 233 230 208 244 222 202 36,031 3,426 3,261 3,272 3,256 3,304 3,136 2,762 2,424 22,668 1,454 1,545 1,483 1,448 1,583 1,454 1,600 1,447 19,010 68 92 67 92 62 64 74 98 (X)

Occupation of Longest Job Total, 15 years and older ������������������������ Management, business, and financial   operations �������������������������������������������������� Professional and related������������������������������ Service �������������������������������������������������������� Sales and related������������������������������������������ Office and administrative support ����������������  Farming, fishing, and forestry ���������������������� Construction and extraction�������������������������� Installation, maintenance, and repair������������ Production���������������������������������������������������� Transportation and material-moving ������������  Armed Forces ����������������������������������������������

61,285 1,593 3,186 17,537 11,738 7,066 20,165

20041

Educational Attainment Total, 25 years and older ������������������������ 60,002 60,088 60,554 Less than 9th grade�������������������������������������� 1,628 1,551 1,623 9th to 12th, nongraduate������������������������������ 3,316 3,233 3,200 High school graduate (including GED) �������� 18,457 17,990 17,646 Some college, no degree������������������������������ 11,311 11,441 11,425 Associate’s degree �������������������������������������� 6,529 6,706 6,952 Bachelor’s degree or more �������������������������� 18,760 19,167 19,709

71,372 68,614 11,284 32,015 25,314 2,758

2003

72,476 69,707 11,191 31,640 26,876 2,768

71,411 68,915 11,409 32,685 24,821 2,496

2002

71,930 69,077 11,376 31,782 25,918 2,853

Age Total, 15 years and older ������������������������ Under 65 years ��������������������������������������������   15 to 24 years ������������������������������������������   25 to 44 years ������������������������������������������   45 to 64 years ������������������������������������������ 65 years and older����������������������������������������

TOTAL WORK EXPERIENCE—Con. Females

Characteristic

Number with earnings (thousands)

(Earnings in 2009 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf. Comparable data for occupation categories not available prior to 2002 due to change in occupation designations and definitions)

Number of Workers With Earnings and Median Earnings by Work Experience, Sex, and Selected Characteristics: 2002 to 2009—Con.

Table A-5.


U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 53

58,772 57,275 4,528 30,186 22,560 1,498

2003

60,088 58,550 4,637 30,644 23,270 1,538

20041

61,500 59,867 4,795 30,894 24,179 1,632

2005

63,055 61,225 4,946 31,315 24,963 1,830

2006

62,984 60,976 4,837 30,657 25,482 2,008

2007

59,861 57,840 4,206 29,001 24,633 2,021

2008

56,053 53,989 3,609 26,651 23,729 2,064

20092

47,010 47,074 25,215 45,667 55,083 44,070

Estimate

58,761 58,772 60,088 61,500 63,055 62,984 59,861 56,053 47,010 43,544 43,406 44,313 45,720 47,089 46,795 44,662 41,007 44,654 7,810 8,068 8,119 8,074 8,087 8,472 8,105 8,297 51,598 7,405 7,294 7,653 7,703 7,868 7,696 7,092 6,742 48,774 2 5 3 3 11 21 2 7 (X)

Class of Worker of Longest Job Total �������������������������������������������������������� Private wage and salary ������������������������������ Government wage and salary���������������������� Self-employed���������������������������������������������� Unpaid family������������������������������������������������

  See footnotes at end of table.

10,402 10,253 10,078 10,736 10,826 11,023 11,097 10,633 71,198 9,848 10,023 10,070 10,112 10,952 10,833 10,609 10,574 67,290 6,303 6,490 6,695 7,021 7,041 7,270 6,740 6,660 31,124 6,591 6,493 6,601 6,526 6,833 6,668 6,279 5,792 49,452 3,564 3,529 3,525 3,613 3,666 3,710 3,456 3,479 38,471 500 503 562 494 506 556 508 442 26,786 5,972 5,792 6,407 6,958 7,231 6,517 5,643 4,571 37,570 4,087 4,122 4,341 4,297 4,336 4,291 4,265 3,974 43,234 5,694 5,677 5,798 5,635 5,640 5,605 5,092 4,474 37,480 5,200 5,254 5,426 5,517 5,496 5,852 5,475 4,751 36,696 600 636 585 591 528 660 696 703 43,479

58,761 58,772 60,088 61,500 63,055 62,984 59,861 56,053 47,010

54,102 54,245 55,451 56,717 58,109 58,147 55,655 52,445 49,065 2,154 2,029 2,427 2,425 2,361 2,142 1,982 1,561 24,941 3,677 3,366 3,464 3,651 3,872 3,451 3,118 2,795 30,884 16,002 16,283 17,052 17,258 17,369 17,224 16,195 15,258 39,591 9,603 9,337 9,255 9,532 9,493 9,867 9,515 8,609 48,706 4,399 4,696 4,906 5,020 5,110 5,244 5,020 4,828 51,096 18,267 18,354 18,347 18,820 19,903 20,218 19,825 19,395 73,564

58,761 57,325 4,659 30,708 21,957 1,436

2002

48,911 24,744 30,868 41,299 48,221 49,998 72,394

47,428 47,409 24,824 46,177 55,954 48,117

Estimate

291 196 693 415 (X)

1,240 429 311 453 365 749 273 333 207 249 905

47,428 45,122 53,977 49,468 (X)

70,495 68,653 30,843 48,620 37,862 25,729 37,215 43,583 37,582 36,819 42,365

47,788 24,580 29,842 40,568 47,586 50,412 71,178

46,326 46,379 24,529 45,835 54,029 42,547

Estimate

105 345 308 1,075 (X)

300 1,078 331 280 777 725 213 449 194 245 933

46,326 44,578 53,840 47,323 (X)

70,338 65,548 29,785 47,970 39,623 25,417 36,537 43,028 37,946 36,705 46,343

47,593 24,534 29,873 39,885 46,605 51,837 72,697

45,471 45,474 23,772 44,504 55,208 45,382

Estimate

102 329 435 298 (X)

345 706 261 352 906 503 223 705 723 243 701

45,471 44,230 52,954 49,776 (X)

72,259 67,049 29,342 46,331 38,331 24,457 35,247 43,959 38,735 36,363 45,133

99 119 515 1,240 (X)

557 261 240 286 627 732 188 488 256 833 1,235

Standard error

48,680 24,157 29,418 39,395 46,632 50,077 71,205

490 243 565 410 343 414 332 301 387 189 711

44,959 94 43,819 111 52,852 503 51,932 1,464 (X) (X)

69,976 65,904 31,332 48,662 37,759 22,816 37,502 42,988 37,437 34,368 43,295

48,625 24,181 30,328 39,160 46,447 50,733 72,829

46,669 46,662 23,973 44,447 53,198 46,903

Estimate

46,669 43,420 52,953 52,110 (X)

72,422 64,579 30,680 47,809 38,052 24,401 36,751 42,616 37,812 36,669 43,514

48,814 24,163 29,565 38,861 45,647 49,957 71,941

46,191 46,126 25,369 45,014 51,735 49,830

Estimate

155 111 218 248 (X)

908 603 498 387 388 1,102 273 302 246 268 1,390

46,191 44,387 51,736 50,028 (X)

70,655 66,850 30,544 47,162 36,103 23,877 37,462 42,052 36,603 35,891 46,392

Standard error

49,994 23,945 29,023 39,478 47,097 50,303 71,466

47,127 47,115 25,108 45,687 52,237 47,555

Estimate

144 459 185 201 (X)

321 400 214 628 330 1,345 614 277 256 280 764

47,127 45,753 52,156 47,873 (X)

70,183 66,369 30,953 47,312 37,448 26,589 39,675 43,535 36,772 36,566 47,589

147 170 197 1,009 (X)

726 434 219 730 670 750 567 761 273 338 2,033

147

201 394 542 379 347 238 239

147 149 297 188 133 1,223

Standard error

20092

144 47,127

338 629 456 397 275 343 235

144 146 203 188 131 1,502

2008

155 46,191

134 563 610 420 605 829 249

155 161 359 486 144 2,023

Standard error

2007

94 46,669

143 423 610 174 864 415 368

44,959 94 44,956 95 23,627 160 44,229 127 54,127 134 45,037 1,424

Estimate

99 44,959

403 242 260 155 355 403 391

99 100 157 133 155 596

Standard error

2006

Median earnings (in 2009 dollars) 2005

102 45,471

101 218 265 168 199 1,071 848

102 104 179 129 396 1,163

Standard error

20041

105 46,326

105 265 327 196 212 839 218

105 107 175 394 533 597

Standard error

2003

291 47,428

119 254 247 371 232 802 240

291 292 196 374 296 1,300

Standard error

2002

Occupation of Longest Job Total, 15 years and older ������������������������ Management, business, and financial   operations �������������������������������������������������� Professional and related������������������������������ Service �������������������������������������������������������� Sales and related������������������������������������������ Office and administrative support ���������������� Farming, fishing, and forestry ���������������������� Construction and extraction�������������������������� Installation, maintenance, and repair������������ Production���������������������������������������������������� Transportation and material-moving ������������ Armed Forces ����������������������������������������������

Educational Attainment Total, 25 years and older ������������������������ Less than 9th grade�������������������������������������� 9th to 12th, nongraduate������������������������������ High school graduate (including GED) �������� Some college, no degree������������������������������ Associate’s degree �������������������������������������� Bachelor’s degree or more ��������������������������

Age Total, 15 years and older ������������������������ Under 65 years ��������������������������������������������   15 to 24 years ������������������������������������������   25 to 44 years ������������������������������������������   45 to 64 years ������������������������������������������ 65 years and older����������������������������������������

FULL-TIME, YEAR-ROUND WORKERS Males

Characteristic

Number with earnings (thousands)

(Earnings in 2009 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf. Comparable data for occupation categories not available prior to 2002 due to change in occupation designations and definitions)

Number of Workers With Earnings and Median Earnings by Work Experience, Sex, and Selected Characteristics: 2002 to 2009—Con.

Table A-5.


54 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

43,351 42,325 3,347 20,700 18,278 1,027

2005

44,663 43,485 3,352 21,166 18,968 1,177

2006

45,613 44,350 3,418 21,413 19,520 1,263

2007

44,156 42,881 3,177 20,434 19,270 1,275

2008

43,217 41,863 2,840 19,776 19,247 1,354

20092

36,973 36,046 22,674 36,281 37,976 32,423

Estimate

41,876 41,908 42,380 43,351 44,663 45,613 44,156 43,217 36,010 31,315 31,275 31,550 32,404 33,421 33,952 32,837 31,716 33,993 8,043 8,028 8,073 8,282 8,500 8,914 8,742 8,979 42,734 2,514 2,603 2,757 2,659 2,729 2,744 2,575 2,519 29,997 4 2 – 6 13 3 3 3 (X)

Class of Worker of Longest Job Total �������������������������������������������������������� Private wage and salary ������������������������������ Government wage and salary���������������������� Self-employed���������������������������������������������� Unpaid family������������������������������������������������

36,812 19,718 22,086 30,408 35,153 37,615 52,616

36,812 35,938 23,374 36,312 37,798 30,446

Estimate

95 223 262 645 (X)

254 259 213 306 136 810 1,631 2,345 217 701 (X)

35,831 34,626 42,099 29,804 (X)

49,056 46,997 23,290 30,480 33,164 19,503 32,586 43,651 26,082 26,540 37,550

95 35,831

99 354 429 144 356 252 677

99 97 321 134 149 1,301

Standard error

36,347 19,321 21,765 29,575 35,000 38,028 52,164

35,474 35,547 22,962 35,828 37,879 30,255

Estimate

97 213 219 469 (X)

36,340 17,735 22,112 28,884 34,498 37,289 51,582

35,003 35,080 22,754 35,443 38,647 29,366

Estimate

35,474 34,456 41,836 30,462 (X)

90 104 223 414 (X)

35,003 33,937 41,283 30,191 (X)

48,111 354 51,414 47,002 181 46,159 22,854 164 22,780 30,517 291 29,286 32,550 294 32,992 19,064 681 20,532 33,321 7,243 33,739 38,673 2,278 40,496 26,589 456 25,828 25,538 722 23,867 (X) (X) (X)

38,197 19,290 21,415 28,444 33,994 37,403 52,735

34,590 34,901 22,185 35,469 38,602 28,984

Estimate

89 103 330 1,280 (X)

34,590 33,423 42,854 32,772 (X)

53,487 45,750 22,555 28,955 32,781 20,611 26,693 43,827 24,570 25,414 (X)

37,330 18,891 21,101 28,179 33,969 37,586 52,136

36,312 36,367 22,836 36,497 38,489 32,604

Estimate

197 100 190 418 (X)

36,312 33,569 42,704 31,200 (X)

52,038 47,423 22,782 29,671 32,492 24,928 41,663 43,317 26,632 28,070 (X)

36,558 18,563 20,328 28,274 32,502 36,620 51,214

35,609 35,642 22,080 35,752 37,938 33,403

Estimate

106 140 188 757 (X)

35,609 33,241 41,846 30,827 (X)

50,879 46,584 22,858 28,668 31,870 22,396 33,533 34,202 25,885 23,933 (X)

Standard error

37,264 18,480 21,226 29,150 34,087 37,267 51,878

36,278 36,266 22,090 36,364 39,425 36,583

Estimate

106 299 187 381 (X)

234 222 242 587 124 2,264 2,182 2,096 331 943 (X)

36,278 34,908 42,249 31,099 (X)

105 235 193 390 (X)

51,014 247 48,856 392 23,302 265 29,823 574 32,467 190 21,134 730 30,833 2,691 40,004 2,043 25,244 393 25,546 733 (X) (X)

105

107 451 301 273 483 310 169

105 107 179 145 368 519

Standard error

20092

106 36,278

109 492 294 282 354 242 144

106 106 175 144 371 1,181

2008

106 35,609

109 477 302 138 429 293 163

106 106 204 146 163 505

Standard error

231 236 133 602 121 2,417 3,691 2,349 273 796 (X)

2007

197 36,312

120 434 287 145 176 400 469

197 294 223 384 173 805

Standard error

253 602 133 355 120 1,626 1,719 1,288 502 1,171 (X)

2006

89 34,590

266 275 301 147 181 546 255

89 90 169 122 176 795

Standard error

355 194 135 285 179 1,244 1,226 2,643 447 424 (X)

2005

90 35,003

91 276 358 132 152 556 259

90 90 232 119 444 596

Standard error

20041

97 35,474

99 299 381 138 205 281 339

99 98 252 129 205 434

Standard error

281 196 217 362 240 1,082 2,489 1,941 294 745 2,704

2003

Median earnings (in 2009 dollars)

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2003 through 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

2

1

Data have been revised to reflect a correction to the weights in the 2005 ASEC. Medians are calculated using $2,500 income intervals. Beginning with 2009 income data, the Census Bureau expanded the upper income intervals used to calculate medians to $250,000 or more. Medians falling in the upper open-ended interval are plugged with “$250,000.” Before 2009, the upper open-ended interal was $100,000 and a plug of “$100,000” was used.

– Represents or rounds to zero. (X) Not applicable. (B) Based rounds to 75,000 or less.

6,896 6,971 7,105 7,142 7,707 7,683 7,787 7,347 49,212 10,106 10,370 10,438 10,800 11,173 11,962 11,944 12,037 47,787 6,575 6,386 6,761 7,066 7,171 7,356 7,247 7,179 23,855 4,396 4,211 4,421 4,684 4,683 4,616 4,336 4,334 30,460 10,440 10,561 10,272 10,283 10,439 10,589 9,922 9,668 32,612 113 96 100 90 105 96 95 140 19,832 115 115 162 144 160 160 109 118 29,998 183 172 175 163 156 187 185 140 38,744 2,277 2,189 2,183 2,165 2,267 2,163 1,715 1,494 25,946 716 755 709 741 752 753 767 698 26,814 58 81 54 73 48 49 49 62 (X)

41,876 41,908 42,380 43,351 44,663 45,613 44,156 43,217 36,010

Occupation of Longest Job Total, 15 years and older ������������������������ Management, business, and financial   operations �������������������������������������������������� Professional and related������������������������������ Service �������������������������������������������������������� Sales and related������������������������������������������ Office and administrative support ���������������� Farming, fishing, and forestry ���������������������� Construction and extraction�������������������������� Installation, maintenance, and repair������������ Production���������������������������������������������������� Transportation and material-moving ������������ Armed Forces ����������������������������������������������

38,486 38,671 39,106 40,005 41,311 42,196 40,979 40,376 36,973 857 876 916 900 934 823 814 776 19,685 1,840 1,738 1,797 1,736 1,802 1,649 1,568 1,519 23,019 11,673 11,586 11,395 11,412 11,652 11,447 10,851 10,467 30,024 7,353 7,340 7,341 7,451 7,613 7,916 7,456 7,164 35,053 4,281 4,397 4,492 4,751 4,760 4,891 4,955 4,924 37,706 12,482 12,733 13,166 13,755 14,549 15,469 15,335 15,526 51,560

42,380 41,407 3,273 20,481 17,652 973

20041

Educational Attainment Total, 25 years and older ������������������������ Less than 9th grade�������������������������������������� 9th to 12th, nongraduate������������������������������ High school graduate (including GED) �������� Some college, no degree������������������������������ Associate’s degree �������������������������������������� Bachelor’s degree or more ��������������������������

41,908 40,960 3,237 20,606 17,116 948

2003

41,876 41,021 3,390 21,023 16,608 855

2002

2002

Age Total, 15 years and older ������������������������ Under 65 years ��������������������������������������������   15 to 24 years ������������������������������������������   25 to 44 years ������������������������������������������   45 to 64 years ������������������������������������������ 65 years and older����������������������������������������

FULL-TIME, YEAR-ROUND   WORKERS—Con. Females

Characteristic

Number with earnings (thousands)

(Earnings in 2009 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf. Comparable data for occupation categories not available prior to 2002 due to change in occupation designations and definitions)

Number of Workers With Earnings and Median Earnings by Work Experience, Sex, and Selected Characteristics: 2002 to 2009—Con.

Table A-5.


APPENDIX B. ESTIMATES OF POVERTY How Poverty Is Calculated Following the Office of Management and Budget’s (OMB) Statistical Policy Directive 14, the U.S. Census Bureau uses a set of dollar value thresholds that vary by family size and composition to determine who is in poverty (see the matrix below).

Poverty Thresholds for 2009 by Size of Family and Number of Related Children Under 18 Years (Dollars) Related children under 18 years Size of family unit None

One

One person (unrelated individual):   Under 65 years ����������������������������������   65 years and older������������������������������

11,161 10,289

Two people:   Householder under 65 years��������������   Householder 65 years and older��������

14,366 12,968

14,787 14,731

Three people������������������������������������������ Four people�������������������������������������������� Five people �������������������������������������������� Six people���������������������������������������������� Seven people������������������������������������������ Eight people�������������������������������������������� Nine people or more ������������������������������

16,781 22,128 26,686 30,693 35,316 39,498 47,514

17,268 22,490 27,074 30,815 35,537 39,847 47,744

Two

Three

Four

Five

Six

Seven

Eight or more

17,285 21,756 26,245 30,180 34,777 39,130 47,109

21,832 25,603 29,571 34,247 38,501 46,576

25,211 28,666 33,260 37,610 45,701

28,130 32,108 36,478 44,497

30,845 35,300 43,408

35,000 43,138

41,476

Source: U.S. Census Bureau.

