COLLABORATIVE ACTIONS: RECIPES FOR COMMUNITY CHANGE Enterprise Community Partners
produced by enterprise community partners with support from the fetzer institute. ©2015 Concept, design and editing by Mia Scharphie. www.miascharphie.com. For a downloadable version of this publication and more Collaborative Action resources visit www.EnterpriseCommunity.org/madewithlove. To learn more about the Enterprise Rose Architectural Fellowship or to access other resources that support community-based design work, visit our site at www.EnterpriseCommunity. org/rose. Connect with us on twitter @rosefellowship or at facebook.com/rosefellowship. Please share this publication widely.
about the enterprise rose architectural fellowship The Enterprise Rose Architectural Fellowship, an initiative of Enterprise Community Partners Inc., partners early-career architects with local community development organizations for three-year fellowships, in which they facilitate an inclusive approach to development that brings all stakeholders together to create green, sustainable, affordable communities. Enterprise Community Partners works with partners nationwide to create and advocate for affordable homes in thriving communities linked to jobs, good schools, health care and transportation, with the goal of ending housing insecurity in the United States. about the fetzer institute The mission of the Fetzer Institute is to foster awareness of the power of love and forgiveness in the emerging global community. The Fetzer Institute pursues a unique role—working to investigate, activate, and celebrate the power of love and forgiveness as a practical force for good in today’s world.
The Cooks COLLABORATIVE ACTIONS ARE MADE THROUGH PARTNERSHIPS OF ENTERPRISE ROSE ARCHITECTURAL FELLOWS, AND MEMBERS OF THE COMMUNITIES IN WHICH THEY WORK
“COOKING” WITH THIS BOOK
RECIPES FOR COMMUNITY CHANGE
stand up for social justice seattle, wa
ujamaa freedom market asheville, nc
goodat community day greenwood, ms
bleeding heart design summer art series detroit, mi
conversation pieces chicago, il
gathering of memories santo domingo, nm
tour de farce yakima, wa
bartlett events boston, ma
W H AT YO U ’ L L N E E D
Love and forgiveness are forces sorely needed in our neighborhoods, our communities, and our built environments. Reflecting on the social unrest in Baltimore in the spring of 2015, Katie Swenson, Vice President of National Design Initiatives at Enterprise Community Partners, wrote, “The physical violence of this week is horrifying. Less visible, although perhaps more pernicious, are the violent effects of racism and generational poverty, which have plagued these neighborhoods for decades.” These effects are inscribed into the very fabric of our environments, through the design and planning of our homes, our institutions, and our streets and neighborhoods. In 2013, the Enterprise Rose Architectural Fellowship joined with the Fetzer Institute to ask how the design process could allow love and forgiveness to emerge and shape the social and community context. This was a concept not entirely foreign to the fellowship. Enterprise Rose Architectural Fellows spend three years in communities practicing a relationship-centered, participatory approach to design that encourages interaction across cultural and socioeconomic divides. Fellows work to build healing and forgiveness as neighborhoods come together to envision and create physical infrastructure that supports community well-being. In order to further develop this approach, with training and funding from the Fetzer Institute, fellows in eight communities tested out a set of communitybased methodologies that we call “collaborative actions.” The nature of each collaborative action differs based on the community from which it emerges. In this way, collaborative actions are an adaptable and powerful tool for addressing the issues in our communities that require love and forgiveness. They start conversations and catalyze new, more positive dynamics. Through this book, we bring you the stories of our collaborative actions and of what we have learned, along with an invitation to use these methods to bring more love and forgiveness to your community. In the words of Parker Palmer, writer, activist, and advisor to the Fetzer Institute, “Every journey, honestly undertaken, stands a chance of taking us toward the place where our deep gladness meets the world’s deep need.”
Setting the Table for Love and Forgiveness
In 2013, the Enterprise Rose Architectural Fellowship partnered with the Fetzer Institute. As one component of this partnership, the fellows administered $5,000 â€œCollaborative Actionâ€? grants in eight different communities around the country. Each of these actions carried the goal of healing neighborhoods through design for the common good. These actions grounded the work of community-based design in the principles of love and forgiveness. Consequently, the collaborative actions represent a specific methodology for achieving community-based change. The following presents our framework for cultivating meaningful community design work through compassionate listening, collaborative action, and collective reflection.
Why Collaborative Action?
A collaborative action gets to the soul of a community. It airs our collective grievances with the purpose of stepping past them into what could be. It acknowledges that my well-being here and now is bound up with yours, so we find our place in acting together. â€“Nathan Poel, Rose Fellow 2012-2014 While the collaborative actions did not follow a prescriptive process, each was grounded in partnership with the community to listen, act, and reflect. Each of these actions focused more on the process than on the end result and each was tailored to its home community. However, the methods outlined below can bring a more deeply engaged process to any
participatory community design project. In many cases, the end “product” was a temporary event or installation rather than a permanently built product. In the case of the “3000 Origami Cranes” project in Seattle, the collaborative action of folding cranes was as important as the eventual public art installation: the display of those cranes on the side of a building at a future affordable housing development. A collaborative action emerges from a dialogue with community members. It is not imposed by a designer acting alone—collaborative action involves participation and interplay at all stages between designer and community members. Both the Tour de Farce in Yakima, Wash. and GOODat Day in Greenwood, Miss. used existing community initiatives as departure points for creating a collaborative action, but neither would have occurred without the full participation of the designer. In this regard, the Collaborative Action grants follow a model for community development grantmaking that involves deep engagement of the recipients and ultimately builds the community’s capacity for further action.
Participatory processes require trust. The fellows, who were introduced to the practice of compassionate listening by the Fetzer Institute, used deep listening to acknowledge deeply rooted fears and suspicions that might otherwise
be obstacles to participatory design processes. While there is no one-sizefits-all approach to listening sessions, tying collaborative actions to an existing platform for community dialogue is effective. The Baptist Town neighborhood in Greenwood, Miss. had an existing annual celebration—Community Day—that provided a structure for the collaborative action. Emily Roush-Elliott, Greenwood’s Rose Fellow, helped the community give renewed purpose to the existing celebration by using the question “What’s your GOODat?” as the theme for the day. This question emerged from the community and served as a platform for sharing skills and aspirations with one another. As a project manager for the Bartlett Place redevelopment project in Roxbury, Mark Matel had spent the better part of a year engaged in conventional community development meetings. During the long lag time between funding cycles, Matel and other community partners envisioned a series of community-centered public art interim uses for the site that became Bartlett Events. By moving the conversation about the future of the project out of meeting rooms and onto the actual site itself, Matel and his partners tapped into the ideas of community members who contributed valuable input into the future public plaza for Bartlett Place.
In Detroit, Rebecca “Bucky” Willis was nervous that community members would not select the muralist who would best contribute to transforming an underutilized lot into a community space. Under the framework of the collaborative action facilitated by Rose Fellow Ceara O’Leary, Willis actively participated with community members in narrowing down artist selections, resulting in a decision the whole group was excited about.
Collaborative actions take a “design by doing” approach in which projects move beyond planning and dialogue and into physical reality. Because the action is an essential part of the process, and the end result may be temporary, designers and community members are encouraged to see the action as a prototype, and potentially the first step in a larger transformation. In Santo Domingo, N.M., Joseph Kunkel identified an opportunity to learn from tribal members by creating a Heritage Walk event in which tribe members could share stories while walking a historically significant route connecting the pueblo with the trading post. The Heritage Walk provided a non-traditional
venue for tribal members to share stories in the tribal community, as well as with non-tribal participants. Its success led to a larger effort—and a larger ArtPlace America grant—to build a paved walking path along this route, lined with public art pieces created by tribe members. Olufemi Lewis and Calvin Allen, founders of Asheville, N.C.’s Ujamaa Freedom Mobile Market, had spent a couple of years in brainstorming and planning before they met Rose Fellow Geoffrey Barton. With assistance from other non-profits, Olufemi and Calvin had assembled a business plan for the mobile produce market, completed business courses, and compiled community survey information about local market demand. But the Collaborative Action grant pushed Ujamaa from idea into reality. After launching the mobile market through collaborative action, Ujamaa secured CDBG funding as well as additional grant money from Whole Foods to allow them to continue to serving low-income and low-food-access communities while refining their business model.
