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Newsletter on Indian and International Legal Affairs An initiative of RMN Foundation humanitarian organization  VOL. II | ISSUE 3 | March 2019   

Legal Directions Law Simplified  By Rakesh Raman   

President Donald J. Trump participates in swearing-in of William P. Barr administered by U.S.  Supreme Court Chief Justice John Roberts 

An Editorial Initiative of Raman Media Network 

Legal Trends | Opinions | Events | Law Education | Reforms   


Legal Directions: Newsletter on International Legal Affairs by RMN Foundation. March 2019  

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Main Stories in This Issue  

Events

Book on Law, Justice & Judicial Power Crystal Scales of Justice Prize   

Legal Cases

Awareness

Trends

No Place for Capital Punishment Legal System for Using Artificial Intelligence  ICC Event for New ‘Den Haag Hub’  Paper on Pro Bono Legal Services 

 

New U.S. Attorney General William Barr Open Hearing of Rafale Case Petitions   

Education for Justice Program Cryptography and Its Legal Implications  English Language Dilemma in Indian Courts  Chief Legal Officers Survey 


Legal Directions: Newsletter on International Legal Affairs by RMN Foundation. March 2019  

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Trump’s Pick William Barr May Scuttle Mueller’s Russia Probe Although  in  his  Senate  confirmation  hearings  Barr  had  willy-nilly  supported  Mueller  investigation, it is expected that he will somehow interfere in Mueller’s work.  The  appointment  of  William  P.  Barr as the 85th U.S. Attorney General is expected to scuttle the  ongoing probe aimed to assess the Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election.  Currently,  special  ​counsel  Robert  Mueller  is  leading  a  judicial  team  to  know  the  extent  of  Trump-Russia ties that allegedly helped Donald Trump win the 2016 presidential race. 

Earlier, Trump  had  fired  Attorney  General  Jeff  Sessions  who  was  not  willing  to  stop  Mueller  probe against Trump. On December 7, 2018, President Trump had announced Barr’s nomination  for Attorney General to succeed Jeff Sessions.  Barr  –  who  was  confirmed  by  the  U.S.  Senate  on  February  14  –  is  known  for  his  unconditional  loyalty  to  Trump.  He  has  openly  criticized  Mueller  investigation,  and  in June 2018, he had sent  an unsolicited 20-page memo to Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein about Mueller probe.  In  his  memo  titled  “Mueller’s  Obstruction  Theory,”  Barr  raised  questions  about  special  counsel's  approach  to  potential  obstruction  of  justice  by  Trump  and  opined  that  it  was  "fatally  misconceived" and Trump's actions were within his presidential authority.  Although  in  his  Senate  confirmation  hearings  Barr  had  willy-nilly  supported  Mueller  investigation, it is expected that he will somehow interfere in Mueller’s work.  In  fact,  Matt  Schlapp  –  who  is  a  Trump  supporter  and  president  of  the  American  Conservative  Union  –  has  stated  that  after  Barr’s  appointment  as  Attorney  General,  Mueller’s  days  are  numbered.  It  is  also  being  conjectured  that  Barr  will  refuse  to  release  the  full  Mueller  report  on  Trump’s  alleged  ties  with  Russia  and  will  share  a  redacted  version  of  the  report  to  save  Trump  surreptitiously.  Meanwhile,  in  order  to  neutralize  Barr’s  attempt  to  secretly  protect Trump, the U.S. Congress -  the  House  of  Representatives  and  the  Senate  –  is  expected  to  accelerate  its  separate  investigations against Trump.  In  February,  the  House Intelligence Committee had voted to release all witness transcripts from  its Russia investigation to the Department of Justice and special counsel Robert Mueller. 


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President Donald J. Trump participates in swearing-in of William P. Barr administered by U.S.  Supreme Court Chief Justice John Roberts on February 14, 2019. Attorney General Barr’s wife,  Christine, holds the Bible. Official White House Photo by Tia Dufour  Trump  has  objected  to  the  congressional  oversight  into  his  alleged  felonious  deals  with  Russia  and stated irrationally that the investigation will hurt the economy.  Trump  had  participated  in  the  swearing-in  of  Barr  during  a  ceremony  in  the  Oval  Office  of the  White  House,  where  U.S.  Supreme  Court  Chief  Justice  John  Roberts  administered  the  oath  of  office.   

