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This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.


This brochure was created by youngsters from Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia and Turkey during the S.O.C.I.A.L. Entreprenuership – Seeking Opportunities, Creating Impact And Learning Entrepreneurship project.

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Content What is S.O.C.I.A.L. Entrepreneurship? ……………………………….p. 4 Getting to know the organizations involved in the project …p. 5 The Youth in Action Programme………..…………………………….…p. 9 Notes about entrepreneurship........................…………………...p. 11 Social entrepreneurship in brief…………………………………………p. 12 Social entrepreneurship in Europe…………………………………..…p. 13 Social business ideas developed by the participants during the youth exchange……………………………………………………………p. 18 Street interviews experience………………..………….…………………p. 23 Testimonials…………………………………………………………….………..p. 24 Contact………………………………………………………………………………p. 28

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What is S.O.C.I.A.L. Entrepreneurship "S.O.C.I.A.L.

Entrepreneurship

Seeking

Opportunities,

For 9 days, the participants had the opportunity to gain insights

Creating Impact And Learning Entrepreneurship" is a

into social entrepreneurship by taking part in specific activities

multilateral youth exchange financed by the European

based

Commission through the Youth in Action Programme, Action

brainstorming, presentations, painting workshops etc.).

1.1, which took place between 22-30 August 2012 in Bucharest, Romania’s largest city and capital. The purpose of the project was to encourage young people to take responsibility and get involved in the development of their community through social entrepreneurship activities. The project brought together 30 young people (volunteers, leaders of NGOs) from 5 different countries (Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia and Turkey) who discovered the impact of social entrepreneurship for today’s society and its contribution to reducing the unemployment problem.

on

non-formal

methods

(role

plays,

debates,

They were encouraged to develop innovative new solutions to solve problems that the European society is facing.

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Getting to know the organizations involved in the project Istanbul Youth Assembly is

Commission, Health Commission etc.) by considering their

a non-profit and volunteer

interests. Each commission develops and participates in

organization founded by

national and international projects related to its field of

Istanbul

Metropolitan

interest to speak up the voice of Istanbul Youth and has a word

Municipality to gather the

on the issues, needs and decision making processes of Turkey

youth of Istanbul from different social, cultural, economic and

and the World. Through these beneficial projects and

educational backgrounds and with the energy and dynamism of

organizations, Youth Assembly’s members contribute to their

youthfulness to work for the benefit of Youth of Turkey and the

self-development and that of the Youth of Istanbul and whole

World. The members of Istanbul Youth Assembly have the

society.

opportunity to express themselves and their opinions and

Rookies is an informal group of youngsters created in March,

ideas. Also the projects in their minds and dreams are

2011. Its members are students between 22 and 25 years old

evaluated, developed and implemented thanking to over 4500

belonging to Universities from all over the Slovak Republic.

volunteer members aged between 16-25 years.

They organize various projects such as: concerts for young

The members of Youth Assembly are oriented to 16 different

musicians, movie evenings, sport days and workshops on local

commissions (EU Affairs Commission, Law and Human Rights

level.

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Rookies cooperate as well with other youth organizations and

clubs on local level. In the past the group was partner in four Youth in Action projects. The first exchange was the "Lets reach

the north to south by motorcycle. 

the stars" in July 2010 in Chorzow, Poland. The other three projects were in Romania, Turkey and Hungary.

Transportugal (2008 and 2009) – Cross Portugal from

Medieval Festival of Silves (2009, 2010 and 2011) – Cultural recreation of medieval times.

Local sports activities (all year round) - Promotion of sport days and tournaments.

 Associação Liláz is a non-

Collecting clothes and food for the poor people.

profit organization established in Pêra, Silves, Portugal. The aim of Associação Liláz is to

International activities: 

organize and promote sport,

"Youth in Action" projects. 

with the local citizens to develop a better society. Local and national activities developed by the organization:

Participation on the training course "Kinetic Creativity" 2012 (Wuerzburg, Germany)

Associação Liláz was founded in May 2006, by a group of motivated young people who wanted to promote cooperation

Participation on the training course "Get Started I" 2011 (Grindelwald, Switzerland) – Training course about

cultural and social activities for cooperation with different ages (youngsters, adults and elders) in society.

