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6-Volume Set

English Language Teaching MAJOR THEMES IN EDUCATION Edited and with a new introduction by Patricia Hedge, University of Warwick, UK, Nick Andon and Martin Dewey, all at Kings College, University of London, UK With contributions drawn from a variety of contexts, this extensive new sixvolume collection from Routledge’s Major Themes in Education series, reflects the international diversity of English Language Teaching in practice. Bringing together material from a broad range of perspectives, it highlights the controversial nature of many apparent ‘givens’ in the field, and provides a useful balance between academic and practical insights. With a general introduction and separate section introductions presenting the historical context for current debates and guiding users through the various issues raised in the collection, this is a highly useful resource for both student and scholar alike. Routledge August 2009 234x156: 2,451pp Set Hb: 978-0-415-29943-5

Routledge Major Works

English Language Teaching 125. Bridget Fitzgerald Gersten and Norbert Tlusty, ‘Creating International Contexts for Cultural Communication: Video Exchange Projects in the ESL/EFL Classroom’, TESOL Journal, 1998, 7, 6, 11–16. 126. Christopher Brumfit, ‘British Cultural Studies’, Individual Freedom and the Language Teacher (Oxford University Press, 2001), pp. 105–14. 127. John Corbett, ‘Implementing an Intercultural Approach’, An Intercultural Approach to English Language Teaching (Multilingual Matters Ltd, 2003), pp. 31–46. 128. Yasemi Bayyurt, ‘Non-Native English Language Teachers’, Teacher Development, 2006, 10, 2, 233–47. 4.4. Curriculum Evaluation 129. Michael H. Long, ‘Process and Product in ESL Program Evaluation’, TESOL Quarterly, 1984, 18, 3, 409–25. 130. Leslie E. Sheldon, ‘Evaluating ELT Textbooks and Materials’, ELT Journal, 1988, 42, 4, 237–46. 131. James Dean Brown, ‘Language Programme Evaluation: A Synthesis of Existing Possibilities’, in R. K. Johnson (ed.), The Second Language Curriculum (Cambridge University Press, 1989), pp. 222–41. 132. Alan Beretta, ‘The Programme Evaluator: The ESL Researcher without Portfolio’, Applied Linguistics, 1990, 11, 1, 1–15. 133. Ron Mackay, ‘Undertaking ESL/EFL Programme Review for Accountability and Improvement’, ELT Journal, 1994, 48, 2, 142–9. 134. Fred Genesee and John A. Upshur, ‘Portfolios and Conferences’, Classroom Based Evaluation in Second Language Education (Cambridge University Press, 1996), pp. 98–107. 135. Cyril Weir and Jon Roberts, ‘The Evaluation of a Language Programme: Development and Accountability’, Evaluation in ELT (Blackwell, 1994), pp. 82–101. 136. Pauline Rea-Dickins and Kevin Germaine, ‘The Price of Everything and the Value of Nothing: Trends in Language Programme Evaluation’, Managing Evaluation and Innovation in Language Teaching (Longman, 1998), pp. 4–19. 137. Richard Kiely, ‘Classroom Evaluation: Values, Interests and Teacher Development’, Language Teaching Research, 2001, 5, 3, 241–61.