President of India Receives First Copy of Book on Law and Justice The President said that justice is not an absolute and justice is not a constant.  The  President  of  India,  Ram  Nath  Kovind,  received  the  first  copy  of  the  book  “Law,  Justice  &  Judicial  Power  –  Justice  PN  Bhagwati’s  Approach”  from  Chief  Justice  of  India,  Ranjan  Gogoi,  who released it at a function held in ​New Delhi​ on February 8, 2019.  Speaking  on  the  occasion,  the  President  said  that  it is not without reason that Justice Bhagwati  has  been  called the father of public interest litigation (PIL) in India. The idealism and simplicity 


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of the  highest court in the country responding to even a petition filed on a postcard is worthy of  appreciation. 

President Ram Nath Kovind receiving the First Copy of the Festschrift titled “Law, Justice & Judicial  Power – Justice P.N. Bhagwati’s Approach” in New Delhi on February 8, 2019. Photo: PIB 

The PIL  tradition  is  an  Indian  contribution  to  the  practice  of  law  and  the  process  of  justice  delivery. This has been admired by other​ democracies​ and other legal systems as well.  While  there  are  occasions  when  PIL  professionals  may  misuse  such  provisions  for  their  own  vested  ends  or  to  obstruct  legitimate  decision  making,  the  President  noted  that the judiciary is  guarding  against  such  attempts.  He  said  that  in  the  wider  picture,  however,  it  is  instructive  to  see the value and the service of a mechanism such as a PIL.  The  President  said  that  justice  is  not  an  absolute  and  justice  is  not  a  constant.  The  very  definition  of  justice  as  well  as  the  roads  by  which  justice  is  reached  have  evolved  and  grown  through the course of human history.  Over  three  decades  ago,  Justice  Bhagwati  and  his  generation  of  jurists  spread  the  horizons  of  justice.  Today,  the  President  said,  at  our  stage  of  development,  there are new challenges in the  realization of social and economic justice, and of climate and technology justice. 


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India to Improve Legal System for Using Artificial Intelligence India  is  strengthening  its  legal  system  and  regulatory  framework  to  deal  with  this  world  of  digital data.  India’s  Minister  of  Commerce  &  Industry,  Suresh  Prabhu,  said  that  the  government  will  use  Artificial  Intelligence  (​AI​)  for  good  governance  and  proper  regulations,  and  corrective  action  will be taken to protect citizen’s privacy and ownership of data.  

Suresh Prabhu speaking at the AI conference in New Delhi on February 18, 2019. Photo: PIB  Suresh  Prabhu  added  that  India  is  strengthening  its  legal  system  and  regulatory  framework  to  deal  with  this  world  of  ​digital  data.  The  Minister  said  that  every  country  is  developing  an  AI  strategy  and  India  too  is  working  on  developing  a  strategy  for  the  use  of  AI  for  the  common  good.  The  minister  was  speaking  at  the  ‘International  Colloquium  on  Ethics  and  Governance  of  Autonomous AI System for a Better World’ held in New Delhi on February 18.   This  is  the  first  time  in  human  history  that  machines  are  taking  decisions  based  on  data  and  experience and we have to learn to deal with this kind of decision making.   Government  will  have  to  put  in  place  mechanisms  on  how  data  is  used  and  algorithms  are  written. The AI applications are increasingly being deployed to improve the justice systems. 


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Clean Climate

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UNODC’s E4J Initiative to Promote the Culture of Lawfulness The  tools  and  resources  help  educators  teach  the  next  generation  to  better  understand  and  address problems that can undermine the rule of law.  The  Education  for  Justice  (E4J)  initiative  seeks  to  prevent  crime  and  promote  a  culture  of  lawfulness  through  educational  tools  and  resources  designed  for  primary,  secondary,  and  tertiary education levels.  It  is a component of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) Global Programme  for  the  Implementation  of  the  Doha  Declaration.  These  tools  and  resources  help  educators  teach  the  next  generation  to  better  understand  and  address  problems  that  can  undermine  the  rule of law.  Education  is  UNESCO’s  top  priority  because  it  is  a  basic  ​human  right  and  the  foundation  on  which  to  build  peace  and  drive  sustainable  development. 

