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ISSN:2311-3804 March, 2014 Volume 6-Issue 1

Inside the Magazine: 

Implementation of Integrated Pest Management Tactics for Controlling of Rice Stem Borers

Impact of Climate Change on Rice Production

Rice Trade Forecast 2013 and 2014

Importance of Rice Blast and Their Management Strategies

Global Rice Trade

Rice: Role in Global Warming

Understanding Rural Farmers’ Information Behaviour

Call for Paper

Fighting Hunger Worldwide

India: Forecast to Remain World’s Largest Rice Exporter in 2014

Marketing Problems of Rice in Pakistan

Summary in Brief …pg 19.

ISSN:2311-3804 March, 2014 Volume 6-Issue 1 Rice plus A Quarterly Magazine

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ISSN:2311-3804 March, 2014 Volume 6-Issue 1 Rice plus A Quarterly Magazine



Implementation of Integrated Pest Management Tactics in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) for Controlling of Rice Stem Borers (Insecta: Lepidoptera) Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Impact of Climate Change on Rice Production Muhammad Mohsin Raza, Muhammad Aslam Khan, Zeeshan Sattar and Asim Ali


Rice Trade Forecast 2013 and 2014


Importance of Rice Blast and Their Management Strategies Zeeshan Sattar, Dr. Muhammad Aslam Khan, Iqra Ashfaq and M. Mohsin Raza



Global Rice Trade International Rice Research


Rice: Role in Global Warming Dr. Muhammad Tahir and Neelam Yasin Understanding Rural Farmers’ Information Behaviour Muhammad Asif Naveed


Call for Paper

3rd International Conference on Agricultural & Horticultural Sciences Fighting Hunger Worldwide

13-14 14 15-16

World Food Programme India: Forecast to Remain World’s Largest Rice Exporter in 2014


Marketing Problems of Rice in Pakistan Dr. Muhammad Tahir and Memoona Shehzadi


3rd Invention to Innovation Summit 2014


We are Knowledge Partner with


ISSN:2311-3804 March, 2014 Volume 6-Issue 1 Implementation of Integrated Pest Management Tactics in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) for Controlling of Rice Stem Borers (Insecta: Lepidoptera) Dr. Muhammad Sarwar*


akistan produces sufficient amount of superior quality rice (Oryza sativa L.) to fulfill both domestic and foreign demands to adequately feed peoples globally. Generally, there are different types of rice including short-grain rice (very starchy and cooks up soft and sticky), longgrain rice (less starch so the cooked grains are drier and more separate), basmati (long-grain varieties cultivated to bring out distinctive flavor profiles) and brown rice (available in long and short grains, is a lot chewier and heartier than white rice). Mainly, two categories of rice dominate in the national market, for example, Basmati, which is mostly grown in Punjab, and IRRI that is generally produced in Punjab and Sindh provinces. The various types of rice provide different textures, tastes and nutritional value. The gross composition of rice and its various milling fractions show that rice is rich in energy and a good source of protein. The rice contains a reasonable amount of thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin E and other nutrients. It is one of the principal sources of energy, protein, iron, calcium, thiamine, riboflavin and niacin in human diets. Insect Pests of Rice Specially Rice Stem Borers: The greater rice paddy production occurs in the irrigated areas, where certain varieties can express their high yield potential. Mean farm yields of irrigated rice in many localities are still lower due to presence of pests and diseases. Insect pests are major problems in the rice production; particularly where rice monoculture is practiced, and because plant hosts are continuously present in the environment. The major insect pests are the rice stem borers, which may start attacking the plants in the nursery especially after transplanting in the fields.  The yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker), striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker)  The pink stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) are the most injurious insect pests of rice.

Their caterpillars enter the stem and feed on the internal tissue, the tillers may get affected at different stages, and associated yield losses and costs of control have reached the highest recorded levels. In the vegetative stage, dead hearts (central shoot dries up) can be seen in the affected tillers, and in the reproductive stage; whiteear (earheads become chaffy) may be seen. The final instar larvae make an exit hole and pupate within the larval tunnel at the base of the plant in a silken cocoon. Integrated Management of Rice Stem Borers: The approach, known as integrated pest management (IPM), in the rice is referred to as a broad ecological attack combining several tactics including biological, chemical, cultural control methods and insect resistant rice varieties, for the economic control and management of pest populations. Components of the current integrated management approach include;  Ploughing and irrigating the fallow rice paddy in early spring to kill overwintering larvae and pupae  Postponing and synchronizing seeding and transplanting dates of rice to reduce the opportunity of oviPosition by over-

wintered moths  Use of stem borer mid-resistant varieties of rice  Use of pheromone and highly effective light traps to trap and kill moths  Provide better communication and information to farmers for using pest control techniques properly More than one hundred species of parasitoids, predators and insect pathogens attack rice stem borers. Borers are most vulnerable to natural enemies at the egg, neonate larval and adult stages. Parasitism and predation of stem borer eggs are usually very high and are important population regulating factors. Three groups of egg parasitoids, Telenomus (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), Tetrastichus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) are the most dominating and important. * The author is Principal Scientist in Plant Protection Division, Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad, Pakistan.


March, 2014 Volume 6-Issue 1

Biotechnology Crop Life Cycle

The two most important egg predators are, meadow grasshopper Conocephalus longipennis (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) and cricket Metioche vittataicollis (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). 

There are white fungi Beauveria, Cordyceps and Nomuraea which infect stem borers and in high moisture fungal spores germinate and invade the soft tissue and body fluids of borers.