VOLUME VI Part 5. Focus on the Teacher: The Professional Development of the Teacher 138. H. G. Widdowson, ‘The Incentive Value of Theory in Teacher Education’, ELT Journal, 1984, 38, 2, 86–90. 139. Jerry G. Gebhart, ‘Models of Supervision: Choices’, TESOL Quarterly, 1984, 18, 3, 501–14. 140. Donald Freeman, ‘Teacher Training, Development and DecisionMaking: A Model of Teaching and Related Strategies for Language Teacher Education’, TESOL Quarterly, 1989, 23, 1, 27–45. 141. Dale Lange, ‘A Blueprint for a Teacher Development Programme’, in J. C. Richards and D. Nunan (eds.), Second Language Teacher Education (Cambridge University Press, 1990), pp. 245–68. 142. Peter Medgyes, ‘Native or Non-Native: Who’s Worth More?’, ELT Journal, 1992, 46, 4, 340–9. 143. Christine A. Holten and Donna M. Brinton, ‘‘’You Shoulda Been There”’: Charting Novice Teacher Growth using Dialogue Journals’, TESOL Journal, 1995, 4, 4, 23–6. 144. Jack C. Richards, ‘Teachers’ Maxims in Language Teaching’, TESOL Quarterly, 1996, 30, 2, 281–96. 145. Mary J. Schleppegrell, ‘Problem Posing in Teacher Education’, TESOL Journal, 1997, 6, 3, 8–12. 146. Stephen Bax and Richard Cullen, ‘Generating and Evaluating Reflection Through Teaching Practice’, Teacher Development (newsletter of the IATEFL Teacher Development Special Interest Group), 2003, 1, 3, 13–20. 147. Dick Allwright, ‘Exploratory Practice: Rethinking Practitioner Research in Language Teaching’, Language Teaching Research Journal, 2003, 7, 2, 113–41. 148. Simon Borg, ‘Conditions for Teacher Research’, English Teaching Forum, 2006, 44, 4, 22–7.

English Language Teaching MAJOR THEMES IN EDU VOLUME I



1.3. Form-Focused Instruction

Part 1. Focus on Key Orientations in ELT

19. Michael Sharwood-Smith, ‘Consciousness-Raising and the Second Language Learner’, Applied Linguistics, 1981, 11, 2, 159–68.

1.1. The Communicative Approach to Language Teaching 1.

David Wilkins, ‘Current Developments in the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language’, in S. Holden (ed.), Teaching English for Specific Purposes (Modern English Publication, 1979), pp. 5–7.

20. Rod Ellis, ‘Interpretation Based Grammar Teaching’, System, 1993, 21, 1, 69–78. 21. Brian Tomlinson, ‘Pragmatic Awareness Activities’, Language Awareness, 1994, 3, 3 & 4, 119–29.


Keith Morrow, ‘Communicative Language Testing: Revolution or Evolution’, in C. Brumfit and K. Johnson (eds.), The Communicative Approach to Language Teaching (Oxford University Press, 1979), pp. 143–57.

22. Jessica Williams, ‘Focus on Form in Communicative Language Teaching: Research Findings and the Classroom Teacher’, TESOL Journal, 1995, 4, 4, 12–16.


Michael Canale, ‘From Communicative Competence to Communicative Language Pedagogy’, in J. C. Richards and W. Schmidt (eds.), Language and Communication (Longman, 1983), pp. 2–27.

23. Ronald Carter, Rebecca Hughes, and Michael McCarthy, ‘Telling Tails: Grammar, the Spoken Language and Materials Development’, in B. Tomlinson (ed.), Materials Development in Language Teaching (Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp. 67–86.


James Nattinger, ‘Communicative Language Teaching: A New Metaphor’, TESOL Quarterly, 1984, 18, 3, 391–407.


Li Xiaoju, ‘In Defence of the Communicative Approach’, ELT Journal, 1984, 38, 1, 2–13.


Jack C. Richards and Theodore S. Rodgers, ‘Communicative Language Teaching’, Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching: A Description and Analysis (Cambridge University Press, 1986), pp. 64–86.


Fraida Dubin and Elite Olshtain, ‘A Curriculum Developed on Communicative Goals’, Course Design: Developing Programs and Materials for Language Learning (Cambridge University Press, 1986), pp. 68–87.

1.4. Input and Interaction in the Classroom

B. Kumaravadivelu, ‘Maximising Learning Potential in the Communicative Classroom’, ELT Journal, 1994, 47, 1, 12–21.

28. Stephen D. Krashen, ‘Providing Input for Acquisition’, Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition (Pergamon, 1982), pp. 57–82.


1.2. Task-Based Language Teaching 9.

Christopher Brumfit, ‘The Bangalore Procedural Syllabus’, ELT Journal, 1984, 38, 4, 233–41.

