AM –14/15 Vol.05 Issue 26 Website: www.ammagazine.in
on the cover:
The ‘Metal Printing Functional Parts and Art by ExOne’
4.Editorial Insight 5. White Paper: In-house or Outsource
latest updates: 21.
Press Release : EOS Metal Materials – Additive Manufacturing System for the Industrial Production of High-Quality Large Metal Parts
Press Release: Concept Laser – Current trends in metal laser melting (LaserCUSING)
Press Release: Stratasys – MakerBot Revs Up Toyota’s Presence at New York International Auto Show with 3D Printed FT-1 Concept Car
9. Case study: Lamborghini Lightweight Components Are Key to Fast Car -Stratasys
11. Case Study: Lowering Cost and Reducing Production Time, ProJet 3D Printing Lets Turbine Technologies Soar
13. ExOne and Ulterra Extend Part Life and Reduce Costs through Additive Manufacturing
15. Case Study: Full Thrust: Innovation for Maintenance of High Performance Industrial Gas Turbines
17. Race Tech: 3D Printing of Sand Moulds - Voxeljet
19. Optimizing a Nokia Lumia 820 Cover for 3D Printing
The Burgeoning Craft of 3D Printing casting was done to get the functional parts. Exone has honed its skill in 3D printing and has brought direct metal printing in its line of 3D printers.
Science is like a divine favour for the mankind. Dream has been unwound and turned to reality. What was an exciting dream has become a reality; such is the blessing with a 3D printer.
Its M-Print with a build up volume of 800mm x 500mm x 400mm and speed of up to 2052 cm3/hour, can print intricate parts such as water jacket, sprockets etc directly into functional parts just in one go, without the need of tooling, pattern or inventory. Drastically cutting the build cost in various steps giving designers the flexibility to unshackle their imagination.
The paradigm shift where manufacturing was always about removal of material but in additive manufacturing, we build physical objects layer by layer from digital models just like a desk jet printer. The technology is ever-evolving and today’s 3D printing machines can produce complex shapes using various materials like steel, aluminium, plastics and sand.
3D printing is on a nascent stage as the cost of printer is very high. Material is another challenge and new materials have to be experimented all the time to achieve better efficiencies and structurally sound parts.
The working of the printer is similar to desk jet printer with a minor difference that it creates in the z- dimension as well. It reads input from a CAD drawing and the print head prints raw material layer by layer.
Despite these limitations, the technology if employed would transform manufacturing altogether by slashing development time, eliminating tooling costs and simplifying production runs— which makes creation of complex shapes & structures that weren’t feasible before.
The thickening increases in micro inches creating the z-axis. Intricate parts which were just in imagination can now be 3D printed directly no matter what the shape may be. To add to the bounty, ExOne after years of R&D has brought 3D printing to a new level. It has cut down steps in conventional manufacturing process where sand mold had to be created, after which
Thus, with the capabilities of 3-D printing rapidly evolving – this technology appears ready to emerge from its niche status and become a viable alternative to conventional process in an increasing number of applications.
Director Global Axis (Partner to ExOne GmbH) New Delhi India
WHITE PAPER: IN-HOUSE OR OUTSOURCE
SIX BUSINESS ADVANTAGES OF OWNING AN IN-HOUSE 3D PRINTER The benefits of 3D printing and rapid prototyping are numerous and well recognized. Whether it’s design validation, functional testing or faster launch of new products, executives seldom need to be to be convinced of the benefits. Still, many businesses continue to outsource 3D printing because they believe ownership is cost prohibitive.
argument that they are too costly. What’s more, the lower upfront costs of 3D printers represents just the tip of the tangible benefits: Even with relatively few modeling builds, having in-house 3D printing capabilities provides a range of operational and business benefits that provide real bottom-line advantages. The six key advantages an in-house 3D printer offers discussed in this white paper are lower costs; accelerated time to market; competitive advantage; fewer manufacturing errors; greater confidentiality; and improved model accuracy and quality.
What many companies don’t realize is that 3D printing has advanced dramatically; the availability of a new breed of highquality 3D printers at affordable prices now discredit the 1. LOWER COSTS An outsourced prototype can cost from several hundred dollars for a simple design to thousands of dollars for a more complex model – as much as three to five times that of a part printed in house. Creating the same prototype on an in-house 3D printer brings a significant cost saving, even if your company prints only two models per month on average.
These savings are augmented by designers and developers not having to wait for prototypes to return, time to market savings, and savings on reduced manufacturing errors due to the ability to print many prototypes, discussed in categories below. One Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM®) customer Akaishi, estimates it reduced costs by 73% with in-house prototyping versus the traditional outsourcing method.
“Outsourcing to local service bureaus had a 10-day lead time and high expense for a single round of prototyping of n unverified design. We bought the Dimension® 3D Printer to bring prototyping back in-house. Now, we can verify the functionality as much as we want because the cost to make prototypes is low.” – Mr. Makoto Muraoka, Akaishi Consumer goods manufacturer Akaishi estimates switching to in-house prototyping saved it 73% developing its line of products.
2. ACCELERATED TIME TO MARKET Turnaround time with outsourcing rarely takes the perceived two to three days to get models back. In fact, it normally takes around a week or longer. Most delays take place before a model order is placed, in large part because of the prohibitive cost of outsourced prototyping. For example, a company might not order a model until the design is advanced enough that the company feels it’s worth spending the money.
Including internal design review meetings, order placement, approval processes and other procedures, the total design delay time can be five or 10 times the actual turnaround time when outsourcing. And in many cases, this process may be repeated two or three times before a product design is finalized for production. Delayed time to market is not the only cost: Even though some things can be done in parallel, a significant amount of time is spent waiting for models to return from an outsource provider.
In comparison, an in-house 3D printer produces a prototype within hours, rather than days. Additional time can be saved by printing during the night or over the weekend. This can shave
weeks off the development cycle and dramatically accelerate time to market for new products and new features for existing products.
WHITE PAPER: IN‐HOUSE OR OUTSOURCE
prototypes that are already obsolete. The ability to quickly print 3D models in just hour’s means decisions can be based on accurate prototypes and data.