UNESCO is  the  United  Nations’  specialized  agency  for  education,  and  the  education  sector  provides  global  and  regional  leadership  in  education,  strengthens  national  education  systems,  and  responds  to contemporary global challenges through  education.  UNESCO,  as  the  United  Nations’  specialized  agency  for  education,  is  entrusted to lead and coordinate the Education 2030 Agenda, which is part of a  global  movement  to  eradicate  ​poverty  through  17  Sustainable  Development  Goals  (SDGs)  by  2030. 

Education, essential  to  achieve  all  of  these  goals,  has  its  own  dedicated  Goal  4,  which  aims  to  “ensure  inclusive  and  equitable  quality  education  and  promote  lifelong  learning  opportunities  for all.” 


Legal Directions: Newsletter on International Legal Affairs by RMN Foundation. March 2019  

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Education for Justice. Photo: UNODC  The  Education  2030  Framework  for  Action  provides  guidance  for  the  implementation  of  this  ambitious goal and commitments.   

Download Previous Issues of Legal Directions September 2018 

October 2018

November 2018

December 2018

January 2019

February 2019

2019 ACC Chief Legal Officers Survey Released The  survey  shows  how  CLOs  are  assuming  positions  of  influence  on  the  business  side  of  the  company.  The  Association  of  Corporate  Counsel  (ACC)  observes  that  the  influence  of  the  Chief  Legal  Officer  (CLO)  is  expanding.  The CLO role is gaining momentum as issues that affect businesses,  from  sustainability  to  data  security,  become  more  urgent  and  complex.  The  ACC  Chief  Legal  Officers  Survey  shows  how CLOs are assuming positions of influence on the business side of the 


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company, taking  on  roles  beyond that of technical legal adviser. You can click ​here to download  the Executive Summary of the survey report. 

Appeal for Donations RMN  Foundation  -  the  publisher  of  ​Legal  Directions  newsletter  -  is  a  humanitarian  organization  that  was  formed  in  May  2015  as  an  educational  and  public  charitable  Trust  for 

the benefit  of  humanity  at  large.  It  is  registered  with  the  Government  of  National  Capital  Territory of Delhi at New Delhi, India.  Currently,  all  the  activities  of  RMN  Foundation  are  being  managed  single-handedly (without  any  support)  by  RMN  Foundation  founder  Rakesh  Raman who had left his job a few years ago  to run this charity.  As  RMN  Foundation  has  embarked  upon  some  major  humanitarian  projects  during  the  past  over  3  years,  now  it  needs  a  significant  amount  of  funds  in  the  form  of  ​donations  to  expand  the scope of its activities. 

Individual Indian  donors  can  help  RMN  Foundation  with  their  contributions  using  the  following bank details:  Bank Name: ICICI Bank  Bank Branch: HL Square, Plot No. 6, Sector 5 (MLU), Dwarka, New Delhi 110 075  Account Number: 025005004368  Account Name: RMN Foundation  Type of Account: Current  IFSC Code: ICIC0000250  You can ​click here​ to donate with PayPal, credit card, or bank account.

Understanding Cryptography and Its Legal Implications The  adoption  of  cryptographic  technology  has  raised  many  legal  issues  in  the  information-driven world.   In the evolving digital world, cryptography or cryptology is the technology application to ensure  secure  communications  in  the  presence  of  third  parties  called  adversaries.  In  its  earlier  form,  cryptography was known as data encryption. 


Legal Directions: Newsletter on International Legal Affairs by RMN Foundation. March 2019  

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It helps  you  construct  and  analyze  protocols  that  prevent  third  parties  or  the  public  from  reading private messages delivered over digital networks.  In  order  to  achieve  information  security,  cryptography  integrates  components  such  as  data  confidentiality,  data  integrity,  authentication,  and  non-repudiation.  Cryptography  models  are  designed  by  using  advanced  mathematics,  computer  science,  electrical  engineering,  communication science, and physics.  Applications  of  cryptography  include  electronic  commerce,  chip-based  payment  cards,  digital  currencies,  computer  passwords, and military communications.  The  adoption  of  cryptographic  technology  has  raised  many  legal  issues  in  the  information-driven  world.  In  despotic  regimes,  cryptography  is  used  as  a  secret  punitive  tool  for  espionage and sedition charges against the dissenters.  In  some  jurisdictions,  the  use  of  cryptography  is  legal  and  laws  permit  investigators to compel the disclosure of encryption keys for documents relevant to  an  investigation.  Cryptography  plays  a  major  role  in  digital  rights  management  and  copyright  infringement of digital media.