Integral to this type of participatory practice is a commitment to learning. The collaborative actions have involved extensive reflection within the local communities as well as among the Rose Fellows. In many cases, reflection was incorporated into the entire project process—for example, in Chicago where Rose Fellow James Lewis and his partners facilitated conversations with public housing leaders, and later, during listening sessions with residents. This part of the process looks beyond the typical “punch listing” of problems to decide the project’s culmination; rather, it asks participants to think deeply about their experience, how the process has changed them, and what room exists for future growth. It is no accident that many of the collaborative actions “spun off” into or bolstered community efforts that continue today.
What Defines Success?
There is no one prescribed recipe for success, but certain ingredients are fundamental. Through deep participation at all stages of planning and execution, we defined the success of the collaborative actions by their ability
to sow seeds of love and forgiveness in a community. This definition of success gave designers and community members the freedom to dream, learn, and grow. While several of the collaborative actions targeted broader community concerns, none were positioned as the sole solution. Rather, they were seen as conversation starters to begin addressing issues through concrete action from within the community. In many cases, collaborators identified additional resources and partners to continue the momentum catalyzed by the Collaborative Action grants. The collaborative actions were not intended to be perfectly executed, nor were they alone going to solve complex social problems. They bridged great ambition with the here and now in addressing the issues in need of love and forgiveness in our communities. Freed from the imperative for direct quantitative impact and motivated by a sense of possibility, the collaborative actions present a model for scalable community-engaged design work. Geoffrey Barton, Spring 2015
“COOKING” WITH THIS BOOK
In documenting the eight collaborative actions that our fellows facilitated, we noticed just how often the process of community change involved coming together around food. And because we wanted to not just tell the story of our collaborative actions, but to spread a method that draws from the power of art and making and the power of community organizing, we decided to turn the experiences into “recipes” to inspire others. The actions in this book reflect the very specific communities from which they arose. They cannot be replicated wholesale in other contexts without evolution and change. We hope you’ll use these stories as points of departure in ways that fit your unique context. To that end, we’ve included both stories to inspire you and concrete details to help you take action too. How much does sidewalk chalk cost? Don’t forget that you’ll need to get a baseball diamond striper to lay out your temporary bike lanes! By framing each action as a recipe and a “how-to,” we aim to move past abstraction and get you started on a collaborative action in your community. While the collaborative actions are sometimes simple, each engages in complex issues requiring love and forgiveness in the community. These actions occur in the context of larger processes and factors. They draw upon groundwork— sometimes laid years before—that reflects the flavor and texture of each setting. No recipe is ever perfect. In the words of fellow Emily Roush-Elliott, “everything is a prototype.” So we’re inviting you into our living “test kitchen” to understand what we’ve done and what we might have done differently given the chance. Just as all recipes change when you add a pinch of this or substitute that, we hope these ideas evolve with use in your community. To that end, we’ve included tools, resources, and a worksheet at the back of the book to help you get started on your action. And finally, while metaphorical recipes are all well and good, we’ve also shared a literal taste of the communities we are privileged to work in by providing a recipe from each. So dig in, get cooking, and enjoy!
RECIPES FOR COMMUNITY CHANGE
RECLAIMING A VACANT FACADE
Stand Up for Social Justice S E AT T L E , WA
A temporary origami installation, composed of 3,000 community-made paper cranes, was part of a larger effort to remember, educate and inspire people through art at the future site of Hirabayashi Place, a 96-unit workforce housing development. Activating a vacant building generated intergenerational conversations on the neighborhood and social justice.
• Joann Ware, Rose Fellow
• Community members • Host Organization: InterIm Community Development Association
• Gordon Hirabayashi Family • Gordon Hirabayashi Legacy of Justice Committee
• Partner organizations: Wing Luke Museum,
Nisei Vets, UW Seattle Ethnic Studies Students Association, OCA—Greater Seattle Youth Affiliates, Pre-Conquest Indigenous Cultures & its Aftermath (PICA) Conference Committee
• Mural painters: WILD Youth Program (Wilderness Inner City Leadership Development)
Paint, rigid insulation. waterproof paper, bags, construction adhesive, hardware, primer, painters’ tape, rags, craft stick, spray paint, twine, paint, lumber, plywood, custom-made rubber stamp, notecards....................................................................$2,390
• Equipment Rental
(Paint sprayer, scaffolding, scissor lift)......$567
• Food...................................................................................$160 • Facade Painting..........................................................$120 • Photography.................................................................$300 • Staff time.....................................................................$1,455 • Supplies and equipment on hand: Woodshop and paint booth.
1. Joann Ware with coworker Leslie Morishita brainstormed favorite street art installations and came up with inspiration from Madame Maurice.
2. Decided on the message and format, drafted building elevations in AutoCAD and mocked up a message to calculate number of cranes needed: roughly 3,000.
3. Conducted research and testing: found plastic paper for outdoor use (it came only in white) and tested painting it with latex paint. Developed adhesive methods: mounted cranes to plywood letters and “feathered” edge with cranes glued to facade with building adhesive. Made fake barbed wire with twine and spray paint. Submitted an application with drawings and samples to the International District Special Review District Board as the building was in a historic neighborhood.
4. Created flyers and email blast to advertise origami crane-folding events. 5. Ordered paper and had it cut to 6â€? and 8â€? squares. Bundled squares with
instructions and bone folders (tools to help with folding.) Developed a system tracking paper going out and cranes returned. Ordered food for folding events.
6. Hosted two events at office to demonstrate crane folding, and to talk about
social justice, the project, and its namesake. Spent all free time folding origami cranes (on the bus, even while watching TV.) Collected over 3000 cranes.
7. Painted upper portion of facade wall sky blue with rented scaffolding, rented spray gun, and hired handyman at local woodshop. Skewered cranes onto bamboo sticks set into rigid insulation. Painted cranes in spray booth.
8. Projected letters onto plywood, traced and cut them out in woodshop. Painted plywood blue to match newly painted blue building. Predrilled mounting points. Glued cranes onto plywood with building adhesive.
9. With a scissor lift (after overcoming fear of being 14 feet in the air,) mounted letters, glued loose cranes around them to cover the letter edges and installed fake barbed wire. Photographed completed installation.
10. Created thank you cards for all volunteers, and tote bags for those who
folded over 100 cranes. Added interested participants to Legacy of Justice Committee to continue efforts at Hirabayashi Place. Seven months later, removed cranes and demolished building to make way for our project.
make paper cranes be part of a collective action art project
CRIMINAL RECORDS LOCAL FOOD POLICY COUNCIL
Cofounded by Lewis
LEGACY OF URBAN RENEWAL:
$5k- Fetzer Institute. KITCHEN JOB TRAINING PROGRAM
No grocery stores in neighborhood.
Brings case to Supreme Court.
InterIM district improvement org.
GEOFFREY BARTON ROSE FELLOWSHIP
$5k- Fetzer Institute.
Hirabayashi mural. CDA HOUSING BUILT
Many small businesses never recover.
STAND UP FOR SOCIAL JUSTICE
In International District.
JAPANTOWN ECONOMIC DECLINE
Poor neighborhoods left out.
DEVELOPMENT PRESSURE INCREASES
Mass incarceration of Japanese.
ASHEVILLE GROCERY ‘BOOM’
WORLD WAR II
UJAMAA FREEDOM MARKET
Prevent Lewis & Allen from ﬁnding employment.
JOANN WARE ROSE FELLOWSHIP
PUBLIC HOUSING RESIDENTS BUSINESS LICENSE
Approved, market locations approved.
See potential of small business.
$4800- Whole Foods.
$25K- CDBG Startup Fund. Mobile market.
PARTICIPANT FOLLOW UP
Thank you and tote bags.
Continues in rest of city.
LARGE-SCALE ART INSTALLATIONS
Increase in neighboorhood, celebrating Asian identity.
Market rate and mixed housing.
Into Legacy of Justice Committee.
INCREASED CDA VOLUNTEERISM
Among UW students.
HIRABAYASHI PLACE BREAKS GROUND
Installation taken down.