10. Michael P. Breen, ‘Learner Contributions to Task Design’, in C. Candlin and D. Murphy (eds.), Language Learning Tasks (Prentice-Hall International, 1987), pp. 23–46. 11. Michael H. Long and Graham Crookes, ‘Three Approaches to TaskBased Syllabus Design’, TESOL Quarterly, 1992, 26, 1, 27–55. 12. Jane Willis, ‘A Flexible Framework for Task-Based Learning’, in J. Willis and D. Willis (eds.), Challenge and Change in Language Teaching (Heinemann, 1996), pp. 52–62. 13. Peter Skehan, ‘A Framework for the Implementation of Task-Based Instruction’, Applied Linguistics, 1996, 17, 1, 38–62.

24. Rod Ellis, Helen Basturkmen, and Shawn Loewen, ‘Doing Focus on Form’, System, 2002, 30, 4, 419–32. 25. Ryo Nitta and Sheena Gardner ‘Consciousness-Raising and Practice in ELT Coursebooks’, ELT Journal, 2005, 59, 1, 3–13. 26. Rod Ellis, ‘Current Issues in the Teaching of Grammar: An SLA Perspective’, TESOL Quarterly, 2006, 40, 1, 83–107.

27. Herbert W. Seliger, ‘Learner Interaction in the Classroom and its Effect on Language Acquisition’, in H. W. Seliger and M. H. Long (eds.), Classroom Oriented Research (Newbury House, 1983), pp. 246–67.

29. Richard L. Allwright, ‘The Importance of Interaction in Classroom Language Learning’, Applied Linguistics, 1984, 5, 2, 156–71. 30. Rod Ellis, Understanding Second Language Acquisition (Oxford University Press, 1985), pp. 154–62. 31. Teresa Pica and Catherine Doughty, ‘The Role of Group Work in Classroom Second Language Acquisition’, Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 1985, 7, 2, 233–48. 32. Craig Chaudron, ‘Major Issues in Second Language Classroom Research’, Second Language Classrooms; Research on Teaching and Learning (Cambridge University Press, 1988), pp. 1–10. 33. Teresa Pica, ‘Input as a Theoretical and Research Construct: From Corder’s Original Definition to Current Views’, International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 1991, XXIX, 3, 185–96.

14. Martin Bygate, ‘Tasks as a Context for the Framing, Reframing and Unframing of Language’, System, 1999, 27, 1, 33–48.

34. Merrill Swain, ‘Three Functions of Output in Second Language Acquisition’, in G. Cook and B. Seidlhofer (eds.), Principles and Practice in Applied Linguistics (Oxford University Press, 1995), pp. 125–44.

15. Rod Ellis, ‘Task-Based Research and Language Pedagogy’, Language Teaching Research, 2000, 4, 3, 193–220.

35. Stephen Krashen, ‘Comprehensible Output’, System, 1998, 26, 175–82.

16. Tony Lynch, ‘Seeing What they Meant: Transcribing as a Route to Noticing’, ELT Journal, 2001, 55, 2, 124–32.

36. Zoltan Dornyei and Angi Malderez, ‘The Role of Group Dynamics in Foreign Language Teaching and Learning’, in J. Arnold (ed.), Affect in Language Learning (Cambridge University Press, 1999), pp. 155–69.

17. Rod Ellis, ‘Tasks in SLA and Language Pedagogy’, Task-Based Language Learning and Teaching (Oxford University Press, 2003), pp. 1–21. 18. Michael Swan, ‘Legislation by Hypothesis: The Case of Task-Based Instruction’, Applied Linguistics, 2005, 26, 3, 376–401.

