Page 1

the in-between By Rosina A. Diaz Galvan


the in-between

A

thesis

presented

to

the

undergraduate faculty of New School of Architecture + Design In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Architecture by Rosina A. Diaz Galvan

June 2017 San Diego, CA

the in-between


Copyright @ 2017 Rosina A. Diaz Galvan All Rights Reserved


Urban Filters Thesis Abstract

I close my eyes and look for a second

the pedestrian speed. I became an obstacle

of peace behind my lids. The noise around

on their path towards their destination. I

me continues. I hear the cars blasting

start walking again and join the current of

through a yellow light in a hurry to get to

pedestrian walk. More than half the people

their destination, in the distance, people

are on their phones. I am on my phone. It’s

cheering at a bar trying to talk over the

like the activity of walking doesn’t bring

television volume, people walking through

enough stimulation and we need to entertain

me looking forward as I look around. I feel

ourselves while doing it. I passed several

the wind touch my face and brush the tree

storefronts, a dog park, a cafe, and probably

leaves into a dance. The lights coming from

a lot more but I can’t tell you any details

different directions are so intense that the

about it. I have adapted a behavior in the

tree is hard to see but I can hear the leaves

environment where I ignore or tune down

brushing against each other.

elements of the situation. We live unaware

of the unhealthy urban environment which

In the 5 seconds I paused about 10

people passed by me on a steady pace, annoyed at the fact that I am not walking at

By Author

we live in.


the in-between

A

thesis

presented

to

the

undergraduate faculty of New School of Architecture + Design by Rosina A. Diaz Galvan Approved by:

Undergraduate Chair

Date

Studio Instructor

Date


Dedication

Para ti, que en las noches antes de

dormir me contabas como iba yo a ir a la escuela, estudiar mucho y crecer a ser exitosa. Te mantengo en mi corazรณn, en mis memorias, y en mi nombre. Para mi tia china.


Acknowledgements

I want to thank my professors whom

have taught me to challenge myself and have shared a part of them with me that has allowed me to grow as a designer and as a person.

I want to thank my family because

who am I without them? Because their love and support mean everything to me.

Finally, I want to thank my mom, my

role model, my best friend. Because your strength has given me strength and your guidance has given me confidence.

Oh... and I want to congratulate

myself because this was tough.


Contents 1 Introduction 2 Research Analysis 3 Design Methods 4 Design Tools 5 Design Prototype 6 Design Solution Appendix


Figure B Plant and Building by Author


1

Introduction 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Problem 1.3 Critical Position 1.4 Thesis Statement

Figure 1.0 Wall Textures by Author


Layers of Experience 1.1 Introduction

Walking through our urban built

linear but multilayered. It presents itself in

environment creates an experience of walls,

two dimensions as well as volumes of spatial

floors, windows and roofs, maybe a tree.

experience. Its there in forms that we can’t

The experience envelopes a homogenized

perceive relying solely on our visual senses.

environment of the man made. If you stay

It targets all of your senses all at once yet

still, you feel how the world continues

it provokes numbing rather than interest.

around. Lights rushing your way and the

These layers of secondary experience

busy soundscape surrounds you. There is a

become filters in-between you and the

continued experience entering your sense

object, between you and the building, you

of belonging in the world coming from

and the experience. This is the in-between.

different directions. The experience is not

the in-between


Figure 1.1 Urban Filters by Author

Introduction

03


Mental Overload 1.2 Problem

There is always something between

us and our experiences. As the information from an experience travels to us, it goes through a series of filters that add layers of information to the situation as it gets to us. The urban context is bringing us to an unhealthy state of being due to the negative filters existing in today’s urban reality. This constant phenomena of layers and filters inbetween is creating a collection of disturbed experiences for the average individual.

Our

perception

of

the

built

environment embodies our sense of self in the world. We have an understanding of our immediate environment based on our direct sensory awareness. As we enter an experience we develop an image of the extended environment based on our peripheral vision and soundscape in the background to formulate a mental map of

what is going on around us. We go through

The overwhelm of negative filters are

our days living a chronological series of

influencing the numbing of our senses as

experiences, one ends and another one

defense instinct. We find ourselves paying

starts. Our experiences become the focus

less attention to the experience in a journey

in the unfocused world we walk. Although

and more attention to the destination. You

it acts as secondary experiences, we accept

take in just enough information from the

large quantities of sensory information from

environment to get to point B safely from

the unfocused world. Different gradients of

point A. Today’s technology takes a big part

sensorial disturbances enter our world from

in our behavior in our everyday experiences

this unfocused environment formulating

as it enables the numbing of our senses and

an overwhelm for the average individual.

redirects our focus towards an idealized

These negative filters entering our focused

environment in our phone screens.

world start to overwhelm the experience,

blinding us from the

day by day due to to the distorted

experience in the

Our experiences are deteriorating

information being absorbed by the average

focused world. sensorial

individual. We continue our lives through

disturbances in our experiences have

the unfocused environment allowing for

altered our behavior towards our built

these negative filters to depreciate our

environment

to

that

quality of life.

and

of

emotional

The

absent

overwhelming

of

the in-between

detachment response.


The Unnatural 1.3 Critical Position

The

in-between

influences

a

behavior of detachment from our senses and detachment from emotions towards our physical environment. We have adapted

Figure 1.2 Dimensional Filters by Author

to these unnatural filters motivating us to ignore the situation around us. Based on Juhani Pallasmaa’s theory in Mind in Architecture, “emotion is the multi sensory medium through which we connect with our built environment.” As our detachment grows, our interactions with the city and the community are reduced into a walk from point A to point B.

Introduction

05


Problem Sketch Models 1.2 Problem

the in-between


Figure 1.3 Sketch Models by Author

Introduction

07


Distort

Blind

the in-between


the in-between 1.4 Thesis Statement

We

are

living

in

a

state

of

unhealthiness due to the deterioration of our everyday experiences. The distorting effects of the “in-between” have blinded the average individual by altering their understanding of the built environment; this is motivating the numbing of their senses due to these disturbed experiences. By understanding the way we perceive the built environment we have the opportunity to control the “in-between” and start the process of healing by creating healthy experiences in our everyday lives.

Numb

Figure 1.4 Problem Diagrams by Author Introduction

09


Research Analysis 2.1 Blind 2.2 Numb 2.3 Distort 2.4 Disturb 2.5 Unhealthy

Figure 2.0 Desert by the Street by Author

2


Life Through Urban Filters 2.1 Blind

Figure 2.1 Traveling Information by Author

There is always something between

built

environment

that

accommodates

us and our experiences. As the information

for a rapid pace of life. Pace of life shows

from an experience travels to us, it goes

the rate at which we move, act, and walk

through a series of filters coming from

and the high-pressure at which we work.

different directions that add layers of

Urbanity can be directly related to the

information to the situation as it gets to

dependency of the city on economic well-

us. These layers start to overwhelm the

being as well as individual. Another factor

experience leaving us blinded from the

in direct relationship with the pace of life

existing circumstance.

of a city is individualist mentality rather

The journal article Environmental

than collectivist; individualist culture is

Influence in the Brain, Human Welfare

characterized by an orientation to the

and Mental Health explains, “The fast-

individual and nuclear family rather than

paced urban environment is enriched in

a

adverse psychosocial influences that, in

1999). The rapid pace of life in the urban

combination, may provide the ‘toxic social

environment has negative consequences in

circumstances’ that facilitate chronic stress

the well-being of the population.

and abnormal neural development in

vulnerable individuals (Tost, Champagne, &

is different elements that actively and

Meyer-Lindenberg 2015).“

passively act as filters in our experiences.

The constant interaction of experience

The urban life is molded by a the in-between

community

(Levine

&

Norenzayan

Within the built environment there


toxic

built environment. On the academic journal

lighting an area that would otherwise be

circumstance which is making us mentally

article Missing the Dark: Health Effects of

dark. Glare is created by light that shines

unhealthy. Although we are not aware of all

Light Pollution, Chepesiuk describes, “light

horizontally. Over illumination refers to

the information that is in our experiences,

pollution comes in many forms, including

the use of artificial light well beyond what

the eye can perceive all the different layers

sky glow, light trespass, glare, and over

is required for a specific activity, such as

at once. A filter in the urban setting can be:

illumination. Sky glow is the bright halo

keeping the lights on all night in an empty

strong lighting from different sources, noise

that appears over urban areas at night,

office building (Chepesiuk 2009).� When

pollution, traffic, cleanliness, homelessness

a product of light being scattered by

over used or under used, light becomes a

interference, smell pollution, pedestrian

water droplets or particles in the air. Light

thick filter in the built environment which

density, uncaring community, concrete

trespass occurs when unwanted artificial

can alter information from our experiences

landscape, etc.

light from, for instance, a floodlight or

in different ways. The long exposure

streetlight spills onto an adjacent property,

effects of light pollution can have a strong

through

filters

is

creating

this

Light, both natural and artificial, is a

main element in our built environment and it can have great effects in our productivity, our mood, and even our psychological response to a given scenario. Architecture has continuously become objects for the

The constant interaction of experience through filters is creating this toxic circumstance which is making us mentally unhealthy.

visual system encouraging the use of artificial lighting as a way of expression and means of stimulating attention in the Research Analysis

13


negative effect in the average individual

everyday experiences. The combination of

which are “linked to several medical

high pedestrian activity, human behavior,

disorders in humans, including depression,

cellphones, entertainment, transportation,

insomnia,

traffic

cardiovascular

disease,

and

on

the

streets,

industry,

and

cancer (Carvalho, Hidalgo, Levandovski

construction, the city soundscape becomes

2014).” Although a strong filter present in

an envelope of noise. Chepesiuk writes

every urban setting, lighting isn’t always a

in The Effects of Living in a Noisy World

negative filter. In a setting where lighting

that secondhand noise, this being the

is used correctly, it can contribute towards

experience of noise by people who did not

a multi-sensory field of experience and

produce it, it’s put into the environment

trigger emotion.

without people’s consent and then has

effects on them that they don’t have any

Noise is a common source of environment

control over. Urban noise affects the

within the urban fabric. It is one of the

quality of life, it is a significant filter in

main filters which help deteriorate our

the built environment which depending

disturbance

in

the

built

Noise pollution is one of the main filters which help deteriorate our everyday experiences. Figure 2.2 Emotions by Authors the in-between


Figure 2.3 Our Sense of Self in the World by Author

Visual Seduction 2.2 Numb on the intensity, it can become

harmful

We

are

actively

numbing

our

to our health. Noise, now increasingly

senses in our everyday experiences. This

inevitable and unavoidable, interferes with

is a reaction to the under-stimulation of

cognitive functions, including attention,

our senses in reaction to our focused

concentration, memory, reading ability, and

environment

sound discrimination. Sound is measured

of our sensory field from the unfocused

from a normal conversation at 60 decibels,

environment through different layers of

a heavy traffic on the streets at 85 decibels

interference.

of intensity, to subway or motorcycle

noise reaching 100 decibels out in the

behavioral psychology, explains in 100

urban environment. “Chronic or repeated

Things Every Designer Needs to Know

exposure to sounds at or above 85 decibels

About People, “You have two types of

can cause hearing loss (Chepesiuk 2005).”

vision: central and peripheral. Central

Light and noise are the two main

vision is what you use to look at things

filters that alter our experiences in the built

directly and to see details. Peripheral vision

environment, although harmful on their

encompasses the rest of the visual field,”

own, they create an toxic environment for

then continues, “peripheral vision is more

our experiences which we live through

important in understanding the world

every day within the urban setting.

around us (Weinschenk 2011).” Filters in

Susan

and

the

over-stimulation

Weinschenk,

Ph.D.

on

the environment rely on the peripheral Research Analysis

15


spectrum of our visual field. As we turn

object forms the confronted world as for

astonishing capacity to perceive and grasp

our attention towards the object or task of

the unfocused envelopes and embodies

unconsciously and peripherally complex

interest, the built environment is embodied

the world around the situation (Pallasmaa

environment entities and atmospheres

through our peripheral vision allowing

2012).”