Social support to the local community (all year round) –

Participation on the training course "Get Started II" 2011 (Gluecksburg, Germany) – Training course about "Youth in Action" projects.

Some of its members participated in different kind of international projects, for example:

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- Leonardo da Vinci Project (Arvidsjaur, Sweden 2010);

Team Work Association

- EVS (Gdynia, Poland 2010/2011);

is

- Middle and Long Term Volunteers (Thailand and India 2011).

a

nongovernmental

organization which began its activity in November 2002 with the support of the Rector of the University of Bucharest. Its

These members realized with their own experiences how

mission is helping students acquire, through volunteer work,

important is for youngsters to have the opportunity to

the necessary experience for efficiently insertion into the work

participate in international youth projects in order to open

field, and to offer students the possibility to put into practice

their minds, exchange cultural experiences, understand and

the theoretical knowledge acquired during university studies.

cooperate with other cultures.

Objectives

Stowarzyszenie Inicjatyw Młodziezowych - SIM (the Youth

volunteer work and team work.

Initiative Association) was created answering the informal youth group’s need of their legal status and financial-

To promote among students a positive attitude towards

To familiarize students with a diversity of organizational environments through projects and internships

organizational help. SIM activities are based most on supporting all kinds of youth initiatives leading the youth to

achieve more self-responsibility, to expand their creativity, to

Organization

broaden their personal horizons, to be able to develop socially.

Team Work is a project-based organization, working on a

To put into practice students’ theoretical knowledge.

company-like principle, throughout departments composed and coordinated by students, each of them with its own projects in progress: Human Resources, Communication, International Relations, Training. Values

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The main values of Team Work are: 

professionalism – because students can be very good professionals

team work – because this is the only way to achieve great successes

volunteering – because quality people can give everything without asking for anything in return.

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The Youth in Action Programme

Youth in Action is a programme

specially

designed

by

the

European

Union

for

and their European citizenship in particular; 

the European Union; 

citizenship. “It promotes mobility within and beyond the EU's borders, non-formal learning and intercultural dialogue, and

develop solidarity and promote tolerance among young people, in particular in order to foster social cohesion in

young people, with the aim to underline solidarity, tolerance and an active European

promote young people’s active citizenship in general

foster mutual understanding between young people in different countries;

contribute to developing the quality of support systems

encourages the inclusion of all young people, regardless of

for youth activities and the capabilities of civil society

their educational, social and cultural background: Youth in

organizations in the youth field;

Action

is

a

Programme

for

all.”

(source:

http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/youth/programme/about_youth_en .php). Main target group: 18-25 years. General target group: 13-30 years.

promote European cooperation in the youth field.

Actions: -

Action 1 – Youth for Europe

-

Action 2 – European Voluntary Service

-

Action 3 – Youth in the world

-

Action 4 – Youth Support Systems

Objectives:

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-

Action 5 – Support for European cooperation in the youth field

Who can apply: -

Non-governmental organizations;

-

Public authorities involved in working with young people;

-

Informal groups formed by young people, that are represented (also contractual) by one type of organizations mentioned above.

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Notes about entrepreneurship

Nowadays, being an active human enables to success not only in private life but also in business. It is strictly connected with our experience, opportunities and mainly with our character. The feature of our character that is responsible for our activity is called entrepreneurship. By the same term we define a process creating and building something innovative, for example a company. That is why we are taking into consideration entrepreneurship in two aspects.

When we consider entrepreneurship in its second meaning, it is defined as an organized process of undertakings which has the target to generate profit. It is extremely important to be creative and innovative. Similarly as above, it is strictly connected with taking a risk. Moreover, we have to bear in mind about willingness to be the best and the strongest in the market. It is hard not to agree with A. Cole who noticed that entrepreneurship includes not only the commencement of running a business, but mainly a development. It may be also

There is no doubt that we cannot define it as the only one

distinguished as an ability to take risk independently to make

feature of human character, but as a group of features. It is

utmost earnings in the market.

also a commonly known the fact that entrepreneurship is distinguished by activity and dynamism. Besides this, being able to take risks is also one of the conditions. It was pointed out by Frank H. Knight and Peter Drucker, however David McClelland added that it should be moderate. We cannot forget about the ability to adapt to changing circumstances.