Supreme Court Allows Open Hearing of Rafale Case Petitions With  an  embezzlement  of  Rs.  30,000  crore,  the  Rafale  scam  in  India  is  stated  to  be  the biggest  government-led fraud in the world.  The  Supreme  Court  (SC)  of  India has allowed open hearing of Rafale  review  petitions.  A  bench  of Chief Justice Ranjan Gogoi, Justice S. K.  Kaul,  and  K.  M.  Joseph  decreed  on  February  26  that  the  review  petitions  filed  by  former  Indian  ministers  Yashwant Sinha and Arun  Shourie  along  with  lawyer-activist  Prashant  Bhushan  will  be  heard  in open court.  Along  with  the  review  petitions,  the  Court  will  also  hear  the  correction  petition  filed  by  the  Central  Government,  and  also  the  petition  filed  for  initiating  perjury  proceedings  against  officials  who  allegedly  misled  the  Court  by  submitting  false  information in the notes submitted to the Court. 


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“SC allows  open  court  hearing  of  our  review  petition  in  Rafale  along  with  our  application  for  prosecuting  those  officers  who  supplied  false  info  or  suppressed info from the court,” Prashant  Bhushan ​tweeted​.  The  petitioners  have  claimed  that  the  December  14  SC  judgment  contains  "patent  factual  and  legal  errors."  The  apex court had earlier dismissed Public Interest Litigation (PIL) petitions with  the  observation  that  there  was  "no  occasion  to  doubt"  the  decision-making  process  of  the  government in the procurement of 36 Rafale jets from France.  With  an  embezzlement  of Rs. 30,000 crore (~ US$ 4 billion), the Rafale scam in India is stated to  be the biggest government-led fraud in the world.  

No Place for Capital Punishment: António Guterres Worldwide,  some  170  States,  with  a  variety  of  legal  systems,  have  either  abolished  the  death  penalty in law, or do not carry out executions in practice.  UN  Secretary-General  António  Guterres said on February 27 that the death penalty has no place  in  the  twenty-first  century.  He  was  addressing  the  seventh  World  Congress  against  the  Death  Penalty, in Brussels.  “I  oppose  it  in  all  circumstances.  And  I  am  proud  that  my  home  country,  Portugal,  was  one  of  the first to abolish capital punishment 150 years ago,” Guterres said.  Last  December,  the  General  Assembly  resolution  calling  for  a  moratorium  on  the  use  of  the  death penalty​ was co-sponsored by 121 States — the highest number ever.  Guterres  added  that  the  practice  is  still  employed  despite  its  cruelty,  despite  the  myth  that  it  deters  crime  and  despite  the knowledge that innocent people have been — and may continue to  be — put to death.  “As  Secretary-General  of  the  United  Nations,  alongside the majority of Member States and civil  society,  I  will  continue  to  advocate  for  the  universal  abolishment  of  capital  punishment.  Together we can bring about this change,” he said.  Meanwhile,  Michelle  Bachelet,  UN  High  Commissioner  for  Human  Rights,  said  that  the  UN  opposes the use of the death penalty, everywhere, and in all circumstances.  Worldwide,  some  170  States,  with  a  variety  of  legal  systems​,  traditions,  cultures  and  religions,  have either abolished the death penalty in law, or do not carry out executions in practice. 


Legal Directions: Newsletter on International Legal Affairs by RMN Foundation. March 2019  

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UN Secretary-General António Guterres addresses an event on the occasion of the World Day  Against the Death Penalty on 10 October 2017. On his right is Andrew Gilmour, Assistant  Secretary-General for Human Rights. UN Photo/Manuel Elias  At  the  end  of  last  year,  121  States  –  the  highest  ever  number  –  voted  in  favour  of  the  General  Assembly resolution for a moratorium on use of the death penalty. 