(Pallasmaa 2012).” Although our senses are

filters coming from different directions

to contribute to the experience. Juhani

around objects of

Pallasmaa, architect, writer, and professor at

unfocused

Helsinki University of Technology, discusses

unrecognized as an important element in

enter our experiences.

in The Eyes of the Skin, “The qualitative

our architectural design. As the unfocused

dimension of our experiences happens

embodies our visual field, it is of more

of Sensory Processing Disorder, Walbam

mainly through peripheral vision, through

importance than our focused world on the

explains, “According to sensory integration

the unfocused surroundings. The focused

way we perceive experience. “We have an

theory, one must be able to take cues from

The built environment is designed world

focus leaving the unattended

and

active through our experiences, we walk through our day numbing our senses to reduce the amount of negative filters that On the journal article The Relevance

the environment and process them into useful information in order to comprehend

The built environment is designed around objects of focus leaving the unfocused world unattended.

the world and one’s place in it,” then continues to analyze an extreme of the condition, “children who are hypersensitive may

not

receive

important

sensory

messages and feel blindsided by events and activities around them, or disconnected the in-between


from the world (Walbam 2014).”

a stimulus. The under stimulation of our

senses is rendering an urban environment

Experience through filters can relate

to the way someone who is struggling with

lacking

emotional

sensory integration being hypo-sensitive

individual.

takes in information. “The dominance of the

eye and the suppression of the other senses

becoming object for the visual system, “the

tend to push us into detachment, isolation

current mass production of visual imagery

and exteriority (Pallasmaa 2012).” Filters in

tends to alienate vision from emotional

the urban environment bring a feeling of

involvement and identification, and to turn

disconnection from the world. We use the

imagery into a mesmerizing flow without

senses to formulate emotion and based

focus or participation (Pallasmaa 2012).” In

on this the brain determines the value of

a world based on technology, our current

As

reaction

architecture

is

from

the

continuously

“The dominance of the eye and the suppression of the other senses tend to push us into detachment, isolation and exteriority.” -Pallasmaa Figure 2.4 Overwhelming Environment by Author Research Analysis

17


Figure 2.5 Stimulation by Author

physical environment is able to manipulate

to support the absence of a multi-sensory

our visual senses the easiest making us

field in the physical world. Images touch

vulnerable to the interference of filters in

upon memory and past experience in the

our every day experiences (Erling 2012).

individual about how a material felt, or how

a setting smelled. This situation is rendering

Although our visual experiences are

predominant today, the eyes reveal what the

an architectural reality of visual seduction.

sense of touch already knows. An individual

Reality Of Our Senses

uses visual information and then recurs to

memory and experience of the sense of

environment distort the information we

touch to determine an object’s size, shape,

receive from an experience deteriorating it

weight, texture, and temperature, and

in the process.

whether the object causes pain or pleasure

by just looking at a situation (Lehman

technology,

2016). The body needs touch to ensure the

to flatten our magnificent, multi-sensory,

stability of the visual world and the sense of

simultaneous and synchronic capacities of

self. With experiences based purely on the

imagination by turning the design process

visual sense, it leaves the rest of our senses

into a passive visual manipulation, a retinal

unattended and left to acquire information

journey (Pallasmaa 2012).”

from

the

surrounding

A variety of filters in our built

In a world continuously lead through “computer

unfocused

environment. Visual elements are aiming the in-between

imaging

tends


Reality Of Our Senses 2.3 Distort

A variety of filters in our built

to the point of overwhelm as well as remove

environment distort the information we

information to the point of blindness from

a multi sensory field of experience is that

receive from an experience deteriorating it

an experience. Filters act as disturbances

which embodies an atmosphere for the

in the process.

in sensory processing and perception.

user. It engages sensorial experience and it

This is creating a impersonal connection

connects it with memory, and imagination.

tends

between human and architecture as well

As human beings, we experience through

to flatten our magnificent, multi-sensory,

as human and human. Peter Zumthor, 2009

a combination of physical and spiritual

simultaneous and synchronic capacities of

Pritzker Architecture Prize winner, writes in

elements

imagination by turning the design process

Thinking Architecture, “In my buildings I

to our sense of self in a space. The

into a passive visual manipulation, a retinal

try to enhance what seems to be valuable,

experience becomes multilayered and

journey (Pallasmaa 2012).”

to correct what is disturbing, and to create

multidimensional. We experience through

anew what we feel is missing (Zumthor

movement acquiring information as you

2010).”

move from experience to experience.

In a world continuously lead through

technology,

“computer

imaging

Mental fatigue comes from an

environment of filters that adds information

A space with the capacity to form

to

bring

an

understanding

Although our days are made up of

a chronological series of expriences, very

Filters act as disturbances in sensory processing and perception that lead to a collection of disturbed experiences.

few of those become of relevance due to out active numbing of our senses. We need to be exposed to experiences that create memory and elevate our interaction with the physical world. Research Analysis

19


Figure 2.6 Healing Through Filters by Author.

The Green and the Disturbed 2.4 Disturb

Our life is becoming a collection of

with better overall mental health compared

disturbed experiences which are making us

to less positive environmental attributes

unhealthy.

(Van Dyck, Teychenne, McNaughton, De

is

Bourdeaudhuij, & Salmon 2015). Current

invigorating and healing due to the constant

city dwellers have a substantially increased

interaction of all sense modalities (Robinson

risk for anxiety disorders by 21% and

& Pallasmaa 2015)” In contrast with nature,

mood disorders by 39% (Lederbogen,

our fast-paced urban environment forces

Kirsch, Haddad, Streit, Tost, Schuch, Wüst,

us into a toxic behavior where we are

Pruessner, Rietschel, Deuschle, & Meyer-

growing disconnected from our physical

Lindenberg 2011). “Experimental studies

world. The urban setting has physical

have focused on the positive effects of

environmental factors have an impact to

being exposed to green environments,

mental health, some evidence exists that

such as changes in mood and physiological

perceptions of high safety, high walkability,

stress measures (Pasanen, Tyrväinen, &

good access to parks and favourable

Korpela 2014).”

“A

walk

through

a

forest

neighborhood aesthetics are associated

Our fast-paced urban environment forces us into a toxic behavior where we are growing disconnected from our physical world. the in-between


Towards A Healing Context 2.5 Unhealthy

To start the process of healing,

market is and creating spaces with qualities

will introduce healthy filters as you walk

we need to create healthy experiences

that heal, relieves, de-stresses, and revives

through it. As you enter a healthy filter, you

in our every day lives. By introducing life-

through the program accommodations and

allow your sense of self to leave behind

enhancing architecture in the design that

architectural manifestation.

the accumulated stress from the unhealthy

addresses each sensorial need alone as

The programmatic needs will bring

filters. At the end of the experience, you

well as all the senses simultaneously, the

the culture of the farmer’s market into the

enter the unhealthy environment again, but

architecture can help to fuse our image of

core of the downtown area. The project

your sense of self is stronger and relaxed

self with the experience of the world.

will bring spaces for different kinds of

which allow for endurance.

Through this research I will bring

activities that will create not only one type

an understanding of how we perceive the

of experience, but several depending on

the project promotes flow through selected

urban environment through filters and the

the user interest of healing.

sites which create a stronger sense of

current conditions of this phenomena in

community through the urban fabric of

the urban setting leading to an unhealthy

the negative filters in the environment

environment. This will highlight theories

bringing a controlled environment that

The project will act as a shelter from

By promoting pedestrian walkability,

downtown San Diego.

on how to heal the individual through the urban environment itself by embodying better sensory experiences.

This thesis will develop a solution

through an Public Market in the middle of the

The project will act as a shelter from the negative filters in the environment bringing a controlled environment that will introduce healthy filters as you walk through it.

urban setting. By redefining what a public Research Analysis

21


Design Methods 3.1 Case Studies 3.2 Typology Analysis 3.3 Criteria for Site 3.4 Site Analysis 3.5 Program Analysis 3.6 Code Analysis

3

Figure 3.0 Growing Through Urban Adversity by Author.


Movement as a Filter 3.1 Case Studies

Project_ Cidade Das Artes

you feel like you’re in Rio’s great landscape,

Architect_ Christian de Portzamparc

with a view of the sea, the lakes, and the

Location_ Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 2013

dancing line of the mountains,” explained

Size_ 46000 sqm

by the architect.

Type_ Multi-use

Through this project, I looked at

the way the design brought a variety of curved

components together by a central core

concrete volumes for the art and music

of circulation. The way the public space

complex in Rio de Janeiro which was

expands between the main program allows

designed by the French architect Christian

for a flow of circulation for a promenade that

de Portzamparc. “The building is a small,

connects the user with the building as well

raised city organized around a terrace

with the context. The terrace is composed

ten meters above ground, floating upon

of large concrete curved walls which create

a public park – a tropical, aquatic garden

a focused attention towards the program

designed by Fernando Chacel. This terrace

needs at the same time that it allows for

is a public space; it is a gathering point that

the light to penetrate through the different

gives access to all of the facilities, where

layers and levels of the building.

The

project

expresses

the in-between

Figure 3.2 Cidade Das Artes Floor Plan


Critical Position:

By defining the circulation as an

important factor in the experience of the complexity of the building, the project becomes successful at integrating the different spaces together despite of their different programatic needs,

The architect does a successful job

at treating the project as one rather than isolating the different aspects of it.

Figure 3.1 Cidade Das Artes Elevation

Figure 3.3 Circulation Flow by Author

Figure 3.3 Horizontal Connections by Author Design Methods

25


Layers

3.1 Case Studies Project_ Fondation Cartier

The promenade of the user allows for

Architect_ Jean Nouvel

nature to be part of the surrounding at a

Location_ Paris, France 1994

different level, not just through a window.

Size_ 6,400 sqm

The outdoor spaces have an undefined

Type_ Museum

relationship with the inside of the building. The design creates an experience through

This project uses transparencies in

layers that are hard to define.

a public space playing between inside and

outside which allows an openness for the

architecture as it is not only an expressed

experience of the user from a distance as

support for the building, but it is shown to

well as up close. The architect, Jean Nouvel,

travel through the layers of the building.

expresses a connection between structure

The layers have limitations defined by

and nature.

glass, but the structure doesn’t become

part of the boundary, it allows for furthering

This case studies observes the

use of layers as an ambiguity to the user.

Structure has a strong role in the

connections from layer to layer.

the in-between


Critical Position:

The project creates a stimulating

experience to the user by blending the programatic

layers

together.