When you finally know what entrepreneurship is, why are you still sitting on the chair? Michał Szypniewski, Poland

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Social entrepreneurship in brief Social criteria: Social entrepreneurship is a way to determine the economic activity that combines social and economic goals. The most popular and frequently used definition is that formulated by the employees of the EMES - European Research Network. According to it, the social enterprise is the activity with mainly social goals and its profits are reinvested in these goals or the society, rather than to maximize profits or increase the income of the shareholders or owners. EMES determines social and economic criteria, which should be characterized by initiatives undertaken as part of the social economy. Economic criteria: •

running in a relatively continuous and regular activity on

the basis of economic instruments; •

independence, sovereignty of the institution in relation

to public institutions; •

bear the economic risk;

the existence of even a sparse paid staff.

a clear focus on the socially useful purpose of the

project; •

grassroots, civic nature of the initiative;

specifically, as a democratic system of governance;

community as a measure;

limited distribution of profits.

This set of criteria is the perfect definition of a social enterprise. Since the projects included in this sector, therefore, is not required to meet all the criteria, but most of them. This kind of entrepreneurship is new to the market so it may be the solution to solve economic crisis and also can make an impact on the society.

Łukasz Chmielewski, Poland

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Social entrepreneurship in Europe In Poland In Poland social entreprise is not a strongly developed concept and most of the people did not even hear about it. There are not many examples of social business to talk about it but there are foundations and NGO's, which are driven by an entrepreneurial spirit and have social goals. The social business is then viewed as an innovative response to the economical

Spółdzielnia socjalna w Piątkowie is a social cooperative in Poznan that helps people affected by economic crisis. They are offering an economic and social change by creating jobs. These 3 examples show that there is a start in social entreprise even in Poland and the impact of creating social capital will have only good results. Łukasz Nowociński, Poland

problems. There are some examples of this kind of NGO's which are running social projects. Stowarzyszenie na rzecz rozwoju wsi Sokołowo Association manage a small shop into a school. This is a shop full of dreams as the profit it is used to support the school. Byc moze Association developted a projct for homeless people. The project involves offering a place to live and helping them take care of themselves.

In Turkey As in other countries, also in Turkey social entrepreneurship represents a way to change the world. There are

models

of sustainable Social Change and

entrepreneurial culture which initiate social and economic development: 1. Çöpmadam (www.copmadam.com)

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Çöpmadam is a Turkish company that designs, manufactures

make women have an active social life and feel more

and sells original lifestyle products for good people. The

independent.

products from our range are designed for everyday use from

Abdulbaki Türkmenoğlu, Turkey

casual to stylish. Many of the products are practical and some are simply nice.

In Portugal

They also come in various styles and are always great to own or

Social business is not widely known in Portugal. The private

to give.

sector isn’t very interested in it because most of the support

2. Buğday Derneği (www.bugday.org, bugday.org/tatuta)

provided to the disadvantaged classes is of government’s responsibility.

It is an association which aims to create consciousness among farmers and offers support to them. It also runs a project called "Tatuta" where youngsters can work voluntarily in the farmers’ fields. Thanks to this project, young people have the chance to integrate in a natural life-style.

One example of social business that I can give is Associaçao Sao Vicente de Paulo. This association has a religious background because a few hundred years ago the social action was under the church’s responsibility. Nowadays they have a very important role again and it’s working as a social business.

3. İpekyolu Kadın Kooperatifi (www.ipekyolukadinkoop.com) Basically they are hiring persons with some kind of problems It’s a cooperation that gathers women together in Mardin area where they design handcrafts, create clothes and prepare traditional soup in order to sell its. This cooperation aims to

such as alcoholism, drug addiction, ex-prisoners, and almost every person that is not inserted. Then they offer them a job, make them feel integrated and active. The salary paid is in accordance with the kind of job they are doing.