Chemical Control Measures in nursery by soil application of granules or foliar application after 3 weeks of sowing can be taken based on one moth or egg mass per square meter economic threshold level. Within field application of the insecticides to control stem borers can be taken based on consistently increasing trend of moths in light trap or 1 egg mass or 5 percent dead hearts economic threshold level. However, it is imperative that researchers and farmers should explore and implement alternative approaches to least relying on insecticides. The New and Modern Rice Varieties have been developed and these germplasms have erect leaves, heavy tillering and low photoperiod sensitivity. Their plant architectures allow them to absorb nutrients without lodging and allow sunlight to penetrate the leaf canopy. Growth duration is shorter in the modern varieties and is about close to hundred days from seedling to maturity, which at low input levels of insecticides and fertilizers outperform better comparably to traditional varieties. The yield potentials of the new and modern varieties are better, but they also show improved resistance to insect pests and diseases and increased tolerance to environmental stresses. Nevertheless, their increased resistances are single-gene characteristics which can be overcome by the pests after a few years. Insect resurgence has been documented in which insecticide spraying increased the insect population instead of reducing it. Alternative approaches of horizontal or multilane resistance are considered necessary, as there is a rapid breakdown of resistance to the borers because of the appearance of new insect biotypes. Certain sources of resistance have been identified in cultivated wild species of rice and these are being introduced through wide crosses to O. sativa. Use of Biotechnology: Few recent advances in biotechnology are providing the possibility of solving some of the constraints that have limited the practical use of genetic resistance to insects in pest management programs. Biotechnology provides new possibilities of manipulating germplasm wide hybridization, which is a plant breeding tool for the incorporation of alien genetic variation from wild species of Oryza into commercially useful cultivars. Wild rice species are rich source of R genes and are used in breeding programs for insect resistance. Wide genetic transformation, scientists are incorporating novel genes for resistance into rice through transformation. Genes, such as the Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) gene coding for toxic proteins, inhibitors of digestive enzymes such as protease inhibitors, and ribosome inactivating genes are being transferred to rice. The availability of rice varieties with multiple resistance to IPM is a part of Integrated Crop Management (ICM), insects and diseases can stabilize yields, increase farmer income, a system which encompasses all aspects of crop minimize the need for pesticides and it can promote the adoption of management. ICM supports the appropriate integraIPM practices. The IPM approaches are very promising and if imtion of IPM to farming practices. plemented on an area-wide basis will lead to much improved control of the stem borers by keeping their density below economic injury thresholds, through protecting the rural environment and the health of farmers.


ISSN:2311-3804 March, 2014 Volume 6-Issue 1

Impact of Climate Change on Rice Production Muhammad Mohsin Raza, Muhammad Aslam Khan, Zeeshan Sattar and Asim Ali (*)


ice is an essential component of the diet and the most important staple food crop of about 3.23 billion people of the world’s population especially in Asia. More than 90% of the world’s rice is grown and consumed in Asia, where 60% of the world’s population lives. It has important implications for food security because, among other things, it makes up approximately one third of the caloric intake of third world populations. Rice trade (which is dominated by Asian countries) is modest only 17 percent of the global trade of other cereals because these countries aim to be self-sufficient in future. Over 150 million hectares of rice is planted annually, covering around 10% of the world’s arable land. With the world population estimated to increase from 6.2 billion in the year 2000 to about 8.2 billion in the year 2030, the global rice demand will rise to about 765 million tons, or 533 million tons of milled rice. Yet, the challenge for rice production is twofold: coping with population growth while also facing climate change. Climate is an important factor for agricultural productivity. It plays a key role in the production of crops. From the last few years a new term named “Climate Change” is emerging which is hanging all over the world. It is an enormous challenge for societies worldwide. It is caused by the release of ‘greenhouse’ gases into the atmosphere. These gases accumulate in the atmosphere, which result in global warming. Many plant species are temperature sensitive; predicted increases in global temperatures will have adverse effects on our environment and put increasing stress on agriculture. Large number of people in the world still without access to adequate food, ensuring global food security continues to be a big challenge. Unforeseen changes associated with global Chinese rice production increase sub- warming temperature, carbon dioxide and rainfall stantially under climate change due are expected to influence rice production. The immediate impacts of climate change to technology progress as changes of on rice production systems and food security will rice area from south to North regions be felt in the form of adverse effects of extreme plays significant roles in past yield weather changes on rice production. Studies have shown that increase temperature, due to climate promotion. change, adversely affects rice crop physiology ultimately decreasing crop yields and grain quality. A comprehensive simulation research revealed that past climate change since 1960s decreased rice yield by 12.4%, but with largest contribution coming from lowering radiation. Statistical analysis between climate variables and observed yield also demonstrated ‘Pakistan worst affected by climate change’ positive and negative yield response in different regions. C ha ng es in mean temperatures, increasing weather variability, and sea level rising predicted less but possibly even more significant effect on rice production. As carbon dioxide is an essential component in photosynthesis, increased atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide is, January 26,2014 expected to increases plant growth and consequently rice yields. Uncertainty associated particularly in projected precipitation spatial and temporal * Authors belong to the Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan.