Hirabayashi Place, the 96-unit housing project planned by InterIm CDA was more than just a name for the organization’s next affordable housing project; it was an opportunity to remember and honor Gordon Hirabayashi, a Japanese American activist who, through his 1943 supreme court case, made a stand against the mass incarceration of Japanese Americans during WWII. The vacant building on the future site of Hirabayashi Place was looking sad. Although a recent mural project by WILD Youth, InterIm CDA’s youth program, told Hirabayashi’s story and beautified the lower half of the building, the upper portion had been tagged by someone with a Super Soaker filled with paint. The project is located in the historic Japantown or Nihonmachi portion of the International District. This oncethriving neighborhood was cleared out when the Japanese Americans were incarcerated. After the war, some of the businesses returned, but many did not. The Nisei generation, the generation that experienced incarceration, often did not speak about it afterward out of shame and tried to be “110% American”. With the Sansei generation that followed, came more discussion about incarceration and a revival of the Nihonmachi area with many projects in the area celebrating the Japanese American culture of the neighborhood.
There is a Japanese tradition of folding one thousand cranes to give as a gift to friends and family to wish them eternal good luck. Inspired by the ephemeral origami street art by Mademoiselle Maurice, InterIm’s CDA’s Senior Housing Developer Leslie Morishita came up with the idea to “tag” the building with cranes, and partnered with Joann Ware, the organization’s Rose Fellow to develop the installation. They invited staff and Hirabayashi Legacy of Justice committee members to a crane-folding event at the office. Committee members distributed the event fliers to their networks and were quickly bombarded with email requests for additional folding events and opportunities to participate. “The community support was huge,” says Ware. Cranes are a symbol of eternal good luck. In this installation they overcome barbed wire, a symbol of the internment camps, and fly toward the sky spelling out “stand up for social justice.” Ware reflects, “I think people just wanted to be a part of something fun and beautiful.” Folding origami was an easy way to engage participants because anyone could learn how to do it. “It was great to see people teaching others how to fold the cranes once they got the hang of it.” The action generated interpersonal connections between members of the eight organizations that participated
People just wanted to be a part of something fun and beautiful.
Impact Facts People Engaged People folding cranes 100 Organizations involved 8 Origami crane folding events 3 Press on the event 3 articles Generations engaged 3-4 Placemaking Paper cranes folded 3000 Sq ft. folded paper 12,374 Colors added to site 5+ Bus routes that pass by installation 29 Vandalism on building since installation 0 Number of people who think installation is beautiful many
in the crane-folding events. Through the act of folding, a safe space was created for multiple generations to have conversations about Japanese American incarceration, its impact on the generations that experienced it directly, and the importance of taking a stand for one’s beliefs. During the weekend-long installation at the site, passersby asked questions, made comments, or just shouted compliments. Located along a major downtown corridor with many bus lines, the crane installation was in a prime location to inspire others to “Stand Up For Social Justice” while the colorful murals below linked the mantra to Hirabayashi’s legacy. “The installation and action inspired people to ‘stand up for social justice.’ If they don’t have the phrase ‘social justice’ in their vocabulary, it sparks a question and conversation,” says Ware. With one hundred community members who folded cranes, the future Hirabayashi Place now carries a legacy of people who care about the site and the story. Ware reflects, “Design is the process of working with many people toward shared values and a social purpose. The end goal is more than an object or building or art installation, in this case, it’s social justice.”
This recipe is from Leslie Morishita, who is of the Sansei generation whose parents were interned during WWII. Okazu means a side dish to accompany rice. It takes many forms, but it commonly has a meat (such as beef) cooked with vegetables (such as green beans, onions, or cabbage) and is seasoned with sugar and soy sauce. While incarcerated in camps during World War II, Japanese American families were fed government-surplus meat such as hot dogs. Traditional dishes, such as Okazu, were modified and hot dogs were substituted in for meat after the war. Leslie Morishita grew up eating Weenie Okazu. She didn’t really understand why her parents, who were incarcerated, used hot dogs so frequently until she heard a a story on Weenie Royale, a similar dish, on the radio. Weenie Okazu is a distinctly Japanese-American postwar dish and, while it’s not eaten as frequently today, it’s a culinary reminder of the impacts of mass incarceration on Nisei and Sansei generations and their cultural identity. Oil ½ onion, chopped 1 lb. green beans, cabbage, or vegetable in season 2 hot dogs, sliced (weenies) 1 tbsp. soy sauce a pinch sugar steamed rice In a medium skillet, heat oil and cook onions on medium heat until translucent. Add sliced hot dogs and brown slightly. Stir in vegetables and a little water. Bring to a boil and simmer until vegetables are tender. In a small bowl, mix soy sauce and sugar until sugar is dissolved. Pour into skillet and cook uncovered for a few minutes. Serve with steamed rice.
FROM THE TEST KITCHEN
Q. What went well and what didn’t go as well? Origami turned out to be a very approachable activity for community members. Perhaps its small scale and tactile nature lend themselves well to a collective action. This project had much broader outreach than we originally imagined, so we were able to directly engage one hundred people in conversations about Japanese American incarceration and social justice. Hopefully these people developed a sense of stewardship and pride for this site and for social justice. This project prevented unwanted graffiti, but only covered one of the vacant buildings on our site. Unfortunately, the other building that the installation didn’t impact continued to get tagged. Q. What would you do differently next time? After the cranes were folded and painted, we needed to install them on the side of the building. At first, we wanted to do it in one night so it would seem like someone “tagged” our building with origami birds. We quickly realized that maneuvering a small lift and hand-gluing origami birds fourteen feet up high takes three to four full days. We also realized that the scaffolding we rented to paint the building was not very sturdy and was difficult to move around, so we returned it and rented a scissor lift. On the plus side, our presence brought people out to see what was going on. One missed opportunity was that during the six-month installation lots of people drove by along Fourth Avenue and probably never made the connection to the social justice or affordable housing message. In hindsight, we should have had an online presence, either a twitter handle or a QR code near the installation to get people to our project website so they could learn more. Q. What advice would you give to communities on similar collaborative actions? Many simple actions together make a big impact! Make something really beautiful and involve people in its creation. Also, scissor lifts don’t work on sloped surfaces!
I N C U BAT I N G A F R E S H FO O D M A R K E T
Ujamaa Freedom Market ASHEVILLE, NC
With few options to buy healthy and fresh groceries in their community, Olufemi Lewis and Calvin Allen launched the Ujamaa Freedom Mobile Market, which brings healthy foods to low-income/low-food-access communities in Asheville. This produce stand and accompanying educational programming made their vision a reality.
• Popup tent.....................................................................$100
Ujamaa Freedom Mobile Market Co-owners: Olufemi Lewis and Calvin Allen
Market Assistants: Tiona Harris, Avery Leake
Geoffrey Barton, Rose Fellow
Host organization: Mountain Housing Opportunities
• Sandwich board, chalkboard paint................$25 • Local, organic produce
• Stand Assistants........................................................$900 • Flyers..................................................................................$100
Shawn Oldham, SODA Fabrication (van upfit)
Women’s Wellbeing and Development Foundation
• Van shelving and logo installation..............$750
Asheville-Buncombe Food Policy Council
• Supplies and equipment on hand:
• Cashbox...............................................................................$10 • Van..................................................................................$2,000
Coolers, scale, EBT debit-card machine, permits
1. Lewis and Allen, market cofounders, identified local suppliers of organic produce through a local farmer’s market (don’t worry about finding the perfect supplier at the start, they developed relationships as they went).
2. Identified a location for a pop-up market, posted fliers in the neighborhood, and figured out what permits and licenses were needed.
3. Got supplies for the pop-up market including produce, bins, tables, and a tent. Remember to have ice and a spray bottle to keep the produce cold and fresh, a cashbox, a scale, bags, and signage (we had a sandwich board.) Hired two neighborhood residents to staff the stand.
4. Iterated: identified kinks in the business plan and process. For example,
inventory management was hard. Produce has a shelf life and itâ€™s hard to forecast sales. Needed to find a cold-storage solutionâ€”team ended up arranging storage in a local community-college kitchen. Tested times and locations. Being near the Department of Health and Human Services, and hosting the market in the evenings was good for sales.
5. Found van for sale and bought it. Installed shelving in van and applied logo. 6. Secured a mobile business license (including getting permission from public housing, the city, and other property owners to operate on premises).
7. Established route schedule and locations, continued marketing. Developed recipes to share with customers.
8. Hosted a launch party to celebrate the market and raise awareness of it. 9. Refined sales route and schedule (an ongoing effort).