Additionally, because development continues while a design is at the outsource provider and after the model comes back, designers are often caught in a development time lag with In a survey of over 1,000 Stratasys 3D Printer owners, almost one third reported experiencing a 25 percent or higher improvement in product launch times. More than half of respondents reported a product launch time improvement of at least 10 percent or more (see chart above).
“The Dimension [3D Printer] was easy to operate, the cost was right and the speed of build was great. We can digitally make these products, print them out and have a prototype in hand in a couple of days.”
- John Mason, Senior Product Developer, Cool Gear, Inc.
Cool Gear, Inc. saved more than 12 weeks getting products like its food storage containers and water bottles to market by switching to in-house 3D printing.
3. FREQUENT PROTOTYPING = COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE quickly visualize all their product ideas by avoiding lengthy processes, budgetary decisions and approvals for outsourcing. Innovative design ideas can be effectively communicated with 3D models, ensuring that great ideas are not overlooked because team members and managers didn’t understand the designer’s explanation.
Many factors can slow down the introduction of new products during the product development lifecycle – everything from choice of tools to time spent waiting for prototypes to arrive from an outsource vendor. Sidestep this problem with an inhouse 3D printing system: Early-stage and frequent prototyping leads to more effective product launches, enabling a company to introduce new innovations to market ahead of their competitors.
The same visual power of an accurate 3D model can turn ideas into winners in front of customers. The ability to quickly print physical models that customers can see, touch and play with is instrumental in winning bids or gaining approval to proceed with jobs.
Consider: If a picture speaks a thousand words, how many thousands does a life-like 3D replica speak? Designers can “Having an in-house Objet® 3D Printer means we can experiment more. It’s given us a lot of freedom and creative latitude. If I have an idea for something new and edgy, I can design it and have a prototype in just a few hours. If it doesn’t work out, I’ve only used an afternoon instead of a week.” - Shawn Greene, Senior Industrial Designer, Fender Instruments
WHITE PAPER: IN-HOUSE OR OUTSOURCE
Frequent in-house prototyping allowed Fender Instruments to play around with design until it found the perfect solution.
4. FEWER MANUFACTURING ERRORS Prototyping reduces manufacturing costs by fine-tuning designs before molds and die casts are made.
In a recent survey of over 1,000 Stratasys 3D Printer owners, almost one-third of respondents were able to reduce iterations by 25 percent or more by having a 3D printer in-house. More than half of the respondents reported a reduction of up to 10 percent thanks to their in-house 3D printer (see chart above).
When prototyping is readily available and can be done inexpensively in multiple iterations, the potential for design errors is significantly reduced. Designers can test out different ideas to find the optimal design, using small variations on the model to check for functionality.
“Manufacturing dental models using our Objet 3D Printer has contributed increased speed, consistency and accuracy – and enabled a new cost-effective business model.” - Markus Dohrn, General Manager, DCD Dental Consulting
DCD Dental Consulting Laboratories used its in-house 3D printer to create accurate dental models that produce perfect fits and excellent aesthetic results.
5. GREATER CONFIDENTIALITY In today’s competitive market, a leaked design may spell disaster, making it imperative to ensure confidentiality. Keeping rapid prototyping in-house with a 3D printer eliminates the need to transmit design files to any external network. It ensures that
designs never leave the company premises, safeguarding intellectual property.
WHITE PAPER: IN‐HOUSE OR OUTSOURCE
NASA uses Stratasys to create its 3D prototypes using FDM Technology™. FDM is the only 3D-printing method that
supports production-grade thermoplastics, which lightweight but durable enough for rugged end-use parts.
6. IMPROVED MODEL ACCURACY AND QUALITY Regardless of how a prototype is produced, the goal is to accurately simulate the real-life product. In every field, highquality, precise models are vital for form, fit and function testing.
choice of model materials and varied post-processing options, it is possible to create models that closely resemble the end product.
With today’s affordable 3D printers, it’s possible to create Quality 3D printers provide functional and visual accuracy. stunning models at a far lower cost in-house compared to They can print the smallest features and finest details, smooth outsourcing. surfaces, and even moving parts, in a single build. And, with a “The part quality and finish are as good as the stereolithography parts we used to get from our service bureau. And we can have a part in just a few hours, versus several days and lots of paperwork when we had to outsource.” - Mike Zeigle, Manager, Prototype Development Group, Trek Bicycles Trek Bicycles’ improved prototype quality empowered its breakthrough design for a new Speed Concept Series 9 bike.
SUMMARY Having in-house, quality 3D printing capabilities offers significant benefits for the entire product development cycle. Model creation takes hours instead of weeks; costs a fraction of outsourcing; delivers comparable or better quality and accuracy; and enables frequent iterations, speeding up design changes and ensuring quality. 3D printing also promotes creativity and innovation and allows accurate design verification before embarking on costly pre-production. Return on investment with an in-house 3D printer is typically fast, even
when outsourced modeling is low-volume. The short-term economic return becomes long-term advantage through enhanced innovation, increased confidentiality, more productive design cycles, higher-quality designs and faster time to market. All of the advantages of in-house 3D printing are possible with Stratasys 3D Printers.
Case Study: Lamborghini Lightweight Components Are Key to Fast Car You Select a System Stratasys
“Because the Dimension 3D Printer saves time over out-of house printing, we can keep our minds fresh on the design. Each day, we can continually improve a design rather than having to refresh our minds after time away. We can stay with one product and not have to bounce around between projects while waiting for a model to come back.” - Brandon Davey, Senior Designer, NEMO Equipment
NEMO Equipment improved its turnaround time and attention to detail with its on-site 3D printer.
“The many iterations of prototypes produced during the design process were instrumental in providing better fit during assembly and improved load paths.” — Paolo Feraboli, University of Washington ‐
THE SPEED OF LIGHT Lamborghini’s new Aventador flagship model two-seat sports car was the Top The many iterations of prototypes produced during the design Gear Car of the process. Year for 2011. It accelerates from 0 to 60 mph in 2.9 seconds, has a top speed of about 230 mph and costs just
under $400,000. The Aventador is 9 percent more powerful, 20 percent more fuel efficient and 6 percent lighter than the previous generation Murciélago. The key to the Aventador’s extreme performance is its carbon-fiber reinforced composite (CFRC) monocoque, which makes up the core of the integrated body-chassis. The monocoque is a single CFRC shell 81 in. long by 74.5 in. wide by 40 in. high, the largest CFRC component on any production automobile. The monocoque weighs 324.5 pounds and the entire body and chassis weigh an incredibly light 505 pounds.