March, 2014 Volume 6-Issue 1 patterns caused by climate change, make it difficult to predict the full effect of intensified frequency of floods and severe droughts. It is important to note, that in regions with more radiation rice production results in higher grain yields. Generally, scholars believe that climate change has a beneficial effect on rice grain yield. The effects of carbon dioxide increase have been found to be abolished by the effects of increase in temperature. However, multiple sources of bias have estimated that the impact climate change on rice production is uncertain. The magnitude of the bias is estimated to range between 1 to 32 percent. This statement illustrates the uncertainty in estimating the effects of climate change on rice production. Uncertainty in projections results from climate models, spatial resolution, crop models, and to add an additional level of complexity. Rice cultivation strongly depends on farmers’ management skills. Chinese rice production increased substantially under climate change due to technology progress as changes of rice area from south to North regions plays significant roles in past yield promotion. The key challenges for rice production in the future are diminishing agricultural water availability, larger climate variability, and increasing pest/diseases yield losses. An integrated impact (direct and indirect) is still unclear so far; need more researches, particularly through international cooperation. Finally, adaptation is needed urgently like rice production has to increase 30% in next ten or twenty years to feed the increasing population. Intensifying rice production in Northeast regions along with spreading hybrid rice (super grain14ton/ha) planting is needed. Research and demonstration of genetically modified rice will aid to alleviate the issue of food security under changing climate. Additionally, disaster alleviation for rice production and water saving in rice production should be focused. In the infrastructure modification, up land irrigated rice to replace paddy rice should be promoted and new irrigation operation schedule should be planed and adopted. Last but not the least, new resistant cultivars having resistance against diseases, pests and heat should be distributed to farmers to save the crop from these biotic and abiotic threats.

Water Availability and its Impact on Global Agriculture‌..DRIP, DRIP, GONE

Global water issues and the relationship to global agriculture.

Water consumption rate, by 2024

See details at:

two of every three people will live in water stressed conditions.


ISSN:2311-3804 March, 2014 Volume 6-Issue 1

Rice Trade Forecast 2013 and 2014


he year 2014 forecast global rice trade at a record 40.2 million tons, up 0.4 million tons from the previous forecast and 1.9 million tons above 2013. Global trade in 2014 is projected to be driven mainly by strong purchases by China and West Africa. India is projected to again be the largest exporter, with Thailand and Vietnam expected to increase exports. Only one 2014 export forecast was revised this month: Pakistan’s 2014 export forecast was raised 0.4 million tons to 3.4 million tons based on a larger crop and recommendations from the Pakistan’s 2013 and 2014 Export U.S. Agricultural Office in Islamabad. The only country-specific import revision for Forecasts are Raised 2014 was a 0.2-million ton increase in Philippines’ import forecast to 1.4 million tons based on information from the U.S. Agricultural Office in Manila indicating the Government wants to increase its buffer stocks. The 2013 total global rice trade forecast was lowered 0.1 million tons to 38.3 million, 2 percent below a year earlier. The only upward revision on the 2013 export side was a 0.3-million ton increase in Pakistan’s exports to 3.3 million, based on a much larger crop, shipment pace, and recommendations from the U.S. Agricultural Office in Islamabad. This increase was offset by three downward revisions. First, Thailand’s 2013 export forecast was lowered 0.3 million tons to 6.7 million tons based on pace to date and recommendations from the U.S. Agricultural Office in Bangkok. These are the smallest exports for Thailand since 2000. Second, the U.S. 2013 export forecast was lowered 50,000 tons to 3.2 million tons based on pace to date. Finally, Kazakhstan’s 2013 export forecast was lowered 10,000 tons to 40,000 tons, also based on shipment pace. There were four significant 2013 import revisions this month. First, Indonesia’s 2013 import forecast was lowered 350,000 tons to 650,000 tons based on pace to date and recommendations from the U.S. Agricultural Office in Jakarta. Specialty rice accounts for the bulk of the imported rice. These are the lowest imports for Indonesia since 2009. In nearby Malaysia, 2013 imports were lowered 150,000 tons to 900,000 based on shipment data. In the Western Hemisphere, Cuba’s 2013 imports were lowered 125,000 tons to 400,000 tons based on pace to date. Finally, Oman’s 2013 import forecast was raised 75,000 tons to 250,000 tons, also based on trade data. Global rice production for 2013/14 is forecast at a record 471.1 million tons (milled basis), up 0.5 million tons from last month’s forecast and up 1.6 million cwt from a year earlier. On a year-to-year basis, both East Asia and Southeast Asia are International Outlook projected to proProduction Forecasts for 2013/14 Raised for Brazil, duce record rice crops. Pakistan, and the United States The b u mp er global crop is the result of expanded area in 2013/14. At a record 160.1 million hectares, global rice area in 2013/14 is up 2.7 million hectares from a year earlier. Burma, Cambodia, China, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan account for most of the year-to-year area increase. Much of this area expansion is driven by higher Government support prices. The average global yield, forecast at 4.39 tons per hectare (on a rough-rice basis), is about 1 percent below the 2012/13 record. The yield decline is partly due to adverse weather in China and India, the world’s two largest rice producing countries. There were three significant upward revisions to 2013/14 crop forecasts this month. First, Pakistan’s 2013/14 production forecast was raised 0.4 million tons to 6.4 million tons based on information from the U.S. Agricultural Office in Islamabad indicating better than expected monsoon rains and higher yields from the hybrid varieties. The crop is still below the 2008/09 record of 6.9 million tons. Second, the U.S. 2013/14 crop estimate was raised 154,000 tons to 6.05 million tons due to slightly higher area and yield estimates reported by the USDA’s National Agricultural Statistics Service. And third, Brazil’s 2013/14 rice crop was raised 100,000 tons to 8.3 million tons based on data from the Government’s statistical agency Source with Thanks;