English Language Dilemma in Indian Courts The  prime  reason  for  the  repeated  goof-ups  in  Indian  courts  is  the  lack  of  English  language  skills among the Indian legal fraternity.   The  language  used  in  Indian  courts  is  so  bad  that  it  is  not  possible  to  make  heads  or  tails  of  the  sentences  written  in  the  court  documents,  including  petitions and orders.  There  is  no  denying  that  English  ​language  has  become  a  veritable  ​raison  d’être  for  people  who  want  to  survive  and  progress  in  an  underdeveloped 

country such  as  ​India​.  But  Indian  professionals  show  scant  respect  for  English.  Case  in  point:  Indian legal profession. 

The ongoing  court  case  related  to  the  controversial  ​Rafale  deal  has  once  again  brought  home  the fact that the Indian courts are not yet ready to work in English language. 


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Although most  judgements  -  like  the  Rafale  verdict  pronounced  in  December  2018  -  of  courts  are flawed because judges and lawyers lack domain expertise in the cases they handle, the prime  reason  for  the  repeated  goof-ups  is  the  lack  of  ​English  language  skills  among  the  Indian  legal  fraternity.  

The Indian  law  colleges  and  universities  are  also  not  fully  equipped  to  teach  English  to  law  students. Result: Clumsy court cases.   

Download the Research Paper: Risks of Language Limitations in Indian Judiciary

Crystal Scales of Justice Prize The  aim  of  the  prize  is  to  identify  and  promote  innovative  practices  regarding  the  conduct  of  proceedings, court organization, and the functioning of court systems.  Created  in  2005,  the  "Crystal  Scales  of  Justice"  Prize  is  a  competition  aimed  at  discovering and  highlighting  innovative  and  efficient  practices  concerning  the  functioning  of  justice,  judicial  procedures, or the organization of courts.  These 

practices

are

conducted

in

European

jurisdictions (for  example,  initiatives  devised  by  a  court  president,  a  registry,  a  Bar).  They  are  drawn  to  the  attention  of  policy-makers  and  the  judicial  community  so  as  to  improve  the  functioning  of  the  public justice system.  The  aim  of  the  prize  is  to  identify  and  promote  innovative  practices  regarding  the  conduct  of  proceedings,  court  organization,  and  the  functioning  of court systems in general.  The  2019  competition  is  open  to  courts,  Bar  Associations,  non-governmental  organizations  (​NGOs​),  and  any  other  bodies  dealing  with  judicial  affairs  in  a  member  State  of  the  Council  of  Europe or an observer State to the European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice (CEPEJ).  Applications  must  meet  the  eligibility  criteria  as  specified  in  the  Rules  of  the  Prize,  and  be  submitted to the Council of Europe, preferably electronically, by 31 March, 2019. 


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The Prize  awarding  ceremony  will  take  place  in  Oslo  (Norway)  on  25  October,  2019  in  the  framework of the European Day of Justice. 

ICC Hosts  Launch  of  International  Gender  Champions  Network’s  ‘Den  Haag Hub’  The Hague Hub aims to promote gender equality across organisations of all stripes.  The  International  Criminal  Court  (ICC)  hosted  an  event  on  February  5  to launch the hub of the  International  Gender  Champions  (IGC)  initiative  in  The  Hague,  The  Netherlands,  organized  by  the Embassies of Canada and Switzerland to The Netherlands.  

International Gender Champions Network’s New ‘Den Haag Hub’. Photo: ICC  During  the  event,  Gender  Champions,  aspiring  Gender  Champions,  and  other  advocates  of  gender  equality  discussed  how  to  put  into  action  the  commitment  of  decision-makers  in  The  Hague to break down gender barriers.  Led  by Sabine Nӧlke, Ambassador of Canada to the Netherlands, and Heinz Walker-Nederkoorn,  Ambassador  of  Switzerland  to  The  Netherlands,  The  Hague  Hub  aims  to  promote  gender  equality  across  organisations  of  all  stripes  in  the  city  as  well  coordinating  global  efforts  with  other IGC Chapters in Geneva, New York, Vienna, and Nairobi. 