If a family’s total money income is less than the applicable threshold, then that family and every individual in it are considered in poverty. The official poverty thresholds are updated annually for inflation using the Consumer Price Index (CPI-U). Since the average annual CPI-U for 2009 was lower than the average annual CPI-U for 2008, poverty thresholds for 2009 are slightly lower than the corresponding thresholds for 2008. The official poverty definition uses money income before taxes and tax credits and excludes capital gains and noncash benefits (such as Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits and housing assistance). The thresholds do not vary geographically. Example: Suppose Family A consists of five people: two children, their mother, their father, and their greataunt. Family A’s poverty threshold in 2009 was $26,245. Each member of Family A had the following income in 2009:

Mother Father Great-aunt First child Second child Total:

$10,000 7,000 10,000 0 0 $27,000

Since their total family income, $27,000, was higher than their threshold ($26,245), Family A would not be considered “in poverty.” While the thresholds, in some sense, represent the needs of families, they should be interpreted as a statistical yardstick rather than as a complete description of what people and families need to live. Many government assistance programs use different income eligibility cutoffs. While official poverty rates and the number of people or families in poverty are important, other poverty indicators are considered in the section, “Depth of Poverty Measures,” and other approaches to setting thresholds and defining resources are discussed in the section, “Alternative Poverty Measures.” For a history of the official poverty measure, see “The Development of

U.S. Census Bureau

the Orshansky Poverty Thresholds and Their Subsequent History as the Official U.S. Poverty Measure” by Gordon M. Fisher, available at <www.census.gov/hhes/www /povmeas/papers/orshansky.html>. Weighted average thresholds: Since some data users want a summary of the 48 thresholds to get a general sense of the “poverty line,” the following table provides the weighted average thresholds for 2009. The averages are based on the relative number of families of each size and composition and are not used in computing poverty estimates.

Weighted Average Poverty Thresholds in 2009 by Size of Family (Dollars) One person Two people Three people Four people Five people Six people Seven people Eight people Nine people or more

10,956 13,991 17,098 21,954 25,991 29,405 33,372 37,252 44,366

Source: U.S. Census Bureau.

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 55


Table B-1.

Poverty Status of People by Family Relationship, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2009 (Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf) All people

People in families

Below poverty

Race, Hispanic origin, and year

Unrelated individuals

Families with female householder, no husband present

All families Below poverty

Below poverty

Below poverty

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

ALL RACES 2009����������������������������������� 2008����������������������������������� 2007����������������������������������� 2006����������������������������������� 2005�����������������������������������

303,820 301,041 298,699 296,450 293,135

43,569 39,829 37,276 36,460 36,950

14.3 13.2 12.5 12.3 12.6

249,384 248,301 245,443 245,199 242,389

31,197 28,564 26,509 25,915 26,068

12.5 11.5 10.8 10.6 10.8

45,315 44,027 43,961 43,223 42,244

14,746 13,812 13,478 13,199 13,153

32.5 31.4 30.7 30.5 31.1

53,079 51,534 51,740 49,884 49,526

11,678 10,710 10,189 9,977 10,425

22.0 20.8 19.7 20.0 21.1

20041���������������������������������� 2003����������������������������������� 2002����������������������������������� 2001����������������������������������� 20002����������������������������������

290,617 287,699 285,317 281,475 278,944

37,040 35,861 34,570 32,907 31,581

12.7 12.5 12.1 11.7 11.3

240,754 238,903 236,921 233,911 231,909

26,544 25,684 24,534 23,215 22,347

11.0 10.8 10.4 9.9 9.6

42,053 41,311 40,529 39,261 38,375

12,832 12,413 11,657 11,223 10,926

30.5 30.0 28.8 28.6 28.5

48,609 47,594 47,156 46,392 45,624

9,926 9,713 9,618 9,226 8,653

20.4 20.4 20.4 19.9 19.0

19993���������������������������������� 1998����������������������������������� 1997����������������������������������� 1996����������������������������������� 1995�����������������������������������

276,208 271,059 268,480 266,218 263,733

32,791 34,476 35,574 36,529 36,425

11.9 12.7 13.3 13.7 13.8

230,789 227,229 225,369 223,955 222,792

23,830 25,370 26,217 27,376 27,501

10.3 11.2 11.6 12.2 12.3

38,580 39,000 38,412 38,584 38,908

11,764 12,907 13,494 13,796 14,205

30.5 33.1 35.1 35.8 36.5

43,977 42,539 41,672 40,727 39,484

8,400 8,478 8,687 8,452 8,247

19.1 19.9 20.8 20.8 20.9

1994����������������������������������� 1993����������������������������������� 1992 4���������������������������������� 19915���������������������������������� 1990�����������������������������������

261,616 259,278 256,549 251,192 248,644

38,059 39,265 38,014 35,708 33,585

14.5 15.1 14.8 14.2 13.5

221,430 219,489 217,936 212,723 210,967

28,985 29,927 28,961 27,143 25,232

13.1 13.6 13.3 12.8 12.0

37,253 37,861 36,446 34,795 33,795

14,380 14,636 14,205 13,824 12,578

38.6 38.7 39.0 39.7 37.2

38,538 38,038 36,842 36,845 36,056

8,287 8,388 8,075 7,773 7,446

21.5 22.1 21.9 21.1 20.7

1989����������������������������������� 19886���������������������������������� 19876���������������������������������� 1986����������������������������������� 1985�����������������������������������

245,992 243,530 240,982 238,554 236,594

31,528 31,745 32,221 32,370 33,064

12.8 13.0 13.4 13.6 14.0

209,515 208,056 206,877 205,459 203,963

24,066 24,048 24,725 24,754 25,729

11.5 11.6 12.0 12.0 12.6

32,525 32,164 31,893 31,152 30,878

11,668 11,972 12,148 11,944 11,600

35.9 37.2 38.1 38.3 37.6

35,185 34,340 32,992 31,679 31,351

6,760 7,070 6,857 6,846 6,725

19.2 20.6 20.8 21.6 21.5

1984����������������������������������� 1983����������������������������������� 1982����������������������������������� 1981����������������������������������� 1980�����������������������������������

233,816 231,700 229,412 227,157 225,027

33,700 35,303 34,398 31,822 29,272

14.4 15.2 15.0 14.0 13.0

202,288 201,338 200,385 198,541 196,963

26,458 27,933 27,349 24,850 22,601

13.1 13.9 13.6 12.5 11.5

30,844 30,049 28,834 28,587 27,565

11,831 12,072 11,701 11,051 10,120

38.4 40.2 40.6 38.7 36.7

30,268 29,158 27,908 27,714 27,133

6,609 6,740 6,458 6,490 6,227

21.8 23.1 23.1 23.4 22.9

1979����������������������������������� 1978����������������������������������� 1977����������������������������������� 1976����������������������������������� 1975�����������������������������������

222,903 215,656 213,867 212,303 210,864

26,072 24,497 24,720 24,975 25,877

11.7 11.4 11.6 11.8 12.3

195,860 191,071 190,757 190,844 190,630

19,964 19,062 19,505 19,632 20,789

10.2 10.0 10.2 10.3 10.9

26,927 26,032 25,404 24,204 23,580

9,400 9,269 9,205 9,029 8,846

34.9 35.6 36.2 37.3 37.5

26,170 24,585 23,110 21,459 20,234

5,743 5,435 5,216 5,344 5,088

21.9 22.1 22.6 24.9 25.1

1974����������������������������������� 1973����������������������������������� 1972����������������������������������� 1971����������������������������������� 1970�����������������������������������

209,362 207,621 206,004 204,554 202,183

23,370 22,973 24,460 25,559 25,420

11.2 11.1 11.9 12.5 12.6

190,436 189,361 189,193 188,242 186,692

18,817 18,299 19,577 20,405 20,330

9.9 9.7 10.3 10.8 10.9

23,165 21,823 21,264 20,153 19,673

8,462 8,178 8,114 7,797 7,503

36.5 37.5 38.2 38.7 38.1

18,926 18,260 16,811 16,311 15,491

4,553 4,674 4,883 5,154 5,090

24.1 25.6 29.0 31.6 32.9

1969����������������������������������� 1968����������������������������������� 1967����������������������������������� 1966����������������������������������� 1965�����������������������������������

199,517 197,628 195,672 193,388 191,413

24,147 25,389 27,769 28,510 33,185

12.1 12.8 14.2 14.7 17.3

184,891 183,825 182,558 181,117 179,281

19,175 20,695 22,771 23,809 28,358

10.4 11.3 12.5 13.1 15.8

17,995 18,048 17,788 17,240 16,371

6,879 6,990 6,898 6,861 7,524

38.2 38.7 38.8 39.8 46.0

14,626 13,803 13,114 12,271 12,132

4,972 4,694 4,998 4,701 4,827

34.0 34.0 38.1 38.3 39.8

1964����������������������������������� 1963����������������������������������� 1962����������������������������������� 1961����������������������������������� 1960����������������������������������� 1959�����������������������������������

189,710 187,258 184,276 181,277 179,503 176,557

36,055 36,436 38,625 39,628 39,851 39,490

19.0 19.5 21.0 21.9 22.2 22.4

177,653 176,076 173,263 170,131 168,615 165,858

30,912 31,498 33,623 34,509 34,925 34,562

17.4 17.9 19.4 20.3 20.7 20.8

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

7,297 7,646 7,781 7,252 7,247 7,014

44.4 47.7 50.3 48.1 48.9 49.4

12,057 11,182 11,013 11,146 10,888 10,699

5,143 4,938 5,002 5,119 4,926 4,928

42.7 44.2 45.4 45.9 45.2 46.1

  See footnotes at end of table.

56 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau


Table B-1.

Poverty Status of People by Family Relationship, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2009—Con. (Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)

All people

People in families

Below poverty

Race, Hispanic origin, and year

Unrelated individuals

Families with female householder, no husband present

All families Below poverty

Below poverty

Below poverty

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

WHITE ALONE7 2009������������������������������������ 2008������������������������������������ 2007������������������������������������ 2006������������������������������������

242,047 240,548 239,133 237,619

29,830 26,990 25,120 24,416

12.3 11.2 10.5 10.3

197,938 197,763 195,944 196,061

20,701 18,558 17,141 16,644

10.5 9.4 8.7 8.5

28,163 27,010 27,159 27,057

8,283 7,340 7,188 7,160

29.4 27.2 26.5 26.5

43,010 41,810 41,931 40,461

8,580 7,982 7,505 7,334

19.9 19.1 17.9 18.1

2005������������������������������������ 2004 1����������������������������������� 2003������������������������������������ 2002������������������������������������

235,430 233,741 231,866 230,376

24,872 25,327 24,272 23,466

10.6 10.8 10.5 10.2

194,277 193,024 192,074 190,823

16,782 17,445 16,740 16,043

8.6 9.0 8.7 8.4

25,943 26,139 25,536 24,903

7,021 6,892 6,530 5,992

27.1 26.4 25.6 24.1

40,164 39,712 38,913 38,575

7,718 7,416 7,225 7,105

19.2 18.7 18.6 18.4

WHITE8 2001������������������������������������ 20002����������������������������������� 19993����������������������������������� 1998������������������������������������ 1997������������������������������������

229,675 227,846 225,361 222,837 221,200

22,739 21,645 22,169 23,454 24,396

9.9 9.5 9.8 10.5 11.0

190,413 188,966 187,833 186,184 185,147

15,369 14,692 15,353 16,549 17,258

8.1 7.8 8.2 8.9 9.3

24,619 24,166 23,913 24,211 23,773

5,972 5,609 5,947 6,674 7,296

24.3 23.2 24.9 27.6 30.7

38,294 37,699 36,441 35,563 34,858

6,996 6,454 6,411 6,386 6,593

18.3 17.1 17.6 18.0 18.9

1996������������������������������������ 1995������������������������������������ 1994������������������������������������ 1993������������������������������������ 1992 4�����������������������������������

219,656 218,028 216,460 214,899 213,060

24,650 24,423 25,379 26,226 25,259

11.2 11.2 11.7 12.2 11.9

184,119 183,450 182,546 181,330 180,409

17,621 17,593 18,474 18,968 18,294

9.6 9.6 10.1 10.5 10.1

23,744 23,732 22,713 23,224 22,453

7,073 7,047 7,228 7,199 6,907

29.8 29.7 31.8 31.0 30.8

34,247 33,399 32,569 32,112 31,170

6,463 6,336 6,292 6,443 6,147

18.9 19.0 19.3 20.1 19.7

19915����������������������������������� 1990������������������������������������ 1989������������������������������������ 19886����������������������������������� 19876�����������������������������������

210,133 208,611 206,853 205,235 203,605

23,747 22,326 20,785 20,715 21,195

11.3 10.7 10.0 10.1 10.4

177,619 176,504 175,857 175,111 174,488

17,268 15,916 15,179 15,001 15,593

9.7 9.0 8.6 8.6 8.9

21,608 20,845 20,362 20,396 20,244

6,806 6,210 5,723 5,950 5,989

31.5 29.8 28.1 29.2 29.6

31,207 30,833 29,993 29,315 28,290

5,872 5,739 5,063 5,314 5,174

18.8 18.6 16.9 18.1 18.3

1986������������������������������������ 1985������������������������������������ 1984������������������������������������ 1983������������������������������������ 1982������������������������������������

202,282 200,918 198,941 197,496 195,919

22,183 22,860 22,955 23,984 23,517

11.0 11.4 11.5 12.1 12.0

174,024 172,863 171,839 171,407 170,748

16,393 17,125 17,299 18,377 18,015

9.4 9.9 10.1 10.7 10.6

20,163 20,105 19,727 19,256 18,374

6,171 5,990 5,866 6,017 5,686

30.6 29.8 29.7 31.2 30.9

27,143 27,067 26,094 25,206 24,300

5,198 5,299 5,181 5,189 5,041

19.2 19.6 19.9 20.6 20.7

1981������������������������������������ 1980������������������������������������ 1979������������������������������������ 1978������������������������������������ 1977������������������������������������

194,504 192,912 191,742 186,450 185,254

21,553 19,699 17,214 16,259 16,416

11.1 10.2 9.0 8.7 8.9

169,868 168,756 168,461 165,193 165,385

16,127 14,587 12,495 12,050 12,364

9.5 8.6 7.4 7.3 7.5

18,795 17,642 17,349 16,877 16,721

5,600 4,940 4,375 4,371 4,474

29.8 28.0 25.2 25.9 26.8

23,913 23,370 22,587 21,257 19,869

5,061 4,760 4,452 4,209 4,051

21.2 20.4 19.7 19.8 20.4

1976������������������������������������ 1975������������������������������������ 1974������������������������������������ 1973������������������������������������ 1972������������������������������������

184,165 183,164 182,376 181,185 180,125

16,713 17,770 15,736 15,142 16,203

9.1 9.7 8.6 8.4 9.0

165,571 165,661 166,081 165,424 165,630

12,500 13,799 12,181 11,412 12,268

7.5 8.3 7.3 6.9 7.4

15,941 15,577 15,433 14,303 13,739

4,463 4,577 4,278 4,003 3,770

28.0 29.4 27.7 28.0 27.4

18,594 17,503 16,295 15,761 14,495

4,213 3,972 3,555 3,730 3,935

22.7 22.7 21.8 23.7 27.1

1971������������������������������������ 1970������������������������������������ 1969������������������������������������ 1968������������������������������������ 1967������������������������������������

179,398 177,376 175,349 173,732 172,038

17,780 17,484 16,659 17,395 18,983

9.9 9.9 9.5 10.0 11.0

165,184 163,875 162,779 161,777 160,720

13,566 13,323 12,623 13,546 14,851

8.2 8.1 7.8 8.4 9.2

13,502 13,226 12,285 12,190 12,131

4,099 3,761 3,577 3,551 3,453

30.4 28.4 29.1 29.1 28.5

14,214 13,500 12,570 11,955 11,318

4,214 4,161 4,036 3,849 4,132

29.6 30.8 32.1 32.2 36.5

1966������������������������������������ 1965������������������������������������ 1964������������������������������������ 1963������������������������������������

170,247 168,732 167,313 165,309

19,290 22,496 24,957 25,238

11.3 13.3 14.9 15.3

159,561 158,255 156,898 155,584

15,430 18,508 20,716 21,149

9.7 11.7 13.2 13.6

12,261 11,573 (NA) (NA)

3,646 4,092 3,911 4,051

29.7 35.4 33.4 35.6

10,686 10,477 10,415 9,725

3,860 3,988 4,241 4,089

36.1 38.1 40.7 42.0

1962������������������������������������ 1961������������������������������������ 1960������������������������������������ 1959������������������������������������

162,842 160,306 158,863 156,956

26,672 27,890 28,309 28,484

16.4 17.4 17.8 18.1

153,348 150,717 149,458 147,802

22,613 23,747 24,262 24,443

14.7 15.8 16.2 16.5

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

4,089 4,062 4,296 4,232

37.9 37.6 39.0 40.2

9,494 9,589 9,405 9,154

4,059 4,143 4,047 4,041

42.7 43.2 43.0 44.1

  See footnotes at end of table.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 57


Table B-1.

Poverty Status of People by Family Relationship, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2009—Con. (Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf) All people

People in families

Below poverty

Race, Hispanic origin, and year

Unrelated individuals

Families with female householder, no husband present

All families Below poverty

Below poverty

Below poverty

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

WHITE ALONE,   NOT HISPANIC7 2009������������������������������������ 2008������������������������������������ 2007������������������������������������ 2006������������������������������������

197,164 196,940 196,583 196,049

18,530 17,024 16,032 16,013

9.4 8.6 8.2 8.2

158,646 159,344 158,703 159,572

11,211 10,138 9,553 9,676

7.1 6.4 6.0 6.1

19,033 18,799 19,179 19,349

4,532 4,046 4,099 4,353

23.8 21.5 21.4 22.5

37,757 36,848 36,909 35,642

6,946 6,539 6,155 6,021

18.4 17.7 16.7 16.9

2005������������������������������������ 2004 1����������������������������������� 2003������������������������������������ 2002������������������������������������

195,553 195,098 194,595 194,144

16,227 16,908 15,902 15,567

8.3 8.7 8.2 8.0

159,204 159,221 159,215 158,764

9,604 10,323 9,658 9,389

6.0 6.5 6.1 5.9

18,899 19,009 18,792 18,664

4,278 4,116 3,959 3,733

22.6 21.7 21.1 20.0

35,626 35,141 34,683 34,614

6,393 6,237 6,015 5,947

17.9 17.7 17.3 17.2

WHITE, NOT   HISPANIC8 2001������������������������������������ 20002����������������������������������� 19993����������������������������������� 1998������������������������������������ 1997������������������������������������

194,538 193,691 192,565 192,754 191,859

15,271 14,366 14,735 15,799 16,491

7.8 7.4 7.7 8.2 8.6

159,178 158,838 158,550 159,301 158,796

9,122 8,664 9,013 10,061 10,401

5.7 5.5 5.7 6.3 6.5

18,365 18,196 17,892 18,547 18,474

3,661 3,412 3,545 4,074 4,604

19.9 18.8 19.8 22.0 24.9

34,603 33,943 33,189 32,573 32,049

5,882 5,356 5,412 5,352 5,632

17.0 15.8 16.3 16.4 17.6

1996������������������������������������ 1995������������������������������������ 1994������������������������������������ 1993������������������������������������ 1992 4�����������������������������������

191,459 190,951 192,543 190,843 189,001

16,462 16,267 18,110 18,882 18,202

8.6 8.5 9.4 9.9 9.6

159,044 159,402 161,254 160,062 159,102

10,553 10,599 12,118 12,756 12,277

6.6 6.6 7.5 8.0 7.7

18,597 18,340 18,186 18,508 18,016

4,339 4,183 4,743 4,724 4,640

23.3 22.8 26.1 25.5 25.8

31,410 30,586 30,157 29,681 28,775

5,455 5,303 5,500 5,570 5,350

17.4 17.3 18.2 18.8 18.6

19915����������������������������������� 1990������������������������������������ 1989������������������������������������ 19886����������������������������������� 19876�����������������������������������

189,116 188,129 186,979 185,961 184,936

17,741 16,622 15,599 15,565 16,029

9.4 8.8 8.3 8.4 8.7

158,850 158,394 158,127 157,687 157,785

11,998 11,086 10,723 10,467 11,051

7.6 7.0 6.8 6.6 7.0

17,609 17,160 16,827 16,828 16,787

4,710 4,284 3,922 3,988 4,075

26.7 25.0 23.3 23.7 24.3

29,215 28,688 28,055 27,552 26,439

5,261 5,002 4,466 4,746 4,613

18.0 17.4 15.9 17.2 17.4

1986������������������������������������ 1985������������������������������������ 1984������������������������������������ 1983������������������������������������ 1982������������������������������������

184,119 183,455 182,469 181,393 181,903

17,244 17,839 18,300 19,538 19,362

9.4 9.7 10.0 10.8 10.6

157,665 157,106 156,930 156,719 157,818

12,078 12,706 13,234 14,437 14,271

7.7 8.1 8.4 9.2 9.0

16,739 16,749 16,742 16,369 15,830

4,350 4,136 4,193 4,448 4,161

26.0 24.7 25.0 27.2 26.3

25,525 25,544 24,671 23,894 23,329

4,668 4,789 4,659 4,746 4,701

18.3 18.7 18.9 19.9 20.2

1981������������������������������������ 1980������������������������������������ 1979������������������������������������ 1978������������������������������������ 1977������������������������������������

180,909 179,798 178,814 174,731 173,563

17,987 16,365 14,419 13,755 13,802

9.9 9.1 8.1 7.9 8.0

157,330 156,633 156,567 154,321 154,449

12,903 11,568 10,009 9,798 9,977

8.2 7.4 6.4 6.3 6.5

16,323 15,358 15,410 15,132 14,888

4,222 3,699 3,371 3,390 3,429

25.9 24.1 21.9 22.4 23.0

22,950 22,455 21,638 20,410 19,114

4,769 4,474 4,179 3,957 3,825

20.8 19.9 19.3 19.4 20.0

1976������������������������������������ 1975������������������������������������ 1974������������������������������������ 1973������������������������������������

173,235 172,417 171,463 170,488

14,025 14,883 13,217 12,864

8.1 8.6 7.7 7.5

155,324 155,539 155,764 155,330

10,066 11,137 9,854 9,262

6.5 7.2 6.3 6.0

14,261 13,809 13,763 12,731

3,516 3,570 3,379 3,185

24.7 25.9 24.6 25.0

17,912 16,879 15,699 15,158

3,959 3,746 3,364 3,602

22.1 22.2 21.4 23.8

BLACK ALONE   OR IN COMBINATION 2009������������������������������������ 2008������������������������������������ 2007������������������������������������ 2006������������������������������������

40,876 40,097 39,564 39,013

10,575 9,882 9,668 9,447

25.9 24.6 24.4 24.2

33,330 32,818 32,427 32,130

8,184 7,768 7,668 7,411

24.6 23.7 23.6 23.1

14,463 14,332 14,396 13,848

5,755 5,782 5,702 5,422

39.8 40.3 39.6 39.2

7,368 7,123 7,036 6,715

2,285 2,042 1,968 1,935

31.0 28.7 28.0 28.8

2005������������������������������������ 2004 1����������������������������������� 2003������������������������������������ 2002������������������������������������

38,551 38,037 37,503 37,207

9,517 9,411 9,108 8,884

24.7 24.7 24.3 23.9

31,663 31,468 31,059 31,008

7,459 7,495 7,162 6,985

23.6 23.8 23.1 22.5

14,080 13,830 13,664 13,551

5,524 5,484 5,312 5,145

39.2 39.7 38.9 38.0

6,754 6,418 6,194 6,034

2,003 1,840 1,814 1,851

29.7 28.7 29.3 30.7

  See footnotes at end of table.