How does FDM compare with traditional processes for Lamborghini Lab?
12 days (80%)
Case Study: Lamborghini Lightweight Components Are Key to Fast Car
You Select a System - Stratasys
High Stakes Lamborghini to provide detailed design, quality control, process improvement and mechanical testing for the CRFC components that make up 50 percent of the Aventador by weight. Many physical prototypes were required to validate assembly fit, verify efficient load paths, and identify and correct issues that were invisible on the computer screen.
Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A. is owned by Audi, part of the Volkswagen Group together with other brands such as Porsche, Bugatti and Bentley. The Automobili Lamborghini Advanced Composite Structures Laboratory — or Lamborghini Lab for short — at the University of Washington partnered with
“We had to get the design right the first time because the tooling used to produce just the monocoque cost several million dollars,” said Paolo Feraboli, professor of aircraft materials and structures at the University of Washington and director of the Lamborghini Lab. As an example, the traditional approach to building a prototype of the monocoque’s inner tub would have been to make scaled tooling and lay up the prototype using CFRC. It would have
taken an estimated four months and $40,000 to build the tooling and lay up the scaled part.
“We were interested to see if there was a rapid prototyping method that could produce parts tough enough to withstand the stresses of assembly and handling,” Feraboli said. “We were
also interested in building rapid tooling for laying up smaller parts, which requires mechanical strength plus high temperature performance.”
An Ideal System The Fortus build envelope was large enough to produce a 1/6 scale model of the body and chassis in one piece. The Lamborghini Lab built complete 1/6 scale prototypes of the body and chassis in two months, including printing out and assembling the parts. The build time of the inner tub was 6.3 days and material cost was $560. Total build and processing time including support removal, sanding, painting, etc. was 20 days. Total cost including materials, labor and machine time was $3,000.
“The Fortus was ideal based on its versatility to print highstrength, high-resolution models in industrial-grade thermoplastics, and custom composite tools from highperformance engineered plastics, at a fraction of the cost versus traditional manufacturing methods,” said Tom Goulet of CIMtech, the Seattle-based Stratasys reseller.
Many Iterations “The many iterations of prototypes produced during the design process were instrumental in providing better fit during assembly and improved load paths,” Feraboli said.
rod, is a signature feature of the Aventador together with the CFRC monocoque and pushrod suspensions. Shortly after the Aventador was unveiled, Lamborghini announced that the company had already sold out the first year’s production. “The Aventador is the first step,” Feraboli said. “Carbon fiber is not just for performance cars. It can improve gas mileage and reduce emissions in any automobile. We are looking at using more and more carbon fiber for higher production vehicles for the group.”
Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A. in Sant’Agata Bolognese, Italy also owns two Stratasys machines, a Fortus 3D Production System and a Dimension 3D printer. Maurizio Reggiani, Lamborghini senior vice president and chief technology officer, said: “We made extensive use of FDM to make functional prototypes for the newly designed seven-speed transmission for the Aventador that offers 50 millisecond shift times, the fastest on any production vehicle.” The single-clutch transmission, based on the concept of the independent shifting
Case Study: Lowering Cost and Reducing Production Time, Projet 3D Printing Lets
Turbine Technologies Soar – 3D Systems
"If we used a traditional method for a wax injection tool, it could take up to 5 weeks and cost well in excess of $20,000. However, if we rapid prototype an axially turbine blisk, for example, with our 3D Systems printer, the wax investment piece builds unattended overnight and is ready for foundry in the morning for well under $2,000." design change is suddenly required, your shiny new test part is Making test parts using traditional mold manufacturing now an expensive, time-eating piece of scrap. techniques is risky business. Take turbine engine components, In addition, with traditional techniques iterative design and which traditionally require weeks and tens of thousands of testing become virtually impossible. Turbine blades especially dollars to finish. The designs upon which these parts are based may require several tests, as they have to be twisted precisely. go through extensive cycle analysis, computational fluid Even a few degrees off and they won’t function. But when one dynamics, finite element analysis and solid modeling, but part costs upwards of $20,000, it’s not feasible to produce there’s always the chance that alterations may be required due several parts for testing alone. to a mistake or change in specifications. In any case, if a Standout turbine engine makers are finding ways to make changes and maximize iterative design by producing parts quickly, accurately and at a low cost. Wisconsin-basedTurbine Technologies and its gas turbine development sister company, Kutrieb Research, get it right by using 3D Systems ProJet™ 3D printing technology to produce multiple wax patterns, which they then cast in super alloys and test until they find the right design. “All the engineering and FEA software in the world can’t replace actually having physical test models,” says Toby Kutrieb, the company’s vice president. For a company that considers physical testing its linchpin, the ProJet wax patterns are a huge boost to creating an R&D process that doesn’t rely on expensive tooling. (Image left: A wax pattern of a stator case with sprues attached)
For over 25 years family-owned Turbine Technologies has been the go-to provider of educational laboratory turbine equipment for college engineering departments and technical colleges. Kutrieb Research, Turbine Technologies’ spin-off company, makes small, advanced turbine engines for vehicles including UAVs. To date, Kutrieb Research has successfully completed contracts for the likes of NASA, the United States Naval Research Laboratory, the US Air Force, and the US Army. You could say that founder Wolfgang Kutrieb and his three sons know their turbines.
induction vacuum furnace, one of the few in the world, in which they could cast high-nickel superalloys for their turbine engines. In those days, they carved casting patterns by hand, a painstaking and long process. Turbine Technologies’ foray into 3D printing actually started in the late 90s when they bought a 3D Systems Viper SLA 3D printer. A decade later, 3D Systems Sales Manager Jim Dier proposed a new printer, a ProJet CP 3000 (now sold as a ProJet 3510), and ran a few sample wax casting patterns for them. The ProJet 3510 quickly prints mirror standard casting patterns with an exceptional level of accuracy. Wax parts produced on the ProJet are castable in a variety of casting processes, from those used by Turbine Technologies to jewellery and medical device applications.