1.5 English and Englishes: The Internationalization of English and its Impact on the Goals and Methods of ELT 37. Henry Widdowson, ‘The Ownership of English’, TESOL Quarterly, 1994, 28, 2, 377–89. 38. Vivian Cook, ‘Going Beyond the Native Speaker in Language Teaching’, TESOL Quarterly, 1999, 33, 2, 185–209. 39. Janina Brutt-Griffler and Keiko K. Samimy, ‘Transcending the Nativeness Paradigm’, World Englishes, 2001, 20, 1, 99–106. 40. Barbara Seidlhofer, ‘Closing a Conceptual Gap: The Case for a Description of English as a Lingua Franca’, International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 2001, 11, 2, 133–58.

Routledge Major Works

UCATION 41. Anna Mauranen, ‘The Corpus of English as Lingua Franca in Academic Settings’, TESOL Quarterly, 2003, 37, 3, 513–27. 42. Barbara Seidlhofer, ‘Research Perspectives on Teaching English as a Lingua Franca’, Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 2004, 24, 209–39. 43. Jennifer Jenkins, ‘Current Perspectives on Teaching World Englishes and English as a Lingua Franca’, TESOL Quarterly, 2006, 40, 1, 157–81. 44. Jennifer Jenkins, ‘A Sociolinguistically Based, Empirically Researched Pronunciation Syllabus for English as an International Language’, Applied Linguistics, 2002, 23, 1, 83–103. 45. Suresh Canagarajah, ‘Introduction’, Reclaiming the Local in Language Policy and Practice (Lawrence Erlbaum, 2005), pp. xiii–xxx. 46. Constant Leung, ‘Convivial Communication: Recontextualizing Communicative Competence’, International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 2005, 15, 2, 119–44.

VOLUME III Part 2. Focus on the Learner

2.3. The Autonomous Learner 62. Malcolm S. Knowles, ‘Defining a New Role’, Self Directed Learning: A Guide for Learners and Teachers (Association Press, 1975), pp. 31–8. 63. Leslie Dickinson, ‘Autonomy, Self-Directed Learning and Individualisation’, Individualisation in Language Learning (The British Council, 1978), pp. 7–28. 64. Henri Holec, ‘On Autonomy: Some Elementary Concepts’, in P. Riley (ed.), Discourse and Learning (Longman, 1985), pp. 173–90. 65. Brian Kenny, ‘For More Autonomy’, System, 1993, 21, 4, 431–42. 66. Sara Cotterall, ‘Developing a Course Strategy for Learner Autonomy’, ELT Journal, 1995, 49, 3, 219–27. 67. Jeremy F. Jones, ‘Self Access and Culture: Retreating from Autonomy’, ELT Journal, 1995, 49, 3, 228–34. 68. William Littlewood, ‘Defining and Developing Autonomy in East Asian Contexts’, Applied Linguistics, 1999, 20, 1, 71–94. 69. Anita Wenden, ‘Learner Development in Language Learning’, Applied Linguistics, 2002, 23, 1, 32–55.


2.1. Affective Factors in Classroom Learning 47. H. Douglas Brown, ‘Affective Variables in Second Language Acquisition’, Language Learning, 1973, 23, 2, 231–44. 48. Gillian Porter-Ladousse, ‘From Needs to Wants: Motivation and the Language Learner’, System, 1982, 10, 1, 29–37. 49. Kathleen M. Bailey, ‘Competitiveness and Anxiety in Adult Second Language Learning: Looking at and through the Diary Studies’, in H. W. Seliger and M. H. Long (eds.), Classroom Oriented Research in Second Language Acquisition (Newbury House, 1983), pp. 67–103. 50. Earl Stevick, ‘Humanism’, Humanistic Approaches: An Empirical View (The British Council, 1982), pp. 7–10. 51. Christopher Brumfit, ‘Some Humanistic Doubts about Humanistic Language Teaching’, in Humanistic Approaches: An Empirical View (The British Council, 1982), pp. 11–19. 52. Joachim Appel, ‘Humanistic Approaches in the Secondary School: How Far Can We Go?’, ELT Journal, 1989, 43, 3, 261–7. 53. Dolly Jesusita Young, ‘Creating a Low-Anxiety Classroom Environment: What Does Language Anxiety Research Suggest?’, The Modern Language Journal, 1991, 75, 4, 426–39. 54. Zoltan Dornyei and Kata Csizer, ‘Ten Commandments for Motivating Language Learners’, Language Teaching Research, 1998, 2, 3, 203–29. 2.2. Learner Strategies 55. Rod Ellis, ‘Communication Strategies and the Evaluation of Communicative Performance’, ELT Journal, 1984, 39, 1, 39–44. 56. J. Michael O’Malley et al., ‘Learning Strategy Applications with Students of English as a Second Language’, TESOL Quarterly, 1985, 19, 3, 557–84. 57. Joan Rubin, ‘Learner Strategies: Theoretical Assumptions, Research History and Typology’, in A. Wenden and J. Rubin (eds.), Learner Strategies in Language Learning (Prentice Hall International, 1987), pp. 15–30. 58. Gail Ellis and Barbara Sinclair, ‘The Theory of Learner Training’, Learning to Learn English (Cambridge University Press, 1989), pp. 2–10. 59. Rebecca L. Oxford, ‘Use of Language Learning Strategies: A Synthesis of Studies with Implications for Strategy Training’, System, 1989, 17, 2, 235–47.