58 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau


Table B-1.

Poverty Status of People by Family Relationship, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2009—Con. (Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf) All people

People in families

Below poverty

Race, Hispanic origin, and year

Unrelated individuals

Families with female householder, no husband present

All families Below poverty

Below poverty

Below poverty

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

BLACK ALONE9 2009������������������������������������ 2008������������������������������������ 2007������������������������������������ 2006������������������������������������

38,556 37,966 37,665 37,306

9,944 9,379 9,237 9,048

25.8 24.7 24.5 24.3

31,306 30,986 30,778 30,621

7,642 7,339 7,312 7,072

24.4 23.7 23.8 23.1

13,680 13,648 13,741 13,244

5,427 5,533 5,459 5,180

39.7 40.5 39.7 39.1

7,102 6,835 6,807 6,545

2,209 1,970 1,898 1,897

31.1 28.8 27.9 29.0

2005������������������������������������ 2004 1����������������������������������� 2003������������������������������������ 2002������������������������������������

36,802 36,426 35,989 35,678

9,168 9,014 8,781 8,602

24.9 24.7 24.4 24.1

30,154 30,065 29,727 29,671

7,164 7,153 6,870 6,761

23.8 23.8 23.1 22.8

13,481 13,244 13,118 13,030

5,303 5,247 5,115 4,980

39.3 39.6 39.0 38.2

6,521 6,217 6,034 5,858

1,949 1,792 1,781 1,800

29.9 28.8 29.5 30.7

BLACK8 2001������������������������������������ 20002����������������������������������� 19993����������������������������������� 1998������������������������������������ 1997������������������������������������

35,871 35,425 35,756 34,877 34,458

8,136 7,982 8,441 9,091 9,116

22.7 22.5 23.6 26.1 26.5

29,869 29,378 29,819 29,333 28,962

6,389 6,221 6,758 7,259 7,386

21.4 21.2 22.7 24.7 25.5

12,550 12,383 12,823 13,156 13,218

4,694 4,774 5,232 5,629 5,654

37.4 38.6 40.8 42.8 42.8

5,873 5,885 5,668 5,390 5,316

1,692 1,702 1,562 1,752 1,645

28.8 28.9 27.5 32.5 31.0

1996������������������������������������ 1995������������������������������������ 1994������������������������������������ 1993������������������������������������ 1992 4�����������������������������������

34,110 33,740 33,353 32,910 32,411

9,694 9,872 10,196 10,877 10,827

28.4 29.3 30.6 33.1 33.4

28,933 28,777 28,499 28,106 27,790

7,993 8,189 8,447 9,242 9,134

27.6 28.5 29.6 32.9 32.9

13,193 13,604 12,926 13,132 12,591

6,123 6,553 6,489 6,955 6,799

46.4 48.2 50.2 53.0 54.0

4,989 4,756 4,649 4,608 4,410

1,606 1,551 1,617 1,541 1,569

32.2 32.6 34.8 33.4 35.6

19915����������������������������������� 1990������������������������������������ 1989������������������������������������ 19886����������������������������������� 19876�����������������������������������

31,313 30,806 30,332 29,849 29,362

10,242 9,837 9,302 9,356 9,520

32.7 31.9 30.7 31.3 32.4

26,565 26,296 25,931 25,484 25,128

8,504 8,160 7,704 7,650 7,848

32.0 31.0 29.7 30.0 31.2

11,960 11,866 11,190 10,794 10,701

6,557 6,005 5,530 5,601 5,789

54.8 50.6 49.4 51.9 54.1

4,505 4,244 4,180 4,095 3,977

1,590 1,491 1,471 1,509 1,471

35.3 35.1 35.2 36.8 37.0

1986������������������������������������ 1985������������������������������������ 1984������������������������������������ 1983������������������������������������ 1982������������������������������������

28,871 28,485 28,087 27,678 27,216

8,983 8,926 9,490 9,882 9,697

31.1 31.3 33.8 35.7 35.6

24,910 24,620 24,387 24,138 23,948

7,410 7,504 8,104 8,376 8,355

29.7 30.5 33.2 34.7 34.9

10,175 10,041 10,384 10,059 9,699

5,473 5,342 5,666 5,736 5,698

53.8 53.2 54.6 57.0 58.8

3,714 3,641 3,501 3,287 3,051

1,431 1,264 1,255 1,338 1,229

38.5 34.7 35.8 40.7 40.3

1981������������������������������������ 1980������������������������������������ 1979������������������������������������ 1978������������������������������������ 1977������������������������������������

26,834 26,408 25,944 24,956 24,710

9,173 8,579 8,050 7,625 7,726

34.2 32.5 31.0 30.6 31.3

23,423 23,084 22,666 22,027 21,850

7,780 7,190 6,800 6,493 6,667

33.2 31.1 30.0 29.5 30.5

9,214 9,338 9,065 8,689 8,315

5,222 4,984 4,816 4,712 4,595

56.7 53.4 53.1 54.2 55.3

3,277 3,208 3,127 2,929 2,860

1,296 1,314 1,168 1,132 1,059

39.6 41.0 37.3 38.6 37.0

1976������������������������������������ 1975������������������������������������ 1974������������������������������������ 1973������������������������������������ 1972������������������������������������

24,399 24,089 23,699 23,512 23,144

7,595 7,545 7,182 7,388 7,710

31.1 31.3 30.3 31.4 33.3

21,840 21,687 21,341 21,328 21,116

6,576 6,533 6,255 6,560 6,841

30.1 30.1 29.3 30.8 32.4

7,926 7,679 7,483 7,188 7,125

4,415 4,168 4,116 4,064 4,139

55.7 54.3 55.0 56.5 58.1

2,559 2,402 2,359 2,183 2,028

1,019 1,011 927 828 870

39.8 42.1 39.3 37.9 42.9

1971������������������������������������ 1970������������������������������������ 1969������������������������������������ 1968������������������������������������ 1967������������������������������������ 1966������������������������������������ 1959������������������������������������

22,784 22,515 22,011 21,944 21,590 21,206 18,013

7,396 7,548 7,095 7,616 8,486 8,867 9,927

32.5 33.5 32.2 34.7 39.3 41.8 55.1

20,900 20,724 20,192 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

6,530 6,683 6,245 6,839 7,677 8,090 9,112

31.2 32.2 30.9 33.7 38.4 40.9 54.9

6,398 6,225 5,537 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

3,587 3,656 3,225 3,312 3,362 3,160 2,416

56.1 58.7 58.2 58.9 61.6 65.3 70.6

1,884 1,791 1,819 (NA) (NA) (NA) 1,430

866 865 850 777 809 777 815

46.0 48.3 46.7 46.3 49.3 54.4 57.0

  See footnotes at end of table.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 59


Table B-1.

Poverty Status of People by Family Relationship, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2009—Con. (Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf) All people

People in families

Below poverty

Race, Hispanic origin, and year

Unrelated individuals

Families with female householder, no husband present

All families Below poverty

Below poverty

Below poverty

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

2009������������������������������������ 2008������������������������������������ 2007������������������������������������ 2006������������������������������������

15,272 14,543 14,430 14,331

1,901 1,686 1,467 1,447

12.4 11.6 10.2 10.1

13,403 12,817 12,527 12,463

1,361 1,270 1,012 984

10.2 9.9 8.1 7.9

1,539 1,471 1,421 1,210

290 228 250 220

18.9 15.5 17.6 18.1

1,826 1,707 1,837 1,801

527 410 426 449

28.8 24.0 23.2 24.9

2005������������������������������������ 20041����������������������������������� 2003������������������������������������ 2002������������������������������������

13,731 13,291 12,891 12,487

1,501 1,295 1,527 1,243

10.9 9.7 11.8 10.0

11,931 11,661 11,266 10,742

1,039 876 1,116 816

8.7 7.5 9.9 7.6

1,223 1,190 1,184 1,146

220 170 294 175

18.0 14.3 24.8 15.3

1,771 1,599 1,590 1,708

457 417 402 417

25.8 26.1 25.3 24.4

ASIAN ALONE10 2009������������������������������������ 2008������������������������������������ 2007������������������������������������ 2006������������������������������������

14,005 13,310 13,257 13,177

1,746 1,576 1,349 1,353

12.5 11.8 10.2 10.3

12,296 11,719 11,471 11,428

1,244 1,192 930 912

10.1 10.2 8.1 8.0

1,353 1,308 1,256 1,057

250 209 217 187

18.5 16.0 17.3 17.7

1,673 1,574 1,720 1,683

491 378 391 428

29.3 24.0 22.7 25.4

2005������������������������������������ 2004 1����������������������������������� 2003������������������������������������ 2002������������������������������������

12,580 12,231 11,856 11,541

1,402 1,201 1,401 1,161

11.1 9.8 11.8 10.1

10,911 10,734 10,333 9,899

970 812 1,017 763

8.9 7.6 9.8 7.7

1,059 1,024 1,028 1,019

189 135 242 155

17.8 13.2 23.6 15.2

1,645 1,472 1,494 1,613

427 388 375 390

26.0 26.3 25.1 24.2

ASIAN AND PACIFIC   ISLANDER8 2001������������������������������������ 20002����������������������������������� 19993����������������������������������� 1998������������������������������������ 1997������������������������������������

12,465 12,672 11,955 10,873 10,482

1,275 1,258 1,285 1,360 1,468

10.2 9.9 10.7 12.5 14.0

10,745 11,044 10,507 9,576 9,312

873 895 1,010 1,087 1,116

8.1 8.1 9.6 11.4 12.0

1,333 1,231 1,201 1,123 932

198 289 275 373 313

14.8 23.4 22.9 33.2 33.6

1,682 1,588 1,415 1,266 1,134

393 350 270 257 327

23.4 22.0 19.1 20.3 28.9

1996������������������������������������ 1995������������������������������������ 1994������������������������������������ 1993������������������������������������ 1992 4�����������������������������������

10,054 9,644 6,654 7,434 7,779

1,454 1,411 974 1,134 985

14.5 14.6 14.6 15.3 12.7

8,900 8,582 5,915 6,609 6,922

1,172 1,112 776 898 787

13.2 13.0 13.1 13.6 11.4

1,018 919 582 725 729

300 266 137 126 183

29.5 28.9 23.6 17.4 25.0

1,120 1,013 696 791 828

255 260 179 228 193

22.8 25.6 25.7 28.8 23.3

19915����������������������������������� 1990������������������������������������ 1989������������������������������������ 19886����������������������������������� 19876�����������������������������������

7,192 7,014 6,673 6,447 6,322

996 858 939 1,117 1,021

13.8 12.2 14.1 17.3 16.1

6,367 6,300 5,917 5,767 5,785

773 712 779 942 875

12.1 11.3 13.2 16.3 15.1

721 638 614 650 584

177 132 212 263 187

24.6 20.7 34.6 40.5 32.0

785 668 712 651 516

209 124 144 160 138

26.6 18.5 20.2 24.5 26.8

ASIAN ALONE   OR IN COMBINATION

  See footnotes at end of table.

60 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau


Table B-1.

Poverty Status of People by Family Relationship, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2009—Con. (Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf) All people

People in families

Below poverty

Race, Hispanic origin, and year

Unrelated individuals

Families with female householder, no husband present

All families Below poverty

Below poverty

Below poverty

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

HISPANIC (ANY RACE) 2009������������������������������������ 2008������������������������������������ 2007������������������������������������ 2006������������������������������������ 2005������������������������������������

48,811 47,398 45,933 44,784 43,020

12,350 10,987 9,890 9,243 9,368

25.3 23.2 21.5 20.6 21.8

42,717 41,732 40,125 39,177 37,759

10,345 9,303 8,248 7,650 7,767

24.2 22.3 20.6 19.5 20.6

10,283 9,265 8,917 8,652 7,868

4,176 3,751 3,527 3,189 3,069

40.6 40.5 39.6 36.9 39.0

5,718 5,417 5,508 5,317 4,971

1,801 1,577 1,490 1,468 1,451

31.5 29.1 27.1 27.6 29.2

20041����������������������������������� 2003������������������������������������ 2002������������������������������������ 2001������������������������������������ 20002�����������������������������������

41,690 40,300 39,216 37,312 35,955

9,122 9,051 8,555 7,997 7,747

21.9 22.5 21.8 21.4 21.5

36,438 35,469 34,598 33,110 31,700

7,705 7,637 7,184 6,674 6,430

21.1 21.5 20.8 20.2 20.3

7,825 7,452 7,013 6,830 6,469

3,072 2,861 2,554 2,585 2,444

39.3 38.4 36.4 37.8 37.8

4,971 4,620 4,364 3,981 3,978

1,293 1,325 1,255 1,211 1,163

26.0 28.7 28.8 30.4 29.2

19993����������������������������������� 1998������������������������������������ 1997������������������������������������ 1996������������������������������������ 1995������������������������������������

34,632 31,515 30,637 29,614 28,344

7,876 8,070 8,308 8,697 8,574

22.7 25.6 27.1 29.4 30.3

30,872 28,055 27,467 26,340 25,165

6,702 6,814 7,198 7,515 7,341

21.7 24.3 26.2 28.5 29.2

6,527 6,074 5,718 5,641 5,785

2,642 2,837 2,911 3,020 3,053

40.5 46.7 50.9 53.5 52.8

3,481 3,218 2,976 2,985 2,947

1,068 1,097 1,017 1,066 1,092

30.7 34.1 34.2 35.7 37.0

1994������������������������������������ 1993������������������������������������ 1992 4����������������������������������� 19915����������������������������������� 1990������������������������������������

27,442 26,559 25,646 22,070 21,405

8,416 8,126 7,592 6,339 6,006

30.7 30.6 29.6 28.7 28.1

24,390 23,439 22,695 19,658 18,912

7,357 6,876 6,455 5,541 5,091

30.2 29.3 28.4 28.2 26.9

5,328 5,333 4,806 4,326 3,993

2,920 2,837 2,474 2,282 2,115

54.8 53.2 51.5 52.7 53.0

2,798 2,717 2,577 2,146 2,254

926 972 881 667 774

33.1 35.8 34.2 31.1 34.3

1989������������������������������������ 19886����������������������������������� 19876����������������������������������� 1986������������������������������������ 1985������������������������������������

20,746 20,064 19,395 18,758 18,075

5,430 5,357 5,422 5,117 5,236

26.2 26.7 28.0 27.3 29.0

18,488 18,102 17,342 16,880 16,276

4,659 4,700 4,761 4,469 4,605

25.2 26.0 27.5 26.5 28.3

3,763 3,734 3,678 3,631 3,561

1,902 2,052 2,045 1,921 1,983

50.6 55.0 55.6 52.9 55.7

2,045 1,864 1,933 1,685 1,602

634 597 598 553 532

31.0 32.0 31.0 32.8 33.2

1984������������������������������������ 1983������������������������������������ 1982������������������������������������ 1981������������������������������������ 1980������������������������������������

16,916 16,544 14,385 14,021 13,600

4,806 4,633 4,301 3,713 3,491

28.4 28.0 29.9 26.5 25.7

15,293 15,075 13,242 12,922 12,547

4,192 4,113 3,865 3,349 3,143

27.4 27.3 29.2 25.9 25.1

3,139 3,032 2,664 2,622 2,421

1,764 1,670 1,601 1,465 1,319

56.2 55.1 60.1 55.9 54.5

1,481 1,364 1,018 1,005 970

545 457 358 313 312

36.8 33.5 35.1 31.1 32.2

1979������������������������������������ 1978������������������������������������ 1977������������������������������������ 1976������������������������������������

13,371 12,079 12,046 11,269

2,921 2,607 2,700 2,783

21.8 21.6 22.4 24.7

12,291 11,193 11,249 10,552

2,599 2,343 2,463 2,516

21.1 20.9 21.9 23.8

2,058 1,817 1,901 1,766

1,053 1,024 1,077 1,000

51.2 56.4 56.7 56.6

991 886 797 716

286 264 237 266

28.8 29.8 29.8 37.2

1975������������������������������������ 1974������������������������������������ 1973������������������������������������ 1972������������������������������������

11,117 11,201 10,795 10,588

2,991 2,575 2,366 2,414

26.9 23.0 21.9 22.8

10,472 10,584 10,269 10,099

2,755 2,374 2,209 2,252

26.3 22.4 21.5 22.3

1,842 1,723 1,534 1,370

1,053 915 881 733

57.2 53.1 57.4 53.5

645 617 526 488

236 201 157 162

36.6 32.6 29.9 33.2

(NA) Not available. For 2004, figures are revised to reflect a correction to the weights in the 2005 ASEC. Consistent with 2001 data through implementation of Census 2000-based population controls and a 28,000 household sample expansion. 3 For 1999, figures are based on Census 2000 population controls. 4 For 1992, figures are based on 1990 census population controls. 5 For 1991, figures are revised to correct for nine omitted weights from the original March 1992 CPS file. 6 For 1988 and 1987, figures are based on new processing procedures and are also revised to reflect corrections to the files after publication of the 1988 advance report Money Income and Poverty Status in the United States: 1988, P-60, No. 166. 7 The 2003 CPS allowed respondents to choose more than one race. White alone refers to people who reported White and did not report any other race category. The use of this singlerace population does not imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing data. The Census Bureau uses a variety of approaches. Information on people who reported more than one race, such as White and American Indian and Alaska Native or Asian and Black or African American, is available from Census 2000 through American FactFinder. About 2.6 percent of people reported more than one race in Census 2000. 8 For 2001 and earlier years, the CPS allowed respondents to report only one race group. The reference race groups for 2001 and earlier poverty data are White, non-Hispanic White, Black, and Asian and Pacific Islander. 9 Black alone refers to people who reported Black and did not report any other race. 10 Asian alone refers to people who reported Asian and did not report any other race. 1 2

Note: Prior to 1979, people in unrelated subfamilies were included in people in families. Beginning in 1979, people in unrelated subfamilies are included in all people but are excluded from people in families. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1960 to 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 61


Table B-2.