The Southside and East End neighborhood of Asheville has a vibrant history, but a painful recent memory of urban renewal. In the 1950s, these once thriving neighborhoods hosted ten community grocery stores, but by the time a grocery store “boom” was hitting the rest of the city, these neighborhoods were food deserts, bereft of places to buy fresh produce. Few businesses are launched out of public housing in Asheville. Residents typically struggle with generations of poverty, lack of access to resources, and lack of financial fluency. This project was an opportunity to revive the tradition of do-it-yourself small business in the community, empowering low-income residents and serving as a model of entrepreneurship and social impact. Olufemi Lewis and Calvin Allen, the entrepreneurs behind the Ujamaa Freedom Market are smart, passionate people who had become major voices for the concerns of public housing residents and low wealth communities in Asheville. Lewis cofounded the Asheville-Buncombe Food Policy Council and was a vocal advocate for bringing fresh, healthy foods to low wealth communities. Lewis and Calvin had the idea for a mobile market for over a year, but the grant from the Fetzer Institute lit the spark to move the business out of planning mode and into action mode.
The duo created a roadside produce stand, complete with guerrilla wayfinding signage to direct community members to it. Given the press and interest the stand generated, the team was able to raise money through the online crowdfunding platform, Kickstarter, and through other grants to purchase and fit out a van for a mobile market. The project still requires much more work to reach the goal of financial selfsufficiency. The market initially struggled to attract customers because the social media-based marketing strategies often used by mobile businesses don’t work with a customer base that is mostly on the other side of the digital divide. Sales started out slow, which has been discouraging to Lewis and Allen, who were optimistic that serving a dire need would naturally lead to success. One of the project’s core agendas was to provide Lewis and Allen with real-world experience managing and operating a small business. While Lewis and Allen had prepared for this opportunity through a small business incubator and had spoken widely and attended conferences around the country, this gave them a chance to learn the realities of running a small business, and the opportunity to employ others within their community. Even if the Ujamaa Freedom Market does not turn out to be the business that lifts Olufemi and Calvin to more
The market revived the DIY small business tradition in the community.
Impact Facts stable financial footing, it has certainly provided valuable experience that will help them put future ideas into action.
People Engaged Food council members 200+
The market has had the effect of inspiring small-business owners and hobbyists in the community, such as an herbalist living in a nearby affordable-housing development. It is harder to measure how the mobile market may have altered the eating habits of its customers for the better. It is clear, though, that neighborhood kids are now learning of the benefits of fresh produce, and are seeing their neighbors running a business to bring these foods to the community.
Weekly market stops 8-10 Community members served 900+ Press on the event 7 pieces Social media likes 895 Crowdfunding donors 90 Economic Development Entrepreneurs supported 2 Paid produce workers 2 Sales per market day $200 (avg.) Health Kids served last summer ~300 Varieties of produce 10-12 Decrease in miles walked or traveled to get fresh produce for residents 4-5 (est. avg./trip)
CRIMINAL RECORDS LOCAL FOOD POLICY COUNCIL LEGACY OF URBAN RENEWAL:
Cofounded by Lewis
$5k- Fetzer Institute. KITCHEN JOB TRAINING PROGRAM
No grocery stores in neighborhood.
UJAMAA FREEDOM MARKET
Prevent Lewis & Allen from ﬁnding employment.
ASHEVILLE GROCERY ‘BOOM’
Poor neighborhoods left out. GEOFFREY BARTON ROSE FELLOWSHIP
PUBLIC HOUSING RESIDENTS BUSINESS LICENSE VAN PURCHASED
Approved, market locations approved.
See potential of small business.
$4800- Whole Foods.
$25K- CDBG Startup Fund. LAUNCH
Continues in rest of city.
MARKET VEGGIE POLENTA
A dish made up of ingredients from the Ujamaa Produce Stand’s first season. Get a couple of good vegetables that roast or sauté well. I like carrots, squash, and a hearty green like kale, but use what you like. Slice the carrots into quarters, coat with honey, oil or butter, red pepper flakes, and a dash of salt, and pop them into the oven preheated to 500 degrees. Give them about an 8 to 10 minute head start before sautéing everything else. Dice half a big onion, or a whole little onion. Slice yellow squash (or whatever else looks good at the market). Rinse and tear up kale. Sauté onions and garlic in oil or butter on medium heat to get your kitchen smelling good, 3 to 4 minutes. Add squash. Lightly salt and pepper the squash. Let cook for a couple minutes, then clear a space in the center of the pan to drop your polenta. I use premade polenta, but if you’re feeling up to it, make it yourself ahead of time—it’s really not that hard! Sauté polenta with chili powder, paprika, or some herbs to give it some flavor, (you might need to add more oil to the pan—it really soaks it up) about 4 to 5 minutes per side until you’ve got a slight golden brown. Either clear out the pan or just throw towel-dried kale right on top of everything. Squeeze half a lemon over the top, and cover for just a couple minutes. Don’t overcook your kale! It’ll be bitter and gross. Take the carrots out of the oven—they are done when the tips are nicely caramelized. Serve up, grate some parmesan on top, even top with a fried egg if you are feelin’ it. And there you have it! Fresh veggies from the market made into a satisfying meal!
FROM THE TEST KITCHEN
Q. What would you do differently next time? I would have spent more time on the front end finding a strong marketing partner for Ujamaa. The market initially struggled to attract customers because marketing for a mobile market that serves some residents that lack access to social media is a difficult task. Sales have been slow which is discouraging. The nuances of serving a need but also generating enough revenue to sustain the business have been a stressful exercise. Q. In what ways do you think this pop-up approach is different from a traditional startup incubator? For better and worse, the community of nonprofits supporting Ujamaa Freedom Market havenâ€™t really challenged it to be a financially sustainable business focused on maximizing profit. Lewis and Allen donâ€™t have the pressure of investors to achieve profitability. They have managed to get a lot of grant funding and have an impact in the neighborhood, but this could be a profitable business with the right marketing and bookkeeping. Q. What advice would you give to communities on similar collaborative actions? Planning only gets you so far; the best way to refine a mobile market business is through action. That said, the simple business model of buying in bulk and selling at a small profit margin relies on scrupulous inventory management and reliable sales. Both of those things are really difficult to get a handle on with a mobile market. Ujamaa Freedom Market was started with real ambition to create a sustainable business and two years in that has yet to come to fruition. But it definitely serves a need and has been a huge hands-on entrepreneurship opportunity for a couple of passionate individuals. Their customers really appreciate the convenience of having fresh fruits and vegetables driven to their neighborhood.
C E L E B R AT I N G C O M M U N I T Y TA L E N T S
GOODat Community Day GREENWOOD, MS
In 2013, the third annual Baptist Town Community Day celebrated the skills and talents of neighborhood residents by becoming not only a day to gather, but also a forum to share and celebrate the best in each of us, asking, “What are you good at?” Individuals volunteered to entertain, cook, paint, and more and won skill-share “gift certificates” as door prizes.
• Emily Roush-Elliott, Rose Fellow
• GOODat boards ........................................................$250
• Neighborhood residents as participants,
cooks, bakers, storytellers, performers facepainters, and more
• Art director (incl. travel, supplies)................$580
• Artists: Rosalind Wilcox and DJ Miller
• Food: Greenwood Marketplace, Big Star
• Bingo prizes: Dollar General
• T-shirts, door prizes, raffle tickets................$570
• Kimberly Gatewood of WIN Job Center
• Booth and activity supplies..............................$250
and Deborah Tate of Leflore County Health Center
• Small business grants, consultants............$685
• Greenwood Public Works
• City leaders: Mayor Carolyn McAdams,
• Supplies from Public Works:
County Supervisor Anjuan Brown, City Council
tables, chairs, port-a-johns, trash cans
• Greenwood-Leflore-Carroll Economic
Development Foundation and the Carl Small Town Center
THE PROCESS 1. Rose Fellow Emily Roush-Elliott spent time with community members over the period of a year. Sometimes this was formal, but more often not. Most of the ideas for GOODat Day came from front-porch conversations. 2. Spent more time with people. Seriously. Got out of the office and actually went and met people and talked to them until they were not “they” anymore, but people known by name, 3. Discussed challenges and aspirations. Heard mostly complaints at first, but eventually tried to focus on the goals. Asked, “What are people wishing for?” 4. Came up with a simple sentence of a shared community aspiration. Kept it really 35
simple and tried using it around new friends in the neighborhood, asking myself, “How do they react?” Modified it until it struck a chord. 5. Started planning an event based on thi aspiration. In our case this tied in with an event that already happens in the community, but could be something new. 6. Had concrete planning meetings that moved away from lofty conversation to questions of who will organize the food, what is the budget, and how will the various groups within (even the smallest) community not be left out? It’s important that the team can deliver on the things being discussed at this stage. 7. It’s tempting to emulate placemaking projects from around the country, but supporting residents’ ideas is a must. Our components included a cake walk, an open-mic session, a health and wellness booth, inflatables, and door prizes. 8. Held more planning meetings to cross off action items. If you are an outsider, remember to support emerging leader, rather than taking the reins. Don’t forget to publicize to your specific audience. Not everyone is on Facebook or Instagram. For us this was good old-fashioned ads in the newspaper and flyers in mailboxes. 9. Create the infrastructure you need. Signage is an important part of engaging people at an event; we created chalkboards that people could interact with and also communicated the time and location of the events that were planned. 10. The planning team should have clear roles by the time the event occurs. The event went off without a hitch (or at least no one knew if something didn’t work out), with each person manning the station they had invested a lot of time into preparing. 11. Stayed in touch with the team as next steps were implemented or planned. Ideally something will come out of the planning process organically, such as making the event an annual activity. If not, start the process over, especially steps 1 through 3. 12. Remember, everything is a prototype.