Part 3. Focus on Methodology 3.1. Top-Down and Bottom-Up Processes in Reading 70. Mark A. Clarke and Sandra Silberstein, ‘Towards a Realisation of Psycholinguistic Principles in the ESL Reading Class’, in R. Mackay, B. Barkman, and R. R. Jordan (eds.), Reading in a Second Language: Hypotheses, Organisation and Practice (Newbury House, 1979), pp. 48–65. 71. Patricia Carrell and Joan C. Eisterhold, ‘Schema Theory and ESL Reading Pedagogy’, TESOL Quarterly, 1983, 17, 4, 553–73. 72. Margaret Steffenson and Chitra Joag-Dev, ‘Cultural Knowledge and Reading’, in J. C. Alderson and A. H. Urquhart (eds.), Reading in a Foreign Language (Longman, 1984), pp. 48–62. 73. David E. Eskey, ‘Holding in the Bottom: An Interactive Approach to the Language Problem of Second Language Readers’, in P. Carrell, J. Devine, and D. Eskey (eds.), Interactive Approaches to Second Language Reading (Cambridge University Press, 1988), pp. 93–100. 74. Neil J. Anderson, ‘Developing Active Readers: A Pedagogical Framework for the Second Language Reading Class’, System, 1994, 22, 2, 177–94. 75. Amos Paran, ‘Reading in EFL: Facts and Fictions’, ELT Journal, 1996, 50, 1, 25–34. 3.2. Skills Development Through Extensive Practice 76. Michael West, ‘Simplified and Abridged’, in W. R. Lee (ed.), ELT Selections 1 (Oxford University Press, 1967), pp. 188–92. 77. Christine Nuttall, ‘An Extensive Reading Programme’, Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Language (Heinemann, 1982), pp. 167–90. 78. Jeremy Parrott, ‘Reading Syndicates: A Working Model for the Language Classroom’, Reading in a Foreign Language, 1987, 3, 2, 411–16. 79. F. M. Hafiz and Ian Tudor, ‘Extensive Reading and the Development of Language Skills’, ELT Journal, 1989, 43, 1, 4–13. 80. Bernard Susser and Thomas N. Robb, ‘EFL Extensive Reading Instruction: Research and Procedure’, JALT Journa1, 1990, 2, 2, 161–85. 81. David Hill, ‘Necessity for a Programme’, The EPER Guide to Organising Programmes of Extensive Reading (Institute for Applied Language Studies, University of Edinburgh, 1992), pp. 49–56.

60. J. M. O’Malley and Anna Uhl Chamot, ‘Instruction in Learning Strategies’, Learning Strategies in Second Language Acquisition (Cambridge University Press, 1990), pp. 151–86.