Poverty Status of People by Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2009 (Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf) Under 18 years All people

Race, Hispanic origin, and year

18 to 64 years

Related children in families

Below poverty

65 years and older

Below poverty

Below poverty

Below poverty

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

ALL RACES 2009��������������������������� 2008��������������������������� 2007��������������������������� 2006��������������������������� 2005���������������������������

74,579 74,068 73,996 73,727 73,285

15,451 14,068 13,324 12,827 12,896

20.7 19.0 18.0 17.4 17.6

73,410 72,980 72,792 72,609 72,095

14,774 13,507 12,802 12,299 12,335

20.1 18.5 17.6 16.9 17.1

190,627 189,185 187,913 186,688 184,345

24,684 22,105 20,396 20,239 20,450

12.9 11.7 10.9 10.8 11.1

38,613 37,788 36,790 36,035 35,505

3,433 3,656 3,556 3,394 3,603

8.9 9.7 9.7 9.4 10.1

20041�������������������������� 2003��������������������������� 2002��������������������������� 2001��������������������������� 20002��������������������������

73,241 72,999 72,696 72,021 71,741

13,041 12,866 12,133 11,733 11,587

17.8 17.6 16.7 16.3 16.2

72,133 71,907 71,619 70,950 70,538

12,473 12,340 11,646 11,175 11,005

17.3 17.2 16.3 15.8 15.6

182,166 180,041 178,388 175,685 173,638

20,545 19,443 18,861 17,760 16,671

11.3 10.8 10.6 10.1 9.6

35,209 34,659 34,234 33,769 33,566

3,453 3,552 3,576 3,414 3,323

9.8 10.2 10.4 10.1 9.9

19993�������������������������� 1998��������������������������� 1997��������������������������� 1996��������������������������� 1995���������������������������

71,685 71,338 71,069 70,650 70,566

12,280 13,467 14,113 14,463 14,665

17.1 18.9 19.9 20.5 20.8

70,424 70,253 69,844 69,411 69,425

11,678 12,845 13,422 13,764 13,999

16.6 18.3 19.2 19.8 20.2

171,146 167,327 165,329 163,691 161,508

17,289 17,623 18,085 18,638 18,442

10.1 10.5 10.9 11.4 11.4

33,377 32,394 32,082 31,877 31,658

3,222 3,386 3,376 3,428 3,318

9.7 10.5 10.5 10.8 10.5

1994��������������������������� 1993��������������������������� 19924�������������������������� 19915�������������������������� 1990���������������������������

70,020 69,292 68,440 65,918 65,049

15,289 15,727 15,294 14,341 13,431

21.8 22.7 22.3 21.8 20.6

68,819 68,040 67,256 64,800 63,908

14,610 14,961 14,521 13,658 12,715

21.2 22.0 21.6 21.1 19.9

160,329 159,208 157,680 154,684 153,502

19,107 19,781 18,793 17,586 16,496

11.9 12.4 11.9 11.4 10.7

31,267 30,779 30,430 30,590 30,093

3,663 3,755 3,928 3,781 3,658

11.7 12.2 12.9 12.4 12.2

1989��������������������������� 19886�������������������������� 19876�������������������������� 1986��������������������������� 1985���������������������������

64,144 63,747 63,294 62,948 62,876

12,590 12,455 12,843 12,876 13,010

19.6 19.5 20.3 20.5 20.7

63,225 62,906 62,423 62,009 62,019

12,001 11,935 12,275 12,257 12,483

19.0 19.0 19.7 19.8 20.1

152,282 150,761 149,201 147,631 146,396

15,575 15,809 15,815 16,017 16,598

10.2 10.5 10.6 10.8 11.3

29,566 29,022 28,487 27,975 27,322

3,363 3,481 3,563 3,477 3,456

11.4 12.0 12.5 12.4 12.6

1984��������������������������� 1983��������������������������� 1982��������������������������� 1981��������������������������� 1980���������������������������

62,447 62,334 62,345 62,449 62,914

13,420 13,911 13,647 12,505 11,543

21.5 22.3 21.9 20.0 18.3

61,681 61,578 61,565 61,756 62,168

12,929 13,427 13,139 12,068 11,114

21.0 21.8 21.3 19.5 17.9

144,551 143,052 141,328 139,477 137,428

16,952 17,767 17,000 15,464 13,858

11.7 12.4 12.0 11.1 10.1

26,818 26,313 25,738 25,231 24,686

3,330 3,625 3,751 3,853 3,871

12.4 13.8 14.6 15.3 15.7

1979��������������������������� 1978��������������������������� 1977��������������������������� 1976��������������������������� 1975���������������������������

63,375 62,311 63,137 64,028 65,079

10,377 9,931 10,288 10,273 11,104

16.4 15.9 16.2 16.0 17.1

62,646 61,987 62,823 63,729 64,750

9,993 9,722 10,028 10,081 10,882

16.0 15.7 16.0 15.8 16.8

135,333 130,169 128,262 126,175 124,122

12,014 11,332 11,316 11,389 11,456

8.9 8.7 8.8 9.0 9.2

24,194 23,175 22,468 22,100 21,662

3,682 3,233 3,177 3,313 3,317

15.2 14.0 14.1 15.0 15.3

1974��������������������������� 1973��������������������������� 1972��������������������������� 1971��������������������������� 1970���������������������������

66,134 66,959 67,930 68,816 69,159

10,156 9,642 10,284 10,551 10,440

15.4 14.4 15.1 15.3 15.1

65,802 66,626 67,592 68,474 68,815

9,967 9,453 10,082 10,344 10,235

15.1 14.2 14.9 15.1 14.9

122,101 120,060 117,957 115,911 113,554

10,132 9,977 10,438 10,735 10,187

8.3 8.3 8.8 9.3 9.0

21,127 20,602 20,117 19,827 19,470

3,085 3,354 3,738 4,273 4,793

14.6 16.3 18.6 21.6 24.6

1969��������������������������� 1968��������������������������� 1967��������������������������� 1966��������������������������� 1965���������������������������

69,090 70,385 70,408 70,218 69,986

9,691 10,954 11,656 12,389 14,676

14.0 15.6 16.6 17.6 21.0

68,746 70,035 70,058 69,869 69,638

9,501 10,739 11,427 12,146 14,388

13.8 15.3 16.3 17.4 20.7

111,528 108,684 107,024 105,241 (NA)

9,669 9,803 10,725 11,007 (NA)

8.7 9.0 10.0 10.5 (NA)

18,899 18,559 18,240 17,929 (NA)

4,787 4,632 5,388 5,114 (NA)

25.3 25.0 29.5 28.5 (NA)

1964��������������������������� 1963��������������������������� 1962��������������������������� 1961��������������������������� 1960��������������������������� 1959���������������������������

69,711 69,181 67,722 66,121 65,601 64,315

16,051 16,005 16,963 16,909 17,634 17,552

23.0 23.1 25.0 25.6 26.9 27.3

69,364 68,837 67,385 65,792 65,275 63,995

15,736 15,691 16,630 16,577 17,288 17,208

22.7 22.8 24.7 25.2 26.5 26.9

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 96,685

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 16,457

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 17.0

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 15,557

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 5,481

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 35.2

  See footnotes at end of table.

62 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau


Table B-2.

Poverty Status of People by Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2009—Con. (Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf) Under 18 years All people

Race, Hispanic origin, and year

18 to 64 years

Related children in families

Below poverty

65 years and older

Below poverty

Below poverty

Below poverty

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

WHITE ALONE7 2009��������������������������� 2008��������������������������� 2007��������������������������� 2006���������������������������

56,266 56,153 56,419 56,205

9,938 8,863 8,395 7,908

17.7 15.8 14.9 14.1

55,397 55,339 55,483 55,330

9,440 8,441 8,002 7,522

17.0 15.3 14.4 13.6

152,367 151,681 150,875 150,143

17,391 15,356 14,135 14,035

11.4 10.1 9.4 9.3

33,414 32,714 31,839 31,270

2,501 2,771 2,590 2,473

7.5 8.5 8.1 7.9

2005��������������������������� 20041�������������������������� 2003��������������������������� 2002���������������������������

56,075 56,053 55,779 55,703

8,085 8,308 7,985 7,549

14.4 14.8 14.3 13.6

55,152 55,212 54,989 54,900

7,652 7,876 7,624 7,203

13.9 14.3 13.9 13.1

148,450 146,974 145,783 144,694

14,086 14,486 13,622 13,178

9.5 9.9 9.3 9.1

30,905 30,714 30,303 29,980

2,700 2,534 2,666 2,739

8.7 8.3 8.8 9.1

WHITE8 2001��������������������������� 20002�������������������������� 19993�������������������������� 1998��������������������������� 1997���������������������������

56,089 55,980 55,833 56,016 55,863

7,527 7,307 7,639 8,443 8,990

13.4 13.1 13.7 15.1 16.1

55,238 55,021 54,873 55,126 54,870

7,086 6,834 7,194 7,935 8,441

12.8 12.4 13.1 14.4 15.4

143,796 142,164 139,974 138,061 136,784

12,555 11,754 12,085 12,456 12,838

8.7 8.3 8.6 9.0 9.4

29,790 29,703 29,553 28,759 28,553

2,656 2,584 2,446 2,555 2,569

8.9 8.7 8.3 8.9 9.0

1996��������������������������� 1995��������������������������� 1994��������������������������� 1993��������������������������� 19924��������������������������

55,606 55,444 55,186 54,639 54,110

9,044 8,981 9,346 9,752 9,399

16.3 16.2 16.9 17.8 17.4

54,599 54,532 54,221 53,614 53,110

8,488 8,474 8,826 9,123 8,752

15.5 15.5 16.3 17.0 16.5

135,586 134,149 133,289 132,680 131,694

12,940 12,869 13,187 13,535 12,871

9.5 9.6 9.9 10.2 9.8

28,464 28,436 27,985 27,580 27,256

2,667 2,572 2,846 2,939 2,989

9.4 9.0 10.2 10.7 11.0

19915�������������������������� 1990��������������������������� 1989��������������������������� 19886�������������������������� 19876��������������������������

52,523 51,929 51,400 51,203 51,012

8,848 8,232 7,599 7,435 7,788

16.8 15.9 14.8 14.5 15.3

51,627 51,028 50,704 50,590 50,360

8,316 7,696 7,164 7,095 7,398

16.1 15.1 14.1 14.0 14.7

130,312 129,784 128,974 128,031 126,991

12,097 11,387 10,647 10,687 10,703

9.3 8.8 8.3 8.3 8.4

27,297 26,898 26,479 26,001 25,602

2,802 2,707 2,539 2,593 2,704

10.3 10.1 9.6 10.0 10.6

1986��������������������������� 1985��������������������������� 1984��������������������������� 1983��������������������������� 1982���������������������������

51,111 51,031 50,814 50,726 50,920

8,209 8,253 8,472 8,862 8,678

16.1 16.2 16.7 17.5 17.0

50,356 50,358 50,192 50,183 50,305

7,714 7,838 8,086 8,534 8,282

15.3 15.6 16.1 17.0 16.5

125,998 125,258 123,922 123,014 121,766

11,285 11,909 11,904 12,347 11,971

9.0 9.5 9.6 10.0 9.8

25,173 24,629 24,206 23,754 23,234

2,689 2,698 2,579 2,776 2,870

10.7 11.0 10.7 11.7 12.4

1981��������������������������� 1980��������������������������� 1979��������������������������� 1978��������������������������� 1977���������������������������

51,140 51,653 52,262 51,669 52,563

7,785 7,181 6,193 5,831 6,097

15.2 13.9 11.8 11.3 11.6

50,553 51,002 51,687 51,409 52,299

7,429 6,817 5,909 5,674 5,943

14.7 13.4 11.4 11.0 11.4

120,574 118,935 117,583 113,832 112,374

10,790 9,478 8,110 7,897 7,893

8.9 8.0 6.9 6.9 7.0

22,791 22,325 21,898 20,950 20,316

2,978 3,042 2,911 2,530 2,426

13.1 13.6 13.3 12.1 11.9

1976��������������������������� 1975��������������������������� 1974��������������������������� 1973��������������������������� 1972���������������������������

53,428 54,405 55,590 (NA) (NA)

6,189 6,927 6,223 (NA) (NA)

11.6 12.7 11.2 (NA) (NA)

53,167 54,126 55,320 56,211 57,181

6,034 6,748 6,079 5,462 5,784

11.3 12.5 11.0 9.7 10.1

110,717 109,105 107,579 (NA) (NA)

7,890 8,210 7,053 (NA) (NA)

7.1 7.5 6.6 (NA) (NA)

20,020 19,654 19,206 (NA) (NA)

2,633 2,634 2,460 2,698 3,072

13.2 13.4 12.8 14.4 16.8

1971��������������������������� 1970��������������������������� 1969��������������������������� 1968��������������������������� 1967���������������������������

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

58,119 58,472 58,578 (NA) (NA)

6,341 6,138 5,667 6,373 6,729

10.9 10.5 9.7 10.7 11.3

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

(NA) (NA) (NA) 17,062 16,791

3,605 4,011 4,052 3,939 4,646

19.9 22.6 23.3 23.1 27.7

1966��������������������������� 1965��������������������������� 1960��������������������������� 1959���������������������������

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

7,204 8,595 11,229 11,386

12.1 14.4 20.0 20.6

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

16,514 (NA) (NA) (NA)

4,357 (NA) (NA) 4,744

26.4 (NA) (NA) 33.1

  See footnotes at end of table.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 63


Table B-2.

Poverty Status of People by Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2009—Con. (Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf) Under 18 years All people

Race, Hispanic origin, and year

18 to 64 years

Related children in families

Below poverty

65 years and older

Below poverty

Below poverty

Below poverty

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

WHITE ALONE,   NOT HISPANIC7 2009��������������������������� 2008��������������������������� 2007��������������������������� 2006���������������������������

40,917 41,309 41,979 42,212

4,850 4,364 4,255 4,208

11.9 10.6 10.1 10.0

40,319 40,707 41,304 41,563

4,518 4,059 3,996 3,930

11.2 10.0 9.7 9.5

125,511 125,482 125,161 124,847

11,658 10,380 9,598 9,761

9.3 8.3 7.7 7.8

30,736 30,149 29,442 28,990

2,022 2,280 2,179 2,044

6.6 7.6 7.4 7.0

2005��������������������������� 20041�������������������������� 2003��������������������������� 2002���������������������������

42,523 42,978 43,150 43,614

4,254 4,519 4,233 4,090

10.0 10.5 9.8 9.4

41,867 42,363 42,547 43,017

3,973 4,190 3,957 3,848

9.5 9.9 9.3 8.9

124,326 123,481 123,110 122,511

9,708 10,236 9,391 9,157

7.8 8.3 7.6 7.5

28,704 28,639 28,335 28,018

2,264 2,153 2,277 2,321

7.9 7.5 8.0 8.3

WHITE, NOT   HISPANIC8 2001��������������������������� 20002�������������������������� 19993�������������������������� 1998��������������������������� 1997���������������������������

44,095 44,244 44,272 45,355 45,491

4,194 4,018 4,155 4,822 5,204

9.5 9.1 9.4 10.6 11.4

43,459 43,554 43,570 44,670 44,665

3,887 3,715 3,832 4,458 4,759

8.9 8.5 8.8 10.0 10.7

122,470 121,499 120,341 120,282 119,373

8,811 8,130 8,462 8,760 9,088

7.2 6.7 7.0 7.3 7.6

27,973 27,948 27,952 27,118 26,995

2,266 2,218 2,118 2,217 2,200

8.1 7.9 7.6 8.2 8.1

1996��������������������������� 1995��������������������������� 1994��������������������������� 1993��������������������������� 19924��������������������������

45,605 45,689 46,668 46,096 45,590

5,072 5,115 5,823 6,255 6,017

11.1 11.2 12.5 13.6 13.2

44,844 44,973 45,874 45,322 44,833

4,656 4,745 5,404 5,819 5,558

10.4 10.6 11.8 12.8 12.4

118,822 118,228 119,192 118,475 117,386

9,074 8,908 9,732 9,964 9,461

7.6 7.5 8.2 8.4 8.1

27,033 27,034 26,684 26,272 26,025

2,316 2,243 2,556 2,663 2,724

8.6 8.3 9.6 10.1 10.5

19915�������������������������� 1990��������������������������� 1989��������������������������� 19886�������������������������� 19876��������������������������

45,236 44,797 44,492 44,438 44,461

5,918 5,532 5,110 4,888 5,230

13.1 12.3 11.5 11.0 11.8

44,506 44,045 43,938 43,910 43,907

5,497 5,106 4,779 4,594 4,902

12.4 11.6 10.9 10.5 11.2

117,672 117,477 116,983 116,479 115,721

9,244 8,619 8,154 8,293 8,327

7.9 7.3 7.0 7.1 7.2

26,208 25,854 25,504 25,044 24,754

2,580 2,471 2,335 2,384 2,472

9.8 9.6 9.2 9.5 10.0

1986��������������������������� 1985��������������������������� 1984��������������������������� 1983��������������������������� 1982���������������������������

44,664 44,752 44,886 44,830 45,531

5,789 5,745 6,156 6,649 6,566

13.0 12.8 13.7 14.8 14.4

44,041 44,199 44,349 44,374 45,001

5,388 5,421 5,828 6,381 6,229

12.2 12.3 13.1 14.4 13.8

115,157 114,969 114,180 113,570 113,717

8,963 9,608 9,734 10,279 10,082

7.8 8.4 8.5 9.1 8.9

24,298 23,734 23,402 22,992 22,655

2,492 2,486 2,410 2,610 2,714

10.3 10.5 10.3 11.4 12.0

1981��������������������������� 1980��������������������������� 1979��������������������������� 1978���������������������������

45,950 46,578 46,967 46,819

5,946 5,510 4,730 4,506

12.9 11.8 10.1 9.6

45,440 45,989 46,448 46,606

5,639 5,174 4,476 4,383

12.4 11.3 9.6 9.4

112,722 111,460 110,509 107,481

9,207 7,990 6,930 6,837

8.2 7.2 6.3 6.4

22,237 21,760 21,339 20,431

2,834 2,865 2,759 2,412

12.7 13.2 12.9 11.8

1977��������������������������� 1976��������������������������� 1975��������������������������� 1974���������������������������

47,689 48,824 49,670 50,759

4,714 4,799 5,342 4,820

9.9 9.8 10.8 9.5

47,459 48,601 49,421 50,520

4,582 4,664 5,185 4,697

9.7 9.6 10.5 9.3

106,063 104,846 103,496 101,894

6,772 6,720 7,039 6,051

6.4 6.4 6.8 5.9

19,812 19,565 19,251 18,810

2,316 2,506 2,503 2,346

11.7 12.8 13.0 12.5

BLACK ALONE OR   IN COMBINATION 2009��������������������������� 2008��������������������������� 2007��������������������������� 2006���������������������������

12,655 12,388 12,380 12,375

4,480 4,202 4,178 4,086

35.4 33.9 33.7 33.0

12,445 12,201 12,227 12,206

4,349 4,104 4,106 3,977

34.9 33.6 33.6 32.6

24,815 24,404 23,968 23,510

5,441 5,017 4,742 4,652

21.9 20.6 19.8 19.8

3,405 3,305 3,215 3,128

655 663 748 710

19.2 20.0 23.3 22.7

2005��������������������������� 2004 1�������������������������� 2003��������������������������� 2002���������������������������

12,159 12,190 12,215 12,114

4,074 4,059 4,108 3,817

33.5 33.3 33.6 31.5

11,975 12,012 11,989 11,931

3,972 3,962 3,977 3,733

33.2 33.0 33.2 31.3

23,338 22,842 22,355 22,170

4,735 4,638 4,313 4,376

20.3 20.3 19.3 19.7

3,053 3,005 2,933 2,922

708 714 688 691

23.2 23.8 23.5 23.6

  See footnotes at end of table.