Neighbors tired of planning without results. NONSUPPORTIVE US CULTURE
For young black men.
On Community Center.
$5k- Fetzer Institute.
The The Help premiere raises $130K for town.
FILMED IN TOWN
FIRST COMMUNITY DAY
“The Help” Movie.
In Baptist Town.
GENERAL ELECTRIC SERVICE DAY
Park built on GOODat site.
Roush-Elliott gets to know community. EMILY ROUSH-ELLIOTT ROSE FELLOWSHIP
GOODat COMMUNITY DAY
CENTER MANAGEMENT BOARD
Created, 100% town residents. COMMUNITY CENTER
Building purchased for renovation.
COMMUNITY CENTER FOURTH COMMUNITY DAY
Day overseen by board. CLASSES FOR ALL AGES
In art and more.
FIRST ANNUAL SCHOLARSHIP
Funds dispersed for college.
The starting point of GOODat was conversation. Emily Roush-Elliott, ,sounds so simple, but as a professional trying to work with and for a specific community to which I’m an outsider, it is difficult to begin and maintain a dialogue with individuals and groups whose circumstances are different than mine.” Over time, details like how much a family earns each month, where the local community kitchen is, and who feels threatened and why, have helped her form ideas about what environment will support feelings of security, inclusiveness, and aspiration. Baptist Town is insular. It is surrounded by boundaries on three sides. It has historically been perceived as dangerous and has been avoided by white people. While Baptist Town Community Day was already in existence, it was still pretty new. The sentence, “You are good at....” is common throughout the US, but Roush-Elliott and her fellow community members noticed how rarely it was heard in the neighborhood. Community
leadership took on this concept as a theme. Roush-Elliott says, “I had asked, “What are you good at?” They turned it into a noun, asking, “What’s your GOODat?”” GOODat was a clear departure from the “survey fatigue” and community distrust that had resulted from years of unfulfilled promises and timeconsuming planning processes and charrettes. Instead, GOODat started with the community and was immediately a celebration, “because it quickly became clear that there are really skilled people in the neighborhood,” says Roush-Elliott. Organizations with strong capacity are rare in rural environments, up to cook food, bake cakes for the cakewalk, paint faces, and more. A Candy Chang-inspired chalkboard asked residents about their ‘GOODat.’ One community member, Roger Williams, says about the day, “You are letting your feelings out...You focus on one thing that you are good at.”
Impact Facts The event was hosted at a local park that had just been improved and expanded, and part of the agenda was to change some of the negative perceptions of Baptist Town. The local paper’s coverage of GOODat reflected this, and a handful of non-Baptist Town residents attended the event for the first time in its history. The organizers purchased gift certificates from residents with marketable skills and used them for door prizes at the event. Williams says, “I tinted a lady’s window who won the door prize when she got a car. She held onto the ticket until she bought a car six months later. She asked if her ticket was expired and I said no, so I hooked her up and she gave me a $2 tip.” Booths from local organizations also raised awareness about health, the local job placement center, and college. Residents who contributed gift certificates were invited to apply for $500 small business education grants. In 2014 Community Day was held again, but Roush-Elliott says it is much more low-key this year. She feels that her role in planning the first GOODat was too dominant, and this year she says, “I am being intentional about taking a background role.” The community center planned in Baptist Town opened in summer 2015 and its mission is to give the community, and specifically youth, a place to organize and grow as individuals. Self-esteem has become a strategic entry point for the neighborhood. Roush-Elliott says, “The primary way we hope GOODat was transformative isn’t measurable. We hope that people, especially children, left with an increased sense of their own value. We hope that this will have a positive impact on their academics, employment, and emotional health.”
People Engaged Attendees 350+ Primary organizers 2 Core planners 12 Economic Development Marketable skill sharers 4 Small business applications 2 Scholarship funds awarded $600 Neighborhood Capacity Cakewalk bakers 8 Potential budding artists 42 Residents GOODat singing and dancing 11 Increased awareness of neighbors’ skills and capacity 384% (est.)
Q. What went well and what didn’t go as well? The positivity of the day was the most important goal for me. The effect of focusing on opportunities and each individual’s own abilities to pursue their aspirations isn’t something we can measure, but it is something we successfully supported. Cooking logistics were a little tricky; with our community center it will be easier. We’ll also be able to rely on the community center board who are all neighborhood residents, so the core team will double in size. Q. What do you think the limitations of this collaborative action were in its capacity to create change? Any thoughts on how it could be linked to other endeavors? Reinforcement of a person’s value is something that has to be ongoing throughout the days and years of our lives. GOODat has its limits—it only happens one day each year, but it does have the potential to create a ripple effect of smaller actions throughout the year. Once a person believes in his or herself and has found encouraging allies, it’s time to start pursuing specific opportunities. As we prepare to open the Baptist Town Community Center we are thinking about how it can do just that for residents of all ages. Q. What advice would you give to communities on similar collaborative actions? I can’t overemphasize the importance of discovering what each person adds in terms of capacity. In planning a GOODat Day, celebrating skills and talents of the participants is just as important as the event itself, but it’s easy to forget that. Integrate that spirit into working with even the most difficult resident or finding a role for someone who may seem unreliable. Knock on doors. People talk a lot about community engagement, but I’m amazed at how few people make friends within the place where they work. This action wouldn’t have been possible if I didn’t sit in Carl’s living room, have Robert’s phone number so I could call him, and know not to knock on Sherron’s door before lunch because her son works nights.
SOUTHERN CARAMEL CAKE
In Baptist Town, when you ask any of the barbecue moguls about the recipes they used on Community Day, the responses are almost always identical: “I’d be happy to cook, but my barbecue recipe, that’s a secret.” To get another taste of the day, here’s a quintessential Southern caramel cake, which someone brought to the event. Preheat oven to 350 degrees. In a large mixing bowl, cream 1 cup room temp. butter, ⅓ cup vegetable oil, and 2½ cups sugar on high until fully incorporated and light and fluffy, about 5 to 6 minutes. Turn mixer to medium speed and mix in 6 room temperature. large eggs plus 2 egg yolks, one at a time, until well incorporated. Add in 2 tbsp. vanilla extract and mix. Sift 3 cups cake flour, 1 tsp. baking powder, and ½ tsp. salt into a medium sized bowl. With mixer on slow speed, alternate adding in flour mixture, and 1 cup sour cream, ending with flour mixture until mixed through (do not over mix). Spray three 9-inch round cake pans with baking spray or grease and flour them. Pour batter into individual cake pans evenly. Bake in preheated oven for 25 to 30 minutes or until fully baked (but check them earlier so they don’t dry out). Remove cake pans from oven and cool on cooling racks for 10 minutes. Remove cakes from pans and wait until completely cooled to ice. For the frosting: add 1½ sticks butter, 24 oz. evaporated milk, and 2 cups sugar to saucepan over medium heat until everything has melted together. Leave over medium to low heat stirring periodically for about 1½ to 2 hours (watch the entire time to make sure it does not burn) until thickened and caramel has darkened to a beautiful golden brown, and coats the back of a spoon to ensure thickness. Remove from heat and add in 2 tsp. vanilla extract. Cool for about 15 to 20 minutes before icing the cake. Source: Grandbaby-cakes.com.