March, 2014 Volume 6-Issue 1 reporting slightly larger area and an even higher record yield. There were small upward revisions to production forecasts this month for both Spain and Kazakhstan. Global rice production in 2012/13 is estimated at 469.5 million tons, up 0.5 million tons from last month’s estimate and 1 percent larger than a year earlier. Pakistan accounted for the bulk of this month’s upward revision in 2012/13 production. Pakistan’s 2012/13 production estimate was raised 0.4 million tons to 5.8 million tons based on information from the U.S. Agricultural Office in Islamabad indicating a higher yield resulting from less than expected flood damage. Argentina’s 2012/13 crop estimate was raised 104,000 tons to 1.014 million based on a higher area estimate reported by the Ministry of Agriculture. Finally, Ecuador’s 2012/13 production estimate was raised 25,000 tons to 800,000 tons based on data and information from FAO. More rice was harvested than expected, and yields were higher than expected due to more favorable weather conditions that helped the crop during grain fill. Global rice use (including a residual component) for 2013/14 is projected at a record of 473.1 million tons, upto 0.2 million from the previous forecast and more than 1 percent larger than a year earlier. On an annual basis, Bangladesh, Brazil, Cambodia, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, and Vietnam account for most of the projected increase in global consumption in 2013/14. In contrast, consumption (including a residual component) is projected to decline in 2013/14 in Japan and South Korea. Consumption has declined for several decades in both Japan and South Korea due to diet diversification. Global ending stocks for 2013/14 are projected at 105.2 million tons, up 0.9 million tons from the previous forecast but down 1.9 million tons from a year earlier. This is the first decline since 2006/07 in global ending stocks. Pakistan, Philippines, and Thailand account for most of this month’s upward revision in global ending stocks. On a year-to-year basis, Thailand is projected to carry higher ending stocks in 2013/14, estimated at a record 14.7 million tons, while China, India, Indonesia, the United States, and Vietnam are projected to have smaller ending stocks. The global stocks-to-use ratio for 2013/14 is calculated at 22.2 percent, down slightly from a year earlier.

Note: The 2014 outlook rice market has been analyzed based on the latest projections contained USDA's World Agricultural Supply Estimates report. For detailed statistics, Please visit; http:// 9

ISSN:2311-3804 March, 2014 Volume 6-Issue 1

Importance of Rice Blast and Their Management Strategies Zeeshan Sattar*, Dr. Muhammad Aslam Khan**, Iqra Ashfaq* and M. Mohsin Raza**


ice is one of the leading food crops of the world, an important staple food and cash crop of Pakistan. About 438m ton rice is produced in the world whereas Pakistan produces 6.16 million ton rice annually. A spokesman for the agriculture department told that Pakistan was exporting 3.75m ton rice every year. He pointed out that more than 4,198,456 acre land was brought under rice cultivation in Punjab last year which produced 3,460,123 ton Importance of the Disease rice. It contributes 15 percent to the foreign exchange earnings. The rice crop is subjected to more than forty diseases, which are one of the factors for low yields of rice in the world (including Pakistan). Rice Blast Disease (RBD) is The diseases may appear at any stage of the growth and development spreading all over the world includof plant, attacking the seed sown, root system, foliage, stalk, leaf ing Pakistan where the rice plant is sheath, inflorescence and even the developing grain according to the cultivated, in both paddy and upenvironmental conditions. These all diseases are injurious to rice pro- land conditions. While the destrucductivity but Rice Blast) is serious threat to rice crop which can re- tion is very much predisposed by environmental factors, this disease duce the growth at any stage. is one of the most serious diseases Causal Organism of the rice plant in Pakistan. Rice blast is caused by the Ascomycete fungus, Pyricularia Oryzae (Pyriculariagrisea). The fungus is able to infect and produce lesions on all organs of the rice plant except the roots. Sometimes this disease refers as Pyrricularia blight or rotten neck, generally spread where ever rice is grown.

Symptoms  Leaf Blast: When the fungus attacks a young leaf, purple spots can be observed after an incubation period, changing into a spindle shape which has a gray center with a purple-to-brown boarder and then surrounded by a yellow zone as time passes. Brown spots appear only

on the older leaves or leaves of resistant cultivars.  Neck Rot and Panicle Blast: Infection to the neck node produces triangular purplish lesions, followed by le-

sion elongation to both sides of the neck node. These symptoms are very serious for grain development of rice plant. When young neck nodes are invaded, the panicles become white in colour the so-called ‘white head’ that is sometimes misinterpreted as insect damage. Later infection causes incomplete grain filling, and poor grain quality. Panicle branches and glumes may also be infected. Spikelet attacked by the fungus change to white in color from the top and produce many conidia, which become the inoculum source after heading.  Collar Rot: Infection at the junction of the leaf blade and the leaf sheath, i.e. the collar, readily occurs and causes browning of the tissues and withering of the leaves.  Node Blast: During heading, the stem nodes which appeared from the leaf sheaths are attacked and sometimes cause lodging. Diseased nodes are brown or black in color.

Control Measures  Burning or Composting of Diseased Tissues: Diseased straw and stubble must be burned or composted; other *

Authors are Research Fellows of ( Hon’s) in Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan ** Authors are Professor in Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.


March, 2014 Volume 6-Issue 1

wise they can become inoculum sources for the next crop season. Healthy Seed: To obtain healthy seeds, the seeds must be collected from the field located under unfavorable conditions for the pathogen, and fungicide must be applied if necessary. Gravity separation methods for seeds are useful. Salt solution, 200 g l–1, or ammonium sulfate solution, 230 g l–1, is used to separate sufficiently matured seeds, followed by chemical treatment for seed disinfection against a range of pathogens. Fertilizer Management: Nitrogen and phosphorus content in the plants affects disease proneness. Excess nitrogen fertilizer encourages disease development, while silica application reduces disease development. Therefore the amount and type of fertilizer must be carefully decided according to the cultivar used, soil condition, climatic conditions and disease risk. Cultural Systems: Sowing into water eliminates disease transmission from seeds to seedlings because of the anaerobic condition that is unfavorable to the pathogen. On the contrary, sowing on wet soil allows seed transmission. Shade affects disease occurrence because of the longer wet condition. Chemical Control: Many fungicides are used against blast disease, including benomyl, fthalide, edifenphos, iprobenfos, tricyclazole, isopro-thiolane, probenazole, pyroquilon, felimzone(= meferimzone), diclocymet, carpropamid, fenoxanil and metominostrobin, and antibiotics such as blasticidin and kasugamycin. Systemic fungicides are widely used to protect against leaf blast by seedling application and also to protect against panicle blast when applied more than 20 days before heading. Resistant Cultivars: Race-specific and race-nonspecific resistant cultivars have been bred all over the world. Based on the information of distribution of races, these cultivars can be selected. Forecasting Systems: Forecasting systems have been developed in some countries and being used effectively.