64 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau


Table B-2.

Poverty Status of People by Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2009—Con. (Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf) Under 18 years All people

Race, Hispanic origin, and year

18 to 64 years

Related children in families

Below poverty

65 years and older

Below poverty

Below poverty

Below poverty

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

BLACK ALONE9 2009��������������������������� 2008��������������������������� 2007��������������������������� 2006���������������������������

11,282 11,172 11,302 11,315

4,033 3,878 3,904 3,777

35.7 34.7 34.5 33.4

11,102 10,998 11,174 11,168

3,919 3,781 3,838 3,690

35.3 34.4 34.3 33.0

23,953 23,565 23,213 22,907

5,264 4,855 4,602 4,570

22.0 20.6 19.8 19.9

3,320 3,229 3,150 3,085

647 646 731 701

19.5 20.0 23.2 22.7

2005��������������������������� 20041�������������������������� 2003��������������������������� 2002���������������������������

11,136 11,244 11,367 11,275

3,841 3,788 3,877 3,645

34.5 33.7 34.1 32.3

10,962 11,080 11,162 11,111

3,743 3,702 3,750 3,570

34.2 33.4 33.6 32.1

22,659 22,226 21,746 21,547

4,627 4,521 4,224 4,277

20.4 20.3 19.4 19.9

3,007 2,956 2,876 2,856

701 705 680 680

23.3 23.8 23.7 23.8

BLACK8 2001��������������������������� 20002�������������������������� 19993�������������������������� 1998��������������������������� 1997���������������������������

11,556 11,480 11,488 11,317 11,367

3,492 3,581 3,813 4,151 4,225

30.2 31.2 33.2 36.7 37.2

11,419 11,296 11,260 11,176 11,193

3,423 3,495 3,698 4,073 4,116

30.0 30.9 32.8 36.4 36.8

21,462 21,160 21,518 20,837 20,400

4,018 3,794 4,000 4,222 4,191

18.7 17.9 18.6 20.3 20.5

2,853 2,785 2,750 2,723 2,691

626 607 628 718 700

21.9 21.8 22.8 26.4 26.0

1996��������������������������� 1995��������������������������� 1994��������������������������� 1993��������������������������� 19924��������������������������

11,338 11,369 11,211 11,127 10,956

4,519 4,761 4,906 5,125 5,106

39.9 41.9 43.8 46.1 46.6

11,155 11,198 11,044 10,969 10,823

4,411 4,644 4,787 5,030 5,015

39.5 41.5 43.3 45.9 46.3

20,155 19,892 19,585 19,272 18,952

4,515 4,483 4,590 5,049 4,884

22.4 22.5 23.4 26.2 25.8

2,616 2,478 2,557 2,510 2,504

661 629 700 702 838

25.3 25.4 27.4 28.0 33.5

19915�������������������������� 1990��������������������������� 1989��������������������������� 19886�������������������������� 19876��������������������������

10,350 10,162 10,012 9,865 9,730

4,755 4,550 4,375 4,296 4,385

45.9 44.8 43.7 43.5 45.1

10,178 9,980 9,847 9,681 9,546

4,637 4,412 4,257 4,148 4,234

45.6 44.2 43.2 42.8 44.4

18,355 18,097 17,833 17,548 17,245

4,607 4,427 4,164 4,275 4,361

25.1 24.5 23.3 24.4 25.3

2,606 2,547 2,487 2,436 2,387

880 860 763 785 774

33.8 33.8 30.7 32.2 32.4

1986��������������������������� 1985��������������������������� 1984��������������������������� 1983��������������������������� 1982���������������������������

9,629 9,545 9,480 9,417 9,400

4,148 4,157 4,413 4,398 4,472

43.1 43.6 46.6 46.7 47.6

9,467 9,405 9,356 9,245 9,269

4,037 4,057 4,320 4,273 4,388

42.7 43.1 46.2 46.2 47.3

16,911 16,667 16,369 16,065 15,692

4,113 4,052 4,368 4,694 4,415

24.3 24.3 26.7 29.2 28.1

2,331 2,273 2,238 2,197 2,124

722 717 710 791 811

31.0 31.5 31.7 36.0 38.2

1981��������������������������� 1980��������������������������� 1979��������������������������� 1978��������������������������� 1977���������������������������

9,374 9,368 9,307 9,229 9,296

4,237 3,961 3,833 3,830 3,888

45.2 42.3 41.2 41.5 41.8

9,291 9,287 9,172 9,168 9,253

4,170 3,906 3,745 3,781 3,850

44.9 42.1 40.8 41.2 41.6

15,358 14,987 14,596 13,774 13,483

4,117 3,835 3,478 3,133 3,137

26.8 25.6 23.8 22.7 23.3

2,102 2,054 2,040 1,954 1,930

820 783 740 662 701

39.0 38.1 36.2 33.9 36.3

1976��������������������������� 1975��������������������������� 1974��������������������������� 1973��������������������������� 1972���������������������������

9,322 9,421 9,439 (NA) (NA)

3,787 3,925 3,755 (NA) (NA)

40.6 41.7 39.8 (NA) (NA)

9,291 9,374 9,384 9,405 9,426

3,758 3,884 3,713 3,822 4,025

40.4 41.4 39.6 40.6 42.7

13,224 12,872 12,539 (NA) (NA)

3,163 2,968 2,836 (NA) (NA)

23.9 23.1 22.6 (NA) (NA)

1,852 1,795 1,721 1,672 1,603

644 652 591 620 640

34.8 36.3 34.3 37.1 39.9

1971��������������������������� 1970��������������������������� 1969��������������������������� 1968��������������������������� 1967��������������������������� 1966��������������������������� 1965���������������������������

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

9,414 9,448 9,290 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

3,836 3,922 3,677 4,188 4,558 4,774 5,022

40.4 41.5 39.6 43.1 47.4 50.6 65.6

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

(NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

1,584 1,422 1,373 1,374 1,341 1,311 (NA)

623 683 689 655 715 722 711

39.3 48.0 50.2 47.7 53.3 55.1 62.5

  See footnotes at end of table.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 65


Table B-2.

Poverty Status of People by Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2009—Con. (Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf) Under 18 years All people

Race, Hispanic origin, and year

18 to 64 years

Related children in families

Below poverty

65 years and older

Below poverty

Below poverty

Below poverty

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

ASIAN ALONE OR   IN COMBINATION 2009��������������������������� 2008��������������������������� 2007��������������������������� 2006���������������������������

3,996 3,717 3,606 3,573

531 494 431 408

13.3 13.3 11.9 11.4

3,946 3,678 3,558 3,530

507 476 402 398

12.9 12.9 11.3 11.3

9,898 9,507 9,531 9,553

1,154 1,031 892 897

11.7 10.8 9.4 9.4

1,378 1,319 1,293 1,205

216 162 144 142

15.7 12.3 11.2 11.8

2005��������������������������� 20041�������������������������� 2003��������������������������� 2002���������������������������

3,472 3,406 3,316 3,199

359 329 420 353

10.3 9.7 12.7 11.0

3,435 3,367 3,279 3,159

352 311 406 338

10.2 9.2 12.4 10.7

9,115 8,780 8,510 8,292

999 819 956 804

11.0 9.3 11.2 9.7

1,144 1,104 1,065 995

144 147 152 86

12.6 13.3 14.2 8.7

ASIAN ALONE10 2009��������������������������� 2008��������������������������� 2007��������������������������� 2006���������������������������

3,311 3,052 2,980 2,956

463 446 374 360

14.0 14.6 12.5 12.2

3,271 3,016 2,932 2,915

444 430 345 351

13.6 14.2 11.8 12.0

9,344 8,961 9,012 9,039

1,069 974 832 851

11.4 10.9 9.2 9.4

1,350 1,296 1,265 1,182

213 157 143 142

15.8 12.1 11.3 12.0

2005��������������������������� 20041�������������������������� 2003��������������������������� 2002���������������������������

2,871 2,854 2,759 2,683

317 281 344 315

11.1 9.9 12.5 11.7

2,842 2,823 2,726 2,648

312 265 331 302

11.0 9.4 12.1 11.4

8,591 8,294 8,044 7,881

941 774 907 764

11.0 9.3 11.3 9.7

1,118 1,083 1,052 977

143 146 151 82

12.8 13.5 14.3 8.4

ASIAN AND PACIFIC   ISLANDER8 2001��������������������������� 20002�������������������������� 19993�������������������������� 1998��������������������������� 1997���������������������������

3,215 3,294 3,212 3,137 3,096

369 420 381 564 628

11.5 12.7 11.9 18.0 20.3

3,169 3,256 3,178 3,099 3,061

353 407 367 542 608

11.1 12.5 11.5 17.5 19.9

8,352 8,500 7,879 6,951 6,680

814 756 807 698 753

9.7 8.9 10.2 10.0 11.3

899 878 864 785 705

92 82 96 97 87

10.2 9.3 11.1 12.4 12.3

1996��������������������������� 1995��������������������������� 1994��������������������������� 1993��������������������������� 19924��������������������������

2,924 2,900 1,739 2,061 2,218

571 564 318 375 363

19.5 19.5 18.3 18.2 16.4

2,899 2,858 1,719 2,029 2,199

553 532 308 358 352

19.1 18.6 17.9 17.6 16.0

6,484 6,123 4,401 4,871 5,067

821 757 589 680 568

12.7 12.4 13.4 14.0 11.2

647 622 513 503 494

63 89 67 79 53

9.7 14.3 13.0 15.6 10.8

19915�������������������������� 1990��������������������������� 1989��������������������������� 19886�������������������������� 19876��������������������������

2,056 2,126 1,983 1,970 1,937

360 374 392 474 455

17.5 17.6 19.8 24.1 23.5

2,036 2,098 1,945 1,949 1,908

348 356 368 458 432

17.1 17.0 18.9 23.5 22.7

4,582 4,375 4,225 4,035 4,010

565 422 512 583 510

12.3 9.6 12.1 14.4 12.7

555 514 465 442 375

70 62 34 60 56

12.7 12.1 7.4 13.5 15.0

  See footnotes at end of table.

66 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau


Table B-2.

Poverty Status of People by Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2009—Con. (Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf) Under 18 years All people

Race, Hispanic origin, and year

18 to 64 years

Related children in families

Below poverty

65 years and older

Below poverty

Below poverty

Below poverty

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

HISPANIC   (ANY RACE) 2009��������������������������� 2008��������������������������� 2007��������������������������� 2006��������������������������� 2005���������������������������

16,965 16,370 15,647 15,147 14,654

5,610 5,010 4,482 4,072 4,143

33.1 30.6 28.6 26.9 28.3

16,655 16,138 15,375 14,907 14,361

5,419 4,888 4,348 3,959 3,977

32.5 30.3 28.3 26.6 27.7

29,031 28,311 27,731 27,209 26,051

6,224 5,452 4,970 4,698 4,765

21.4 19.3 17.9 17.3 18.3

2,815 2,717 2,555 2,428 2,315

516 525 438 472 460

18.3 19.3 17.1 19.4 19.9

20041�������������������������� 2003��������������������������� 2002��������������������������� 2001��������������������������� 20002��������������������������

14,173 13,730 13,210 12,763 12,399

4,098 4,077 3,782 3,570 3,522

28.9 29.7 28.6 28.0 28.4

13,929 13,519 12,971 12,539 12,115

3,985 3,982 3,653 3,433 3,342

28.6 29.5 28.2 27.4 27.6

25,324 24,490 23,952 22,653 21,734

4,620 4,568 4,334 4,014 3,844

18.2 18.7 18.1 17.7 17.7

2,194 2,080 2,053 1,896 1,822

403 406 439 413 381

18.4 19.5 21.4 21.8 20.9

19993�������������������������� 1998��������������������������� 1997��������������������������� 1996��������������������������� 1995���������������������������

12,188 11,152 10,802 10,511 10,213

3,693 3,837 3,972 4,237 4,080

30.3 34.4 36.8 40.3 40.0

11,912 10,921 10,625 10,255 10,011

3,561 3,670 3,865 4,090 3,938

29.9 33.6 36.4 39.9 39.3

20,782 18,668 18,217 17,587 16,673

3,843 3,877 3,951 4,089 4,153

18.5 20.8 21.7 23.3 24.9

1,661 1,696 1,617 1,516 1,458

340 356 384 370 342

20.5 21.0 23.8 24.4 23.5

1994��������������������������� 1993��������������������������� 19924�������������������������� 19915�������������������������� 1990���������������������������

9,822 9,462 9,081 7,648 7,457

4,075 3,873 3,637 3,094 2,865

41.5 40.9 40.0 40.4 38.4

9,621 9,188 8,829 7,473 7,300

3,956 3,666 3,440 2,977 2,750

41.1 39.9 39.0 39.8 37.7

16,192 15,708 15,268 13,279 12,857

4,018 3,956 3,668 3,008 2,896

24.8 25.2 24.0 22.7 22.5

1,428 1,390 1,298 1,143 1,091

323 297 287 237 245

22.6 21.4 22.1 20.8 22.5

1989��������������������������� 19886�������������������������� 19876�������������������������� 1986��������������������������� 1985���������������������������

7,186 7,003 6,792 6,646 6,475

2,603 2,631 2,670 2,507 2,606

36.2 37.6 39.3 37.7 40.3

7,040 6,908 6,692 6,511 6,346

2,496 2,576 2,606 2,413 2,512

35.5 37.3 38.9 37.1 39.6

12,536 12,056 11,718 11,206 10,685

2,616 2,501 2,509 2,406 2,411

20.9 20.7 21.4 21.5 22.6

1,024 1,005 885 906 915

211 225 243 204 219

20.6 22.4 27.5 22.5 23.9

1984��������������������������� 1983��������������������������� 1982��������������������������� 1981��������������������������� 1980���������������������������

6,068 6,066 5,527 5,369 5,276

2,376 2,312 2,181 1,925 1,749

39.2 38.1 39.5 35.9 33.2

5,982 5,977 5,436 5,291 5,211

2,317 2,251 2,117 1,874 1,718

38.7 37.7 38.9 35.4 33.0

10,029 9,697 8,262 8,084 7,740

2,254 2,148 1,963 1,642 1,563

22.5 22.5 23.8 20.3 20.2

819 782 596 568 582

176 173 159 146 179

21.5 22.1 26.6 25.7 30.8

1979��������������������������� 1978��������������������������� 1977��������������������������� 1976��������������������������� 1975��������������������������� 1974��������������������������� 1973���������������������������

5,483 5,012 5,028 4,771 (NA) (NA) (NA)

1,535 1,384 1,422 1,443 (NA) (NA) (NA)

28.0 27.6 28.3 30.2 (NA) (NA) (NA)

5,426 4,972 5,000 4,736 4,896 4,939 4,910

1,505 1,354 1,402 1,424 1,619 1,414 1,364

27.7 27.2 28.0 30.1 33.1 28.6 27.8

7,314 6,527 6,500 6,034 (NA) (NA) (NA)

1,232 1,098 1,164 1,212 (NA) (NA) (NA)

16.8 16.8 17.9 20.1 (NA) (NA) (NA)

574 539 518 464 (NA) (NA) (NA)

154 125 113 128 137 117 95

26.8 23.2 21.9 27.7 32.6 28.9 24.9

(NA) Not available. For 2004, figures are revised to reflect a correction to the weights in the 2005 ASEC. Consistent with 2001 data through implementation of Census 2000-based population controls and a 28,000 household sample expansion. 3 For 1999, figures are based on Census 2000 population controls. 4 For 1992, figures are based on 1990 census population controls. 5 For 1991, figures are revised to correct for nine omitted weights from the original March 1992 CPS file. 6 For 1988 and 1987, figures are based on new processing procedures and are also revised to reflect corrections to the files after publication of the 1988 advance report Money Income and Poverty Status in the United States: 1988, P-60, No. 166. 7 The 2003 CPS allowed respondents to choose more than one race. White alone refers to people who reported White and did not report any other race category. The use of this single-race population does not imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing data. The Census Bureau uses a variety of approaches. Information on people who reported more than one race, such as White and American Indian and Alaska Native or Asian and Black or African American, is available from Census 2000 through American FactFinder. About 2.6 percent of people reported more than one race in Census 2000. 8 For 2001 and earlier years, the CPS allowed respondents to report only one race group. The reference race groups for 2001 and earlier poverty data are White, non-Hispanic White, Black, and Asian and Pacific Islander. 9 Black alone refers to people who reported Black and did not report any other race. 10 Asian alone refers to people who reported Asian and did not report any other race. 1 2

Note: Before 1979, people in unrelated subfamilies were included in people in families. Beginning in 1979, people in unrelated subfamilies are included in all people but are excluded from people in families. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1960 to 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 67


Table B-3.

Poverty Status of Families, by Type of Family: 1959 to 2009 (Numbers in thousands. Families as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf) All families Race, Hispanic origin, and year

ALL RACES 2009������������������������ 2008������������������������ 2007������������������������ 2006������������������������ 2005������������������������ 20041����������������������� 2003������������������������ 2002������������������������ 2001������������������������ 20002����������������������� 19993����������������������� 1998������������������������ 1997������������������������ 1996������������������������ 1995������������������������ 1994������������������������ 1993������������������������ 19924����������������������� 19915����������������������� 1990������������������������ 1989������������������������ 19886����������������������� 19876����������������������� 1986������������������������ 1985������������������������ 1984������������������������ 1983������������������������ 1982������������������������ 1981������������������������ 1980������������������������ 1979������������������������ 1978������������������������ 1977������������������������ 1976������������������������ 1975������������������������ 1974������������������������ 1973������������������������ 1972������������������������ 1971������������������������ 1970������������������������ 1969������������������������ 1968������������������������ 1967������������������������ 1966������������������������ 1965������������������������ 1964������������������������ 1963������������������������ 1962������������������������ 1961������������������������ 1960������������������������ 1959������������������������

Married-couple families

Below poverty

Male householder, no wife present

Below poverty

Female householder, no husband present

Below poverty

Below poverty

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

78,867 78,874 77,908 78,454 77,418 76,866 76,232 75,616 74,340 73,778 73,206 71,551 70,884 70,241 69,597 69,313 68,506 68,216 67,175 66,322 66,090 65,837 65,204 64,491 63,558 62,706 62,015 61,393 61,019 60,309 59,550 57,804 57,215 56,710 56,245 55,698 55,053 54,373 53,296 52,227 51,586 50,511 49,835 48,921 48,278 47,836 47,436 46,998 46,341 45,435 45,054

8,792 8,147 7,623 7,668 7,657 7,835 7,607 7,229 6,813 6,400 6,792 7,186 7,324 7,708 7,532 8,053 8,393 8,144 7,712 7,098 6,784 6,874 7,005 7,023 7,223 7,277 7,647 7,512 6,851 6,217 5,461 5,280 5,311 5,311 5,450 4,922 4,828 5,075 5,303 5,260 5,008 5,047 5,667 5,784 6,721 7,160 7,554 8,077 8,391 8,243 8,320

11.1 10.3 9.8 9.8 9.9 10.2 10.0 9.6 9.2 8.7 9.3 10.0 10.3 11.0 10.8 11.6 12.3 11.9 11.5 10.7 10.3 10.4 10.7 10.9 11.4 11.6 12.3 12.2 11.2 10.3 9.2 9.1 9.3 9.4 9.7 8.8 8.8 9.3 10.0 10.1 9.7 10.0 11.4 11.8 13.9 15.0 15.9 17.2 18.1 18.1 18.5

58,428 59,137 58,395 58,964 58,189 57,983 57,725 57,327 56,755 56,598 56,290 54,778 54,321 53,604 53,570 53,865 53,181 53,090 52,457 52,147 52,317 52,100 51,675 51,537 50,933 50,350 50,081 49,908 49,630 49,294 49,112 47,692 47,385 47,497 47,318 47,069 46,812 46,314 45,752 44,739 44,436 43,842 43,292 42,553 42,107 41,648 41,311 40,923 40,405 39,624 39,335

3,409 3,261 2,849 2,910 2,944 3,216 3,115 3,052 2,760 2,637 2,748 2,879 2,821 3,010 2,982 3,272 3,481 3,385 3,158 2,981 2,931 2,897 3,011 3,123 3,438 3,488 3,815 3,789 3,394 3,032 2,640 2,474 2,524 2,606 2,904 2,474 2,482 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