A RT & AC T I O N N E I G H B O R H O O D B E AU T I F I CAT I O N
Bleeding Heart Design Summer Art Series D E T R O I T, M I
The Love & Forgiveness Mural and other complementary projects in Detroit’s Lindale Gardens community created a forum for residents to talk about their neighborhood. Bleeding Heart Design’s process and projects brought people to the table and created a conversation about how to beautify the neighborhood through art and action.
• Bleeding Heart Design (b.h.d.) founder,
• Stage supplies........................................................$600
Rebecca “Bucky” Willis and Advisory Board
• Ceara O’Leary, Rose Fellow • Lindale Gardens Neighborhood Association (especially Nancy Karwowski, Helen Morissette, Pamela McGee, Sidney Stewart, Lisa Herring, Martaz Cruthfield, and Rondaeya Redding)
• Love & Forgiveness
• Mini-Mural & Challenge Detroit
installation supplies (welcome signs, tire planters, etc.).........$2,000
• Muralist honoraria................................................$1,000
• Detroit Collaborative Design Center
• Marketing, outreach (flyers, etc.)..................$360
• Artists: Adrienne Pickett, Peter Chavez,
• Event food and supplies.....................................$640
Brooke Ellis, and Josh Budiongan
• Challenge Detroit Fellows • Volunteers, neighbors and participants • Impact Detroit
Clean up supplies...................................................$400
• Staff time and benefits.....................................$1,500 • Supplies and equipment on hand:
Scaffolding, cleanup, landscape, and construction tools
1. Organized neighbors through multiple forms of outreach. They put out a flier to
advertise activities and surveyed neighborhood needs and opportunities. An early chalkboard wall served as a community bulletin board advertising upcoming meetings. She collaborated with other neighborhood community leaders to reach new networks. Community art projects and events require community support and participation from a key group of committed individuals.
2. Decided on art installations as a group. Projects arose from both immediate needs and opportunities and ties to available spaces and resources. We decided on a community stage and mural, tied together with a series of community events.
3. Built community stage: the volunteer-built stage was designed by a 43
local craftsman and built by neighbors under his supervision during a neighborhood improvement day. The stage was built with thrifty materials. We purchased wood for the frame and found fabric in Willisâ€™s basement for the awning. It was adorned with decorated flags drawn by the community.
4. Curated Love & Forgiveness Mural: We invited muralists to submit ideas and
qualifications based on the theme. The b.h.d advisory board narrowed down the original fourteen submissions to five choices from which Lindale Gardens community members selected. Everybody agreed that the vibrant colors and strong message about fatherhood were appropriate for the community mural. Gave the artist a budget for materials and an honorarium. Organized supplies, painting, and cleanup day with volunteers.
5. Celebrated! Itâ€™s great to accompany a new project with an event that
celebrates the community, activates the neighborhood, and provides an opportunity to get together. Our mural debut featured a bounce house, barbecue, music, and farm animals. Other events have included bonfires, a local band, and more opportunities for community cleanups and painting!
6. Continued Outreach: now that it has a group of committed neighbors, b.h.d
is branching out and engaging more people through the Lindale Gardens Community Association. Bleeding Heart Design developed a new survey and flyer to reach a larger section of the neighborhood. Block clubs and community associations are being formed to organize neighbors and take advantage of city resources. A monthly cleanup and luncheon brings people together regularly and more art projects are being planned with the support of new funding sources.
In 2012, Rebecca “Bucky” Willis was in architecture school getting her Masters degree. A lifelong resident of the Lindale Gardens neighborhood in Detroit, Willis had founded an organization called Bleeding Heart Design (b.h.d.) that emphasizes participation and humancentered design processes in responding to societal and environmental issues. Willis had a conviction that public art, design, and architecture could inspire people to become more altruistic, through “evoking emotions that spark positivity in the lives of the people who encounter it.” Lindale Gardens, like much of Detroit, faces many challenges, including high vacancy rates, abandonment, and other signs of blight. After launching projects like “Art House,” a candy-hued house painted for only $1,000, Willis, with the help of the Detroit Community Design Collaborative and with an infusion of funding from the Fetzer Institute and the Surdna Foundation, conceived of the idea of a summer art series. This
series would “reclaim visual real estate” and link together residents through neighborhood beautification and events. The 2013 Summer art series treated another façade with a colorful quote on citizen action and transformed an open field with a stage and landscaping. The next summer included a mural on the topic of love and forgiveness, with an artist selection process that involved the neighborhood. “Community members really enjoyed meeting with the muralist and participating in the process all along,” Willis says. Although she was nervous the community might “pick something conventional,” her advisory committee helped curate the candidates and the process ultimately resulted in one that they were all excited by. The theme of love and forgiveness hit a chord with many residents, who were ”definitely willing to talk about the theme openly as a source for creative inspiration.”
BLEEDING HEART DESIGN
Founded by Willis after graduation.
‘We Need’ wall installed. MASTERS THESIS
Willis develops idea for b.h.d. CEARA O’LEARY ROSE FELLOWSHIP
$5k- Fetzer Institute. From Surdna Foundation.
Field Flip, community stage.
Two facades reenvisioned.
Painted by b.h.d.
Participants work on series.
B.H.D. SUMMER SERIES
Summer series II. LOVE & FORGIVENESS
Mural installed. CALL FOR SUBMISSIONS
Love & Forgiveness mural.
Community identity campaign.
Five new installed.
CDAD Placemaker Grant. CEARA O’LEARY REMAINS AT DCDC
Impact Facts Engagement Neighbors attending events 40-50 Participating artists 10 Public presentations 8 Farm animals in attendance 2 Local community development professionals involved 26 Participating property owners 2 Facebook followers 316 Community meetings 18 Tea parties 7 Bible studies 8 Big events 9 Fundraising Grants pending 3 Corporate sponsors 2 In-kind donations many Placemaking Murals since action 6 Mural submissions 14 Community Storefronts 1 Clean ups 6 Paint colors 18 Parks revitalized 2 Properties involved 7 Businesses now taking care of their properties 5
Willis developed a chain of outreach activities that built on each other visually, like a “We Need” Candy Changstyle board. A “mural coming soon” sign on a façade told neighbors change was coming. “Instead of advertising a product, we’re advertising a call to action,” Willis says. Bleeding Heart Design attracted an initial set of committed stakeholders who showed up for everything. Building off of that initial core, events such as community cleanups were an opportunity for visibility and provided a venue to talk to people and distribute fliers. Willis says she tried to meet at least three new neighbors at each event. The 2013 and 2014 Summer Art Series created a forum for residents to talk about their neighborhood and participate in activities to improve their environment. Bleeding Heart Design’s process and projects brought more people to the table. The work changed residents’ perceptions of the neighborhood and increased the perception of value and beauty in the community. The projects also encourage future investment in the neighborhood, as residents continue to care for their community and surroundings. The 2013 and 2014 summer seasons laid the groundwork for change in Lindale Gardens, with a series of placemaking events and art pieces. It also helped Bleeding Heart Design transition from a fledging organization to one with a sustained impact in the community and on its way to financial health. Multiple property owners have signed on to have their façades painted and the project has attracted sponsors and funding. Yet despite this growing momentum, the b.h.d. philosophy continues to guide the organization. Willis says, we’re “always asking ourselves whether a project inspires altruism. It’s a strong lens through which to view the work and make decisions.”
The work increased the perception of value and beauty in the community.
FROM THE TEST KITCHEN
Q. What went well and what didnâ€™t go as well? The projects completed evolved beyond those that were initially proposed, thanks to the participation of Bleeding Heart Design community members. Because the actions responded to local interests and opportunities, they were ultimately more meaningful, useful, and appreciated. The community field is used for neighborhood events, the stage is used for performances, and the murals inspire passersby while beautifying the neighborhood. The greatest challenge is getting neighbors to participate. We were most successful at this during large events. A key group of neighbors led most of the collaborative action activities, and now major efforts are being made to expand b.h.d.â€™s reach and participation within the Lindale Gardens community. Q. What would you do differently next time? Bleeding Heart Design is a highly resourceful group that can stretch funding and materials far beyond expectations. Nevertheless, if repeated, these collaborative actions could use more support for both artist contributions and unexpected expenses. Infrastructural needs should be identified early on. Q. What would you advise to communities trying similar collaborative actions? Be resourceful. Bring your neighbors. Create an inviting spectacle. Take the time to make collective decisions.