By

not

defining the begining of one and the end of another, the user experiences multiple layers at once. This allows the experience of the inside without entering that layer of the program as well as the experience of the outside even when you stand on the inside.

Figure 3.4 Fondation Cartier Elevation

Figure 3.5 Fondation Cartier Perspective

Figure 3.6 Volumes of Layers by Author Figure 3.7 Experience Through Layers by Author

Design Methods

27


Connect 3.1 Case Studies

Project_ Centro Roberto Garza Sada

light, shadows, scale of the elements, its’

Architect_ Tadao Ando

presence and depth that allow the observer

Location_ Monterrey, Mexico 2013

to be placed in amazing perspectives that

Size_ 20,700 sqm

frames what happen inside and outside

Type_ University

of the CRGS as well as the mountainous environment in a majestic way,” describes

Project designed by the Japanese

architect

Tadao

Ando

in

Monterrey,

the architect.

Through this case study, I observed

Mexico. “The building is perceived from

the connection that the architectural concept

the outside as a solid shape working

extended

together with its’ main element in the face

conditions surrounded by the mountain

below denominated ‘the shell’ and framing

range. The connection of the building with

the ‘Sierra Madre’(the mountain range).

its context is the strongest at the ground

However, inside its’ concrete walls there are

level arrival as you enter the void from

several architectural spaces that are properly

bellow the concrete box. The concept is

illuminated, open, transparent through its’

perceived throughout the building as you

glass walls that interacts with the natural

discover the several voids located at the

elements and allow altogether to generate

extremes of the building reinforcing the

in their visitors and users lots of sensations

connection.

towards

its

so diverse due to the interaction of natural the in-between

environmental


Critical Position:

By playing with void and mass, the

project becomes successful at creating a strong relationship between the building and the strong natural environment that it is surrounded by.

The project highlights the beauty

of the mountains by framing the context with a textured response and creates a memorable experience of walking into and out of the project. Figure 3.9 Centro Roberto Garza Sada Texture

Figure 3.8 Centro Roberto Garza Sada Perspective

Figure 3.10 Emotional Connection by Author

Figure 3.11 Voids and Masses by Author

Design Methods

29


Infiltrate

3.1 Case Studies Project_ House OM

interior spaces were interlinked,� explains

Architect_ Sou Fujimoto

the architect. Sou Fujimoto redefined the

Location_ Yokohama, Japan

central courtyard through this project

Size_ 72 sqm

as a complex essential void of light and

Type_ Residence

circulation that connects program as well as light into this project.

“The

design

shows

a

three-

The way the floors were design allow

dimensional courtyard that links in various

for the light to infiltrate all four levels relying

ways to the dwelling spaces, a kind of

on the curved white walls of the courtyard

ambiguous interface between the inside

to reflect light into the rest of the spaces for

and the outside. The house was transformed

best efficiency of natural light. The result

into an abstract, cloud-like organism. Each

is a beautiful well integrated courtyard

floor is given a distinctive shape by slicing

that breaks the promenade into a vertical

out a differently shaped exterior space. We

dependency as much as horizontal. This

stacked the resulting floor shapes on top of

courtyard gave the necessary circulation for

another, whereas the exterior spaces and

the tight 72 square meter space.

the in-between


Critical Position:

The vertical connection in the

building brings natural ventilation and lighting thorugh the entirety of the program pronouncing the importance of verticality in the project primary to the horizontal experience.

The

natural

elements

infiltrate

the building creating a more stimulating experience.

Figure 3.12 OM House Perspective

Figure 3.13 OM House Interior

Figure 3.14 Infiltrate by Author

Figure 3.14 Voids by Author

Design Methods

31


the in-between


Development Goals 3.1 Case Studies

Based on the observations analyzed

experience of the proposed spaces. How to

in the case studies four main ideas are

challenge the layers, blur them, or define

highlighted to further explore how to

them.

introduce them in the design solution:

movement, layers, connect, and infiltrate.

through movement to create an integrated

experience overall.

Thinking of how wayfinding will

How to connect the different layers

work in the project and the importance of

the user experience through movement at

elements

different paces.

program spaces infiltrating others as well.

Introduce

the

infiltrating

idea the

of

natural

spaces

and

Analyzing how to bring layers to the

Design Methods

33


Heals Sensitizes Preserves Tranquilizes Settles Embodies Relieves Destress Connect Open Relax

the in-between

School

Urban Structure

Public Market

Cultural Center

Figure 3.15 Typology Matrix by Author

Museum

Library

Revive


Reviving and Relaxing 3.2 Typology Analysis

The thesis seeks to introduce a

based reaction to the environment that we

typology that has the capacity of bringing a

engage in, so the solution will embody a

a library, a museum, a cultural center, a

tranquil, sensitizing space as well as a space

de-stressing and engaging program that

public market, an urban structure, and a

that connects and revives. Looking at a site

will create an environment of healthy filters

school into play. The matrix created would

that is unhealthy and brings damage to the

throughout the site for a settling experience.

measure if the questioned typology would

user by depressing his or her senses due to

The search started by looking at

be able to achieve an environment that

its deficiency in a stimulating environment,

a typology that could introduce a certain

could influence the aimed qualities through

the project needs to introduce a set of

complexity into the site at the same

an

programmatic uses that bring different

time looking that the introduction of this

composition.

levels of comfort.

typology won’t highlight the negative filters

The negative filters are creating

in the area due to that same complexity. The

to the possibilities it introduced for the

numbing of the senses so the solution will

solution is proposing to bring high levels of

thesis solution. It presented a space that

bring relief and reviving experiences that

activity to active the site making it important

can bring chaos at the same time that it

activate the senses through stimulating

to consider how many sites have done that

could introduce more intimate spaces and

activity. The negative filters are influencing

in the urban setting only bringing unhealthy

welcome nature into the setting.

stress and unfocused behavior on a daily

environments into the community.

The selected typologies considered:

organized

complex

programmatic

The public market was selected due

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Redifining the Public Market 3.2 Typology Analysis

Smell

Taste Touch

Auditory

the in-between


Revive Visual

Visual Relax

Figure 3.16 Redifining the Public Market by Author

Design Methods

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Unhealthy Blind Numb Distort Disturb Disconnect Stress Unfocus Blur Damage DeďŹ cient

the in-between

Urban Landscape

Visual Stimulation

Smell Pollution

Pollution

Light Pollution Sound

Figure 3.17 Site Criteria Matrix by Author

Pedestrian Density

TrafďŹ c

Depress


Unhealthy Urban Conditions 3.3 Criteria for Site

The thesis explores how these

setting to live in due to its exciting conditions

urban conditions that embodied a heavily

defined negative filters shape behaviors

of city living. The thesis problem doesn’t

disturbed site due to what was defined as

of disconnection, numbing, depression of

define the city as a negative environment,

negative filters. The filters were defined as:

the senses, and unfocus due to feelings

but it highlights the need for attention to

traffic, pedestrian density, light pollution,

of discomfort and stress. Although these

the growing negative filters due to the

sound pollution, smell pollution, visual

conditions would have to achieve high levels

concentration of elements and the little

stimulation, and urban landscape.

of impact for the user to actively recognize

attention given to the rising levels of filters

The negative filters weighting in

they are victims in the phenomena, it has

in specific areas. When negative filters start

the matrix allow for a quantitative and

an effect in all of us. We are all exposed to

concentrating in a place, it embodies an

qualitative measurement of how these

these negative filters.

environment of stress that can be dealt with

layers of intensity can affect the user by

at first, but it does have an effect on us over

causing specific side effects.

through the years to become this desired

The problem defined a set or

The urban setting has been evolving

time.

Design Methods

39


A

the in-between


Site Selection 3.3 Criteria for Site

B

Site A sits on the block of 7th Avenue

Site B sits on the block of Park

and Market Street in the Gaslamp Quarter

Boulevard and Broadway in East Village of

of Downtown San Diego. This site is facing

Downtown San Diego. The block is adjacent

Market St which is heavily used throughout

to the trolley station and City College.

the day. In the morning there is business and

The site presents strong opportunities to

commercial activity mostly, and it proceeds

connect with the adjacent program. Due to

to shift towards nigh life activity starting in

the trolley, the noise contributes to a high

the afternoon. It presents high traffic and

sound pollution. The area around it is run

pedestrian activity all day which contributes

down allowing for a homeless situation that

to noise pollution. It currently is a ground

contributes to the smell pollution in the

level parking lot in adjacency surrounded at

area.

three extremes by high-rise buildings. This

condition creates an issue of scale in the

limitations and opportunities that have the

site. This stresses the filter defined as man-

potential for a successful thesis solution.

Both sites present a series of

made landscape.

Figure 3.18 Sites Comparison by Author Design Methods

41


Figure 3.19 Negative Filters by Author

the in-between

Urban Landscape

Visual Stimulation

Smell Pollution

Sound Pollution

Light Pollution

Pedestrian Density

TrafďŹ c


Site Selection 3.3 Criteria for Site

When thinking of site criteria, the

made landscape. These negative filters

area, the intensity of these filters were

site needed to present a harmful presence

were selected based on the predominance

observed

of filters that affect the average individual

of these elements in the overall urban

compare and contrast between sites to

on an every day basis. Through a analysis

experience and how harmful each one

determine a selection for the solution. With

of possible filters encountered in the

can be towards the average individual if

a clear understanding of the problem as

urban context, the most predominant

they are not controlled in healthy levels of

a whole and breaking down the problem

were defined in order to establish an

exposure. Although many other negative

to establish a matrix for analysis, two sites

understanding of the problem observed in

filters could be introduced in the matrix,

were selected and analyzed. Both sites are

each site. The negative filters in observation

the most influential negative presence was

situated in San Diego, CA, United States due

are:

selected to create a measuring tool that will

to direct proximity for myself to conduct

pollution, sound pollution, smell pollution,

define the site of focus for the project.

thorough observation and analysis of the

visual overstimulation, and urban man-

conditions in the urban area.

traffic,

pedestrian

density,

light

When selecting a site in an urban

and

measured

allowing

Design Methods

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43


the in-between


Site Observations 3.4 Site Analysis

A Location on 7th Ave and Market St in the Downton San Diego Area B Existing as a parking lot C Future as a 39 story mixed use high rise building D Concentration of negative filters E Opportunity to promote walkability F Adjacent high rises G High pedestrian activity H Site isolated from nature I

Opportunity to connect with pedestrian

circulation J Close proximity to high levels of negative filters in the Gaslamp area

Figure 3.20 Site Observations by Author

Design Methods

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the in-between


Overwhelming Site Of Filters 3.4 Site Analysis

Site A was selected due to the

opportunity to connect a flow of circulation

high concentration of negative filters in

and extend the thesis solution to that area.

the area. Market St. brings in high levels

The design will aim to create healthy filters

of sound pollution as it shows pedestrian

for a multisensory reviving experience.

activity throughout the day and traffic. The

The location of the site has the opportunity

concentration of traffic and pedestrian

to connect with pedestrian specific sites

activity extends from the main street in the

around the downtown area in San Diego to

Gaslamp Quarter, 6th St. and 5th St. This

create a continuing circulation of pedestrian

connection welcomes a higher intensity of

activity and make it a desirable activity for

negative filters into the site but it creates the

the individual.