5.8 5.5 4.9 4.9 5.1 5.5 5.4 5.3 4.9 4.7 4.9 5.3 5.2 5.6 5.6 6.1 6.5 6.4 6.0 5.7 5.6 5.6 5.8 6.1 6.7 6.9 7.6 7.6 6.8 6.2 5.4 5.2 5.3 5.5 6.1 5.3 5.3 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

5,582 5,255 5,103 5,067 5,134 4,901 4,717 4,663 4,440 4,277 4,099 3,977 3,911 3,847 3,513 3,228 2,914 3,065 3,025 2,907 2,884 2,847 2,833 2,510 2,414 2,228 2,038 2,016 1,986 1,933 1,733 1,654 1,594 1,500 1,445 1,399 1,438 1,452 1,353 1,487 1,559 1,228 1,210 1,197 1,179 1,182 1,243 1,334 1,293 1,202 1,226

942 723 696 671 669 657 636 564 583 485 485 476 507 531 493 549 488 484 392 349 348 336 340 287 311 292 268 290 205 213 176 152 177 162 116 125 154 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

16.9 13.8 13.6 13.2 13.0 13.4 13.5 12.1 13.1 11.3 11.8 12.0 13.0 13.8 14.0 17.0 16.8 15.8 13.0 12.0 12.1 11.8 12.0 11.4 12.9 13.1 13.2 14.4 10.3 11.0 10.2 9.2 11.1 10.8 8.0 8.9 10.7 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

14,857 14,482 14,411 14,424 14,095 13,981 13,791 13,626 13,146 12,903 12,818 12,796 12,652 12,790 12,514 12,220 12,411 12,061 11,693 11,268 10,890 10,890 10,696 10,445 10,211 10,129 9,896 9,469 9,403 9,082 8,705 8,458 8,236 7,713 7,482 7,230 6,804 6,607 6,191 6,001 5,591 5,441 5,333 5,171 4,992 5,006 4,882 4,741 4,643 4,609 4,493

4,441 4,163 4,078 4,087 4,044 3,962 3,856 3,613 3,470 3,278 3,559 3,831 3,995 4,167 4,057 4,232 4,424 4,275 4,161 3,768 3,504 3,642 3,654 3,613 3,474 3,498 3,564 3,434 3,252 2,972 2,645 2,654 2,610 2,543 2,430 2,324 2,193 2,158 2,100 1,952 1,827 1,755 1,774 1,721 1,916 1,822 1,972 2,034 1,954 1,955 1,916

29.9 28.7 28.3 28.3 28.7 28.3 28.0 26.5 26.4 25.4 27.8 29.9 31.6 32.6 32.4 34.6 35.6 35.4 35.6 33.4 32.2 33.4 34.2 34.6 34.0 34.5 36.0 36.3 34.6 32.7 30.4 31.4 31.7 33.0 32.5 32.1 32.2 32.7 33.9 32.5 32.7 32.3 33.3 33.1 38.4 36.4 40.4 42.9 42.1 42.4 42.6

(NA) Not available. For 2004, figures are revised to reflect a correction to the weights in the 2005 ASEC. Consistent with 2001 data through implementation of Census 2000-based population controls and a 28,000 household sample expansion. 3 For 1999, figures are based on Census 2000 population controls. 4 For 1992, figures are based on 1990 census population controls. 5 For 1991, figures are revised to correct for nine omitted weights from the original March 1992 CPS file. 6 For 1988 and 1987, figures are based on new processing procedures and are also revised to reflect corrections to the files after publication of the 1988 advance report Money Income and Poverty Status in the United States: 1988, P-60, No. 166. 1 2

Note: Before 1979, unrelated subfamilies were included in all families. Beginning in 1979, unrelated subfamilies are excluded from all families. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1960 to 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

68 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau


APPENDIX C. ESTIMATES OF health insurance coverage Quality of Health Insurance Coverage Estimates National surveys and health insurance coverage. Health insurance coverage is likely to be underreported on the Current Population Survey (CPS). While underreporting affects most, if not all, surveys, underreporting of health insurance coverage appears to be a larger problem in the Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) than in other national surveys that ask about insurance. Some reasons for the disparity may include the fact that income, not health insurance, is the main focus of the ASEC questionnaire. In addition, the ASEC collects health insurance information in February through April but asks about the previous year’s coverage. Asking annual retrospective questions appears to cause few problems when collecting income data (possibly because the interview period is close to when people pay their taxes), but it may be less than ideal when asking about health insurance coverage. Compared with other national surveys, the CPS estimate of the number of people without health insurance more closely approximates the number of people who are uninsured at a specific point in time during the year than the number of people uninsured for the entire year. For a comparison of health insurance coverage rates from the major federal surveys, see How Many People Lack Insurance and for How Long? (Congressional Budget Office, May 2003).

Reporting of coverage through major federal health insurance programs. The CPS ASEC data underreport Medicare and Medicaid coverage compared with enrollment and participation data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services 1 (CMS) . Because the CPS is largely a labor force survey, interviewers receive less training on health insurance concepts than labor concepts. Additionally, many people may not be aware that a health insurance program covers them or their children if they have not used covered services recently. CMS data, on the other hand, represent the actual number of people who have enrolled or participated in these programs. The State Health Access Data Assistance Center (SHADAC) of the University of Minnesota has worked with the U.S. Census Bureau, CMS, and the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE) on a research project to evaluate why CPS ASEC estimates of the number of people with Medicaid are lower than counts of the number of people enrolled in the program from CMS. Reports from all four phases of the research project are available from the Census Bureau’s Web site at <www.census.gov/did/www/snacc/>. During Phase 2, files from the Medicaid Statistical Information System (MSIS) were linked with the CPS ASEC files and the individual records were compared. The report from Phase 2 showed a gap between CPS ASEC estimates and MSIS files of

1 CMS is the federal agency primarily responsible for administering the Medicare and Medicaid programs at the national level.

U.S. Census Bureau

2.8 million Medicaid enrollees. A key finding indicating survey response error in the CPS ASEC was that 16.9 percent of people with an MSIS record indicating Medicaid coverage reported in the CPS ASEC that they were 2 uninsured. The report found that Medicaid subscribers with longer and more recent enrollment were more likely to report coverage. Respondents for children enrolled in Medicaid were more apt to report coverage for those children than for enrolled adults within the household. Families with lower incomes tended to report coverage more frequently. Individuals who received Medicaid services during the reporting cycle tended to report coverage more often than individuals who had not received services. Reporting differences were also apparent among states. Phase 3 of the research project is further broken down into three steps that attempt to account for discrepancies found in Phase 2 between the MSIS records and the CPS ASEC files. These steps focus on determining the number of enrollees who were out-of-scope for the 2001 March CPS interview (people living in institutions and other group quarters are not eligible for CPS ASEC interview; MSIS counts all people, regardless of their living situation). Phase 3 narrowed the gap between CPS ASEC estimates and MSIS files by 1.0 million, to 1.8 million Medicaid enrollees. Phase 4 consisted of repeating the Phase 2 process using the National 2 For consistency purposes across the MSIS and the CPS, SHADAC removed all MSIS enrollees who received only partial coverage, those who had died before the CPS reporting cycle, and all duplicate person records. Also, all Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) enrollees were removed from the MSIS count.

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 69


Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data instead of CPS data. The purpose of this was two-fold: to provide explanations for the differences found between NHIS data and MSIS files and to examine how differing survey designs and methodologies affect the survey data and estimates. The report found that the NHIS Medicaid undercount was 27.3 percent in 2001 and 21.7 percent in 2002, but noted that the NHIS added questions in 2004 and these results may not apply to more recent data. The report found higher false-negative reporting for enrollees who were older, had higher incomes and also had private insurance. Falsenegative reporting was lower for very low-income enrollees, those on other benefits programs, and those who had recently used Medicaid services. The report found that the dynamics of false-negative reporting was similar in NHIS and CPS. In November of 2008, SHADAC released a new imputation adjustment for public use CPS ASEC microdata through their website to help researchers interested in partially

3

adjusting the CPS ASEC data. This is an experimental imputation, and was produced for interested parties to use in their research. The Census Bureau has not evaluated the methodology, and users should be aware that this is not an official data product. There are several ongoing projects aimed at improving the quality of health coverage data from the CPS ASEC. This research includes: 1) cognitive research and field testing to improve the wording of the CPS ASEC health coverage questions; 2) editing and imputation research, including additional research on the use of models that attempt to account for Medicaid underreporting; and 3) expanding the number of studies that match administrative Medicaid data to current survey data to include other surveys, such as the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the American Community Survey (ACS). This research will make it possible

to compare and contrast CPS ASEC underreporting rates with other surveys. This, in turn, will allow Census Bureau analysts to better understand the nature and impact of CPS ASEC health coverage underreporting. After consulting with health insurance experts, the Census Bureau modified the definition of the population without health insurance in the supplement to the March 1998 CPS, which collected data about coverage in 1997. Previously, people with no coverage other than access to the Indian Health Service were counted as part of the insured population. Subsequently, the Census Bureau has counted these people as uninsured. In 2009, a modification to uninsured foster children was made. Health insurance experts informed the Census Bureau that all foster children were eligible for Medicaid. The effect of these changes on the overall estimates of health insurance coverage was negligible.

3 See <www.shadac.org/publications /medicaid-under-reporting-in-cps-and-one -approach-partial-correction> for more information.

70 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau


Table C-1

Health Insurance Coverage: 1987 to 2009 (Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf) Covered by private and/or government health insurance Private health insurance

Year

Government health insurance

Total people

Total

Total

Employment based

Number 2009��������������������������������������������������������� 2008��������������������������������������������������������� 2007��������������������������������������������������������� 2006��������������������������������������������������������� 2 2005 �������������������������������������������������������� 2 2004 �������������������������������������������������������� 2003��������������������������������������������������������� 2002��������������������������������������������������������� 2001��������������������������������������������������������� 3 2000 ������������������������������������������������������ 4 1999 �������������������������������������������������������� 1999��������������������������������������������������������� 1998��������������������������������������������������������� 5 1997 ������������������������������������������������������ 6 1996 ������������������������������������������������������ 1995 �������������������������������������������������������� 7 1994 ������������������������������������������������������ 8 1993 ������������������������������������������������������ 9 1992 �������������������������������������������������������� 1991��������������������������������������������������������� 1990��������������������������������������������������������� 1989��������������������������������������������������������� 1988��������������������������������������������������������� 10 1987 ������������������������������������������������������

304,280 301,483 299,106 296,824 293,834 291,166 288,280 285,933 282,082 279,517 276,804 274,087 271,743 269,094 266,792 264,314 262,105 259,753 256,830 251,447 248,886 246,191 243,685 241,187

253,606 255,143 253,449 249,829 249,020 247,669 244,876 243,914 242,322 241,091 238,037 233,073 228,800 226,735 225,699 223,733 222,387 220,040 218,189 216,003 214,167 212,807 211,005 210,161

194,545 200,992 201,991 201,690 201,167 200,924 199,871 200,891 201,695 202,794 200,721 196,536 192,507 189,955 188,224 185,881 184,318 182,351 181,466 181,375 182,135 183,610 182,019 182,160

169,689 176,332 177,446 177,152 176,924 176,247 175,844 177,095 178,261 179,436 176,838 171,692 170,105 166,419 164,096 161,453 159,634 148,318 148,796 150,077 150,215 151,644 150,940 149,739

27,219 26,777 26,673 27,066 27,055 27,551 26,783 26,846 26,309 26,799 27,731 27,298 26,165 27,431 28,419 30,188 31,349 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

93,167 87,411 83,031 80,270 80,213 79,486 76,755 73,624 71,295 69,037 67,683 66,176 66,087 66,685 69,000 69,776 70,163 68,554 66,244 63,882 60,965 57,382 56,850 56,282

Percent 2009��������������������������������������������������������� 2008��������������������������������������������������������� 2007��������������������������������������������������������� 2006��������������������������������������������������������� 2 2005 �������������������������������������������������������� 2 2004 ������������������������������������������������������ 2003��������������������������������������������������������� 2002��������������������������������������������������������� 2001��������������������������������������������������������� 3 2000 ������������������������������������������������������ 4 1999 �������������������������������������������������������� 1999��������������������������������������������������������� 1998��������������������������������������������������������� 5 1997 �������������������������������������������������������� 6 1996 �������������������������������������������������������� 1995��������������������������������������������������������� 7 1994 �������������������������������������������������������� 8 1993 �������������������������������������������������������� 9 1992 �������������������������������������������������������� 1991��������������������������������������������������������� 1990��������������������������������������������������������� 1989��������������������������������������������������������� 1988��������������������������������������������������������� 10 1987 ������������������������������������������������������

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

83.3 84.6 84.7 84.2 84.7 85.1 84.9 85.3 85.9 86.3 86.0 85.0 84.2 84.3 84.6 84.6 84.8 84.7 85.0 85.9 86.1 86.4 86.6 87.1

63.9 66.7 67.5 67.9 68.5 69.0 69.3 70.3 71.5 72.6 72.5 71.7 70.8 70.6 70.6 70.3 70.3 70.2 70.7 72.1 73.2 74.6 74.7 75.5

55.8 58.5 59.3 59.7 60.2 60.5 61.0 61.9 63.2 64.2 63.9 62.6 62.6 61.8 61.5 61.1 60.9 57.1 57.9 59.7 60.4 61.6 61.9 62.1

8.9 8.9 8.9 9.1 9.2 9.5 9.3 9.4 9.3 9.6 10.0 9.9 9.6 10.2 10.7 11.4 12.0 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)

30.6 29.0 27.8 27.0 27.3 27.3 26.6 25.7 25.3 24.7 24.5 24.1 24.3 24.8 25.9 26.4 26.8 26.4 25.8 25.4 24.5 23.3 23.3 23.3

Medicare

Military health 1 care

Not covered

47,758 42,641 39,554 38,281 38,104 37,955 35,647 33,246 31,601 29,533 28,506 27,890 27,854 28,956 31,451 31,877 31,645 31,749 29,416 26,880 24,261 21,185 20,728 20,211

43,440 43,029 41,375 40,343 40,177 39,703 39,456 38,448 38,043 37,740 36,923 36,066 35,887 35,590 35,227 34,655 33,901 33,097 33,230 32,907 32,260 31,495 30,925 30,458

12,412 11,560 10,955 10,547 11,166 10,789 9,979 10,063 9,552 9,099 8,648 8,530 8,747 8,527 8,712 9,375 11,165 9,560 9,510 9,820 9,922 9,870 10,105 10,542

50,674 46,340 45,657 46,995 44,815 43,498 43,404 42,019 39,760 38,426 38,767 41,014 42,943 42,359 41,093 40,582 39,718 39,713 38,641 35,445 34,719 33,385 32,680 31,026

15.7 14.1 13.2 12.9 13.0 13.0 12.4 11.6 11.2 10.6 10.3 10.2 10.3 10.8 11.8 12.1 12.1 12.2 11.5 10.7 9.7 8.6 8.5 8.4

14.3 14.3 13.8 13.6 13.7 13.6 13.7 13.4 13.5 13.5 13.3 13.2 13.2 13.2 13.2 13.1 12.9 12.7 12.9 13.1 13.0 12.8 12.7 12.6

4.1 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.8 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.5 4.3 3.7 3.7 3.9 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.4

16.7 15.4 15.3 15.8 15.3 14.9 15.1 14.7 14.1 13.7 14.0 15.0 15.8 15.7 15.4 15.4 15.2 15.3 15.0 14.1 13.9 13.6 13.4 12.9

Direct purchase

Total

Medicaid

(NA) Not available. Respondents were not asked detailed health insurance questions about direct-purchase coverage before the 1995 Current Population Survey (CPS) Annual Economic and Economic (ASEC) Supplement. 1

Military health care includes Tricare and CHAMPVA (Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Department of Veterans Affairs), as well as care provided by the Health and Medical Program of the Department of Veterans Affairs and care provided by the Department of Veterans Affairs and the military. 2 The 2004 and 2005 data were revised in March 2007. See <www.census.gov/hhes/www/hlthins/data/usernote/index.html>. 3 Implementation of a 28,000 household sample expansion. 4 Estimates reflect the results of follow-up verification questions and implementation of Census 2000-based population controls. 5 Beginning with the 1998 CPS ASEC, people with no coverage other than access to Indian Health Service are no longer considered covered by health insurance; instead, they are considered to be uninsured. The effect of this change on the overall estimates of health insurance coverage is negligible; however, the decrease in the number of people covered by Medicaid may be partially due to this change. 6 The data for 1996 through 2003 were revised using an approximation method for consistency with the revision to the 2004 and 2005 estimates. To see the original series, see Table C-1 in Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2005 at <www.census.gov/prod/2006pubs/p60-231.pdf>. 7 Health insurance questions were redesigned. Increases in estimates of employment-based and military health care coverage may be partially due to questionnaire changes. Overall coverage estimates were not affected. 8 Data collection method changed from paper and pencil to computer-assisted interviewing. 9 Implementation of 1990 census population controls. 10 Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1988 to 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 71


Table C-2.

Health Insurance Coverage by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1999 to 2009 (Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf) Covered by private and/or government health insurance Private health insurance

Race, Hispanic origin, and year

Employment Direct based purchase

Government health insurance Military health 1 care

Not covered

43,440 43,029 41,375 40,343 40,177 39,703 39,456 38,448 38,043 37,740 36,923

12,412 11,560 10,955 10,547 11,166 10,789 9,979 10,063 9,552 9,099 8,648

50,674 46,340 45,657 46,995 44,815 43,498 43,404 42,019 39,760 38,426 38,767

15.7 14.1 13.2 12.9 13.0 13.0 12.4 11.6 11.2 10.6 10.3

14.3 14.3 13.8 13.6 13.7 13.6 13.7 13.4 13.5 13.5 13.3

4.1 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.8 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.1

16.7 15.4 15.3 15.8 15.3 14.9 15.1 14.7 14.1 13.7 14.0

71,502 67,449 64,390 62,613 62,138 61,572 59,495 57,072

32,814 29,224 27,172 26,507 25,968 25,888 23,959 22,171

36,807 36,469 35,117 34,416 34,326 34,061 33,765 33,135

9,984 9,290 8,852 8,621 9,020 8,623 8,105 8,065

38,399 34,890 34,300 35,486 33,946 33,022 32,717 31,417

9.8 9.8 9.8 9.9 9.9 10.2 10.1 10.3

29.5 28.0 26.9 26.3 26.3 26.3 25.6 24.7

13.5 12.1 11.4 11.1 11.0 11.1 10.3 9.6

15.2 15.1 14.7 14.5 14.6 14.5 14.5 14.4

4.1 3.9 3.7 3.6 3.8 3.7 3.5 3.5

15.8 14.5 14.3 14.9 14.4 14.1 14.1 13.6

149,788 150,708 149,024

23,333 23,722 24,458

56,200 54,287 53,175

21,535 19,889 18,977

33,006 32,695 32,144

7,788 7,158 6,902

29,998 28,928 28,657

65.1 66.0 66.0

10.1 10.4 10.8

24.4 23.8 23.6

9.4 8.7 8.4

14.3 14.3 14.2

3.4 3.1 3.1

13.0 12.7 12.7

Total people

Total

Total

ALL RACES Number 2009��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2008��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2007��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2006��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2005 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2004 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2003��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2002��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2001��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3 2000 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1999���������������������������������������������������������������������������

304,280 301,483 299,106 296,824 293,834 291,166 288,280 285,933 282,082 279,517 276,804

253,606 255,143 253,449 249,829 249,020 247,669 244,876 243,914 242,322 241,091 238,037

194,545 200,992 201,991 201,690 201,167 200,924 199,871 200,891 201,695 202,794 200,721

169,689 176,332 177,446 177,152 176,924 176,247 175,844 177,095 178,261 179,436 176,838

27,219 26,777 26,673 27,066 27,055 27,551 26,783 26,846 26,309 26,799 27,731

93,167 87,411 83,031 80,270 80,213 79,486 76,755 73,624 71,295 69,037 67,683

47,758 42,641 39,554 38,281 38,104 37,955 35,647 33,246 31,601 29,533 28,506

Percent 2009��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2008��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2007��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2006��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2005 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2004 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2003��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2002��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2001��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3 2000 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1999���������������������������������������������������������������������������

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

83.3 84.6 84.7 84.2 84.7 85.1 84.9 85.3 85.9 86.3 86.0

63.9 66.7 67.5 67.9 68.5 69.0 69.3 70.3 71.5 72.6 72.5

55.8 58.5 59.3 59.7 60.2 60.5 61.0 61.9 63.2 64.2 63.9

8.9 8.9 8.9 9.1 9.2 9.5 9.3 9.4 9.3 9.6 10.0

30.6 29.0 27.8 27.0 27.3 27.3 26.6 25.7 25.3 24.7 24.5

WHITE ALONE Number 2009��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2008��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2007��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2006��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2005 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2004 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2003��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2002���������������������������������������������������������������������������

242,403 240,852 239,399 237,892 235,903 234,116 232,254 230,809

204,004 205,962 205,099 202,405 201,957 201,095 199,537 199,392

161,513 166,916 167,905 167,640 167,430 167,475 167,503 168,745

139,809 145,183 146,398 146,285 146,365 145,890 146,300 147,706

23,742 23,537 23,433 23,530 23,452 23,997 23,483 23,686

Percent 2009��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2008��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2007��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2006��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2005 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2004 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2003��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2002���������������������������������������������������������������������������

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

84.2 85.5 85.7 85.1 85.6 85.9 85.9 86.4

66.6 69.3 70.1 70.5 71.0 71.5 72.1 73.1

57.7 60.3 61.2 61.5 62.0 62.3 63.0 64.0

WHITE Number 2001��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3 2000 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1999���������������������������������������������������������������������������

230,071 228,208 225,794

200,073 199,280 197,137

170,710 171,543 170,289

Percent 2001��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3 2000 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1999���������������������������������������������������������������������������

100.0 100.0 100.0

87.0 87.3 87.3

74.2 75.2 75.4

Total Medicaid Medicare

4

5

  See footnotes at end of table.