Early on, they knew investment casting would play a huge role in their success, both for testing and production. In the company’s infancy, CNC wasn’t advanced enough and tooling was expensive (and it still is). So Wolfgang Kutrieb bought an
Case Study: Lowering Cost and Reducing Production Time, Projet 3D Printing Lets
Turbine Technologies Soar – 3D Systems
“The casting patterns were great,” says Toby Kutrieb. “Jim gave us samples, we did shell building and burnouts, and we were impressed. We bought one of the first models that was made.”
on the machine about 20 percent of the time. The other 80 percent is production.” Creating a wax pattern traditionally starts with milling an injection mold, which is a negative cavity of the part. Then workers inject wax into the mold to produce the pattern. From there they surround the pattern in ceramic, burn out the wax and go through a vacuum investment casting process in which molten super alloy is poured into the ceramic shell. ProJet casting patterns allow Turbine Technologies to produce a wax pattern in hours without making an injection mold, without wax injection and without cooling time.
They put the ProJet to use right away. “We ran the machine a lot,” Toby Kutrieb says. Primarily they used it in product development, i.e., for that vital role in iterative design and research. But after a while, it started to make more sense to use the ProJet for small production runs, printing casting patterns for specific turbine parts and some customization work. “Right now,” continues Toby Kutrieb, “we’re doing R&D
“If we used a traditional method for a wax injection tool,” says Toby Kutrieb, “it could take up to 5 weeks and cost well in excess of $20,000. However, if we rapid prototype an axially turbine blisk, for example, with our 3D Systems printer, the was investment piece builds unattended overnight and is ready for foundry in the morning for well under $2,000.” Whether it’s for R&D or production, the ProJet allows them to make better more accurate components and test designs more freely. They simply print several different options of a given part and find out which one produces better results. This higher level of quality means more opportunities and an even stronger reputation for Turbine Technologies, Kutrieb Research and the family behind the two companies. (Image right: A wax pattern created with the lengthy traditional tooling process; tooling also pictured in background.) “Additionally,” Toby Kutrieb stresses, “with the digital workflow that the ProJet allows, we can keep our designs safe. Tooling can be damaged. You have to train people how to handle it. It can be lost in a fire. It has to be protected. You lose a tool, you’re wasting months getting back to production. But with electronic files, if something were to happen, we can be up and running again in a matter of days.” The ProJet is also allowing the company to branch out in terms of offerings and product variation. One of its educational pump labs allows engineering students to learn about impellers by designing their own. Turbine Technologies then uses the ProJet to produce each student’s design. “They design the impeller, mathematically figure out what it will do. Then they send us a design file, we print it, cast it and the student can see how close their predictions were,” says Toby Kutrieb. It’s extra offerings like these that bolster the Turbine Technologies brand and enhance the educational experience for students all over the world.
Today, many of the internal parts of the turbines produced by Turbine Technologies and Kutrieb Research are first 3D printed on the ProJet. They’re even doing some service work on the side for area companies that don’t have the same casting and rapid prototyping technologies. Through it all, with the help of their streamlined workflow, the Kutrieb family companies have bolstered their standing as trusted turbine developers and manufacturers, and they’ve charted further into the future with bold new designs for the larger engine market.
ExOne and Ulterra Extend Part Life and Reduce Costs through Additive Manufacturing
By: The ExOne Company
manufacturers an opportunity to reduce costs, lower the risk of trial and error and create opportunities for design innovation
In the oil and gas industry, drills and motors used to extract resources from the ground go through a lot of wear and tear that can ultimately affect the efficiency of the job. These tools need to be able to stand up to high pressure and abrasiveness from a mix of water, sand and rock – commonly referred to as mud. For years, these parts have been made through traditional manufacturing processes using molds and patterns to produce rotors, stators and other tools of the trade. But now, the industry is focused on a major change, as more companies are seeing the value of additive manufacturing to create these parts.
Ulterra, a global provider of polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) drill bits and down hole tools used in the oil and gas industry, came to ExOne to solve a challenge in the manufacture of its rotors and stators. The global company recognized the increasing wear of these parts and sought out ExOne for a redesign and new production method that could drastically extend the life of the drill bit components, while at the same time reducing costs. Previously, Ulterra’s stators were made through conventional machining and constructed using 4145 steel. The resulting 3-5inch components cost around $400-$500 each, and began to show considerable wear after 200-300 hours of use (Fig 1). After reviewing cost and complexity solutions with ExOne, the two teamed up to test and manufacture the parts to be stronger and last longer than these previous versions.
ExOne, a publicly traded leader in the additive manufacturing space, provides 3D printing machines, 3D printed products and related services to industrial customers in several segments, including the oil and gas industry. The ExOne process – primarily using stainless steel or sand – gives traditional
Through ExOne’s additive manufacturing process, the companies were able to test various designs, adjusting information directly from computer-aided design (CAD) data. Since design constraints don’t apply to 3D printing methods, ExOne and Ulterra were able to land on the most efficient and wear-resistant product. The new stators were created using a matrix of approximately 60 percent S4 stainless steel and 40 percent bronze materials, and produced a near net shape that eliminated nearly 95 percent of traditional machining (Fig 2). Fig 1: Previous Stator show considerable wear after 200 hours
The results were dramatic. The new parts, created from ExOne’s metal printing method, showed more life and cost less than Ulterra’s traditional parts. The life of the stators was extended by more than 200 percent, showing no measurable wear after 600 hours of use in down hole drilling applications (Fig 3). The cost was reduced by nearly 80 percent, as the new wear-resistant rotors and stators cost $75-$150 each. Fig 2: ExOne’s 3D printed Stator In addition to its work with Ulterra, ExOne also works with several top manufacturers around the world in aerospace, automotive, energy, pumping and medical industries. Manufacturers that use ExOne’s additive manufacturing process have seen significant advantages over traditional methods, including the ability to expand creativity with virtually unlimited design complexity as well as the opportunity for rapid production and prototypes. This in turn reduces lead times and gets products to the market faster, while producing little to no waste in comparison to traditional, subtractive methods of trimming and shaping metals. Fig 3: New Stator after 600 hours of use
ExOne and Ulterra Extend Part Life and Reduce Costs through Additive Manufacturing
ExOne has firmly positioned itself as the leader in the industrial market, and over the past year has made significant strides to further solidify that position The company continues to develop machines that increase print speeds and reduce lead time in an effort to continually lower the cost curve for industrial customers. For example, ExOne’s M-FLEX metal printer dramatically increases the capabilities of a 3D metal printer, offering more than seven times the volume output of machines currently in use. Fig 4: Ultera’s Stator 3D Printed using ExOne M-flex metal printer It’s no secret that additive manufacturing/3D printing continues to explode, with major companies like Ford, Apple, Samsung and GE publicly announcing the integration of the technology into their production processes. In fact, a report recently published by Research and Markets claims the 3D printing/additive manufacturing industry will be worth $4 billion by 2025.