Global Rice Trade to Recover 4% in 2014 to 38.6 Million Tons, IGC Says IGC says global rice trade will receive a boost in 2014 due to higher shipments to Far East Asia (mainly China, Indonesia, the Philippines, South Korea, Bangladesh, Japan, and Malaysia). Rice exports to After a 3% decline in Far East Asia are forecast to increase around 2013, global rice trade 15% y/y to about 11.5 million tons in 2014, is expected to reup from around 11 million tons in the previ- bound to around 38.6 ous year. IGC says, China is expected to buy million tons in 2014, around 2.6 million tons in 2014 (up from 2.5 up about 1.3 million million in 2013) and double the prior five- tons or 4% from the year average of 1.3 million tons. Indonesia’s previous year’s 37.3 rice imports are forecast to increase by million tons, according to the London-based 500,000 tons or about 71% to around 1.2 milInternational Grains lion tons in 2014 mainly due to government Council (IGC). efforts to build rice reserves. In the Philippines, rice imports are projected to reach around 1.6 million tons in 2014, up about 128% from around 700,000 tons of rice imports last year. Among exporters, India is likely to be the top rice exporter again in 2014, but shipments are expected to decline to around 9.3 million tons, down about 10% from an estimated 10.4 million tons in 2013 mainly due to the introduction of the National Food Security Act. Vietnam’s rice exports in 2014 are expected to recover to around 7.3 million tons in 2014, up about 9% from around 6.7 million tons in 2013. Thailand’s rice exports are expected to recover by more than 20% y/y in 2014 to around 8.2 million tons, compared to around 6.7 million tons in 2013. Pakistan’s rice exports are unlikely to change from 2013 levels of around 3.2 million tons, while U.S. rice exports are expected to increase by around 200,000 tons y/y to around 3.4 million tons, IGC says. Global rice production is expected to reach around 470 million tons in 2014, slightly more than the previous year’s 469.4 million tons, while global rice consumption in 2014 is forecast at 471.4 million tons, up about 1% from an estimated 467 million tons in 2013. Ending stocks in 2014 are expected to reach around 107.9 million tons, down about 1.5% from beginning stocks of around 109.5 million tons. Source with Thanks:


ISSN:2311-3804 March, 2014 Volume 6-Issue 1

Rice: Role in Global Warming Dr. Muhammad Tahir* and Neelam Yasin**


t is evident that rice is the most vital waterlogged staple crop all over the world, and demand to grow more rice is increasing to feed the growing population. During the past 40 years the world’s rice harvested area increased from 41% to 304%. Rice contributes to feed a huge population. Pakistan is the world’s fourth largest rice producer. On the other hand it contributes in global warming , wetland rice fields have been considered as major source of atmospheric methane emissions. Methane is most imperative green house gas and accounting for 15 percent of the total enhanced global warming. Methane is colorless and odorless natural gas. Rice crop knows as manmade methane source. Higher the temperature, more carbon dioxide concentration and waterlogged rice paddies give ideal condition for methogenesis. Methogenesis is the biological formation of methane that occurs in all anaerobic environments in which organic matters under goes any decay. Van kessel and his colleagues are evident that waterlogged rice become less climate friendly. Rice plant grows more rapidly as more carbon dioxide enters the environment. This growth accelerates the metabolism of methane producer microscope organisms that live near the root zone of rice paddies. Van kessel revealed that increased carbon dioxide in the environment boosted rice yields by 24.5% and methane emissions by 42.2%.

How Methane Transfer from Soil to Environment Paddy field produce methane and releases it into environment by rice plant. Methane diffused in to the cortex of roots from the rhizosphere of waterlogged soil and release to atmosphere with the help of micro pores in the leaf sheath. Wang et al. revealed that about 50 percent of the methane was emitted from the leaf blades before shoot elongation.

Methods for Minimizing the Methane Releasing The production, oxidation and transport of methane from soil to environment can be controlled by adopting possible methods for minimizing methane emission. Methane releasing varies with water availability. Water management promoting mid season aeration by short term drainage is most important method for minimizing methane releasing. Sulphate containing fertilizer such as ammonium sulphate and gypsum contribute to reducing the methane emission because sulphate reducing bacteria can outcompete methane producing bacteria and reduced the methane emission. Addition of Organic matters to flooded rice field increase the production of methane. So the application of fermented manure like biogas slurry minimizes methane emission. The application of fermented organic manure into waterlogged rice fields reduces 60% methane emission than application of unfermented organic manure. The methane emission can be mitigated by the use of low emitting rice varieties. The rice varieties with few unproductive tillers, small root system, high root oxidative activity and high harvest index are good for minimizing methane emission from rice wetland cultivated field. Heat tolerant varieties that can be grown successfully in dry condition without any loss of yield should be introduced because these varieties contribute in less methane emission. Such technologies need to be assessed for non-target effects and cost-effective feasibilities. * Author is Assistant Professor in Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. ** Co-author is Research Fellow in Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.