72 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau


Table C-2.

Health Insurance Coverage by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1999 to 2009—Con. (Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf) Covered by private and/or government health insurance Private health insurance

Race, Hispanic origin, and year

Government health insurance

Employment Direct based purchase

Military health 1 care

Not covered

33,729 33,444 32,436 31,860 31,717 31,624 31,458 30,718

9,119 8,498 8,131 7,869 8,276 8,005 7,563 7,465

23,658 21,322 20,548 21,162 20,909 20,554 20,468 19,674

10.7 9.5 9.0 9.0 8.9 8.9 8.3 7.7

17.1 17.0 16.5 16.2 16.2 16.2 16.1 15.8

4.6 4.3 4.1 4.0 4.2 4.1 3.9 3.8

12.0 10.8 10.4 10.8 10.7 10.5 10.5 10.1

47,661 46,297 45,540

15,035 13,788 13,157

30,811 30,642 30,256

7,144 6,564 6,326

18,333 17,652 17,813

11.3 11.6 12.0

24.5 23.9 23.6

7.7 7.1 6.8

15.8 15.8 15.7

3.7 3.4 3.3

9.4 9.1 9.2

18,259 19,422 19,498 19,257 19,146 19,144 18,885 19,038

1,825 1,743 1,771 1,835 2,009 1,909 1,773 1,638

16,166 15,063 13,985 13,121 13,864 13,623 13,195 12,624

11,384 10,385 9,606 9,086 9,730 9,562 9,292 8,744

4,731 4,671 4,398 4,127 4,184 3,996 4,080 3,851

1,704 1,663 1,445 1,289 1,438 1,492 1,283 1,342

8,414 7,602 7,624 7,921 7,239 7,103 7,108 7,257

44.6 48.3 49.1 49.3 49.4 50.1 50.2 51.0

4.5 4.3 4.5 4.7 5.2 5.0 4.7 4.4

39.5 37.5 35.2 33.6 35.8 35.7 35.0 33.8

27.8 25.8 24.2 23.2 25.1 25.0 24.7 23.4

11.6 11.6 11.1 10.6 10.8 10.5 10.8 10.3

4.2 4.1 3.6 3.3 3.7 3.9 3.4 3.6

20.5 18.9 19.2 20.3 18.7 18.6 18.9 19.4

Total people

Total

Total

WHITE ALONE, NOT HISPANIC Number 2009��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2008��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2007��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2006��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2005 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2004 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2003��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2002���������������������������������������������������������������������������

197,436 197,159 196,768 196,252 195,893 195,347 194,877 194,421

173,778 175,837 176,220 175,091 174,984 174,793 174,409 174,747

143,651 147,855 149,122 149,592 149,613 149,882 150,563 151,812

123,440 127,687 129,138 129,618 130,075 129,766 130,614 132,101

22,262 21,844 21,717 22,068 21,724 22,346 22,090 22,291

56,944 54,271 52,512 51,445 51,189 51,002 49,743 47,736

21,063 18,724 17,786 17,731 17,396 17,462 16,247 14,984

Percent 2009��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2008��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2007��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2006��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2005 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2004 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2003��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2002���������������������������������������������������������������������������

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

88.0 89.2 89.6 89.2 89.3 89.5 89.5 89.9

72.8 75.0 75.8 76.2 76.4 76.7 77.3 78.1

62.5 64.8 65.6 66.0 66.4 66.4 67.0 67.9

11.3 11.1 11.0 11.2 11.1 11.4 11.3 11.5

28.8 27.5 26.7 26.2 26.1 26.1 25.5 24.6

WHITE, NOT HISPANIC Number 2001��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3 2000 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1999���������������������������������������������������������������������������

194,822 193,931 192,858

176,488 176,279 175,045

154,218 155,152 154,407

134,586 135,472 134,436

22,009 22,476 23,110

Percent 2001��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3 2000 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1999���������������������������������������������������������������������������

100.0 100.0 100.0

90.6 90.9 90.8

79.2 80.0 80.1

69.1 69.9 69.7

BLACK ALONE OR IN COMBINATION Number 2009��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2008��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2007��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2006��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2005 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2004 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2003��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2002���������������������������������������������������������������������������

40,957 40,216 39,683 39,083 38,729 38,179 37,651 37,350

32,543 32,614 32,059 31,162 31,491 31,077 30,543 30,093

19,901 21,042 21,226 20,966 20,935 20,800 20,376 20,440

Percent 2009��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2008��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2007��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2006��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2005 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2004 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2003��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2002���������������������������������������������������������������������������

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

79.5 81.1 80.8 79.7 81.3 81.4 81.1 80.6

48.6 52.3 53.5 53.6 54.1 54.5 54.1 54.7

Total Medicaid Medicare

  See footnotes at end of table.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 73


Table C-2.

Health Insurance Coverage by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1999 to 2009—Con. (Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf) Covered by private and/or government health insurance Private health insurance

Race, Hispanic origin, and year

Government health insurance

Employment Direct based purchase

Military health 1 care

Not covered

4,598 4,539 4,303 4,059 4,108 3,921 3,989 3,776

1,564 1,544 1,358 1,216 1,357 1,415 1,225 1,268

8,102 7,284 7,372 7,652 7,006 6,864 6,887 7,062

27.1 25.4 23.8 22.8 24.8 24.8 24.4 23.1

11.9 11.9 11.4 10.9 11.1 10.7 11.0 10.5

4.1 4.1 3.6 3.3 3.7 3.9 3.4 3.5

21.0 19.1 19.5 20.5 19.0 18.8 19.1 19.7

11,616 11,579 11,361

7,994 7,735 7,652

3,783 3,871 3,615

1,192 1,372 1,216

6,664 6,532 6,975

4.8 5.4 5.9

32.2 32.5 31.7

22.2 21.7 21.3

10.5 10.9 10.1

3.3 3.9 3.4

18.5 18.3 19.4

9,050 8,946 8,951 9,033 8,788 8,428 7,891 7,652

1,390 1,216 1,216 1,387 1,272 1,342 1,181 1,208

3,530 2,969 2,888 2,859 2,558 2,599 2,478 2,341

2,167 1,704 1,659 1,616 1,341 1,389 1,385 1,322

1,353 1,290 1,238 1,227 1,133 1,110 1,096 1,008

477 374 379 404 461 440 355 347

2,503 2,484 2,321 2,160 2,286 2,031 2,329 2,172

59.2 61.5 62.0 63.0 63.9 63.3 61.1 61.2

9.1 8.4 8.4 9.7 9.2 10.1 9.2 9.7

23.1 20.4 20.0 19.9 18.6 19.5 19.2 18.7

14.2 11.7 11.5 11.3 9.7 10.4 10.7 10.6

8.9 8.9 8.6 8.6 8.2 8.3 8.5 8.1

3.1 2.6 2.6 2.8 3.3 3.3 2.7 2.8

16.4 17.1 16.1 15.1 16.6 15.3 18.0 17.4

Total people

Total

Total

BLACK ALONE Number 2009��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2008��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2007��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2006��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2005 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2004 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2003��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2002���������������������������������������������������������������������������

38,624 38,076 37,775 37,369 36,965 36,548 36,121 35,806

30,522 30,792 30,403 29,717 29,959 29,684 29,234 28,744

18,813 19,894 20,169 20,034 19,950 19,899 19,552 19,544

17,275 18,371 18,525 18,401 18,263 18,352 18,135 18,193

1,744 1,638 1,691 1,766 1,918 1,803 1,701 1,589

15,020 14,177 13,234 12,454 13,168 12,995 12,585 12,058

10,459 9,686 8,986 8,531 9,154 9,048 8,797 8,289

Percent 2009��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2008��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2007��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2006��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2005 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2004 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2003��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2002���������������������������������������������������������������������������

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

79.0 80.9 80.5 79.5 81.0 81.2 80.9 80.3

48.7 52.2 53.4 53.6 54.0 54.4 54.1 54.6

44.7 48.2 49.0 49.2 49.4 50.2 50.2 50.8

4.5 4.3 4.5 4.7 5.2 4.9 4.7 4.4

38.9 37.2 35.0 33.3 35.6 35.6 34.8 33.7

BLACK Number 2001��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3 2000 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1999���������������������������������������������������������������������������

36,023 35,597 35,893

29,359 29,065 28,918

20,569 20,652 20,638

19,177 19,075 19,039

1,713 1,910 2,118

Percent 2001��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3 2000 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1999���������������������������������������������������������������������������

100.0 100.0 100.0

81.5 81.7 80.6

57.1 58.0 57.5

53.2 53.6 53.0

ASIAN ALONE OR IN COMBINATION Number 2009��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2008��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2007��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2006��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2005 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2004 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2003��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2002���������������������������������������������������������������������������

15,281 14,548 14,444 14,348 13,758 13,307 12,905 12,504

12,778 12,065 12,122 12,188 11,472 11,276 10,577 10,332

10,302 9,998 9,995 10,222 9,886 9,611 8,908 8,728

Percent 2009��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2008��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2007��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2006��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2005 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2004 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2003��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2002���������������������������������������������������������������������������

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

83.6 82.9 83.9 84.9 83.4 84.7 82.0 82.6

67.4 68.7 69.2 71.2 71.9 72.2 69.0 69.8

Total Medicaid Medicare

6

5

  See footnotes at end of table.

74 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau


Table C-2.

Health Insurance Coverage by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1999 to 2009—Con. (Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf) Covered by private and/or government health insurance Private health insurance

Race, Hispanic origin, and year

Government health insurance

Employment Direct based purchase

Military health 1 care

Not covered

1,304 1,258 1,195 1,187 1,103 1,081 1,067 988

370 292 296 335 353 366 295 270

2,409 2,344 2,234 2,045 2,161 1,900 2,171 2,060

13.9 11.6 11.5 11.2 9.6 10.5 10.4 10.4

9.3 9.5 9.0 9.0 8.8 8.8 9.0 8.5

2.6 2.2 2.2 2.5 2.8 3.0 2.5 2.3

17.2 17.6 16.8 15.5 17.2 15.5 18.3 17.8

2,312 2,249 2,204

1,257 1,288 1,179

949 886 897

414 443 450

2,208 2,220 2,196

8.8 7.9 8.2

18.5 17.7 18.4

10.1 10.1 9.9

7.6 7.0 7.5

3.3 3.5 3.8

17.7 17.5 18.4

17,830 19,094 18,551 17,934 17,597 17,499 16,970 16,921 16,096 16,031 15,419

1,618 1,797 1,804 1,587 1,856 1,788 1,559 1,481 1,401 1,354 1,414

16,006 14,448 13,031 12,207 11,958 11,530 10,716 10,280 9,227 8,566 8,168

12,959 11,559 10,348 9,646 9,357 9,205 8,505 7,946 7,074 6,552 6,253

3,274 3,218 2,887 2,757 2,771 2,614 2,462 2,535 2,295 2,141 1,979

989 898 801 813 869 697 639 724 704 682 626

15,820 14,558 14,770 15,296 13,954 13,313 13,070 12,569 12,292 11,753 11,328

36.5 40.2 40.3 40.0 40.8 41.8 42.0 43.0 43.0 44.4 44.3

3.3 3.8 3.9 3.5 4.3 4.3 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.8 4.1

32.7 30.4 28.3 27.2 27.7 27.6 26.5 26.1 24.6 23.7 23.5

26.5 24.3 22.5 21.5 21.7 22.0 21.0 20.2 18.9 18.2 18.0

6.7 6.8 6.3 6.1 6.4 6.2 6.1 6.4 6.1 5.9 5.7

2.0 1.9 1.7 1.8 2.0 1.7 1.6 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.8

32.4 30.7 32.1 34.1 32.3 31.8 32.3 31.9 32.8 32.6 32.6

Total people

Total

Total

14,011 13,315 13,268 13,194 12,599 12,241 11,869 11,558

11,602 10,971 11,034 11,149 10,438 10,341 9,698 9,499

9,352 9,081 9,067 9,339 9,006 8,805 8,210 8,024

8,180 8,094 8,107 8,201 7,968 7,711 7,263 7,004

1,315 1,138 1,127 1,323 1,206 1,250 1,111 1,151

3,187 2,708 2,649 2,636 2,301 2,398 2,244 2,132

1,951 1,540 1,528 1,480 1,211 1,280 1,229 1,202

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

82.8 82.4 83.2 84.5 82.8 84.5 81.7 82.2

66.7 68.2 68.3 70.8 71.5 71.9 69.2 69.4

58.4 60.8 61.1 62.2 63.2 63.0 61.2 60.6

9.4 8.5 8.5 10.0 9.6 10.2 9.4 10.0

22.7 20.3 20.0 20.0 18.3 19.6 18.9 18.4

12,500 12,693 11,964

10,291 10,473 9,769

8,716 8,993 8,299

7,748 8,178 7,426

1,099 1,005 982

100.0 100.0 100.0

82.3 82.5 81.6

69.7 70.9 69.4

62.0 64.4 62.1

48,901 47,485 46,026 44,854 43,168 41,840 40,425 39,384 37,438 36,093 34,773

33,081 32,928 31,256 29,558 29,214 28,527 27,355 26,815 25,146 24,340 23,445

19,453 20,779 20,194 19,434 19,252 19,090 18,372 18,324 17,460 17,264 16,786

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

67.6 69.3 67.9 65.9 67.7 68.2 67.7 68.1 67.2 67.4 67.4

39.8 43.8 43.9 43.3 44.6 45.6 45.4 46.5 46.6 47.8 48.3

Total Medicaid Medicare

7

ASIAN ALONE Number 2009��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2008��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2007��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2006��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2005 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2004 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2003��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2002��������������������������������������������������������������������������� Percent 2009��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2008��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2007��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2006��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2005 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2004 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2003��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2002��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 5

ASIAN AND PACIFIC ISLANDER Number 2001��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3 2000 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1999��������������������������������������������������������������������������� Percent 2001��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3 2000 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1999��������������������������������������������������������������������������� HISPANIC (ANY RACE) Number 2009��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2008��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2007��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2006��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2005 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2004 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2003��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2002��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2001��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3 2000 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1999��������������������������������������������������������������������������� Percent 2009��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2008��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2007��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2006��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2005 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2004 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2003��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2002��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2001��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3 2000 �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1999��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1

Military health care includes Tricare and CHAMPVA (Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Department of Veterans Affairs), as well as care provided by the Health and Medical Program of the Department of Veterans Affairs and care provided by the Department of Veterans Affairs and the military. 2 The 2004 and 2005 data were revised in March 2007. See <www.census.gov/hhes/www/hlthinsdata/usernote/index.html>. 3 Implementation of a 28,000 household sample expansion. 4 The 2003 CPS asked respondents to choose one or more races. White alone refers to people who reported White and did not report any other race category. The use of this singlerace population does not imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing data. The Census Bureau uses a variety of approaches. Information on people who reported more than one race, such as White and American Indian and Alaska Native or Asian and Black or African American, is available from Census 2000 through American FactFinder. About 2.6 percent of people reported more than one race in Census 2000. 5 The 2001 CPS and earlier years asked respondents to report only one race. The reference groups for these years are White, White not Hispanic, Black, and Asian and Pacific Islander. 6 Black alone refers to people who reported Black or African American and did not report any other race. 7 Asian alone refers to people who reported Asian and did not report any other race. Note: All years reflect the implementation of the verification question. The data for 1999 through 2003 were revised using an approximation method for consistency with the revision to the 2004 and 2005 estimates. To see the original series, see Table C-1 in Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2005 at <www.census.gov/prod/2006pubs /p60-231.pdf>. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2000 to 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 75


Table C-3.