This recipe was selected because it is an easy, shared meal that can be personalized and is a healthy alternative to the average barbecue.
Season 1 to 2 pounds of ground beef or ground turkey with taco seasoning. Take a quarter pound of meat, place it on a sheet of tin foil and flatten into a Â˝-inch thick square. Add your favorite chopped veggies on top of the meat. Top with shredded cheese and salsa, then tightly wrap the tin foil around everything and make a a 4-inch by 6-inch package. Crimp or fold the top and sides of the foil to make sure the hobo doesnâ€™t leak. Grill in a BBQ pit for at least 30 minutes. Top with shredded cheese and sour cream if you want, and eat out of the foil.
R E B U I L D I N G R E L AT I O N S H I P S T H R O U G H M A K I N G
Conversation Pieces CHICAGO, IL
A dinner series brought together developers of Lathrop Homes, a public housing project in Chicago, with experts who had a history of engaging public housing residents. Since the dinners, members of the development team have shown up at the site every week to sit, talk, and listen to residents. This led to a new mobile workshop that will be on site.
• James Lewis, Rose Fellow
• Host organization: Lathrop Community
• Food and prep........................................................$1,200
Partners (composed of Bickerdike Redevelopment Corporation, Heartland Housing and Related Midwest)
• Jamie Kalven, John Preus of Invisible Institute/ Experimental Station
• Community stakeholders and invitees
• Kitchen staffing...........................................................$200 • Coordination............................................................$2,000 • Reporting and documentation..................$2,400 • Administrative overhead.....................................$580 Conversation pieces
• Site visits......................................................................$2,240 • Admin. (Invisible Institute)...................................$112 • Truck (incl. permits/licenses).....................$5,000 • Truck buildout (incl. materials/labor)...$7,000
1. Lathrop Community Partners engaged with experienced community organizers
who hatched the idea of a series of dinners that would bring key individuals to the table to reimagine the typically antagonistic process of working with residents in the redevelopment of public housing in Chicago.
2. Organizers planned the first dinner and found a location where honest,
freewheeling, and exploratory conversation could take place. Organizers selected and invited twelve invitees per meal, chosen for their experience, thoughtfulness, and candor, including social entrepreneurs, artists, and grassroots strategists.
3. Hosted first dinner. Identified barriers to productive developer-resident relations and generated ideas on how to overcome the barriers. Organizers set the tone
for each dinner through an intimate, informal setting and explained the goal: “To create space and conditions for genuine conversation that is free, exploratory, and playful.” Their job was to establish trust so honest conversation would take place.
4. Community organizers planned second dinner. The goal of this conversation
was to identify a starting activity to overcome the identified barriers. The idea for “Conversation Pieces” emerged, in which developer and organizers would show up at the site weekly to engage with residents, listen to them, and learn from them.
5. Lathrop Community Partners spent time on the site once weekly, meeting
residents, engaging with them in informal conversation, and listening to stories about their lives. Out of this came the idea to launch a program to engage residents in making improvements to the property through built projects.
6. Purchased a truck and outfitted it with a number of tools. The truck is beginning
to visit the site weekly to engage residents, offering the opportunity to build small objects and make small repairs. Preliminary project ideas include building raised garden beds, fixing shutters, and making outdoor seating. Ideas ultimately come from residents and their needs, and the truck staff is there to facilitate, repair, and co-build.
7. We hope that both skills and relationships mature over time resulting in objects
that become permanent fixtures, and a shared vision for what is possible on the site, leading to greater resident ownership of the future redevelopment.
LATHROP WORKING GROUP
Assembled. Wins RFP, work begins. CITY ISSUES RFP FOR LAST MAJOR
Plan project: Lathrop Homes.
ORGANIZER COLLECTS REUSED MATERIALS
When city shuts down 50 schools. DEVELOPERS ENGAGE EXPERIMENTAL STATION
CITY OF CHICAGO BEGINS
Plan for Transformation of public housing.
$5k- Fetzer Institute.
Organizers to generate engagment process alternatives. JAMES LEWIS ROSE FELLOWSHIP
EXPLORATORY DINNERS DINNER #1
OFFICE HOURS CONTINUE
TRUCK FIT OUT
Impromptu guitar session on-site.
With storage and tools.
“Oﬃce hours” held at site. DINNER #2
Visits to site.
WEEKLY ORGANIZER & DEVELOPER
TEAM & RESIDENTS CO-IDENTIFY TRUCK PURCHASED
As mobile toolshop.
Potential arts, maintenance, reuse, and econ, dev. opportunities.
Lathrop Homes is a 35-acre, 925-unit public housing complex on Chicago’s north side which will be transformed into a 1200-unit sustainable mixedincome and mixed-use community. It is the last project in the City’s Plan for Transformation, launched in 2000, which has renovated and repaired 25,000 units of public housing but also displaced many residents. The members of Lathrop Community Partners, the development team, had previous experience with public housing projects in which the traditional public input process entrenched the community groups in an adversarial relationship with the developers. The starting point of this project was to ask if they could reimagine that process and produce better outcomes for all. To guide them in answering this question, the Lathrop team engaged Jamie Kalven and John Preus of Invisible Institute and Experimental Station, artists and community organizers with years of
experience working with public housing residents. The organizers suggested they host a series of dinners to address the question and invited key figures from different backgrounds with insight into the public housing community. Twelve people attended the first dinner which focused on the barriers to a productive working relationship between the developer and residents. The second dinner focused on solutions to overcome those barriers. The attendees concluded that the Lathrop team should engage in a grassroots effort to build trust with the residents. They generated the idea that became known as “Conversation Pieces,” in which the developers planned to show up on the Lathrop site weekly with the help of the organizers to sit, talk, and listen to the residents. James Lewis, a Rose Fellow with Heartland Housing and one of the members of the development teams, says that the team was “not talking
Impact Facts about the development project per se but was listening to residents’ stories and looking for small projects to implement immediately.”
People Engaged Dinners hosted 2 Dinner participants 16
These conversations unearthed resident preferences for improving life “not five years from now” but in the present, and gleaned relevant history from longtime residents. In order to jump start the process of making improvements the team purchased an old newspaper delivery truck and repurposed it into a mobile workshop to bring to the site. They plan to start small-scale projects with the residents, such as repairing furniture and building small furniture and artwork. The team hopes that this activity will lead to more complex projects built for the public spaces of the property to embody a joint sense of what is possible for the community as it grows and evolves. As Lathrop Homes moves into the construction phase, their hope is that smallscale activities like these will attract future new residents to participate in the creation of more projects and result in a self-sustaining shop or makerspace on site. The dinners and conversation pieces were not singular events but a chain of interlinked moments of relationship building and possibility. They were “a process that results in programs and initiatives that will not be episodic but will continue to mature and ultimately become integral to the life of the redeveloped community,” says Kalven. In hosting these, the team gave itself the ‘time and space’ to start to reframe a historically contentious relationship amidst a moment of great change, and develop new ways of relating through conversations and building together. In doing so they not only attempt to remake a piece of broken history, but also engender the conditions to create a vital urban neighborhood.