ISSN:2311-3804 March, 2014 Volume 6-Issue 1 UNDERSTANDING RURAL FARMERS’ INFORMATION BEHAVIOUR Muhammad Asif Naveed*


ndeed, farmers have an inevitable need for information to perform their daily farming activities efficiently and effectively. The information concerning improved agro-technologies created by agricultural scientists should be disseminated in a way that is compatible with, and results in the farmers’ satisfaction. Agricultural production in Pakistan is quite lower than its potential in spite of the hectic struggle by the agriculture departments and other allied agencies. It may have various reasons. Farmers’ lack of awareness of the current agricultural information and technologies is one of the major reasons for low agricultural productivity. For consistent growth in agric-production, it is indispensable to equip farmers with need-based, focused, accu- Our farmer needs user-oriented rate, reliable, and timely information. The dream of adinformation delivery system that vancement in agric-production cannot come true until can provide more relevant, accutimely access to the information that farmers need is asrate, and timely information. sured. The consideration of farmers’ information needs and information seeking behaviour is an important ele- Our farmer looks for need-based, ment while designing need-based, focused, and userfocused, and farmers-oriented agrioriented information delivery system that can provide cultural information policy and inmore relevant, accurate, and timely information to its usfo rmation infrastructure . ers. Effective information communication is known to be the key to optimal agricultural productivity. Conducting - Printed and digital media have research on farmers’ information behaviour would be an very weak contact between the ruimportant first step in the design of need-based, focused, ral farmers and Agricultural deand farmers-oriented agricultural information policy and partments. information infrastructure. The research examining Pakistani farmers’ information behavior is meager and narrow in focus. Naveed and Anwar (2012) provided a critical review of published research examining farmers’ information seeking behavior. They identified that majority of Pakistani farmers relied mainly on “interpersonal relationships with friends, neighbors, relatives, co-farmers or progressive farmers, followed by mass media (radio and television only” in obtaining information they need (p. 6). The main modes of information transfer were personal contacts and observation. The findings of Naveed,(2011, 2013) and Naveed and Anwar (2013) also support that farmers residing in Saleempur village depend mainly on their personal experience, informal information networks (e.g. co-farmers, progressive farmers, sales agent, and pesticide dealers) and mass media. The role of printed materials especially newspapers, agricultural extension agents, formal information sources were almost non-existent for obtaining agricultural advice. There seems a very weak contact between the rural farmers and Agricultural departments. These results did not confirm whether farmers’ dependability on informal communication for meeting information needs indicated a real preference or a compromise due to the lack of quality formal information infrastructure. If the preference for interpersonal relationships was real, then the question of information reliability arose because farmers might be misguided by those who are not trained in information selection and dissemination. The role of individuals providing information in the rural setting was also questionable because these individuals were not professionals. Furthermore, obtaining information through interpersonal relationships and informal social networks raises questions about accuracy, relevancy, and currency of information. Also, these information sources could not always provide timely, accurate, relevant, and current information. Farmers’ information sources were mainly social in nature and related to the facility available at home or somewhere near indicating that farming community was locality-oriented in Pakistan. It implies that farmers’ intention to seek information about new innovations outside community was very low which means that Pakistani farmers were still using conventional methods that yielded lower production per acre. Moreover, the role of mass media is not very effective, especially the newspapers and agricultural extension agents as source of information. * Author is a PhD fellow in University of the Punjab and serves in Learning Resource Center, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan.


March, 2014 Volume 6-Issue 1 The Agriculture Department spent a lot of money on advertising agricultural information in newspapers but the rural farmers were unaware and did not have access to newspapers. It indicates that a lot of precious resources are in danger for being wasted on the information sources Concluding Remarks: In view to the that were not fit for the rural community. Therefore, there mentioned results and implications, there is a is a need for redesigning the existing information support system for farmers by considering their information beneed for critical and comprehensive examinahavior.

References: 1. Naveed, M. A., Anwar, M. A., & Bano, S. (2012). Information seeking by Pakistani farmers: A review of published research. Pakistan Journal of Library & Information Science, 13. p. 8 2. Naveed, M. A. (2013). Information needs of rural Pakistani farmers: An exploratory study in Saleempur village. Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing. p. 105. 3. Naveed, M. A. (2011). Information needs of Pakistani farmers: an exploratory study of adult male farmers in a village of Punjab. M. Phil thesis, DLIS, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. 4. Naveed, M. A. and Anwar, M. A. (2013). Agricultural information needs of Pakistani farmers. Malaysian Journal of Library & Information Science, 2013. 18(3), 13 – 23, 11p.

tion of the existing agricultural information infrastructure and services in order to prepare a detailed plan to improve them. This exercise will only be meaningful if extensive information behavior research is carried out, especially focusing on agricultural scientists and researchers, information providing agencies and specific groups of farmers. The efforts should be made to develop and provide integrated information services at the community level which cover socio-economic development, agriculture, health, and education. Such a service will lead to improved farmers’ life and make them better informed and more productive.

Call for Paper 3rd International Conference on Agricultural & Horticultural Sciences, will be organized around the theme "Novel Strategies & Innovations in Agricultural & Horticultural Sciences." Agri-2014 is comprised of 12 tracks and 0 sessions designed to offer comprehensive sessions that address current issues in the fields of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences. Submit your abstract to any of the following tracks. Track 1: Agronomy and Soil Sciences Track 2: Horticulture, Floriculture & Forestry Track 3: Agricultural Extension

Track 7: Spices, Herbs and Medicinal Plants Track 8: Tissue Culture and Plant Biotechnology Track 9: Agricultural Engineering and Technology

Track 4: Plant Biochemistry and Physiology

Track 10: Agricultural Risk Management

Track 5: Crop Breeding and Gnetics

Track 11: Sustainable Practices for Agriculture

Track 6: Crop Protection and Management

Track 12: Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness

Conference Secretariat: OMICS Group Conferences: 5716 Corsa Ave., Suite 110, Westlake, Los Angeles, CA 91362-7354, USA Tel: 1-650-268-9744 Fax: 1-650-618-1414 Toll free: 1-800-216-6499 (USA & Canada), 1-800-651-097 (Australia)Email: | |


ISSN:2311-3804 March, 2014 Volume 6-Issue 1

Fighting Hunger Worldwide


ost of the world’s hungry live in developing countries. According to the latest Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) statistics from 2013, there are 842 million hungry people in the world and 98 percent of them are in developing countries. The huger ratio

Who are the hungry?

is shown in figure.