EOS Customer Case Study: Full Thrust: Innovation for Maintenance of High Performance Industrial Gas Turbines
Challenge Customizing an EOS solution for the precise, cost-effective, and faster repair of gas turbine components exposed to extreme temperatures.
Solution Enlargement of the construction capacity to accommodate individual customized repairs through the reapplication of material to the worn burner tip of the gas turbine. Results • Fast: time required for the repair process of burner tips has fallen by more than 90% • Innovative: old burner versions can quickly be brought up to the latest standards of technology • Cost-effective: potential cost reductions already seen at an early stage
Repair technology in use: Dr. Vladimir Navrotsky, Head of Technology and Innovation at Siemens Energy Service, Oil & Gas and Industrial Applications, holding a burner tip which was repaired within a short time frame by means of Additive Manufacturing (Source: Siemens).
Repair process based on EOS technology opens new opportunities for industrial gas turbine maintenance cost reduction
In 1852 James Prescott Joule described the physical principle of the gas turbine – the thermodynamic cycle, also known as the Joule-Process for the first time. The initial ideas and concepts behind this invention date back as early as 1791.
spectrum of these Siemens industrial turbines ranges between 15 and 60 MW. Besides construction, the Siemens subsidiary also provides long-term service and maintenance for these engineering masterpieces. In an effort to help reduce maintenance costs, Siemens is currently working with the development and implementation of Additive Manufacturing technology, utilising EOS technology and equipment.
Swedish-based company, Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB (SIT), manufactures gas turbines for power generation in industrial and oil & gas applications. The performance
Challenge Short Profile
The gas turbine consists of air inlet, compressor, combustor, turbine and hot gas outlet. The compressor compresses the air going through the engine. In the combustion chamber, compressed air is mixed with fuel and burned in order to increase the kinetic energy of the flow. In the turbine, the kinetic energy of the flow is converted into mechanical energy. This mechanical energy is used to turn the gas turbine compressor and generator (to generate electricity) or other driven equipment (e.g. compressor to pump the gas /oil through the pipe lines). During operations, the components in the engine’s hot gas path are exposed to high temperatures, at times in excess of 1,000 degrees Celsius (e.g. blades and vanes). This, in turn, leads to a high level of wear of the hot gas path components.
Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB manufactures installs, commissions and services industrial gas turbines with a power range of 15 to 60 MW. Address Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB SE-612 83 Finspong Sweden
This is also true for the burner tip – the point at which the ignition of the fuel-air mixture takes place. Here, the effects of wear and tear can be clearly seen and measured. The manufacturer undertook rigorous testing to establish a prescribed operating period after which the burners typically need to be repaired. Conventional repair procedure required prefabrication of a big portion of the burner tip. This prefabricated burner tip is used for replacement of the burner tip after a specified operation time (cut old and weld prefabricated one). Conventional repair procedure can be time-consuming with a significant number of sub-processes and examinations. To help simplify and speed up the repair procedure Additive Manufacturing technology was implemented at Siemens.
EOS Customer Case Study: Full Thrust: Innovation for Maintenance of High Performance Industrial Gas Turbines
Solution Such an undertaking requires an innovative partner. Siemens found just that in EOS: In addition to having the right Additive Manufacturing technology, EOS was also able, within a short time frame, to individually adapt one of its in-house machines – an EOSINT M 280 – for this processing. The alterations concerned, in particular, the scale of the machine’s interior, which had to be enlarged to accommodate the 800 millimetre burner. The manufacturer also amended further hardware components such as a camera system and an optical measuring system and made corresponding adjustments to the
software. EOS carried out the extensive re-working of the EOSINT system in less than a year. From the outset it was clear that the approach would be reaping benefits. Rather than replacing a large portion of the burner tip, Siemens began by removing the damaged material only. Moreover, during repair, former versions of the burners in the fleet could be re-built to the latest design. So, theses former versions of the burners in the fleet could be not only repaired, but also improved – thus bringing new meaning to the term Additive Manufacturing.
Results Figures, data and facts clearly detail the success of the new repair process. Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB will be able to make a significant impact on the central concern – the reduction of the repair time: For the operator, what is equally important is that the turbines are quickly ready to return to service. This provides additional opportunities for potential cost reduction of the repair process – resulting in overall maintenance cost reduction.
access to the latest technology, even if their turbines have seen years of service.
“Additive Manufacturing opens up new dimensions for us in the use of integrated design and production. This technology enables us to manufacture and repair components for our industrial gas turbines far quicker than before. At the same time the functionality and performance of the part is increased.”
Alongside the benefits to its own repair process, Siemens can now offer its customers strategic advantages: Through the new process, the experts are able to make improvements to the turbine technology relating to the component by building them into the repair process. In this way, operators could have Dr. Vladimir Navrotsky, Head of Technology and Innovation at Siemens Energy Service, Oil & Gas and Industrial Applications, summarizes: “With this new repair technology we are looking to carry out these high precision jobs much more quickly.” It's not only the Swedish Siemens’ subsidiary that views the project as a significant achievement. “We have successfully pushed our technology into the repair arena. We have shown that we are capable of modifying our system quickly to meet customer-specific requirements. In this case, the modifications to both hardware and software were significant. Everyone involved can look back with satisfaction, not only at the end result but also the route to achieving it,” says Stefan Oswald from EOS.