Figure 3.21 Contextual Conditions by Author

Design Methods

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Negative Filters 3.4 Site Analysis

Pedestrian Activity Spots

Concentration of Filters

the in-between


Figure 3.23 Isolated Context Analysis by Author

Busy Streets

Centric Location

Design Methods

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the in-between


Adjacent Conditions 3.4 Site Analysis

The site stands surrounded by

can introduce connections towards the

high-rise buildings to three directions,

intersections facing south-east and south-

East, South, and West bringing a specific

west to further extend the connection of the

sense of scale to the desired site. Although

project with the community of downtown

framed by height, the high rise buildings

San Diego.

allow for pockets of light that penetrate the

urban fabric to bring morning sunlight and

from north to south but will bring a void of

mid-day sun directly into the site.

circulation diagonally from north-east to

The project has the opportunity

south-west to introduce a flow of walkability

to connect with the site directly north and

that breaks from the harsh city grid into a

although the storefront isn’t activated

more organic connection through.

The program will unfold vertically

on the east and west blocks, the project

Design Methods

51


Boulevard

Green Street Bike Facilities

Multi-function Street 5 FT

10 FT

Green Street Bike Facilities

the in-between

10 FT


Site Limitations 3.4 Site Analysis Total Square Footage

60,000 SF

Recommended Setbacks Boulevard

hold street wall

plazas acceptable

setback 0 FT

Green Street

modulate street wall

porosity encouraged

setback 0-10 FT

Multi-function Street

hold wall street

setback 0-5 FT

Figure 3.23 Limitations Analysis by Author

Design Methods

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Connecting the Surrounding, East-West 3.4 Site Analysis

Adjacent Program

the in-between


Adjacent Program

MARKET Figure 3.24 Adjacent Conditions by Author

Design Methods

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the in-between


Program Sketches 3.5 Program Analysis

This sketches show the exploration

Important questions asked when

of program and experience. Thinking of the

thinking about program were:

major programmatic spaces and how they

What spaces will slow the experience and

can relate with each other and with the site

which spaces will bring a faster pace?

extremes, several iterations where analyzed.

What kind of space will bring nature into

the urban context?

The pink line shows the idea of a

promenade of importance through the site

How can one space have an influence in the

that would dictate directionality and start

rest?

informing formal expressions.

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Composition Concept 3.5 Program Analysis

Cafe Artwalk

Nursery

Eating Area

Atrium Bar

Market Entry Lobby

Restaurant Terrace

Market Brakedown

Spatial Analysis

the in-between


FIgure 3.26 Bubble Diagram Development by Author

Promenade Analysis

Form Composition

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the in-between


Form Study Sketches 3.5 Program Analysis

These sketches start deconstructing

The three lines joining the bubble

and development of a language for the

and the interior express an extension of that

building. It explores the points of entry and

spatial void breaking the solid curve into

the directionality of the elements.

more than a wall.

The

curves

start

hugging

the

The straight lines propose a logic

bubbles, these bubbles representing a

relationship to the city grid giving sense

spatial void. The curves hold these voids

to the curves being sketched. It expresses

portraying a relationship from one side of

how the organic relates to the rational and

the curve towards the bubble of void.

the rational with the organic.

Design Methods

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Market Plaza

A Stimulating Program 3.5 Program Analysis

Gallery

The project’s core introduces a public

Cafe

market that aims to connect extremes of the site block. The market plaza connects to the main market space extending from the main core as it introduces a different kind of market experience bringing an outdoor setting that targets a feeling of a more relaxed farmers market like experience.

Eating Area

Market Atrium

As a main programmatic space, the

atrium branches out from the main market space that will connect both market and restaurant through this space of void and nature. The space will touch the market

Park

plaza and terraces as well as it rises in a

Terrace

vertical manner influencing the various surrounding spaces at different levels.

The Park and cafe branch out of the

main market as secondary experiences that embody the rest of the site.

Restaurant

Figure 3.27 Program Concept by Author the in-between


Visual Touch

Sensory Promenade

Visual

3.5 Program Analysis

Smell Touch

Looking at only the basic five senses,

the initial programmatic concept expresses how the proposed program will aim to create a stimulating atmosphere in each spatial condition and how these different atmospheres will connect with one another.

Touch Taste

Smell Visual Auditory

The diagram expressed the different

spatial qualities each space will introduce in the project aiming to develop a Public Market that brings the senses into a reviving state at some points in the promenade and in other point of the promenade introduce a relaxing state. These different states of being, of emotion, depend heavily on different combination of the senses.

Through

this

initial

explorative

Visual Auditory

diagram, the promenade explores these points of inflection where the spaces will change atmosphere by mapping the sensorial experience.

Figure 3.28 Sensory Promenade Concept by Author

Smell Taste Visual

Visual Auditory Taste Smell Touch Design Methods

63


the in-between


Sensory Study Sketch 3.5 Program Analysis

The sensory sketch illustrates four

three are very different from one another.

main spaces in the project: the main market

space, the restaurant, the dining area, and

experience. The dining area is a casual sit

the atrium.

down more quiet space, and the restaurant

is the more intimate option.

The three main eating areas express

The market is an on the go eating

the contrast and difference from one

another and what specificities they can

spaces differently, but it will have a level

bring to the overall experience.

of impact on the spatial quality that each

Eating

happens

in

all

three,

The atrium will affect all three eating

space will embody.

restaurant, market, and dining area, but all

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A Healing Envelope 3.5 Program Analysis

Heals Sensitizes Preserves Tranquilizes Settles Embodies Relieves Destress Connect Open Relax Revive the in-between

Connect

Open Settles


Figure 3.29 Healing Program Composition Concept by Author

Destress

Relax

Relieves

Sensitizes

Tranquilizes

Revive

Healing

Revive

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Program Analysis 3.6 Code Analysis

Program Analysis

California Building Code 2016

Program

Occupancy Type

Proposed Area

Occupant Load factor

Occupant Load

Exits

Market Lobby

A3

1768

5

354

2

M

4862

5

972

3

Market Plaza Market

Eating Area Atrium

Green Roof Restaurant Kitchen Terrace CafĂŠ

Art Gallery Storage Park

Total

A2 A2 A2

9238 9705

U

3200

A2

9358

A3 A2 A3 A2 A3 S

A3

5210 2959 1074 3209 1908 1933

12816

5 15 15 30 5

15

200 15 15 5

60 5

1848 647 320 107

1042 624 197 72

214 382 32

2563 8856

64281

the in-between

4 3 2 2 4 4 1 1 1 1 1 4


Figure 3.29 Healing Program Composition Concept by Author

Allowable Conditions

California Building Code 2016

Occupancy Type

Construction Type

Proposed Area

Allowable Area

Allowable Height ft

Stories

A2

2B

34469

38,000

75

1

M

5B

4862

36,000

40

1

A3 U S

2B 5B 2B

Separation Requirements

38,000

22776

5,500

3200

70,000

1933

Adjacenct Occupancy

Sprinklers

Rating

A

M

S

1

U

M

NS

1

A S

40 75

1 1 1

California Building Code 2016

Occupancy Type

A

75

U S

M

S S S

N N N

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Design Tools 4.1 Master Plan 4.2 Concept 4.3 Experience 4.4 Filters 4.5 Form Development 4.6 Atmosphere 4.7 Landscape Analysis

4

Figure 4.0 Escape to Nature by Author


the in-between


Urban Network 4.1 Master Plan

The site relates directly to high-rise

conditions in adjacency to three extremes of the city block, the pink amorphous expression shows the project relationship to be defined as ambiguous through a vertical relationship with layering of the program and horizontal relationship through mass and void. The project extends a pedestrian relationship of the city with the market by walkability appeal.

The highlighted streets express the

hierarchy in city grid connections towards the site. The curved line expresses an extended relationship with the waterfront in the city through a non-linear relationship. Figure 4.1 Master Plan by Author

Intersecting the site, two dash lines defining directionality of the project promenade of approach. Curving outwards, the landscape desired flow in relation to the topography and climate of San Diego. Design Tools

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Nature’s Filters 4.2 Concept

Changing horizon

Lanscape of layers

Natural surfaces

Healing filters Relaxing De-stressing Reviving

the in-between

Sun of light filt


ters Dynamic topography

Reections on water

Natural sounds

Root the city experience

Trees as framing tools

Figure 4.3 Concept Diagram by Author

Design Tools

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the in-between


Learning from Nature 4.2 Concept

If you research the meaning of

nature requires an understanding of the

branches. I stood in shelter under the

nature it is “defined as the phenomena

outline, color, motion, and the grouping

heaviness of the green leaves.

of the physical world including, plants,

happening, it asks for a relationship to take

animals, the landscape, and other products

place.

in the urban context of downtown San

of the earth, as opposed to human creations

I feel both small and infinite

The proposed Public Market is sited

Diego where it faces negative filters with

(Oxford University Press, 2016).” Most days,

standing at the top of the mountain. The

the immediate physical environment. The

nature is that bird gliding through the

horizon spreads across blending sky and

site is adjacent at three edges (facing east,

warm breeze and landing on a tree branch,

mountains into a landscape of layers. The

south and west) by high rise buildings with

framed by the cold window frame.

layers fade away in shades of cold blues

a busy main street to the North edge. The

until they meet the sky.

concept behind the design is based on

The sun rays break through in

the surrounding natural landscapes in San

How often do you see nature?

Facing the light doesn’t change how “most

persons do not see the sun (Emerson

between the leaves letting a bright ray

Diego County that show a diverse range of

1836).” I glance out the window away from

of light hit my arm. I feel the warm touch

microclimates and topography. The design

the bright screens and gray walls inside

of the sun and I turn my head upwards

will introduce Nature’s filters into the toxic

to get a peek of the soft blues and whites

following the rough texture of the tree trunk

swimming around the air on the sky. Seeing

as the solid center extends into radiating

urban circumstance.

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Concept Expressions 4.2 Concept

Shelter

Clarity

the in-between


Figure 4.4 Concept Expressions by Author

Reach

InďŹ ltrate

Design Tools

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From Expressions to Behaviors 4.2 Concept

the in-between


Figure 4.5 Concept Behaviors by Author

Design Tools

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Experience Map 4.3 Experience

The map connects the sensory

that will inform the specific spatial qualities

The space will be more silent, creating an

experience with gradients of physical

for the program which will then inform

environment without stress where one can

phenomenon to identify how a specific

the formal development process that will

go and think, mediate, or relax. The space

space will embody in the project and how

embody an envelope that allows this kind

feels more warm than its surroundings and

this space will feel.

of space to come to life.

it will bring more direct natural light for it

Looking at a single space, the atrium,

wants to create a connection with the natural

overlaying a programmatic diagram of

I can now start envisioning what the space

elements that are touching the space. The

a possible overall composition allowing

will feel like and then how it will look like. The

person that goes through the atrium will be

to analyze specific spatial quality in the

map expresses more stillness happening

seeking that silent, environment where he

proposed

the

it this space which entails that it will be a

or she can connect with nature before they

experience of one element at a time in each

space that bring a sense of awe emotion.

go on with their day.

specific program and transition allowed for

The space will be more wet showing the

thorough observation of desired outcome.

type of ground surface that it will hold and

creation of these spaces from the inside

Each layer then would contribute to the

suggesting the presence of nature. The

out, it will create an atmosphere in the

whole to identify the overall public market

space will be enclosed suggesting it will be

space, and then it will help the architecture

experience.

surrounded by program as it will share its

embody it.

tranquil qualities with the adjacent spaces.