Why does hunger exist? The world produces enough to feed the entire global population of 7 billion people. And yet, one person in eight on the planet goes to bed hungry each night. In some countries, one child in three is underweight. There are many reasons for the presence of hunger in the world and they are often interconnected. Here are six that we think are important. 1. Poverty Trap 2. Lack of Investment in Agriculture 3. Climate and Weather 4. War and Displacement 5. Unstable Markets 6. Food Wastage

Do you know!!! 842 million people in the world do not have enough to eat. This number has fallen by 17 percent since 1990.

The vast majority of hungry people (827 million) live in developing countries, where 14.3 percent of the population is undernourished.

Asia has the largest number of hungry people (over 500 million) but Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest prevalence (24.8 percent of population).

If women farmers had the same access to resources as men, the number of hungry in the world could be reduced by up to 150 million.

Poor nutrition causes nearly half (45%) of deaths in children under five - 3.1 million children each year.

 One out of six children -- roughly 100 million -- in developing countries is underweight.

One in four of the world's children are stunted. In developing countries the proportion can rise to one in three.

80 percent of the world's stunted children live in just 20 countries.

66 million primary school-age children attend classes hungry across the developing world, with 23 million in Africa alone.

WFP calculates that US$3.2 billion is needed per year to reach all 66 million hungry school-age children.

We Acknowledge Source of this Information with Thanks; The World Food Programme is the world's largest humanitarian agency fighting hun-

ger worldwide. WFP is part of the United Nations system and is voluntarily funded. On average, WFP reaches more than 90 million people with food assistance in 80 countries each year. About 13,500 people work for the organization, most of them in remote areas, directly serving the hungry people.


March, 2014 Volume 6-Issue 1

There are 842 million undernourished people in the world today. It means that one in eight people do not get enough food to be healthy and lead an active life. Hunger and malnutrition are in fact the number one risk to health worldwide — greater than AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis combined. The good news, however is that hunger is entirely solvable. There is enough food in the world to feed everyone and no scientific breakthroughs are needed. Today’s knowledge, tools and policies, combined with political will, can solve the problem. Solving hunger is a “best buy” in today’s tough economy. When nations work together to solve hunger and invest in good nutrition, they increase productivity and create economic opportunities. Conversely, studies have shown that countries lose millions of dollars in economic output as a result of child under nutrition. Solving hunger is also a contribution to peace and stability. When governments can no longer guarantee adequate food supplies, states are prone to fall. Volatility on food markets can quickly translate into volatility on the streets. Finally, solving hunger lays the foundation for progress in many other areas of development, including health and education. Well-nourished women have healthier, heavier babies whose immune systems are stronger for life. A healthy, well-fed child is also more likely to attend school. Good progress was made in reducing chronic hunger in the 1980s and the 1990s, but progress began to level off between 2000 and 2010. All of us – citizens, employers, corporate leaders and governments – must work together to end hunger.


ISSN:2311-3804 March, 2014 Volume 6-Issue 1

India: Forecast to Remain World’s Largest Rice Exporter in 2014


ndia is expected to remain the world’s largest rice exporter for the third consecutive year in calendar year 2014 based on adequate supplies and continued demand in Iran, the USDA says in its latest report. India exported around 10.25 million tons in 2012, ahead of the previous leader Thailand, which exported about 6.94 million tons of rice, and Vietnam which exported about 7.7 million tons of rice in the year. India’s rice exports in 2013 were earlier forecast at around 9.7 million tons, but the USDA raised it by around 3% or 300,000 tons to about 10 million tons based on strong sales to Total calendar year 2014 Iran. global rice trade is exIn its September 2013 pected to increase to report, the USDA also inaround 39 million tons, up creased India’s rice export about 350,000 tons from forecast for 2014 to around last month’s forecast and 9.3 million tons, up about 3.3% from around 9 milalmost 700,000 million lion tons forecast in August tons above 2013’s 38.3 2013. The USDA says that million tons. India will be the largest global rice exporter in 2014 due to adequate supplies and expected continued strong sales to Iran. The USDA has increased Iran’s import forecast by around 300,000 tons for 2013 and 2014 each to around 1.8 USDA Projections 2013 Source with Thanks: million tons and 1.75 million tons respectively. In comparison, Vietnam’s rice exports in 2013 are forecast at around 7.4 million tons (unchanged from previous forecast), and about 7.8 million tons in 2014 (unchanged from previous forecast). Thailand’s rice exports in 2013 are forecast at around 7 million tons (unchanged from previous forecast), and about 8 million tons in 2014 (unchanged from previous forecast). However, rice exports by the U.S. are forecast at around 3.15 million tons in 2014, up about 50,000 tons from last month’s forecast due to larger expected area and yield, the USDA says.