-Dr. Vladimir Navrotsky, Head of Technology and Innovation at Siemens Energy Service, Oil & Gas and Industrial Applications
Race Tech: 3D Printing of Sand Moulds - Voxeljet
High-tech company voxeljet considers the promotion of innovative approaches and developments at the university level an important societal responsibility. For this reason, the Augsburg-based company supports the Racetech racing team of Bergakademie Freiberg Technical University – with great success.
Project description: The car must be faster, and also lighter. Also in the formula student projects is the focus on the weight optimization of the new racing cars. In this case, a magnesium and an aluminum wheel carrier were compared. Purpose: Prototyping Challenge: Production of Complex wheel carrier in a few weeks Solution: Production of 2 sand casting molds for the aluminium and magnesium castings
CAD-file of the wheel carrier
Sand casting form of the wheel carrier
Race Tech in action
Mounted wheel carrier
voxeljet supplied the Racetech racing team with printed sand
new developments for even lighter wheel mounts and a weight-
moulds for magnesium sand casting as early as the 2009/2010
optimised steering gear housing made of magnesium materials.
racing season. The resulting lightweight-construction components contributed to the Freiberg team's 14th place out
Both chassis components are relevant to stability, since high
of 475 teams in the world rankings at the end of the season. At
directional and camber stability form the basis for maintaining
this time, the students are working on the new "RT06" race car. Similar to current developments in the automotive industry,
good control over the race car. The only restriction that had to be taken into account with regard to the new design was a
which focus on lightweight construction and energy efficiency,
minimum wall thickness of three millimetres, which was
work on the RT06 also emphasises weight reduction, including
specified by the foundry for larger-scale magnesium components.
Moulds from furan resin-bound moulding material Once the CAD models for the required moulds and cores for
magnesium melting thanks to its low binder content and hence
the new vehicle components were available, work on the production of the moulds commenced at the voxeljet service
minimal gas formation. A total of four mould sets for the steering gear housing and eight wheel mount mould sets were
centre. The modern high-performance 3D printers produced the
printed exactly in accordance with the CAD data set, and at
moulds made of furan resin-bound moulding material within a few days. The moulding material is ideally suited for
accurate voxeljet quality.
Race Tech: 3D Printing of Sand Moulds - Voxeljet
Compared to the previous vehicle, the new wheel mounts are approximately ten percent lighter, while the steering gear housing is even 50 percent lighter and the stability of both components has been increased by 20 percent. All in all, it makes for a light and competitive start to the new season for the new RT06 race car. TECHNICAL DATA: PLASTIC PARTS Total size (mm) 515 x 211 x 80 Weight (kg) 1,2 Individual parts 1 Material Sand Layer thickness (mm) 0,3 Lead time (days) 5 Build time (hours) 3,5 Sandcasting: fast, patternless, close-to production
CASTINGS Total size Weight (kg) Material Lead time (weeks)
Voxeljet produces moulds for casting from dataset. Through implementing the Generis Sand Process the user benefits from crucial time and cost savings. Based on 3D CAD data the moulds are made fully automatically without tools using the
515 x 211 x 80 3,4 Aluminium 3
layer building method in the required mould material. The laborious and costly route to the otherwise necessary mould set-up is dispensed with. Our ability to produce moulds with dimensions of 4 x 2 x 1 meters is unique worldwide.
Optimising a Nokia Lumia 820 Cover for 3D Printing - Materialise
The Final Result is Functional, Customizable and Free to Download! Nokia recently came out in support of 3D Printing by challenging the public to personalize and 3D print their own cases for the Nokia Lumia 820. Although 3D printed phone cases are nothing new (for example, you can get personalized iPhone cases here), this is the first time that a phone manufacturer has released the schematics for a cover so that it can be customized and printed by the public. The team at Materialise’s consumer service, i.materialise, was so excited about Nokia’s initiative that they ran to the store, picked up a Nokia Lumia 820, downloaded the schematic, and started printing. Unfortunately, the team soon discovered that the design released by Nokia had not yet been optimized for 3D Printing and therefore, was not fully functional. However, Nokia has still taken an important step in the right direction and the i.materialise team wanted to support their initiative by helping design a cover that really worked. The team did this by working together with engineers within Materialise, people who are specialized in working together with manufacturers to optimize products for 3D Printing Putting Nokia’s Design to the Test at Materialise The i.materialise team did test prints of the Nokia cover design using a wide variety of 3D Printing technologies and materials present at Materialise’s headquarters. By doing so, they could identify the strengths and weaknesses of Nokia’s original design. The first results were somewhat disappointing: when the team printed the shell all in one piece, the buttons didn’t work. And, when they printed the buttons separately, they didn’t fit in the shell. Finally, clipping the covers on and off caused most of the prints to break. You can read more about the first couple days of testing on i.materialise’s blog posts here and here After all the tests were complete, it became clear that some re-engineering would definitely be needed before a cover could be 3D printed that A) could be put on and taken off the phone without breaking and B) had functional buttons. Nokia Lumia 820 covers printed in a wide variety of 3D Printing technologies and materials present at Materialise’s headquarters, unfortunately none were functional.
Engineering Services Works its ‘Magics’ on the Nokia Lumia 820 Cover Dries, from Materialise’s Engineering Services team, explains how they created Nokia Lumia 820 covers that could be successfully 3D Printed by consumers, either at home or through an online service. “First, we worked on a design to be printed in resin (technology: Stereolithography). We started by using 3-maticsoftware to perform the needed design operations directly on the STL file, like easily cutting the shell in two parts and making the outer shell thicker (2 mm instead of 0.9mm). For the resin design, we also changed the tolerance around the buttons because we needed more space. The buttons were printed separately in transparent resin because it makes them easy to use, and it looks great!” Optimized design for stereolithography technology results in a functional, good-looking design
“For the polyamide design (technology: Laser Sintering) we used 3-matic to redesign the buttons and make them functional. Again, we made the walls of the cover thicker. Then, we uploaded the file to Magics to fix any errors, check the printability and get the design ready to send to the printer.”