82. Stephen D. Krashen, ‘The Case for Free Voluntary Reading’, The Canadian Modern Language Review, 1993, 50, 1, 72–82.

61. Stephen McDonough, ‘Learner Strategies’, Language Teaching, 1999, 32, 1, 12–18.

83. Willy A. Renandya, B. R. Sundara Rajan, and George M Jacobs, ‘Extensive Reading with Adult Learners of English as a Second Language’, RELC Journal, 1990, 30, 39–61.

3.3. Process and Post-Process Approaches to Writing 84. Linda Flower and John R. Hayes, ‘A Cognitive Process Theory of Writing’, College Composition and Communication, 1981, 32, 4, 365–87. 85. Vivian Zamel, ‘Writing: The Process of Discovering Meaning’, TESOL Quarterly, 1982, 16, 2, 195–209. 86. Claudia Keh, ‘Feedback in the Writing Process: A Model and Methods for Implementation’, ELT Journal, 1990, 44, 4, 294–304. 87. Martha Pennington, ‘Positive and Negative Potentials of Word Processing for ESL Writers’, System, 1991, 19, 3, 267–76. 88. Ann Raimes, ‘Out of the Woods: Emerging Traditions in the Teaching of Writing’, TESOL Quarterly, 1991, 25, 3, 407–30. 89. William Grabe and Robert. B. Kaplan, ‘Responding to Writing’, Theory and Practice of Writing (Longman, 1996), pp. 377–95. 90. Ken Hyland, ‘Genre-Based Pedagogies: A Social Response to Process’, Journal of Second Language Writing, 2003, 12, 17–29.

VOLUME V Part 4. Focus on Curriculum and Materials 4.1. Learner-Centredness in English Language Teaching 105. Ian Tudor, ‘Learner-Centredness in Language Teaching: Finding the Right Balance’, System, 1992, 20, 1, 31–44. 106. A. van Ek and Louis Alexander, Threshold Level English (Pergamon Press, 1980), pp. 7–9, 17–28 107. Tom Hutchinson and Alan Waters, ‘Needs Analysis’, English for Specific Purposes (Cambridge University Press, 1987), pp. 53–64. 108. Geoffrey Brindley, ‘The Role of Needs Analysis in Adult ESL Programme Design’, in R. K. Johnson (ed.), The Second Language Curriculum (Cambridge University Press, 1989), pp. 63–78.

3.4. The Teaching of Vocabulary

109. Paul Seedhouse, ‘Needs Analysis and the General English Classroom’, ELT Journal, 1995, 49, 1, 59–65.

91. Jack C. Richards, ‘The Role of Vocabulary Teaching in the English Syllabus’, TESOL Quarterly, 1976, 10, 1, 77–89.

110. David Clarke, ‘The Negotiated Syllabus: What is it and How is it Likely to Work?’, Applied Linguistics, 1991, 12, 1, 13–28.

92. Caroline Schouten-Van Perreren, ‘Vocabulary Learning through Reading: Which Conditions Should be Met When Presenting Words in Texts?’, AILA Review, 1989, 6, 75–84.

111. Michael Breen and Andrew Littlejohn, ‘The Rationale for Negotiation’, Classroom Decision-Making: Negotiation and Process Syllabuses in Practice (Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 11–28.

93. James R. Nattinger, ‘Current Trends in Vocabulary Teaching’, in R. Carter and M. McCarthy (eds.), Vocabulary and Language Teaching (Longman, 1988), pp. 62–82.

112. Graham Carter and Howard Thomas, ‘Dear Brown Eyes: Experiential Learning in a Project Oriented Approach’, ELT Journal, 1986, 40, 3, 196–204.

94. Chris Moran, ‘Lexical Inferencing in EFL Reading Coursebooks: Some Implications of Research’, System, 1991, 19, 4, 389–400.

113. Johan Uvin, ‘Designing Workplace ESOL Courses for Chinese HealthCare Workers at a Boston Nursing Home’, in K. Graves (ed.), Teachers as Course Developers (Cambridge University Press, 1996), pp. 39–58.