ISSN:2311-3804 March, 2014 Volume 6-Issue 1

Marketing Problems of Rice in Pakistan Dr. Muhammad Tahir* and Memoona Shehzadi**

Rice is a valuable cash crop of Pakistan regarding its export. Rice production consists of 40 % fine (basmati) types and 60 % coarse types. It occupies second position among the staple food grain crop in Pakistan. Rice contributes 2.7 percent of the value added in agriculture and 0.6 percent of GDP. In past, area and production related issues regarding rice remain under consideration in Pakistan, while marketing related issues were neglected. It is the need of the hour to give emphasis on marketing problems of rice being faced by the rice growers in Pakistan as;

Monopoly of Middle Man: This is the prime issue regarding the rice marketing problems. Since the markets are situated in urban areas, thus to avoid the transportation and other costs, farmers mostly try to sell their produce near their farm gate. As a result, they ultimately depend on commission agents, who get benefit of this. Sometime they paid low price of the produce at the spot to the farmer or make promise to pay remaining money within a short period of time. They pay less money to the farmers as compared to market price of the produce by deducting more charges of the carriage, handling and transportation facilities provided by them.

Poor Transportation Facilities: Some of the rice growers who agreed to sell their produce at market have to face a lot of problems related to poor transportation. They also bear high cost of fuels and rented vehicles in moving their produce from their farm to the market in urban areas.

Lack of Storage Facilities: This is also a big issue related to rice growers in the country. The Government has not provided storage facilities for rice at the farmers’ level. Thus the farmers have no way to protect their produce from post harvest losses but to sell their produce as early as possible.

Lack of Awareness about Market Price: As the farmer belongs to rural areas, due to lack of awareness they don’t have up to date information about the market price of their produce. In such cases monopoly of middle men causes variation in prices.

78.33 62.5


49.16 40

Marketing problems of rice growers, Survey 2013 Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Health Care Vol.3, No.16, 2013 , page 7

* Author is Assistant Professor in Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. ** Co-author is Research Fellow in Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

A salute to farmer for his courage..... Agriculture farming is very difficult for Pakistani farmers at small scale because agricultural inputs like fertilizers, fuel prices, Agri machinery, Chemical pesticides are so much expansive and lease rates are also very high. During irrigation days, canal water does not reach to the land of small farmer. It is mostly stolen by landlords. It becomes difficult for him to operate tube well because of electricity crisis in the country, also because of permit problems and low market rate of his products. Inspite of facing all difficulties and hurdles he remains committed for sowing crops for the society.... * The data has been taken from the blog of Engineer Mazhar Hussain/facebook.


ISSN:2311-3804 March, 2014 Volume 6-Issue 1


Invention to Innovation Summit 2014



he 3 Invention to Innovation Summit 2014 was jointly organized by University of the Punjab, Pakistan Science Foundation and Institute of Research Promotion on March 1920, 2014. Innovation is a joint effort of academia and industry which exemplified in the innovation summit annually. There were 12 technical sessions where industry and academia shared that how to develop technologies of commercial importance. There were 60 stalls of various technologies displayed by 30 industries and 30 universities. There were 30 general technology awards for students and scientists and 15 innovation awards for commercially proven technologies. Around 500+ projects to solve industry problems of Pakistan were displayed also. The Summit was graced by the presence of industry speakers, academicians, and government officials. Federal Minister and Deputy Chairman Planning Commission Prof. Ahsan Iqbal emphasized upon the Research and Development (R & D) institutes to take lessons from the contemporary world and accordingly plan their strategies of R&D work to compete with them. The Federal Minister appreciated the efforts for organizing this event and pledged to extend every help for the support of applied aspects of Science & Technology. He emphasized that today is the time of knowledge revolution and the whole scenario of competition is linked with scientific knowledge. He advised universities to go ahead with inter-disciplinary approach where a doctor and engineer could know about each others' knowledge as they can no longer be successful working in isolation. Rector UMT Dr. Hasan Sohaib Murad was keynote speaker of the summit. He shared how nations are developed through application of new knowledge and research. He proposed technology parks to be set up by government where industry and academia can work together for application of research. He also proposed that focus and budget allocation for innovation to be increased. Chairman PSF Prof. Dr. Khalil Ahmed Ibupoto also highlighted the collaborations PSF has made in past through its different programmes bridging gaps between industry & academia. He emphasized that the strong collaboration between Industry and R&D organizations is pre-requisite to pass on the research results to end users. He explained about Glimpse of Innovation Summit 2014 other initiatives like "Inquiry Based Education" to create originality and individuality in the students, so that, their potential could be harnessed by the industry people. Vice Chancellor, University of the Punjab Dr Mujahid Kamran speaking on the occasion emphasized on providing more financial funds and support to education from different organs of the state. CEO, Institute for Research Promotion (IRP) Abid Sherwani introduced about the whole event and provided a brief of the activities jointly taken up by PSF and IRP. The innovation summit was supported by universities like NUST, Quad-i-Azam University, University of Management and Technology, College of Pharmacy, Punjab University, Public Sector like PASTIC, and Industry like Shafi Reso Chemicals and other. More than 300 technologies engrossed with local R&D were invited to put up to show their ideas through physical prototypes, posters presentations and documentaries etc. The industries and academia personals also presented their innovative products and research experiences. A total of 60 stalls were in place from public and private sector organizations from across the country. Workshop sessions of industry and academia experts have been arranged in this summit from different technology sectors like Processing Technologies for Industrial Chemicals, Horticulture Sector, Technology Workshop, Biotechnology, Corporate Sessions at Networking Dinner, Patenting Intellectual Property Rights, Solar Energy & Renewables, Technologies for Mineral Processing, Accelerating Industry Driven Technologies and the Technologies for Medical Textiles.



Rice plus magazine,vol6(1),2014  

Inside this Issue: Implementation of Integrated Pest Management Tactics for Controlling of Rice Stem Borers, Impact of Climate Change on Ri...