Optimising a Nokia Lumia 820 Cover for 3D Printing - Materialise
“For the polyamide design (technology: Laser Sintering) we used 3-matic to redesign the buttons and make them functional. Again, we made the walls of the cover thicker. Then, we uploaded the file to Magics to fix any errors, check the printability and get the design ready to send to the printer.” “When redesigning the cover for ABS (technology: FDM), in addition to again increasing the thickness and creating functional buttons, we also made the corners rounder and smoother, which makes it nicer to hold. Using Magics, we also figured out the best orientation for printing the cover so that it would not only look its best, but it would also be easy to take the part off the machine without damaging the buttons.”
Optimized design for Laser Sintering technology includes buttons with built-in functionality
With the Nokia Lumia 820 cover now fully functional and successfully printed - thanks to an engineering team specialized at getting the best out of each 3D printing technology - it was time to share the results with the world. Just as Nokia was excited to share the schematics of the Lumia 820 cover with the general public,i.materialise also wanted to ensure that anyone interested in creating their own cover, would be able to do so successfully.
Optimized design for FDM technology which is smooth, clean, and easy to print
i.materialise has placed a smooth and functional Nokia Lumia 8 Interested in Printing Your Own Nokia Lumia 820 Cover?
20 cover design on Thingiverse for all to download and enjoy for free. Once you have downloaded the file, feel free to add your own personal touch to the cover in order to truly make it your own. Then, you can either print it at home or send it to a service like i.materialise, where you can choose from a wide range of materials and finishes that take your design to the next level. If you need some inspiration, you can take a look at some of the customized designs that i. materialise has come up with. With the basic design taken care of, it was just a matter of adding different textures, texts, decorations or finishes to take a great looking phone and make it truly spectacular.
Fully functional, customized cover for the Nokia Lumia 820, designed by i.materialise
Press Release: EOS Metal Materials
EOS introduces two new metal materials for Additive Manufacturing: EOS Titanium Ti64 ELI and EOS Stainless Steel 316L EOS, the technology and market leader for design-driven and industrial Additive Manufacturing solutions expands its metal materials portfolio with EOS Titanium Ti64ELI and EOS Stainless Steel 316L. Christiane Krempl, Product Marketing Manager Metals at EOS adds: “A broader variety of titanium and stainless steel materials mirrors the ever changing requirements among our customers and opens up new fields of application." Watch case, EOS Stainless Steel 316L
EOS Titanium Ti64ELI: light metal alloy – corrosion resistant and biocompatible Parts built in EOS Titanium Ti64 have a chemical composition light metal alloy shows an excellent corrosion resistance. Due and mechanical properties corresponding to ASTM F136. to its biocompatibility and high grade of purity it is particularly Providing a high detail resolution it can be processed on an suited for the additive manufacturing of medical implants. EOSINT M 280 (400 Watt) metal laser-sintering system. This EOS StainlessSteel 316L: corrosion resistant and biocompatible stainless steel This stainless steel alloy has been optimized specifically for the processing on the EOSINT M 280 metal laser-sintering system. It shows a good corrosion resistance and a high ductility. Parts built from EOS StainlessSteel 316L have a chemical composition corresponding to ASTM F138 (“Standard Specification for Wrought 18Cr-14Ni-2.5Mo Stainless Steel Bar and Wire for Surgical Implants UNS S31673)”. In the medical industry, this alloy is particularly suited for surgical instruments, for endoscopic surgery, orthopaedics and implants.
jewelry industry, where the designer benefits from extensive freedom of design. Shaping and structural restrictions as such are a thing of the past. Parts such as watch cases thanks to defined hollow spaces can be manufactured more costefficiently and easily, at the same time saving resources. The material is also well suited for additive manufacturing applications such as spectacle frames or functional elements in yachts. In the aerospace industry EOS StainlessSteel is a good choice for the manufacture of clamping elements or heat exchangers. Parts manufactured from that material can mechanically post-processed or polished.
The material is also a good choice for use in the watch and About EOS Founded in 1989 and headquartered in Germany, EOS is the technology and market leader for design-driven, integrated eManufacturing solutions for Additive Manufacturing (AM), an industrial 3D printing process. EOS offers a modular solution portfolio including systems, software, materials and material development as well as services (maintenance, training, specific application consulting and support). As an industrial manufacturing process it allows the fast and flexible production
of high-end parts based on 3D CAD data at a repeatable industry level of quality. As a disruptive technology it paves the way for a paradigm shift in product design and manufacturing. It accelerates product development, offers freedom of design, optimizes part structures, and enables lattice structures as well as functional integration. As such, it creates significant competitive advantages for its customers. For more information please visit our website under www.eos.info.
Press Release: Current trends in metal laser melting (LaserCUSING)
Metal laser melting is changing the future of manufacturing- Printing 3D geometries versus molding them – new perspectives for design and function Quality requirements increase for additive processes The magic word in industrial manufacturing these days is 3D printing. The shift from mold-based component concepts to additive geometric freedom is not just a fad, it's a major trend. The advantages are striking: faster processing times, lower-cost components and a level of design freedom that is so far unheard of. This dynamic market development has spurred two-digit growth rates in the industry. Dr. Florian Bechmann, Head of Development at Concept Laser, reports on trends and increased quality requirements. The main forces behind this momentum include the automotive, medical technology and aerospace industries. These technology drivers demand high standards, not only in terms of quality and choice of materials but also with regard to quantitative aspects such as increased productivity. Customers like these require faster construction times or more parts in a single build chamber. To meet the needs of the automotive industry, Concept Laser developed the X line 1000R, which
currently offers the largest build chamber. The transition from a 400W laser to a 1000W laser represents an important milestone for the process. It was developed in close cooperation with laser specialists from the Fraunhofer Institute. The goal was to develop quicker processes that are also more affordable. Very large laser melting systems serve as timesaving solutions for developing modern vehicle engines or large-scale aerospace components.