The experience was traced by

program.

By

focusing

This map will then serve as a tool

the in-between

The experience map will inform the


Figure 4.6 Experience Map by Author

Graphic Key Movement and stillness Enclosure and exposure Warm and cold Silence and sound Light and dark Void and mass Smell and neutral Wet and dry Design Tools

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the in-between


Art Gallery Cafe

Market Plaza

Terrace Dining Area Atrium

Movement and Stillness Enclosure and exposure Market

Market Lobby

Light and dark Silence and sound

Restaurant

Wet and dry Warm and cold Smell and neutral Void and mass Design Tools

85


Experience Layers 4.3 Experience

Enclosure and exposure related

Silence and sound related to

Movement and stillness related

to smell and neutral related to

light and dark related to wet and

to enclosure and exposure.

void and mass related to silence

dry.

and sound.

the in-between


By separating the different layers in

the experience map and grouping them with others a couple at a time, the different phenomena can be examined in relation to each other. How does movement and stillness relate to enclosure and exposure? The map allows the analysis of how many people will be moving in an enclosed space, and how will this space feel due to the constant interaction of people.

If looking at silence and sound related

to light and dark, it allows the analysis of how much natural lighting will come in in a space where a lot of people are interacting and Warmth and cold related to light

Silence and sound related to

and dark.

movement and stillness.

how much activity is happening. There is a lot of light in some spaces and there is more silence. How does the light influence activity?

Figure 4.7 Experience Layers by Author

Multiple

combination

of

layers

were analyzed to create the desired spatial conditions in the public market solution. Design Tools

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Program of Filters 4.4 Filters

Trees

Market Plaza

Sidewalk

the in-between

Park

Gree


en Roof

Figure 4.8 Filters Diagram by Author

Atrium

Market

Restaurant

Park

Sidewalk

Design Tools

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Walking Through the Filters

Figure 4.9 Filters Explained, Sidewalks by Author

4.4 Filters

The Public Market describes a

a detached building element; the sidewalk

program of healthy filters which contribute to

will be integrated as the beginning of the

an overall reviving experience. The program

building promenade exposing a dynamic

unfolds layers of experience introduced in

landscape of hills covered with bright

order of the Market promenade starting at

native plants under a series of tall shading

the sidewalk, continuing at the cafe, then

trees that provide shelter from the negative

the art gallery, the park, the market plaza,

filters entering the site from the street.

the market, the green roof, the atrium, and

the restaurant ending the experience as it

cloud of smells of coffee, bitter in its dark

began with the park and the sidewalk.

state yet sweet with different flavors; you

The sidewalks welcome the user

can smells them all at once. The space is

into the project as points of entry which

small in width to accentuate the expanding

redefine the use of the typical sidewalk as

views of the park through the storefront

As you enter the cafe you join a

As you enter the cafe you join a cloud of smells of coffee, bitter in its dark state yet sweet with different flavors; you can smells them all at once.

the in-between


Figure 4.10 Filters Explained, Food Stall by Author

windows making the space feel connected

through a forest of trees, acting as a filter of

to the rest of the program.

light and shadows. You continue your walk

You enter the art gallery form the

on the grass until you hear the clacking

cafe which takes you to a transition of bright

between your shoe and the pebbles. The

space with large windows and gathered

sun spreads across the pebbles area as

people to a space that highlights the

a blanket of warmth and light. As you are

absence of sounds and light. The space is

going down the market plaza you notice

large in length but short in width to focus

views of succulents to the side resting

a clear pathway from the start to end. This

on the crisp brown soil. The colors on the

space relies on exhibits with artificial lighting

vegetation vary from a gradient of greens

to engage the user in an experience of the

to pale yellows and pinks.

manmade.

The park combines different natural

the ground level and ends ten feet

surfaces in the landscape such as grass,

underground creating an experience of

pebbles, and raw soil arranged in dynamic

change in topography. Standing at the

layers in the master plan of the design. You

top, you face the option of entering the

feel the cool breeze when you step into the

through the main entrance to the market, or

grass area, you read smells of moist soil

continuing the experience outdoors in the

in the air as you walk under the shade of

market plaza. The space is large allowing

the trees. The grass area feels like walking

for local vendors to come during the day

The

market

plaza

starts

Design Tools

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Figure 4.11 Filters Explained, Textures by Author

and set up temporary stands to sell their

product and leaving in the afternoon. This

various extremes of the site as well as in

area welcomes the culture of the farmers

ground level and underground level from

market popular around the San Diego

the market plaza. The space breaks into two

area. The surface of the space interrupts

levels wrapping around the central atrium

the park landscape and it introduces a

at 5 feet difference to help reduce sound

cold stone finish. You feel the change in

concentration. With large windows facing

atmosphere as you walk down the plaza

the atrium, nature remains present at any

leaving the natural atmosphere in the park

point in the market space. When you walk

and entering the chaos of vendors, product

through the different food stalls you feel

and costumers. There is a concentration of

a different sense of scale as the stalls are

activity happening in contrast with activity

closer together allowing for a more intimate

spread across the park area. Vendor stalls

experience. When you step away from the

reveal abundance of colors and smells,

food stalls, you start realizing how large

shapes and sizes. One after another they

the market is. Light penetrates the space

stand facing inwards as you encounter an

through the windows facing the atrium

area of grass and trees, the landscape from

allowing for shadows of trees and different

the park infiltrate the plaza to allow for

vegetation from that space. The windows

instances of shade breaking the continuous

facing southeast bring in morning sunlight;

activity as a pause from the movement.

the building structure extends from the

the in-between

The market welcomes access at


building into the park landscape casting

at three feet thickness at an angle towards

which add a more natural presence

shadows into the main market space.

the ramp in harmony with the variety of

extending from the level underground

The green roof serves as a ramp at

trees and plants at the bottom. To the right

two levels up to hold the roof that protects

1:20 slope from the ground level from the

sits the atrium but to the left you experience

the atrium. Trees and different plants

sidewalk up towards the main entrance to

different views of the city facing north, west,

extend upwards un the space allowing for

the restaurant. The green roof becomes a

and south at different points as you walk up.

interior views of nature’s elements present

raised landscape of native vegetation that

The dynamic curve of the ramp provides a

throughout as the main promenade of

acts as a filter between the building and the

rewarding visual experience under the sun.

the market unfolds. The space creates a

views of the city. As you walk up the ramp

The atrium sits in the core of the

protected atmosphere that influences you

you experience the structure of the atrium

building welcoming nature to break the

to forget that you are in the middle of high

extending from the underground level to

manmade experience. It introduces a

rise buildings and paved streets.

the top of the building. The glulam columns

secondary structure of glulam columns

The restaurant incorporates a calm

environment for eating extending from the market activity. The movement in this space minimizes. It continues the views of the

As you walk up the ramp you experience the structure of the atrium extending from the underground level to the top of the building.

atrium and green roof as it wraps into the entrance.The space feels open and grand but the ceiling drops at the eating areas providing intimacy.

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From Experience to Form 4.5 Form Development

the in-between


FIgure 4.12 Form Development by Author

Design Tools

95


Atrium the in-between


Spatial Quality 4.6 Atmosphere Figure 4.13 Atmosphere Diagram by Author

The main market welcomes the most

reviving space through bright colors, strong smells, movement, sounds, and high levels

Roof Ramp

of activity. The quality of space encloses the ritual of the market.

The

market

plaza

brings

an

environment of tall skies, shading trees, and vendors all in the same space. It allows for a feeling of familiarity and a more relaxing farmer’s market like experience.

Plaza

The atrium feels like a shelter from

the busy streets and the ongoing activity inside the market. Its a moment of pause for the average individual.

The market presents a series of

programmatic

spaces

that

work

well

together at the same time that they break from each other to create healing atmospheres.

Design Tools

97


California Pepper 25ft tall

Blue Palo Verde 20ft tall

Native Shrubs

Native Flowers

California Blackwheat

Black Sage

Lonicera subspicata

Graptopetalum

Encelia Farinosa Penstemon Centranthifolius

Water

Pebbles

Crassula Arborescens

Grass

the in-between


Sweet Acacia 18ft tall

Native Landscape 4.7 Landscape Analysis

very

brings green and yellow hues into the

important as it brings together nature

market landscape to break from the cold

elements

The

urban colors. The trees present different

project introduces nature in three major

heights to create a dynamic elevation and

programmatic spaces, the atrium, the

allow for views or blockage when needed

roof ramp and the plaza, as well as the

to control the surrounding environment as

surrounding park which combines natural

you experience the market.

surfaces such as grass, pebbles, stone and

water to create a promenade into and out

represents the urban fabric and at the

of the market.

center the pinch represents this thesis

Echeveria Lilacina

Sedum Morganianum Agave Parrasana Succulents

Stone

Dirt

The

landscape with

design

human

is

activity.

The grid show at the bottom

introduced

project as a break from the rule. The yellow

drought tolerant species throughout. Three

dots floating from the center express the

main trees populate the various green

introduction of natural elements in the

spaces: the California Pepper, the Blue Palo

middle of the urban context to bring that

Verde and the Sweet Acacia. These species

relationship with nature for the user.

The

tree

selection

Figure 4.14 Landscape Analysis by Author Design Tools

99


5

Design Prototype 5.1 Process Presentations 5.2 Process Floor Plans 5.3 Process Renderings 5.4 Process Section Drawings 5.5 Process Elevation

Figure 5.0 Beauty in Distress by Author


Process Critique 5.1 Process Presentations

On week eight of Winter quarter,

the design advanced. The panel suggested

the

that I take a look at what I really need for the

restaurant being on the third floor being

project to be successful and let go of what

problematic as a functional business and

wasn’t a necessity.

the large size of the project overall being

more than I need for a successful design.

how the market and restaurant were going

The whole consisted of three floors, the

to be serviced. At this point the design

first two being market space and the top

wasn’t addressing what the scale of the

being restaurant to provide the space with

project needed in terms of service.

the engaging views of the city. Comments

described how a restaurant struggles

disconnection between plan and section

succeeding on the second floor and that a

of the design. They encourage me to bring

third floor restaurant was not going to make

the same dynamic flow from the horizontal

it. The project included a variety of program

movement into the vertical movement in

and some of them became secondary as

the project.

critique

comments

focused

Figure 5.1 Renderings Week Eight by Author the in-between

on

There was concern expressed about

Other comments talked about the


Conflict Resolution 5.1 Process Presentations

When approaching the overall form,

presents the opportunity for extended

the project introduced a landscape of

views over and across the public market at

layers by showing extending elevations at

the two opposite balconies. On the north

different heights. The gallery and cafe stand

side you have the opportunity of views

separate than the main Market building

facing Gaslamp area. On the south facing

with a height of fifteen feet. The main

balcony standing on the site’s corner you

Market on the ground floor rises twenty

have the opportunity to see views of Petco

five feet tall, housing a variety of food stalls,

Park.