Health Insurance Coverage by Age: 1999 to 2009 (Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf) Covered by private and/or government health insurance Private health insurance

Age

Government health insurance

Total people

Total

Total

Employment based

ALL AGES Number 2009����������������������������������������������������������������� 2008����������������������������������������������������������������� 2007����������������������������������������������������������������� 2006����������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2005 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2004 �������������������������������������������������������������� 2003����������������������������������������������������������������� 2002����������������������������������������������������������������� 2001����������������������������������������������������������������� 3 2000 �������������������������������������������������������������� 4 1999 ��������������������������������������������������������������

304,280 301,483 299,106 296,824 293,834 291,166 288,280 285,933 282,082 279,517 276,804

253,606 255,143 253,449 249,829 249,020 247,669 244,876 243,914 242,322 241,091 238,037

194,545 200,992 201,991 201,690 201,167 200,924 199,871 200,891 201,695 202,794 200,721

169,689 176,332 177,446 177,152 176,924 176,247 175,844 177,095 178,261 179,436 176,838

27,219 26,777 26,673 27,066 27,055 27,551 26,783 26,846 26,309 26,799 27,731

93,167 87,411 83,031 80,270 80,213 79,486 76,755 73,624 71,295 69,037 67,683

Percent 2009����������������������������������������������������������������� 2008����������������������������������������������������������������� 2007����������������������������������������������������������������� 2006����������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2005 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2004 �������������������������������������������������������������� 2003����������������������������������������������������������������� 2002����������������������������������������������������������������� 2001����������������������������������������������������������������� 3 2000 �������������������������������������������������������������� 4 1999 ��������������������������������������������������������������

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

83.3 84.6 84.7 84.2 84.7 85.1 84.9 85.3 85.9 86.3 86.0

63.9 66.7 67.5 67.9 68.5 69.0 69.3 70.3 71.5 72.6 72.5

55.8 58.5 59.3 59.7 60.2 60.5 61.0 61.9 63.2 64.2 63.9

8.9 8.9 8.9 9.1 9.2 9.5 9.3 9.4 9.3 9.6 10.0

UNDER 18 YEARS Number 2009����������������������������������������������������������������� 2008����������������������������������������������������������������� 2007����������������������������������������������������������������� 2006����������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2005 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2004 �������������������������������������������������������������� 2003����������������������������������������������������������������� 2002����������������������������������������������������������������� 2001����������������������������������������������������������������� 3 2000 �������������������������������������������������������������� 4 1999 ��������������������������������������������������������������

75,040 74,510 74,403 74,101 73,985 73,791 73,580 73,312 72,628 72,314 72,281

67,527 67,161 66,254 65,440 65,935 66,070 65,466 65,082 64,401 63,929 63,248

45,288 47,282 47,750 47,906 48,686 49,017 48,784 49,807 49,978 50,755 50,588

41,892 43,874 44,252 44,257 45,039 45,274 45,297 46,510 46,762 47,679 47,102

Percent 2009����������������������������������������������������������������� 2008����������������������������������������������������������������� 2007����������������������������������������������������������������� 2006����������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2005 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2004 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 2003����������������������������������������������������������������� 2002����������������������������������������������������������������� 2001����������������������������������������������������������������� 3 2000 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 4 1999 ����������������������������������������������������������������

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

90.0 90.1 89.0 88.3 89.1 89.5 89.0 88.8 88.7 88.4 87.5

60.4 63.5 64.2 64.6 65.8 66.4 66.3 67.9 68.8 70.2 70.0

55.8 58.9 59.5 59.7 60.9 61.4 61.6 63.4 64.4 65.9 65.2

Medicare

Military health 1 care

Not covered

47,758 42,641 39,554 38,281 38,104 37,955 35,647 33,246 31,601 29,533 28,506

43,440 43,029 41,375 40,343 40,177 39,703 39,456 38,448 38,043 37,740 36,923

12,412 11,560 10,955 10,547 11,166 10,789 9,979 10,063 9,552 9,099 8,648

50,674 46,340 45,657 46,995 44,815 43,498 43,404 42,019 39,760 38,426 38,767

30.6 29.0 27.8 27.0 27.3 27.3 26.6 25.7 25.3 24.7 24.5

15.7 14.1 13.2 12.9 13.0 13.0 12.4 11.6 11.2 10.6 10.3

14.3 14.3 13.8 13.6 13.7 13.6 13.7 13.4 13.5 13.5 13.3

4.1 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.8 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.1

16.7 15.4 15.3 15.8 15.3 14.9 15.1 14.7 14.1 13.7 14.0

3,819 3,812 3,930 3,890 4,035 4,271 3,918 3,876 3,647 3,604 4,087

27,605 24,767 23,041 22,109 21,934 22,023 21,389 19,662 18,822 17,658 16,793

25,331 22,555 20,899 20,067 19,723 19,917 19,392 17,526 16,502 15,090 14,697

543 623 518 411 538 503 483 524 423 518 364

2,365 2,241 2,101 2,058 2,264 2,090 2,021 2,148 2,381 2,563 2,076

7,513 7,348 8,149 8,661 8,050 7,721 8,114 8,229 8,227 8,385 9,033

5.1 5.1 5.3 5.3 5.5 5.8 5.3 5.3 5.0 5.0 5.7

36.8 33.2 31.0 29.8 29.6 29.8 29.1 26.8 25.9 24.4 23.2

33.8 30.3 28.1 27.1 26.7 27.0 26.4 23.9 22.7 20.9 20.3

0.7 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.5

3.2 3.0 2.8 2.8 3.1 2.8 2.7 2.9 3.3 3.5 2.9

10.0 9.9 11.0 11.7 10.9 10.5 11.0 11.2 11.3 11.6 12.5

Direct purchase

Total

Medicaid

  See footnotes at end of table.

76 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau


Table C-3.

Health Insurance Coverage by Age: 1999 to 2009—Con. (Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf) Covered by private and/or government health insurance Private health insurance

Age

Government health insurance

Total people

Total

Total

Employment based

18 TO 24 YEARS Number 2009����������������������������������������������������������������� 2008����������������������������������������������������������������� 2007����������������������������������������������������������������� 2006����������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2005 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2004 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 2003����������������������������������������������������������������� 2002����������������������������������������������������������������� 2001����������������������������������������������������������������� 3 2000 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 4 1999 ����������������������������������������������������������������

29,313 28,688 28,398 28,405 27,965 28,008 27,824 27,438 27,312 26,815 26,326

20,389 20,488 20,407 20,081 19,765 19,762 19,703 19,575 19,910 19,612 19,245

16,308 16,947 17,074 17,030 16,733 16,765 16,834 16,834 17,292 17,295 16,817

12,802 13,450 13,747 13,768 13,526 13,354 13,720 13,691 14,039 14,351 13,836

1,705 1,700 1,635 1,736 1,580 1,604 1,637 1,582 1,653 1,554 1,591

5,366 4,741 4,428 4,006 4,199 4,106 3,929 3,738 3,642 3,361 3,485

Percent 2009����������������������������������������������������������������� 2008����������������������������������������������������������������� 2007����������������������������������������������������������������� 2006����������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2005 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2004 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 2003����������������������������������������������������������������� 2002����������������������������������������������������������������� 2001����������������������������������������������������������������� 3 2000 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 4 1999 ����������������������������������������������������������������

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

69.6 71.4 71.9 70.7 70.7 70.6 70.8 71.3 72.9 73.1 73.1

55.6 59.1 60.1 60.0 59.8 59.9 60.5 61.4 63.3 64.5 63.9

43.7 46.9 48.4 48.5 48.4 47.7 49.3 49.9 51.4 53.5 52.6

5.8 5.9 5.8 6.1 5.6 5.7 5.9 5.8 6.1 5.8 6.0

25 TO 34 YEARS Number 2009����������������������������������������������������������������� 2008����������������������������������������������������������������� 2007����������������������������������������������������������������� 2006����������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2005 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2004 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 2003����������������������������������������������������������������� 2002����������������������������������������������������������������� 2001����������������������������������������������������������������� 3 2000 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 4 1999 ����������������������������������������������������������������

41,085 40,520 40,146 39,868 39,480 39,310 39,201 39,243 38,670 38,865 39,031

29,122 29,766 29,817 29,154 29,320 29,544 29,055 29,685 29,826 30,547 30,532

24,708 25,879 26,430 25,814 25,751 26,176 25,812 26,715 27,124 27,951 27,962

22,612 24,130 24,505 24,009 23,927 24,381 24,136 25,022 25,521 26,388 26,369

Percent 2009����������������������������������������������������������������� 2008����������������������������������������������������������������� 2007����������������������������������������������������������������� 2006����������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2005 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2004 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 2003����������������������������������������������������������������� 2002����������������������������������������������������������������� 2001����������������������������������������������������������������� 3 2000 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 4 1999 ����������������������������������������������������������������

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

70.9 73.5 74.3 73.1 74.3 75.2 74.1 75.6 77.1 78.6 78.2

60.1 63.9 65.8 64.7 65.2 66.6 65.8 68.1 70.1 71.9 71.6

55.0 59.6 61.0 60.2 60.6 62.0 61.6 63.8 66.0 67.9 67.6

Medicare

Military health 1 care

Not covered

4,437 3,798 3,563 3,252 3,289 3,291 3,016 2,909 2,831 2,508 2,684

199 254 180 154 186 208 176 183 180 207 152

900 868 823 721 872 807 902 779 742 805 787

8,923 8,200 7,991 8,323 8,201 8,247 8,121 7,863 7,402 7,203 7,081

18.3 16.5 15.6 14.1 15.0 14.7 14.1 13.6 13.3 12.5 13.2

15.1 13.2 12.5 11.4 11.8 11.8 10.8 10.6 10.4 9.4 10.2

0.7 0.9 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.6

3.1 3.0 2.9 2.5 3.1 2.9 3.2 2.8 2.7 3.0 3.0

30.4 28.6 28.1 29.3 29.3 29.4 29.2 28.7 27.1 26.9 26.9

2,428 2,189 2,347 2,160 2,259 2,329 2,085 2,105 2,087 2,056 2,148

5,662 5,086 4,539 4,460 4,751 4,678 4,210 3,944 3,653 3,551 3,578

4,236 3,748 3,237 3,374 3,449 3,482 3,073 2,801 2,587 2,480 2,458

547 546 501 472 541 479 538 455 489 403 332

1,209 1,104 1,047 890 1,058 1,015 898 922 817 922 974

11,963 10,754 10,329 10,713 10,161 9,766 10,146 9,558 8,844 8,318 8,499

5.9 5.4 5.8 5.4 5.7 5.9 5.3 5.4 5.4 5.3 5.5

13.8 12.6 11.3 11.2 12.0 11.9 10.7 10.1 9.4 9.1 9.2

10.3 9.3 8.1 8.5 8.7 8.9 7.8 7.1 6.7 6.4 6.3

1.3 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.3 1.0 0.8

2.9 2.7 2.6 2.2 2.7 2.6 2.3 2.3 2.1 2.4 2.5

29.1 26.5 25.7 26.9 25.7 24.8 25.9 24.4 22.9 21.4 21.8

Direct purchase

Total

Medicaid

  See footnotes at end of table.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 77


Table C-3.

Health Insurance Coverage by Age: 1999 to 2009—Con. (Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf) Covered by private and/or government health insurance Private health insurance

Age

Government health insurance

Total people

Total

Total

Employment based

35 TO 44 YEARS Number 2009����������������������������������������������������������������� 2008����������������������������������������������������������������� 2007����������������������������������������������������������������� 2006����������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2005 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2004 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 2003����������������������������������������������������������������� 2002����������������������������������������������������������������� 2001����������������������������������������������������������������� 3 2000 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 4 1999 ����������������������������������������������������������������

40,447 41,322 42,132 42,762 43,121 43,351 43,573 44,074 44,284 44,566 44,474

31,689 33,287 34,415 34,744 35,220 35,446 35,796 36,464 37,272 37,820 37,894

27,962 29,780 31,067 31,531 31,903 32,061 32,654 33,424 34,449 35,186 35,074

26,125 27,899 29,009 29,463 29,747 29,944 30,497 31,362 32,522 33,135 32,776

2,385 2,444 2,687 2,788 2,808 2,833 2,806 2,826 2,655 2,747 3,170

5,043 4,685 4,546 4,409 4,628 4,747 4,420 4,240 4,003 3,920 4,028

Percent 2009����������������������������������������������������������������� 2008����������������������������������������������������������������� 2007����������������������������������������������������������������� 2006����������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2005 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2004 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 2003����������������������������������������������������������������� 2002����������������������������������������������������������������� 2001����������������������������������������������������������������� 3 2000 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 4 1999 ����������������������������������������������������������������

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

78.3 80.6 81.7 81.2 81.7 81.8 82.2 82.7 84.2 84.9 85.2

69.1 72.1 73.7 73.7 74.0 74.0 74.9 75.8 77.8 79.0 78.9

64.6 67.5 68.9 68.9 69.0 69.1 70.0 71.2 73.4 74.4 73.7

5.9 5.9 6.4 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.4 6.4 6.0 6.2 7.1

45 TO 54 YEARS Number 2009����������������������������������������������������������������� 2008����������������������������������������������������������������� 2007����������������������������������������������������������������� 2006����������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2005 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2004 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 2003����������������������������������������������������������������� 2002����������������������������������������������������������������� 2001����������������������������������������������������������������� 3 2000 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 4 1999 ����������������������������������������������������������������

44,387 44,366 43,935 43,461 42,797 41,961 41,068 40,234 39,545 38,720 37,334

36,481 37,312 37,161 36,819 36,570 36,074 35,443 34,913 34,595 34,227 32,927

32,147 33,234 33,350 33,250 33,114 32,776 32,368 32,011 31,909 31,659 30,548

29,867 30,861 30,805 30,868 30,651 30,370 30,053 29,884 29,718 29,578 28,448

Percent 2009����������������������������������������������������������������� 2008����������������������������������������������������������������� 2007����������������������������������������������������������������� 2006����������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2005 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2004 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 2003����������������������������������������������������������������� 2002����������������������������������������������������������������� 2001����������������������������������������������������������������� 3 2000 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 4 1999 ����������������������������������������������������������������

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

82.2 84.1 84.6 84.7 85.5 86.0 86.3 86.8 87.5 88.4 88.2

72.4 74.9 75.9 76.5 77.4 78.1 78.8 79.6 80.7 81.8 81.8

67.3 69.6 70.1 71.0 71.6 72.4 73.2 74.3 75.2 76.4 76.2

Medicare

Military health 1 care

Not covered

3,562 3,155 3,027 2,977 3,087 3,192 2,860 2,728 2,532 2,390 2,390

934 970 924 806 885 901 940 881 860 780 825

1,029 1,097 1,016 1,015 1,099 1,153 1,111 1,121 1,066 1,206 1,257

8,759 8,035 7,717 8,018 7,901 7,904 7,777 7,610 7,012 6,746 6,580

12.5 11.3 10.8 10.3 10.7 11.0 10.1 9.6 9.0 8.8 9.1

8.8 7.6 7.2 7.0 7.2 7.4 6.6 6.2 5.7 5.4 5.4

2.3 2.3 2.2 1.9 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.9

2.5 2.7 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.7 2.8

21.7 19.4 18.3 18.8 18.3 18.2 17.8 17.3 15.8 15.1 14.8

3,134 3,182 3,292 3,297 3,396 3,324 3,255 3,124 3,135 3,103 3,226

5,956 5,797 5,363 5,182 4,956 4,898 4,569 4,345 3,990 3,964 3,682

3,552 3,313 3,103 2,885 2,837 2,656 2,359 2,227 2,071 1,996 1,769

1,796 1,967 1,795 1,739 1,591 1,550 1,569 1,382 1,331 1,384 1,162

1,443 1,371 1,285 1,337 1,355 1,426 1,369 1,351 1,170 1,169 1,244

7,906 7,054 6,774 6,642 6,227 5,886 5,625 5,321 4,950 4,492 4,407

7.1 7.2 7.5 7.6 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.6

13.4 13.1 12.2 11.9 11.6 11.7 11.1 10.8 10.1 10.2 9.9

8.0 7.5 7.1 6.6 6.6 6.3 5.7 5.5 5.2 5.2 4.7

4.0 4.4 4.1 4.0 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.4 3.4 3.6 3.1

3.3 3.1 2.9 3.1 3.2 3.4 3.3 3.4 3.0 3.0 3.3

17.8 15.9 15.4 15.3 14.5 14.0 13.7 13.2 12.5 11.6 11.8

Direct purchase

Total

Medicaid

  See footnotes at end of table.

78 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau


Table C-3.

Health Insurance Coverage by Age: 1999 to 2009—Con. (Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf) Covered by private and/or government health insurance Private health insurance

Age

Government health insurance

Total people

Total

Total

Employment based

55 TO 64 YEARS Number 2009����������������������������������������������������������������� 2008����������������������������������������������������������������� 2007����������������������������������������������������������������� 2006����������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2005 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2004 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 2003����������������������������������������������������������������� 2002����������������������������������������������������������������� 2001����������������������������������������������������������������� 3 2000 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 4 1999 ����������������������������������������������������������������

35,395 34,289 33,302 32,191 30,981 29,536 28,375 27,399 25,874 24,672 23,981

30,462 29,989 29,291 28,096 27,154 26,016 25,039 24,219 22,820 21,641 21,082

25,718 25,584 25,114 24,255 23,543 22,640 21,963 21,170 19,959 18,977 18,678

23,245 22,906 22,569 21,701 21,092 20,254 19,692 18,844 17,862 16,792 16,518

3,290 3,346 3,237 3,276 3,194 3,180 3,051 3,123 2,832 2,990 3,008

7,280 6,901 6,651 6,122 5,886 5,478 4,893 4,882 4,567 4,185 4,033

Percent 2009����������������������������������������������������������������� 2008����������������������������������������������������������������� 2007����������������������������������������������������������������� 2006����������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2005 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2004 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 2003����������������������������������������������������������������� 2002����������������������������������������������������������������� 2001����������������������������������������������������������������� 3 2000 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 4 1999 ����������������������������������������������������������������

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

86.1 87.5 88.0 87.3 87.6 88.1 88.2 88.4 88.2 87.7 87.9

72.7 74.6 75.4 75.3 76.0 76.7 77.4 77.3 77.1 76.9 77.9

65.7 66.8 67.8 67.4 68.1 68.6 69.4 68.8 69.0 68.1 68.9

9.3 9.8 9.7 10.2 10.3 10.8 10.8 11.4 10.9 12.1 12.5

65 YEARS AND OLDER Number 2009����������������������������������������������������������������� 2008����������������������������������������������������������������� 2007����������������������������������������������������������������� 2006����������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2005 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2004 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 2003����������������������������������������������������������������� 2002����������������������������������������������������������������� 2001����������������������������������������������������������������� 3 2000 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 4 1999 ����������������������������������������������������������������

38,613 37,788 36,790 36,035 35,505 35,209 34,659 34,234 33,769 33,566 33,377

37,937 37,142 36,103 35,494 35,056 34,755 34,373 33,976 33,498 33,314 33,109

22,414 22,287 21,206 21,904 21,437 21,488 21,457 20,929 20,984 20,971 21,054

13,146 13,212 12,558 13,086 12,942 12,670 12,448 11,782 11,837 11,512 11,789

Percent 2009����������������������������������������������������������������� 2008����������������������������������������������������������������� 2007����������������������������������������������������������������� 2006����������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2005 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2004 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 2003����������������������������������������������������������������� 2002����������������������������������������������������������������� 2001����������������������������������������������������������������� 3 2000 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 4 1999 ����������������������������������������������������������������

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

98.2 98.3 98.1 98.5 98.7 98.7 99.2 99.2 99.2 99.3 99.2

58.0 59.0 57.6 60.8 60.4 61.0 61.9 61.1 62.1 62.5 63.1

34.0 35.0 34.1 36.3 36.5 36.0 35.9 34.4 35.1 34.3 35.3

Medicare

Military health 1 care

Not covered

2,991 2,644 2,462 2,362 2,325 2,085 1,757 1,773 1,807 1,731 1,551

3,318 3,365 3,179 2,956 2,708 2,644 2,494 2,392 2,301 2,159 2,084

2,254 2,059 2,079 1,845 1,908 1,795 1,471 1,482 1,220 1,024 1,053

4,933 4,301 4,011 4,095 3,826 3,519 3,335 3,180 3,054 3,031 2,899

20.6 20.1 20.0 19.0 19.0 18.5 17.2 17.8 17.7 17.0 16.8

8.5 7.7 7.4 7.3 7.5 7.1 6.2 6.5 7.0 7.0 6.5

9.4 9.8 9.5 9.2 8.7 9.0 8.8 8.7 8.9 8.8 8.7

6.4 6.0 6.2 5.7 6.2 6.1 5.2 5.4 4.7 4.2 4.4

13.9 12.5 12.0 12.7 12.4 11.9 11.8 11.6 11.8 12.3 12.1

10,457 10,103 9,546 9,918 9,783 10,010 10,032 10,210 10,299 10,746 10,501

36,255 35,434 34,464 33,982 33,859 33,555 33,345 32,813 32,618 32,398 32,083

3,649 3,428 3,263 3,364 3,394 3,332 3,190 3,283 3,270 3,339 2,956

36,102 35,304 34,278 33,806 33,727 33,419 33,257 32,631 32,458 32,289 32,004

3,213 2,821 2,604 2,682 2,611 2,504 2,206 2,259 2,156 1,410 1,257

676 646 686 541 449 454 286 258 272 251 268

27.1 26.7 25.9 27.5 27.6 28.4 28.9 29.8 30.5 32.0 31.5

93.9 93.8 93.7 94.3 95.4 95.3 96.2 95.8 96.6 96.5 96.1

9.4 9.1 8.9 9.3 9.6 9.5 9.2 9.6 9.7 9.9 8.9

93.5 93.4 93.2 93.8 95.0 94.9 96.0 95.3 96.1 96.2 95.9

8.3 7.5 7.1 7.4 7.4 7.1 6.4 6.6 6.4 4.2 3.8

1.8 1.7 1.9 1.5 1.3 1.3 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.8

Direct purchase

Total

Medicaid

1

Military health care includes Tricare and CHAMPVA (Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Department of Veterans Affairs), as well as care provided by the Health and Medical Program of the Department of Veterans Affairs and care provided by the Department of Veterans Affairs and the military. 2 The 2004 and 2005 data were revised in March 2007. See <www.census.gov/hhes/www/hlthins/data/usernote/index.html>. 3 Implementation of a 28,000 household sample expansion. 4 Estimates reflect the results of follow-up verification questions and implementation of Census 2000-based population controls. Note: All years reflect the implementation of the verification question. The data for 1999 through 2003 were revised using an approximation method for consistency with the revision to the 2004 and 2005 estimates. To see the original series, see Table C-1 in Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2005 at <www.census.gov/prod/2006pubs /p60-231.pdf>. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2000 to 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 79


Income and Poverty in the US, 2009  

Census bureau report, latest available

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