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The range of action of this association includes the support of

Development Programme Slovakia 2012”, which brings

the older and children, helping them in their daily activities.

together the public, private and non-profit organizations from

They main field of action is the collection of second handed

all over Slovakia with diverse social enterprise ideas. This

furniture, clothes, books, and other useful things. Then they

means an excellent start to the field of social enterprises, which

sell this things in their shops and with the profit they can pay

haven’t been wide-known in that country before. In the last

the salaries to their employees, they can pay their expenses

years there were just a few opportunities for the existing social

and invest money in other useful social projects.

enterprises to gain support. There was a lack of motivation to

In the end of the contract signed by both parts, the worker should have acquired new skills that can allow him to be hired by some other place or to create his own business. This kind of business isn’t very familiar in Portugal, but probably in the future it will be developed. Eduardo Freitas, Portugal

establish new social enterprises. With the help of this program, which was launched this year February, new doors were opened. The joint NESsT – UNDP jury selected the 40 most innovative and feasible organizations and social enterprise ideas. The “NESsT SEPS 2012” mission is to enhance development of social enterprises in Slovakia. The program is supported by NESsT’s partner in Slovakia, UNDP

In Slovakia

Regional Centre for Europe and CIS, and it is part of the

NESsT SEPS 2012

national project “Social Economy: Innovative Model of

In 2012 in Slovakia 40 NGOs, SMEs and Municipalities were invited by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and NESsT to join the “NESsT Social Enterprise

Economic and Social Development in Slovakia”, co-financed by the European Social Fund via the Operational Program Employment and Social Inclusion.

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The majority of these ideas focuses on creating fair employment opportunities for the disadvantaged communities in various fields (waste management, agriculture, local, tourism, traditional crafts, construction of eco-buildings,

In Romania The concept of social entrepreneurship is still at a developing stage in Romania. There is still a lot to do in this field, in order to create sustainability among the actors of the social sector.

textile, local food and traditional pottery production etc.).

At the moment, the social sector in Romania is composed of

Some of them are new start-ups employing persons from

associations, foundations, federations. The main areas of

marginalized communities, others are social enterprises which

activity of the non-profit organizations are social services,

are ready for new developments. We hope that the program

health, culture, sports, environmental protection, business,

will strengthen the potential of social business and over time

human rights, international cooperation and religion. 72 % of

they will play a bigger role in the socio-economics development

the providers of social services registered in Romania are

of the country.

NGO’s. Martina Adamovska, Slovakia

Starting with 2007 when Romania has become member of European Union, the financial support for non-profit started to take shape from the structural funds and other programs that meant an essential step to social enterprise development. Even if at the moment there is a lack of examples in this field and lots of things still waiting to be done in order to develop the social sector, we are proud to mention important social projects in Romania which also have become social businesses. A great example is the project Sacosa de Panza which has become a social business called Atelierul de Panza. This Project involves socio-professional integration of people with no

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alternative employment and create, with their help, a range of organic products to replace products already on the market. Association, Romano ButiQ managed to establish in a short period of its foundation, a band of musicians who shared authentic Roman music. The inspiration came from traditional folklore of Romanian gypsy music. Style approach is unique in Romania -traditional gypsy music with influences of reggae, ska, punk rock or jazz. Their songs often have nondiscrimination,messages. Concordia Bakery-offers educational and socio-professional reintegration of children and

youth who

come

from

dysfunctional families. Many of them manage to reintegrate into society. The list of projects for social sector keeps growing and in the same time the positive impact in society. It means that in Romania social economy started to be supported and we have the hope that the results will be the expected ones. Andreea Pトピcトネin, Romania

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18


Social business ideas developed by the participants during the youth exchange 19

Mr. Fixer

also be an

Some great ideas were created by the young, brilliant and

objective, as

creative minds of those who took part in this YiA Project –

the

S.O.C.I.A.L Entrepreneurship - Seeking Opportunities, Creating

character of

Impact And Learning Entrepreneurship.

Mr.

social

Fixer

would surely

Anyway, the aim of this particular article is to present “Mr. Fixer” – a business idea with a real franchise potential and that could definitely work in a large number of countries.

make

it

easier

to reach

Mr. Fixer would be a small business that would provide a wide range of services within the construction area, particularly in recovery, reconstruction of old buildings.

agreements with local institutions. The project would start as a really small business with only 3 employees – one experienced professional that would lead the team and provide professional

Mr. Fixer would also offer a high quality service at low cost

formation to the other two workers, which would be recruited

prices, which would give the possibility for a lot of people who,

from groups of people that face real trouble entering or being

in normal conditions couldn’t afford, to recover their own

reintegrated in the job market, like long term unemployed, ex-

houses. The recovering of public spaces and buildings would

prisoners etc.