vendor stalls and eating areas. The second

floor rises over the main Market and offset

restaurant sitting on the third floor brings,

at fifteen feet allowing for a green roof

a new solution had to be introduced. The

to serve as a raised green landscape as

W16X100 project was reduced in size by removing W12x26 the

a view for the second floor market area.

second floor public market and allowing

Continuing upwards on the large central

the restaurant to take over the second floor.

staircase you find yourself on the third floor

The project dropped ten feet underground

which welcomes the public to a more quiet,

in order to make the green roof accessible

less chaotic eating experience which takes

as a ramp at a 1:20 slope that takes the

you away from the experience of seeing

user from ground level to the second floor

the various selections of meats, vegetables,

into the restaurant. This strategy makes the

etc. as you do in the Market. The restaurant

user feel like the restaurant sits on ground

Figure 5.2 Section Week Eight by Author

Considering the challenges that a

W24x103

Design Prototype

103


level although it is on the second floor. The

the farmers market with temporary stalls for

columns tie the manmade with the natural

Market is broken into two level with a five

local vendors to come and go.The section

element of the site in both vertical and

foot difference in elevation. The atrium is

design of the project became dynamic as

horizontal planes.

moved from the entry towards the core of

these ramps introduced new circulation

the building therefore becoming present

through the market.

brought up in review, it was challenging

at any point in the project. To allow access

As the atrium came to stand in

to deconstruct the floor plan and bring in

into the underground level of the market

the middle of the market, it became

different levels in section while maintaining

another ramp is introduce taking from

disconnected from the park. A new structure

a harmony between the different program

ground level to ten feet underground. This

was introduced to reinforce the idea of

elements. Bringing the scale of the project

ramp is introduced as program, market

nature’s filters bringing in a more natural

down helped me in better understanding

plaza, which reinforces the activity of the

material that created harmony between the

how the spaces relate to each other and

indoor market as it welcomes the culture of

isolated atrium and the building. Glulam

how the work alone and with one another.

When resolving the different issues

The biggest struggle in the design

process was in understanding the project

It was challenging to deconstruct the floor plan and bring in different levels in section while maintaining a harmony between the program elements.

as a solution to the thesis problem and making it a functional program. The different diagrams presented served as tools in the design to successfully incorporate physical spaces as filters for the user experience.

the in-between


Design Process

Towards a Design Solution

5.1 Process Presentations

On week ten of Winter quarter,

5.1 Process Presentations

Taking in consideration the final

The building previously introduced

review comments revolved around the

comments of the presented approach, a

terrace spaces outwards in the building,

disconnection

different

final design was developed to provide an

and by pulling these spaces inwards, the

programmatic spaces due to the solid walls

architectural solution to the thesis problem.

terraces faced the atrium sand obtained

separating them. The Atrium was isolated in

was

views across of gaslamp in downtown San

the core of the public market, but because

previously only accessed through the main

Diego. By bringing the terraces inwards,

of the way it is surrounded by the program,

market space became open for the average

the space between the atrium and the

it fails to infiltrate different spaces. The

pedestrian to access directly from the street

restaurant on the second floor becomes a

structure in the atrium with glum materiality

level and venture down into this grand

void that filter different gradients of light

didn’t communicate well in transition to the

space with glulam beams raising from

in the space overall bringing more natural

rest of the project, there is a disconnection

elevation of -5’ up to an elevation of 30’ by

lighting and ventilation into the program.

between the rest of the spaces and the

the buildings roof. The atrium roof changed

atrium glulam spaces. The roof in the

to bring a level of transparency to the

introduced a playful park and a fountain

atrium also proposed a problem with the

enclosed space. The atrium roof became a

in the context and pushed the entry out to

introduction of light in the atrium itself and

curved waffle structure composed of glum

interact with these new landscape spaces

into the market dinning area through that

beam members and timber, this waffle

bringing the outdoors into the indoors

atrium void. The Public Market entry to the

structure remains uncovered and allow light

allowing for a more welcoming entry point.

south lacks of human scale and the sense

to penetratete through hitting the atrium

The market evolved to become a friendly

of welcoming environment to bring the

floor and reflecting light into the indoor

space for the community which introduces

community into this space.

market spaces.

a series of healthy filters.

between

the

The

atrium

space

which

The south entry point of the market

Design Prototype

105


3

4

2

Market St.

1

C

D

K

F

Art Gallery A-3 382

Cafe A-2 214

U

5

C 6 B

Park A-3 2563

Market Plaza A-2 1848

B

7

Eating Area A-2

8th Ave.

7th Ave.

Market M 972

8

A

A

Atrium U 107

Market A-2 647 Lobby A-3 352

9

10 Storage S 32

Park A-3 2563

11

20’

40’ 12

Island Ave. the in-between


Ground Floor Plan 5.2 Process Floor Plans

A Create open access for atrium to allow people to enjoy the building promenade through a nature oriented perspective. B Create an inside-outside relationship between the market and the market plaza for a more integrated overall experience. C Allow for a better relationship between inside of market and adjacent relationship with the atrium space. D Develop a more welcoming facade response from the south-east entrance. E Allow landscape design to interact with facade and wayfinding into the building to stimulate the experience of accessing the building

Figure 5.3 Process Ground Floor Plan by Author Design Prototype

107


4

3 Market St.

2

1

D 5

C 6 B

A 7

Restaurant A-2 642

8

9

Terace A-3 72

10

11

20’

8th Ave.

7th Ave.

Green Roof A-3 1042

40’ 12

Island Ave. the in-between


Second Floor Plan 5.2 Process Floor Plans A

Allow for the atrium to influence the

restaurant’s interior to connect the program spaces better B Create a better relationship between the restaurant eating spaces and the exterior views of the city C Develop a better flow of circulation from the roof ramp and into the second floor spaces D Better the relationship between the restaurant and the raised green spaces to enable the healthy filters to influence a stronger atmosphere in the space E Re-think the terrace location to introduce more diffused natural light into the space

Figure 5.4 Process Second Floor Plan by Author Design Prototype

109


A Better the relationshio between second floor and raised green landscape

A Re-think atrium roof

B Explore how the atrium can better serve as a filter

B Strengthen vertical relatioships C Better facade response to market plaza

the in-between


Perspective Views 5.3 Process Renderings

Figure 5.5 Process Perspective Views by Author

A Develop a more welcoming facade response B Better the relationship of the inside program and the landscape design

Design Prototype

111


Section B

5.4 Process Section Drawings A Allow for atrium roof to bring sunlight into the space B Enable spaces to interact with the views C Better the market and market plaza relationship D Activate market plaza space through landscape master plan

the in-between


Figure 5.6 Process Section B by Author

1

W12x26

W16X100

W24x103

Level 4 35’ 0” Roof 25’ 0” Level 2 15’ 0” Level 1 10’ 0” Ground 0’ 0” Level -1 -5’ 0” Level -2 -10’ 0”

Design Prototype

113


Section C

5.4 Process Section Drawings A Activate the south-east corner B Strengthen relationship between program spaces horizontally C Strengthen relationship between program spaces vertically D Create relationship between roof ramp and

10

atrium

W

W12x26 W16X100

the in-between


W24x103

Figure 5.7 Process Section C by Author

A

B

C

D Level 4 35’ 0” Roof 25’ 0” Level 2 15’ 0” Level 1 10’ 0” Ground 0’ 0” Level -1 -5’ 0” Level -2 -10’ 0”

Design Prototype

115


Section A

5.4 Process Section Drawings A Create dynamic space between market and market plaza B Develop a response between roof ramp and atrium C Strengthen response of market space towards atrium

the in-between


Figure 5.8 Process Section A by Author

1 Level 4 35’ 0” W16X100

W24x103

Roof 25’ 0” W12x26

Level 2 15’ 0” Level 1 10’ 0” Ground 0’ 0” Level -1 -5’ 0” Level -2 -10’ 0”

Design Prototype

117


West Elevation 5.5 Process Elevation

A Reinforce structure response with the whole B Strengthen indoors relationship between outdoors: park, atrium, and views

D

C Reinforce relation with the street

the in-between

C

B

A


Figure 5.9 Process Elevation by Author

10 Level 4 35’ 0”

Roof 25’ 0”

Level 2 15’ 0” Level 1 10’ 0”

Ground 0’ 0” Level -1 -5’ 0” Level -2 -10’ 0”

Design Prototype

119


Design Solution 6.1 Floor Plans 6.2 Section Drawings 6.3 Wall Section 6.4 Sectional Perspective 6.5 Renderings 6.6 Physical Model 6.7 Conclusion

6

Figure 6.0 Leaf by Author


Market St.

4

2

3

1

6'

75'

17

9' 3

11

2"

3/32"

"

9/3

1/4

N 4'

15 4 8" 1/ E '5

34

-1

0

2" 1/

4

107

WC

Cafe A-2 214

11

B 0

/3

2"

E

-1

35

'1

29

Park A-3 2563

/3

2"

0

1 Bicycle Parking

1

1/3

2"

1:2

0

Atrium U 107

E -1

35

'0

21

/32

-8

"

-8

-6 1/2

" E -1

34'

9 1/1

6"

Slope 1:20

3' 3

1

N 53' 3

1/4" E -134'

D

271

3

WC

160

2

WC

Dining Area 320 A-2

-6

E 1

-5

924

-5

0

9

0

-5

Market M 972

N1

2

pe

'8

C

160

-10

Slo

35

C

-5

-10

10°

8

0

8th Ave.

'3

7th Ave. B

-15

-12 88

Market Plaza A-3 848 N

924

1:20

1114

C

7

191

107

1

N

A

0

Slope

6

3

Art Gallery A-3 382

191

Kitchen

Bus Stop

3

2

WC

1

Bus Route

E 31' 10

5'

E -1

E -7

/4"

/2"

3 1/2"

11 3

31

5

N 176' 3 1/2" E 78' 4 15/16"

N 176'

N1

N

A

-5

322

0

1

9 1/16"

Market A-2 647

324

2 3 0

10

Mech. Room

N 90' 4 11/16" E -134' 9 1/16"

3 Bicycle Parking

11

20’

N 122' 3

4' 5/8" E -13

12

1' 11

16

3

Elec. Room

FR Bicycle Parking

Park A-3 2563

16"

' 9 1/

34 " E -1

3/16

Island Ave. the in-between

Horizontal Control 32°42'38.3"N 117°09'26.9"W

271

16

40’ N 15

9 1/16"

1

Storage S 32

Service Elevator

A

B


Figure 6.1 Ground Floor Plan by Author

Ground Floor Plan 6.1 Floor Plans

The

Public

Market

presents

a

look around and pause or even brings you

program of healthy filters which you

to an unexpected path.

penetrate through as you make your way

through the spaces. The landscape design

of

shows natural textures in a dynamic way to

programmatic

make an influence in the average individual

on your current need. It is a project for

even as a pedestrian walking by or through.

the community that will continue bringing

The curved sidewalks present a framed

people in because every time you come to

promenade that break your path from a

the market, it feels like a new experience.

The market provides a variety access

points

towards

experiences

different depending

linear route towards one that makes you

Typical Walls 1

Concrete 12�

2

Store Front Windows

3

Reinforced Concrete Masonry Unit 8�

Design Solution

123


Market St.

2

3

4

1

5

A

0 e lop

S

0

1:2

B

6

C

Slo

pe

1:

20

3

7th Ave.