Aerospace relies consistently on additive processes The aerospace industry is the source of an increasing amount of innovation that demands high-quality solutions. Many of these involve the use of reactive materials such as titanium or aluminum-based alloys, which must be produced in closed systems to ensure reliability and quality. Customers such as NASA, the German Aerospace Center (DLR), Honeywell, Snecma, Aerojet/Rocketdyne and EADS subsidiary Astrium Space Transportation see the additive process as the next broad-scale step in the evolution of modern production. NASA engineers are even considering using additive manufacturing to produce components on the ISS – in orbit. The advantage of this would be the ability to produce parts in space using CAD data. In the US, we are seeing major investments in capital and human resources, not only in research and instruction but in industry as well. The Europeans can contribute their research and mechanical engineering capabilities mainly in the US and Europe. In Europe, the EU is promoting this process through projects like AMAZE due to a strong belief in its sustainability and innovative capacity. Medical technology as an important cornerstone Metal laser melting is revolutionizing medical technology: traditional process chains are being completely reconceptualized. LaserCUSING parts are in demand for implants since their porous surfaces incorporate well into the body while providing the necessary elasticity. One rising
application is the affordable and rapid production of dental prosthetics from biocompatible materials. These are highly adaptable, long-lasting dental solutions, as opposed to dental prosthetics that must be handcrafted.
Value retention through retrofitting The process is suitable for retrofitting as well: worn-out turbine parts from power plants or aircraft can be quickly and affordably regenerated. In this hybrid technique, layers of the
exact same material can be applied additively to the existing part. In addition to regeneration, new whole parts are also produced for turbine technology applications.
R&D efforts are ramping up In an effort to boost its development activities and meet the increased demands of the market, Concept Laser opened a new development center in late 2013. For design and development engineers from a variety of different industries, metal laser melting offers a fascinating range of solutions. The company's goal is to meet this market trend head-on through
innovation. When it comes to complex systems, the right combination of optics, mechanics, control technology, software and powder material is the key. The engineers at the new Concept Laser development center are working on "discreet innovations" that have not yet been revealed to the public.
Press Release: Current trends in metal laser melting (LaserCUSING)
New options for designers LaserCUSING allows the incorporation of features such as cooling channels, important for components exposed to high thermal loads or for reducing injection molding cycle times in the plastics industry. The offshore industry is considering
installing laser melting systems on drilling platforms, which would allow for independent, on-site production of certain components. The technology is not fixed to a specific location and can be operated locally.
Ensuring quality in real-time Concept Laser offers quality management modules for laser melting systems. Two modules are available with two different approaches: QMmeltpool and QMcoating. Dr. Bechmann explains the difference: "With QMmeltpool, the system uses a camera and photo diode to record signals during the process. This data can then be compared to reference values. The optical system is designed coaxially. It allows the camera to record a very small area, about 1 mm², of the melting pool. It can detect impaired laser performance due to contamination of the F-theta lens or natural aging of the laser, as well as
deviations in the dosing factor." The second approach is that of the QMcoating module, which ensures that the optimal powder quantity is used, thus reducing the amount of unnecessary material (by up to 25%) and allowing faster set-up times. QMcoating monitors the layer surface while powder is being applied. If too little or too much powder is dosed, the dosing factor is adjusted accordingly, i.e., actively counteracted. The two QM modules monitor and document the process in realtime, thereby ensuring reproducible quality.
Key factors for improved quality are in the details With Concept Laser, there is always a characteristic division between build chamber and handling area. According to Dr. Bechmann, this ensures maximum work safety and ergonomics. The systems transport powder automatically in containers. In metal laser melting technology, a closed system
offers many advantages, not only in terms of component quality, as oxygen contamination is avoided, but also in terms of safety when working with reactive materials like titanium or titanium alloys. The safety requirements for the system are defined by the EU's ATEX directive.
Press Release: Stratasys – 3D Printed FT-1 Concept Car
MakerBot Revs Up Toyota's Presence at New York International Auto Show with 3D Printed FT-1 Concept Car Toyota Auto Show Exhibit Features On-site 3D Printing and a Chance to Win a MakerBot Replicator Desktop 3D Printer NEW YORK--(BUSINESS WIRE)-- The New York International Auto Show roared into the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center this week and Toyota, the world's top automakers, .
made a splash with 3D printed versions of its FT-1 concept car by MakerBot, a global leader in the desktop 3D printing industry
MakerBot was at the Toyota booth this week at the New York International Auto Show 3D printing models of the Toyota FT-1 concept car. (Photo: Business Wire)
From now through April 27, visitors to the Toyota exhibit can view the FT-1 concept car on display and watch as a scaleddown model is 3D printed on a MakerBot® Replicator® 2 Desktop 3D Printer. Visitors interested in 3D printing can also participate in a daily drawing to win a MakerBot Replicator 2 for the remainder of the auto show.
"It is remarkable that MakerBot technology can help automotive manufacturers like Toyota with design methodology, manufacturing and QA processes," said Mark Schulze, MakerBot's vice president of sales. "This demonstration proves that previously unthinkable solutions to everyday problems can now be found by giving engineers access to 3D printers."
"Automotive manufacturers have always been enthusiastic and early adopters of 3D printing, starting 25 years ago when 3D printing was first introduced," noted Bre Pettis, CEO of MakerBot. "3D printing brings an affordable and immediate impact to the development and design of cars. A concept designed in a CAD file can be 3D printed, reviewed and immediately tested for consumer feedback. When Toyota proposed creating a 3D printed version of the FT1 concept car at the New York International Auto Show, we immediately jumped on board for the ride."
MakerBot was also on hand at the Toyota Arcade on April 16, a media party hosted by Toyota at the Standard Biergarten, in conjunction with the two-day New York International Auto Show press preview. On display at the event was the Toyota FT-1 in addition to two MakerBot Replicator Desktop 3D Printers 3D printing keychain-sized models of the FT-1 in real time for partygoers. MakerBot also provided 3D trophies for winners of the Toyota FT-1 editors' challenge, which took place during the event.