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ICC officials  -  President  Chile  Eboe-Osuji,  Prosecutor  Fatou  Bensouda,  and  Registrar  Peter  Lewis  -  in  their  individual  capacity  as  heads  of  the  three  organs  of  the  ICC,  joined  the  IGC  leadership  network  last  year  vowing  to  strengthen  gender  equality  at  the  Court  by  taking  concrete measures jointly and individually within their respective spheres of responsibility.  The  event  opened  with  remarks  by  ICC  President  Eboe-Osuji,  ICC  Registrar  Lewis,  and  Sabine  Nӧlke, Ambassador of Canada to The Netherlands.   "We  can  -  and  must - make it our culture to include women into public offices in equal numbers  as men," stated ICC President Judge Chile Eboe-Osuji.  

Paper on Pro Bono Legal Services The  paper  explores  the  strategic  benefits of engaging all members of a legal department as well  as employees outside of the department in pro bono activity.  Involving  all  legal  staff  in  pro  bono,  including  lawyers,  paralegals,  support staff, and others, is a common practice in in-house pro bono that  presents  several  advantages.  These  include  expanding  a  legal  department’s  pro  bono  efforts  and  helping meet the growing demand for  legal services among underserved communities.   A Corporate Pro Bono (CPBO) ​paper explores the strategic benefits of engaging all members of a  legal  department  as  well  as employees outside of the department in pro bono activity, the types 

of pro  bono  opportunities  available  to those without a legal license, and real-world examples of  how  both  legal  department  professionals  and  professionals  outside  the  legal  department  are  fulfilling a critical role in delivering pro bono legal services. 

Meet the Editor   

The editor  of  ​Legal  Directions  newsletter ​Rakesh Raman is a national award-winning 

journalist and  social  activist.  Besides  working  at  senior  editorial  positions  with  leading  media  companies,  he  was  writing  an  exclusive  edit-page  column  regularly  for The Financial Express (a daily business newspaper of The Indian Express Group).  Nowadays,  for  the  past  about  8  years,  he  has  been  running  his  own  global  news  services  on  different  subjects.  He  also  has  formed  a  free  Education  and  Career  Counselling  Center  for 


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deserving children  at  a  poor  J.J.  Colony  in  Dwarka,  New  Delhi  under  his  ​NGO  –  RMN  Foundation. 

He runs  an  exclusive  community-driven  anti-corruption  social  service  “​Clean  House​”  to  help  the  suffering  residents  of  Delhi  raise  their  voice  against  the  growing  corruption  and  injustice.  He also has formed an environment-protection group called​ Green Group​ in Delhi.  He  creates  and  distributes  a  number  of ​digital publications that cover areas such as technology,  law, environment, education, politics, corruption and transparency. 

He has  created  a  comprehensive  online  information service to educate the Indian voters for the  upcoming ​Lok Sabha election​ scheduled to happen in 2019.  Earlier,  he  had  been  associated  with the United Nations (UN) through United Nations Industrial  Development  Organization (UNIDO) as a digital media expert to help businesses use technology  for brand marketing and business development. 

Collaboration with Legal Directions Project The  ​Legal  Directions  newsletter  is  being  published  by  RMN  Foundation.  It  is  being circulated  among  the  top  UN  agencies,  legal  professionals,  law  colleges / universities, law-enforcement  agencies, civil society organizations, social activists, and others in India and abroad.     RMN  Foundation  is  looking  for  sponsors  and  collaborators  across  the  world  who  can  help us  expand the legal content activity around ​Legal Directions​.    Contact   

Rakesh Raman  Founder  RMN Foundation    463, DPS Apts., Plot No. 16, Sector 4, Dwarka, Phase I  New Delhi 110 078, INDIA    Contact by email   

Profile for R Raman

Legal Directions Newsletter March 2019  

It carries news, opinion articles, book reviews, interviews, analyses of court judgments, and so on. You can share your information with Leg...

Legal Directions Newsletter March 2019  

It carries news, opinion articles, book reviews, interviews, analyses of court judgments, and so on. You can share your information with Leg...

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