1

5

WC

8

3

10

10

2 15

Restaurant A-2 542

3 Kitchen

3 1 Service Elevator

10

Storage

3

11

20’

40’ 12

Island Ave. the in-between

WC

E 15

9

3

Terrace A-3 72

Slope 1:20

8

D

8th Ave.

Roof Ramp A-3 1042

7

2

1


Figure 6.2 Second Floor Plan by Author

Second Floor Plan 6.1 Floor Plans

The market holds an atrium space

into layers. The void allows for light to go

that rises in the core of the building from

through the extruded super structure that

five feet underground to thirty feet high

goes from the inside of the restaurant to the

allowing for the spatial conditions of

extreme of the building to hold the glulam

the space to have an affect on the other

structure for the atrium. This void where the

programmatic spaces at different levels.

terraces stand bring views of the atrium, the

The second floor provides access through

roof ramp, and the city.

a roof ramp that wraps around this atrium

and brings the user to the second floor

intimate dinning experience breaking from

terraces. As you access the second floor

the busy environment of the ground floor

you enter a void where outdoor terraces

public market and market plaza.

The restaurant provides a more

reside which break the restaurant facade

Typical Walls 1

Concrete 12�

2

Store Front Windows

3

Reinforced Concrete Masonry Unit 8�

Design Solution

125


10

W 24x103 Girder

W 16x100 Columns W 12x26 Beam

Egress Stairs

Restaurant

Bicycle Parking

Restaurant Patio

Terrace

Market Dining Area

Utilities Compacted soil Wall Bearing Footing 3”x1” Concrete Footing 8”x6”x2”

Concrete Footing 4’x4’x4

the in-between


Section A

6.2 Section Drawings

Figure 6.3 Section A by Author

4”x8” Lumber Beam 18”x9” Glulam Beam

4” raidus metal Cable

D

C

B

A Roof 30’ 0”

24”x9” Glulam Column

Restaurant 15’ 0” Terrace 10’ 0” Gallery

Roof Ramp Atrium Market Plaza

Market 0’ 0” Market St. Atrium -5” 0” Market Plaza -15’ 0”

4’

Design Solution

127


Roof 30’ 0” W 24x103 Girder

W 16x100 Column W 12x26 Beam

Restaurant 15’ 0” Terrace 10’ 0” Market 0’ 0” Atrium -5” 0”

Park Market Plaza

7th Ave Wall Bearing Footing 3”x1” Compacted soil

Market Plaza -15’ 0”

the in-between


Section B

6.2 Section Drawings

Figure 6.4 Section B by Author

24”x9” Glulam Beam W 24x103 Girder W 16x100 Column

1

24”x9” Glulam Beam 4”x8” Lumber Beam

18”x9” Glulam Beam 4” Raidus Metal Cable 24”x9” Glulam Column

Restaurant Patio

Restaurant

Terrace

Roof Ramp

Market Market

Atrium

Eating Area

8th Ave Wall Bearing Footing 3”x1” Concrete Footing 8”x6”x2”

Concrete Footing 4’x4’x4’

Design Solution

129


4”x8” Lumber Beam 18”x9” Glulam Beam 4” Raidus Metal Cable

3” Concrete over Metal Deck W 24x103 Girder W 16x100 Columns W 12x26 Beam

4’x4’x4’ Concrete Footing Waterproof Gravel Figure 6.5 Wall Section by Author

Drainage Pipe

the in-between


Structure and Nature 6.3 Wall Section

superstructure

extending on the grid line, these members

members of two together held together

radiates from the horizontal control point

starting closer together and as they extend

down by a concrete footing at four feet high

originating at the south-east corner of the

further, more space comes between each.

and then separating into “V” shapes to hold

site. The point originate by tracing the

The atrium acts as a void that breaks

more area of the atrium. The wood brings

desired directionality of the project based

the continuity of the girder beams. The

a warmth to the space through materiality

on site contextual and adjacent conditions.

radiating grid allows for the organic curves

and relates back to more natural materials

The point extends orthogonally north and

of the project.

to break from the cold roughness of the

west and presents radiating grid lines ten

man-made.

degrees from one another to provide

of the steel structure and curves upward

the structure organization. Steel columns

towards the roof ramp. It holds a roof made

materiality is steel, the project speaks about

align in a curved manner following the

up of glulam members crossing lumber

nature through its radiating material and

grid extending from ground to roof to

members in a waffle behavior. The main

the warmth from the glulam material in the

support the different levels of the project.

structure supporting the atrium roof is the

core of the market.

Steel girders provide long span support

glulam columns. The columns behave in

The

building’s

The atrium connects with the end

Although

the

main

structure’s

Design Solution

131


the in-between


The Public Market 6.4 Sectional Perspective Figure 6.6 Sectional Perspective by Author

Roof 30’ 0”

Restaurant 15’ 0” Terrace 10’ 0”

Market 0’ 0” Atrium -5” 0”

Market Plaza -15’ 0” Design Solution

133


The Atrium

The Market

the in-between


Market Interactions 6.4 Sectional Perspective

The Public Market brings different

types of experiences to the site through way finding which present gradients of tranquility and busy environments in the spaces but three spaces control the most important environments: the atrium, the market plaza, and the market.

The interactions happen between

people, people and the city, people and nature, and people and the building. These four type of interactions are very important because it is what makes the building a successful solution. It enables relationships and influences a healthy behavior that brings all these elements together.

The Plaza Figure 6.7 Market Interactions by Author Design Solution

135


Figure 6.8 South Entrance Rendering by Author

Market Corner 6.5 Renderings

splashing

high rise building breaking through the

upwards and then falling, the cars sound

landscape above. The people inside the

further away as you walk under the trees

market staring outwards onto the fountain

and follow the curved sidewalk. Through

dance. You can see inside the market

the rising water, you see the “Market� sign

through the large opening across the

ahead. The wood texture seems bright in

water, the food stall line moving forward

contrast to the green wall blooming behind.

and people carrying out a plate of food.

People are hanging out under the trees,

Two separate spaces, but they make each

enjoying the breeze, as you walk forward.

other better. You continue walking on the

sidewalk until it takes you inside the market.

You

hear

the

water

The space feels isolated from the

street, from the stress but you can see the

Design Solution

137


Figure 6.9v Roof Ramp Rendering by Author

Roof Ramp 6.5 Renderings

You start the walk from the ground

had lived through it all. The atrium roof

level up the ramp curving into the second

casts a shadow onto the roof ramp adding

floor. The walk is long, but the views make

texture to the landscape of succulent

the minutes feel into seconds.

planters along. For a second you forget that

To the left, these glulam columns

you are in the middle of downtown as you

growing tall from the ground to hold the

look up into the sky. Its a nice day to take a

atrium roof. These strong pairs of glulam

walk.

columns to form a series of V’s lined up

following the building curve. You can

plaza activity in the distance by the fountain

see the crisp wood grain as you meet the

sounds win, no cars around, just the

column in your walk, and it touches old

community of downtown San Diego doing

memories of that one bulky tree trunk that

its thing.

To the right you hear the market

Design Solution

139


the in-between


6.6 Physical Model

Figure 6.10 Physical Model by Author Design Solution

141


Figure 6.11 Physical Model, Glulam Columns by Author

the in-between


Figure 6.12 Physical Model, By the Fountain by Author

6.6 Physical Model

Design Solution

143


)RUP'HYHORSPHQW

([SHULHQFH0DS

4

3

2

176

E 31' 10

"

3/32"

1/4

" 3 9/32

' 11

E -19'

-75 " E

3 1/2"

1/2

11 3/4"

'3

Bus Stop

3 3

N 4' 15 4 1/8 " E 4'

-13 5 1/2

Art Gallery A-3 382

0

4

107

"

WC

Cafe A-2 214

the in-between By Rosina Diaz

Bus Route

191

Kitchen

N 176' 3 1/2" E 78' 4 15/16"

N 175'

N

A

2

WC

1

1 N 176'

Market St.

5

5

B

6

2

3

4

A

1

A

191

0 107 924

1:20

Slope

-15

1

0

1114

0 e 1:20

Slop

-12

E

Park A-3 2563

-13

5'

1

29

/32

"

0

1 Bicycle Parking

8 1/3

2"

Atrium U 107

e 1:20

35'

E -13

5'

0 21/

7th Ave.

32"

-8

-8

N 13'

-6 3 1/2"

2

Slope 1:20

"

Dining Area 320 A-2

-6

E

WC

8

8

B

3

10

924

-5

E 15

10

-5

2 15 0

9

N 53' 3

1/4" E -134'

9

Market A-2 647

324

3 Kitchen

2

3

3 0

10

Site Criteria

3

Unhealthy Blind Numb Distort Disturb Disconnect Stress Unfocus Blur Damage 'HƓFLHQW Depress

Wet and dry

Light and dark

Void and mass

Warm and cold

Smell and neutral

Silence and sound

Movement and stillness

Enclosure and exposure

Visual Stimulation

Urban Landscape

Smell Pollution

Sound Pollution

Light Pollution

Pedestrian Density

7UDIƓF

Adjacent Program

Trees

3UHFHGHQW6WXGLHV

5/8" E -134'

1

9 1/16"

Service Elevator

1

Elec. Room

Horizontal Control 32°42'38.3"N 117°09'26.9"W

271

11 3/16"

10

Storage

16

3

FR Bicycle Parking

3

Park A-3 2563

16

E -134'

2

Service Elevator

11 Typical Walls 1

9 1/16"

Concrete 12”

2

Store Front Windows

3

Reinforced Concrete Masonry Unit 8”

A

12

Island Ave.

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MARKET

Heals

N 151'

12

E High pedestrian activity F Site isolated from nature

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N 122' 3

11

7th St and Market St. San Diego, CA

Adjacent Program

Storage S 32

Bicycle Parking

A Existing as a parking lot %&RQFHQWUDWLRQRIQHJDWLYHƓOWHUV

C Opportunity to promote walkability D Adjacent high rises

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N 90' 4 11/16" E -134' 9 1/16"

Sidewalk

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Atrium

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Atrium -5” 0”

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Atrium

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Compacted soil Wall Bearing Footing 3”x1”

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Concrete Footing 4’x4’x4’

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2 4 3 3 2 2 4 4 1 1 1 1 1 4

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4” Raidus Metal Cable

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A

Terrace

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B

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Terrace Market

Market Plaza

C

Roof 30’ 0” Egress Stairs

Restaurant

Park

7th Ave

Section B 1”=16’

School

Urban Structure

Public Market

Cultural Center

Museum

Library

Museum Visual

D

W 24x103 Girder

W 16x100 Columns W 12x26 Beam

24”x9” Glulam Column

Restaurant Patio

Roof Ramp

Connect

The programatic layers allow for an ambiguity in the experience connecting the inside and outside, nature and building.

Paris, France 1994 6,400 sqm

Revive

10 Roof 30’ 0”

18”x9” Glulam Beam 4” Raidus Metal Cable 24”x9” Glulam Column

W 16x100 Column W 12x26 Beam

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1

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that heal, relieve, de-stresse, and revive the average

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This thesis will embody a solution through an Urban Public Market. The market will create spaces

4”x8” Lumber Beam

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1

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322

0

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I close my eyes and look for a second of peace behind my lids. The noise around me continues. I hear the cars blasting through a yellow light in a hurry to get to their destination, in the distance, people cheering at a bar trying to talk over the television volume, people walking through me looking forward as I look around. I feel the wind touch my face and brush the tree leaves into a dance. The lights coming from different directions are so intense that the tree is hard to see but I can hear the leaves brushing against each other.