Finally, the financial part of this idea: this small project could

The idea of the business is simple and clear. At the beginning,

start with only 10.000 EUR – a maximum of 5.000 EUR to buy a

there is a group formed from: one professional, experienced

second-hand van that would be a key element in Mr. Fixer’s

builder-repairman and two people with lower chance to get a

marketing and communications activities. Then, the remaining

job. For example: homeless, people with addictions, people

5.000 EUR would assure the purchase of some work tools and

without education, people after jail. The professional has the

materials, as well as the first employees’ wages. As soon as the

role of a tutor: he develops trainings and workshops on how to

word-spreading and the quality of Mr. Fixer’s work guarantee a

recondition houses.

good and sustainable work flow, the business should be

The company needs some financing, in order to buy a second

profitable and ready to expand its activity by signing new

hand van (to transport crew and materials), to buy some

workers or franchising the idea.

necessary tools (drill, grinder, hammer, paintbrushes) and to

MR. FIXER – FEELS LIKE (A NEW) HOME! Ruben Ribeiro, Portugal

pay the first salaries. 10.000 EURO would be enough for the beginning. The company offers renovations and repairs of houses, at small prices, and the person that orders this type of service will sign a cooperation agreement, through which they

Mr. Fixer

agree to work with people with lower chances in society. The company would need financing only for the start, later it would

During the youth exchange, we were working in international

sustain by itself and it will also make profit.

teams, consisting of participants from different countries. We

This looks like a really good planned social business. Why?

had to develop social business plans and an international jury

It gives the opportunity of working to people which, due to

chose the best one: It was Mr. Fixer!

various reasons, can’t find a job. It is also valuable for local

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community, for people that don’t have enough money to

Number of employees: 10

renovate their house by contacting a professional crew.

In order to start our company, we need 10 employees. As we have long term plans, we will give them 18 months contracts.

So, where are the financiers? Social impact: Reintegrating ex-inmates, helping hospitals, Karolina Kornacka, Poland

foster homes, NGO’s with few resources. Investment: 50 000 € This is the amount that we need to start our business. We have

Hope

long term plans, and this is the reason we need this amount.

We wanted to choose a name to represent our whole company

We made a detailed plan about the investments we need, as it

in one word. In our situation we had chosen the word „hope”.

follows:

Field of activity: Furniture production and distribution

Salary: minimum, 150 €/ month. As we want to build our

Our company will produce furniture and distribute it. We want to have prices which are not so high, to be able to sell the most

company in Romania, we will give them the minimal wage available in this country.

and to sell it to people who are not able to buy expensive

Rent: 12 000 €. We want to rent an old building in which we

furniture.

could produce our furniture. It will cost approximately 1.000 €

The furniture would be produced by ex-inmates. For ex-

for one month.

inmates is difficult to find a job, and it’s harder for them to

Tools: 24 000 €. We need tools in order to manufacture our

reintegrate in the society.

products. As most of our employees will not know how to work with the machines, we will need to train them.

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Truck: 5 000 €. A truck is necessary for our company. We have

Second chance shop

to transport our products to the clients. For the beginning, we will buy a “second-hand” car.

The name of the business is “Second chance shop”.

Materials: 9000 €. To manufacture our products, we need also

The main activity of the business is repairing second hand

materials. We will bring the wood straight from the mountains,

clothes and reselling them in a shop.

because it will cost less. In addition, we will use our own truck

In this business there will be a total of two employees that will

to transport the materials.

be working in the front side of the shop to sell the products. Tamáš Lencsés, Slovakia

Other three employees will repair the products to be sold in the backside of the shop. The estimated budget of the business is 7 Euro. 1 Euro of the budget will be spent for the rent of the shop, 5 Euro of the budget will be given to the employees as their first wage and 1 Euro of the budget will be spent for the necessary furniture and equipment. All the budgets are calculated per day. The main indicator of why this is a social business is that it includes women who need to be integrated in the work field. Another indicator is the way clothes are collected. In this business, the social entrepreneur is supposed to work with the local government to get help for collecting clothes with regularity from public.