95. Norbert Schmitt and Diane Schmitt, ‘Vocabulary Notebooks: Theoretical Underpinnings and Practical Suggestions’, ELT Journal, 1995, 49, 2, 133–43. 96. Paul Nation and Jonathon Newton, ‘Teaching Vocabulary’, in J. Coady and T. Huckin (eds.), Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition (Cambridge University Press, 1997), pp. 238–54. 97. Alan Hunt and David Beglar, ‘Current Research and Practice in Teaching Vocabulary’, in J. C. Richards and W. Renandya (eds.), Methodology in Language Teaching: An Anthology of Current Practice (Cambridge University Press, 2002), pp. 258–66. 3.5. Critical Literacy 98. Robert Hodge and Gunther Kress, ‘Reading Power’, Language as Ideology (Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1979), pp. 160–74. 99. Ellen Spolsky, ‘‘’I Come to Bury Caesar, not to Praise Him”’: Teaching Resisting Reading’, ELT Journal, 1989, 43, 3, 173–9. 100. Ronald Carter and Michael N. Long, ‘Theories of Reading’, Teaching Literature (Longman, 1991), pp. 183–95. 101. Elsa Auerbach, ‘Literacy and Ideology’, Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 1992, 12, 71–85. 102. Romy Clark, ‘Developing Practices of Resistance: Critical Reading for Students of Politics’, in D. Graddol, L. Thompson, and M. Byram (eds.), Language and Culture: British Studies in Applied Linguistics 7 (British Association of Applied Linguistics and Multilingual Matters, 1993), pp. 113–22. 103. Catherine Wallace, ‘Critical Language Awareness: Key Principles for a Course in Critical Reading’, Language Awareness, 1999, 8, 2, 98–110. 104. Bonny Norton and Karen Vanderheyden, ‘Comic Book Culture and Second Language Learners’, in B. Norton and K. Toohey (eds.), Critical Pedagogies and Language Learning (Cambridge University Press, 2004), pp. 201–21.

4.2. Authenticity and Simplification in Learning Materials 114. H. G. Widdowson, ‘The Authenticity of Language Data’, Explorations in Applied Linguistics (Oxford University Press, 1979), pp. 163–72. 115. Keith Morrow, ‘Authentic Texts and ESP’, in S. Holden (ed.), English for Specific Purposes (Modern English Publications Ltd, 1977), pp. 13–15. 116. Alan Davies, ‘Simple, Simplified and Simplification: What is Authentic?’, in J. C. Alderson and A. H. Urquhart (eds.), Reading in a Foreign Language (Longman, 1984), pp. 181–95. 117. Michael P. Breen, ‘Authenticity in the Language Classroom’, Applied Linguistics, 1985, 6, 1, 60–70. 118. Aud Marit Simensen, ‘Adapted Readers: How are they Adapted?’, Reading in a Foreign Language, 1988, 4, 1, 41–57. 119. David Clarke, ‘Communicative Theory and its Influence on Materials Production’, Language Teaching, 1989, 22, 2, 73–86. 120. Richard Day and Julian Bamford, ‘The Cult of Authenticity and the Myth of Simplification’, Extensive Reading in the Second Language Classroom (Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp. 53–61. 4.3. Cultural Content in the Syllabus 121. Michael Byram, ‘A Model for Language and Culture Teaching’, Cultural Studies in Foreign Language Education (Multilingual Matters, 1989), pp. 136–48. 122. Kheira Adaskou, Donard Britten, and Badia Fahsi, ‘Design Decisions on the Cultural Content of a Secondary English Course for Morocco’, ELT Journal, 1990, 44, 1, 3–10. 123. Michael Byram et al., ‘Case Study 9: British Cultural Studies in Turkey’, Teaching-and-Learning Language-and-Culture (Multilingual Matters, 1994), pp. 125–34. 124. Ana Barro, Shirley Jordan, and Celia Roberts, ‘Cultural Practices in Everyday Life: The Language Learner as Ethnographer’, in M. Byram and M. Fleming (eds.), Language Learning in Intercultural Perspective: Approaches Through Drama and Ethnography (Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp. 76–97.