B

0

11

pe

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88

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N

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6

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Cafe

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Atrium

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Section C 1”=8’

Figure 6.13 Final Presentation Boards by Author

the in-between


Filters All Around Us 6.7 Conclusion

My phone vibrates as I get to the

street, look back down at it and start walking.

corner at the stoplight. I take a step forward

These

filters

in

our

physical

as I grab my phone from my purse. I see the

environment have influenced a type of

red light from the street signal reflection on

behavior on me of detachment from

my screen. I look back at the market and

my experiences, and with the growing

point my phone camera at it trying to fit the

technological advances, i’ve learned to

ramp element from beginning to end. In the

compliment reality with a virtual experience.

background, the cars honking because the

light turned green and the cars in the front

evolve into new shapes and forms, they are

didn’t immediately move. My attention stays

all around us, but once in a while nature is

on my phone. The pedestrian signal makes

there to remind us of that pleasant, freeing

a bipping noise to tell me to start walking. I

feeling.

The negative filters continue to

glance over my phone screen to look at the

Design Solution

145


Final Presentation

The final thesis presentation took

thoroughly the solution elements defined

place on June 2nd at 4:20pm.

in the research process to create a solution

The critique comments challenged

that would respond to the specific criteria.

to present an explanation to the process

These tools are shown in diagram form:

and decision making criteria for the final

experience map, sensory map, healing

outcome.

concept, landscape analysis, program of

The design process allowed for

filters. What started as analysis diagrams led

several design tools to be developed

to finalized drawings, section perspective

in order to better inform the design

and renderings to described to final

development.

proposed solution.

The

process

the in-between

analyzed


Figure 6.14 Final Presentation Design Solution

147


Appendix Literature Review List of Figures The Path


FIgure 7.0 Cacti by Author


Literature Review

Ando, Tadao (2003). Tadao Ando :

A34–A41. PMCID: PMC1253729

and Google. Cross Currents, 2(26), 235-259.

light and water. New York : Monacelli Press. R.

Carvalho F., Hidalgo M., Levandovski (2014).

Patterns

Differences

Between

Rural

in

Circadian

and

Urban

Hope, Erling (2012). Between God

Damasio, Antonio R. (2000). The

doi: 10.1111/j.1939-3881.2012.00232.

feeling of what happens : body and emotion in the making of consciousness. New York :

Lederbogen, F., Kirsch, P., Haddad,

Harcourt Inc.

L., Streit, F., Tost, H., Schuch, P., Wüst, S., Pruessner, J., Rietschel, M., Deuschle, M.,

Populations: an epidemiological study in countryside. Chronobiology International:

Ellard, Colin (1958). Places of the

& Meyer-Lindenberg, A. (2011) City Living

The Journal of Biological and Medical

heart : the psychogeography of everyday

and Urban Upbringing Affect Neural Social

Rhythm Research , 31(3), 442-9. doi:

life. New York Bellevue Literary Press.

Stress Processing in Humans. Nature 474, 498–501 doi:10.1038/nature10190

10.3109/07420528.2013.846350.

Chepesiuk, R. (2009). Missing the

Dark: Health Effects of Light Pollution.

Gardner, Howard (2011). Frames of

mind: the theory of multiple intelligences.

New York : Basic Books, 2011.

Adaptive

Chepesiuk, R. (2005). Decibel Hell:

Maria

Sensory

Lorena

(2016).

Environments:

An

Introduction. London: Routledge

Environmental Health Perspectives. 117(1), A20–A27. PMCID: PMC2627884

Lehman,

Haverkamp,

Michael

(2013).

Synesthetic design : handbook for a

Levine, R., Norenzayan A. (1999).

multisensory approach. Basel : Birkhäuser.

The Pace of Life in 31 Countries. Journal of

The Effects of Living in a Noisy World.

Cross- Cultural Psychology, 30 (2), 178-205.

Environmental Health Perspectives. 113(1),

doi: 10.1177/0022022199030002003 the in-between


Mallgrave, Harry Francis.Architecture

Peen J, Schoevers RA, Beekman

Weik von Mossner, Alexa (2014).

and embodiment : the implications of the

AT, Dekker J. (2009). The Current Status

Moving environments : affect, emotion,

new sciences and humanities for design.

of Urban– Rural Differences In Psychiatric

ecology, and film. Waterloo, Ontario :

Disorders. Acta Psychiatr Scand, 121(2):84-

Wilfrid Laurier University Press.

McCarter, R., Pallasma, J. (2012).

93. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.2009.01438.x.

Understanding Architecture: A Primer on Architecture as Experience. Phaidon Press.

Mind

Pallasmaa, Juhani (2012). The Eyes

of the Skin: Architecture and the Senses

Robinson, S., Pallasmaa, J. (2015). in

Architecture:

Neuroscience,

Zumthor, Peter (2010). Thinking

Architecture (3rd, expanded ed.) Basel: Van

Dyck,

D.,

Teychenne,

M.,

Pasanen, T., Tyrväinen, L., Korpela, K.

McNaughton, S., De Bourdeaudhuij, I.,

(2014). The Relationship between Perceived

Salmon, J. (2015). Relationship of the

Health

Perceived Social and Physical Environment

Physical

objects. Basel : Birkhäuser.

Cambridge: The MIT Press.

and

: architectural environments, surrounding

Embodiment, and the Future of Design.

Wiley. Kindle Edition.

Zumthor, Peter (2006). Atmospheres

Activity

Indoors,

Outdoors in Built Environments, and

with Mental Health-Related Quality of Life

Outdoors in Nature. Applied Psychology:

in Middle-Aged and Older Adults. PLoS

Health & Well-Being, 6(3), 324-346. doi:

ONE, 10(3), 1-16. doi:10.1371/journal.

10.1111/aphw.12031

pone.0120475

Birkhäuser.

Appendix

151


List of Figures Front Matter

Figure 2.4

Overwhelming Environment by Author.

Figure A

The World Through Her Eyes.

Figure 2.5

Stimulation by Author.

Figure B

Plant and Building.

Figure 2.6

Healing Through Filters by Author.

Chapter 3

Chapter 1 Figure 1.0

Wall Textures by Author.

Figure 3.0

Growing Through Urban Adversity by Author.

Figure 1.1

Urban Filters by Author.

Figure 3.1

Cidade Das Artes Elevation

Figure 1.2

Dimensional Filters by Author.

Figure 3.2

Cidade Das Artes Floor Plan

Figure 1.3

Sketch Models by Author.

Figure 3.3

Circulation Flow by Author.

Figure 1.4

Problem Diagrams by Author.

Figure 3.4

Fondation Cartier Elevation

Figure 3.5

Fondation Cartier Perspective

Figure 3.6

Volumes of Layers by Author.

Chapter 2 Figure 2.0

Desert by the Street by Author.

Figure 3.7

Experience Through Layers by Author.

Figure 2.1

Traveling Information by Author.

Figure 3.8

Centro Roberto Garza Sada Perspective

Figure 2.2

Emotions by Author.

Figure 3.9

Centro Roberto Garza Sada Texture

Figure 2.3

Our Sense of Self in the World by Author.

Figure 3.10

Emotional Connection by Author.

the in-between


Figure 3.11 Voids and Masses by Author. Figure 3.12

OM House Perspective

Figure 3.12

OM House Interior

Figure 3.13

Infiltrate by Author.

Figure 3.14 Voids by Author. Figure 3.15 Typology Matrix by Author. Figure 3.16

Redefining the Public Market by Author.

Figure 3.17

Site Criteria Matrix by Author.

Figure 3.18

Sites Comparison by Author.

Figure 3.19

Negative Filters by Author

Figure 3.20

Site Observations by Author

Figure 3.21

Contextual Conditions by Author.

Figure 3.22

Isolated Context Analysis by Author.

Figure 3.23

Limitations Analysis by Author.

Figure 3.24 Adjacent Conditions by Author. Figure 3.25 Adjacent Conditions, Transversal by Author.

Appendix

153


Figure 3.26

Bubble Diagram Development by Author.

Figure 4.10

Filters Explained, Food Stall by Author.

Figure 3.27

Program Concept by Author.

Figure 4.11

Filters Explained, Textures by Author.

Figure 3.28

Sensory Promenade Concept by Author.

Figure 4.12

Form Development by Author.

Figure 3.29

Healing Program Composition Concept by

Figure 4.13 Atmosphere Diagram by Author.

Author.

Figure 4.14

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Landscape Analysis by Author.

Figure 4.0

Escape to Nature by Author.

Figure 5.0

Beauty in Distress by Author.

Figure 4.1

Master Plan by Author.

Figure 5.1

Renderings Week Eight by Author.

Figure 4.2

Healthy Sites Network by Author.

Figure 5.2

Section Week Eight by Author.

Figure 4.3

Concept Diagram by Author.

Figure 5.3

Process Ground Floor Plan by Author.

Figure 4.4

Concept Expressions by Author.

Figure 5.4

Process Second Floor Plan by Author.

Figure 4.5

Concept Behaviors by Author.

Figure 5.5

Process Perspective Views by Author.

Figure 4.6

Experience Map by Author.

Figure 5.6

Process Section B by Author.

Figure 4.7

Experience Layers by Author.

Figure 5.7

Process Section C by Author.

Figure 4.8

Filters Diagram by Author.

Figure 5.8

Process Section A by Author.

Figure 4.9

Filters Explained, Sidewalk by Author.

Figure 5.9

Process Elevation by Author.

the in-between


Chapter 6 Figure 6.0

Leaf by Author.

Figure 6.1

Ground Floor Plan by Author.

Figure 6.2

Second Floor Plan by Author.

Figure 6.3

Section A by Author.

Figure 6.4

Section B by Author.

Figure 6.5

Wall Section by Author.

Figure 6.6

Sectional Perspective by Author.

Figure 6.7

Market Interactions by Author.

Figure 6.8

South Entrance Rendering by Author.

Figure 6.9

Roof Ramp Rendering by Author.

Figure 6.10 Physical Model by Author. Figure 6.14 Final Presentation Appendix Figure 7.0

Cacti by Author.

Appendix

155


The path

I heard that the path is never-ending,

so long. I feel myself slow down. I take my

yet I chose a direction and started walking.

steps with hesitation for I don’t know what

lays at the turn but I continue walking.

I’ve been walking for a long time and

at times the journey felt long and my feet

In that turn I see a challenge with

felt heavy, I continued walking. Now I see a

different roads. It challenges me to keep

turn in my path, and although I can see what

growing and find myself once more in this

lays in front of me the rest of my journey is

new path, so I take the turn and continue

foggy. The path has been straight ahead for

walking. I tell myself to not stop walking.

By Author

Appendix 157


"the in-between" Architecture Thesis 2017  

Our experiences are not linear but multilayered. This phenomena presents itself in two dimensions as well as volumes of spatial experience....

"the in-between" Architecture Thesis 2017  

Our experiences are not linear but multilayered. This phenomena presents itself in two dimensions as well as volumes of spatial experience....

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