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This project aims to put clothes bins on streets in order to collect second hand clothes. With the help of the business, old clothes will be changed into profit. Both the society and the women who need integration into the work force will gain benefit. The prices of the clothes in the “second chance shop” will be cheaper than the usual clothes. As a result, many people will prefer going shopping this way.

So, we thought about a place, well situated where people can step by to buy our products. The same place we will use it to prepare the products. We also need special equipment, materials, list of recipes and...Let’s start! Our products are for everyone no matter nationality, gender or age. We have the great idea, we have the business plan. Let’s make it true! Andreea Păscălin, Romania

Özge Ceren Ser, Turkey

SMILE SMILE is the business idea created by 4 young social entrepreneurs from different countries. SMILE means a „social bakery” with international products. We offer a wide variety of bakery products and services. Creating this bakery we will create not only a colourful place where people can try tasty delights but the most important, we create jobs for people with disabilities, children from orphanages. This is a chance for them to gain insights into which provides opportunities for the development of professional skills.

23


Street interviews experience 24

Interviewing people in Romania was a really interesting experience for me. All of the people we met were unbelievably open!

We also met a young person, who was already affected by social activities before, not even knowing about that. He was a young dancer, who couldn't afford to take his lessons regularly. His teacher saw his potential and let him pay less for the

The subject is a little bit tough to open it during 3 or 4 minutes

lessons. Although he is still very young, he said that in the

of conversation, but even people who had no experience with

future, he wants to run some business and help other people

social entrepreneurship before were able to share their opinion

like him just like his teacher did.

with us and wanted even to get more information about what it really is and how it affects people's life. Their opinion about social entrepreneurs was surprisingly good. All of them agreed that this is a great opportunity to develop their communities.

Other people gave us some ideas about changes they would like to see in their surroundings. It was a pleasure to see other points of view and we also learned a lot of things! Karolina Lipczyńska, Poland


Testimonials Conclusion about the learning 25

opportunity offered by the project On one side, is important to learn something, but in the same time is difficult. On the other side, to teach is a very hard responsibility. In today's world, people are learning in a formal way in schools. Young people are learning by a methodology offered by governments. The project offered a non-formal learning about social entrepreneurship. Non-formal way is very effective, better than formal way. Therefore, the participants had changed various learning opportunities regarding social entrepreneurship. We learned about current economic situations in each participant

country,

funding

opportunities,

how

entrepreneurship can be transformed into a social business, etc. Ilker Girit, Turkey


Testimonials

I'm really glad to participate in the project with people with passion, who shared with us with their knowledge and gave

Conclusion about the learning

clear explanations. This was my first project and I hope, that

opportunity offered by the project

not the last one. I think that team work is the future.

Thanks to the project I met amazing people from different

After arrival to Poland I will tell my friends about social business, which is worth to have our interest. I think this was the aim of the project: to promote the idea of social entrepreneurship in our countries with the knowledge we gain in Romania.

countries, got knowledge about their culture, religion and habits. I had the opportunity to listen to many interesting lectures about social economy. The project helped me

To sum up, a project is the ideal way to share knowledge and

understand problems which we fight with because of crisis and

experience with other youngsters and to find together

gave examples of how to solve them.

solutions for our problems.

I think that youth exchanges and activities connected with them are the best way to educate young people and promote social entrepreneurship. Now I'm interested to this subject and I will try to get more information about this kind of business and about the economic crisis.

Marcin Czubak, Poland

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Contact S.O.C.I.A.L. Entrepreneurship Facebook group: http://www.facebook.com/groups/social.entrepreneurship.yia/ Presentation video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CgBYHuAUOEo&list=UUzhtszQwYwhhpiUd6apmSmg&index=1

Team Work Association Website: http://www.teamwork.org.ro/ Blog: http://blogteamwork.blogspot.ro/ Facebook page: http://www.facebook.com/TeamWorkNGO E-mail: ri_tw@yahoo.com

Useful resources European Commission – Youth in Action: http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/youth/ Eurodesk: http://www.eurodesk.org/edesk/ The SALTO-YOUTH Resource Centres: http://www.salto-youth.net/

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S.O.C.I.A.L. Entrepreneurship - Seeking Opportunities, Creating Impact And Learning Entrepreneurship  

This brochure was created by youngsters from Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia and Turkey during the S.O.C.I.A.L. Entreprenuership – Seeki...

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