Planners still engaged 5 Trust Building Years of mistrust between developers and CHA residents too many Developer on-site listening hours logged 60 Residents engaged in Conversation Pieces 50 Property Improvement Potential Families to reach 139 Years since residents were hired to improve property 7-8 Courtyards to engage 16 Number of tools on truck ~40
MEATBALLS WITH FAVA BEANS
This dish was served for one of the courses at the second dinner. Slow meals, no matter how simple, give diners time to lower their guard, get to know each other, and think through new possibilities. Meatball Ingredients: 10 oz ground beef, 5 oz ground lamb, 1 onion finely chopped, 1 cup bread crumbs, 2 crushed cloves garlic, 4 tsp. Baharat spice mix, 4 tsp. ground cumin, 2 tsp. chopped capers, 1 egg beaten, ¾ tsp. salt, plenty of black pepper, and 2 tsp. each of flat-leaf parsley, mint, dill, and cilantro. Mix meatball ingredients and form into Ping-Pongsized balls. Sear in two batches in 1 tbsp. olive oil about 5 mins, until brown. Wipe out pan. Blanch 2⅓ cups fresh or frozen fava beans in salted boiling water for 2 mins. Refresh under cold water and set aside half, removing skins. Heat 3 tbsp. olive oil in meatball pan on medium heat. Add 4 whole thyme sprigs, 6 cloves sliced garlic, and 8 sliced green onions, sautéing for 3 mins. Add unpeeled fava beans, 1½ tbsp. lemon juice, ⅓ cup chicken stock, 1/2 tbsp. salt, and plenty of black pepper, almost covering the beans with liquid. Cover and cook over low heat for 10 mins. Return meatballs to frying pan. Add 2⅔ cups stock, cover, and simmer for 25 mins. Taste, adjust seasoning if need be, and add water or reduce to get a nice thick sauce. Before serving, gently stir in 1 tbsp. lemon juice and 1½ tsp. each of flat-leaf parsley, mint, dill, and cilantro. Adapted from Jerusalem, A Cookbook
FROM THE TEST KITCHEN
Q. What would you do differently next time? Our initial collaborative action was simply to get a group of developers together with a group of activists and brainstorm how the community engagement process could be done differently, using an informal setting to increase everyoneâ€™s comfort level. In this regard it was quite successful; it helped generate a kernel of an idea that has grown into something much larger. We are just beginning to implement the idea, so we will know soon if the idea and its implementation are successful. One thing to note: while the funding for this project was small, we were not told prescriptively how to use it. This is not usually the case and it allowed us to fund one activity that led to another and eventually buy a truck to further move the project forward. Q. What do you think the limitations of this collaborative action were in its capacity to create change? Any thoughts on how it could be linked to other endeavors? The dinners allowed space for ideas that were generated elsewhere, to be explored, and to ultimately become part of an agenda. It was the people who participated and were already engaged in the process that created the changeâ€”the dinners served as a catalyst. From the dinners we formed the idea that relationships are built though physically working together, face time, and a common goal. The projects we create may end up in the final development, and we hope theyâ€™ll help the residents take ownership of the place. Q. What advice would you give to communities on similar collaborative actions? Giving yourself the time and space of an informal meal and conversation can help formulate ideas and create partnerships. Our approach happened to be top-down, as we, the developers initiated the conversation. It could be bottomup, though, if a local group with concerns about a development invited the developers to an informal dinner and discussion. The parties involved would likely still have their disagreements, but perhaps each side would be less adversarial in the future.
HONORING STORIES FROM THE PAST
Gathering of Memories SA N TA D O M I N G O, N M
This two-mile walk brought together community members, tribal youth, tribal council, and tribal leadership. It was a day to honor the past and to celebrate future development. During the walk, participants talked about the histories and stories passed down from one generation to another, stories which are informing planning for the future of Santo Domingo.
• Joseph Kunkel, Rose Fellow
• Materials (paper, catering, supplies).....$3,200
• Host organization: Santo Domingo Tribal
• Interviewee compensation...............................$800
• Tribal Planner: Kenny Pin, Tribal Librarian:
(by two Santo Domingo youth)..................$1,000
Cynthia Aguilar. Housing team and board members: Greta Armijo, Shelly Garcia, Kevin Esquibel, Paul Coriz-Housing Board Member
• Joseph Bird, Tribal Council Member. Tribal
Governors and Lt. Governors: Felix Tenorio, Oscar Lovato, Raymond Aguilar, and Avelino Calabaza. Tribal officials: Curtis Benavidez, Ivan Calabaza, Justino Lovato, Raymond Tenorio, Cedric Coriz Alfred Chavez, Joseph Aguilar, Joseph Garcia, Oscar Lovato, Fred Reano - Tribal Official, Joe Cruz Garcia, Edwin Coriz, Fermin Aguilar, Erwin Coriz, Eddie Pacheco, Robert Garcia, Thomas Moquino, Stan Coriz, Wilfred Star, and Paul Chama
• Community participants, youth and elders
THE PROCESS 1. Rose Fellow Joseph Kunkel spent a year on local housing authority staff, learning about the community, the people, and the ways in which culture, land and place inform one another. 2. Engaged with community members on a one-to-one level, helping to reveal the different entities within the community. This led to further understanding the different roles community members play on a day-to-day basis. This in return helped develop relationships which furthered the project. 3. Housing Authority staff implemented planning strategies and design thinking methods to develop opportunities aligned with potential funding sources and their interests and goals. 61
4. Hosted three planning meetings—one on community planning, one on housing, and one combining planning and housing topics. At the meetings we brainstormed, posing questions about community members’ visions and ideas. During these meetings we had community members sketch and develop their interpretation of what makes a good home. 5. Did some community outreach by going door to door, posting and handing out fliers. Made sure key influencers were present at the walk such as planners, project designers, and tribal leadership, which included tribal Governor and council members. Ordered food from local caterer. 6. Defined a walk route from village to trading post. Set up stopping points on the walk at key nodes, marked out beforehand using fencing and large pieces of paper. At these nodes the community would stop and talk about specific memories of the community, the relationship with the trading post, and more. We brought plenty of water and the walk culminated at the trading post with catered food and drink, where we discussed plans for the development in and around Domingo which included ideas about the newly opening Santo Domingo Trading Post. 7. Captured stories from the walk and compiled a “What We Heard” presentation, which we gave to the community and which fed into the master plan.
The Santo Domingo Tribe of New Mexico was beginning the process of developing a Community Master Plan. While the federal government requires American Indian communities to have community plans, there are few predevelopment funds communities can access to pay for this process. As the community planned for much-needed affordable housing projects, they addressed other community challenges such as the area’s poverty, lack of jobs, and lack of access to healthy foods. They wanted to tap into the community’s assets (75 percent of the community are artists) and find opportunities for creative placemaking and efficiencies between tribal programs and social services. During the planning process, Joseph Kunkel, the Housing Authority’s Rose Fellow, noted that the data collected thus far on the community and its conditions was limited. In order to to truly reflect the spirit of the community, the planning process needed to involve community members and examine the
past. Kunkel’s attitude was that “native communities as sovereign nations can remain strong, vibrant communities by honoring their ancestors and remembering their history.” Instead of using only traditional participatory planning techniques, the community hosted the “Gathering of Memories,” which was structured around the traditional pastime of walking from the Village to Domingo—the economic center in the area that hosted a trading post until the early 1980s. Part of the community’s redevelopment would involve reopening the Santo Domingo Trading Post which could serve as a new economic hub, providing a platform for tribe artists to sell their work both inperson and though digital means. The long-term plan envisions better transit connections from the Trading Post to the larger region between Santa Fe and Albuquerque. The Santo Domingo Tribal Housing held meetings leading up to the event and
SANTO DOMINGO TRADING POST
In Domingo closed in early 1980s.
SUSTAINABLE NATIVE COMMUNITIES COLLABORATIVE
Founded with focus on aямАordable housing.
$5k- Fetzer Institute. AMERICAN INDIAN HOUSING
Case studies created by SNCC.
SERIES OF THREE
Community planning meetings.
JOSEPH KUNKEL ROSE FELLOWSHIP
GATHERING OF MEMORIES
Schematic design ﬁnished.
Submitted for other opportunities.
AWARDED ARTPLACE GRANT
Five community artists design walk nodes.
“This is what we heard from you” document.
Documents 30% complete.
Impact Facts People Engaged Community attendees 100+ Outside participants 5 Participant age range 1-70 yrs. Neighborhood Planning
worked with the Tribal Government and Tribal Officials to spread the word throughout the community. The “special event” nature of the walk, and its size and liveliness also helped the outreach effort. Kunkel notes, “The day of the event we attracted more community members who were drawn by the large crowd gathering in front of the Community Center.”
Miles of proposed trail 1.5 Rental units planned 41 Homeowner units planned 60 Percentage of units affordable housing 100% Arts & Economic Development Artists commissioned for pieces on trail 5 Artist percentage of community 75%
The walk addressed tough themes and often covered histories that were not pleasant. “While at times it was a hard walk, we understood some of the struggles that past generations went through,” Kunkel says. Community members were able to see how their Pueblo lives are tied to history and the importance of continuing heritage education for future generations,” he continues. “The elders understood that their world will not be lost to time, and that their culture will be preserved and maintained for many generations to come.” The walk became the basis for a new cultural trail which will link the Historic Village and the Santo Domingo Trading Post, along with new housing developments. The housing authority applied for and was granted an ArtPlace America grant to plan the trail and to commission artists to produce art pieces at key nodes on the trail. In addition to producing direct insight to influence the planning process, the event reached “those who typically we wouldn’t be able to reach,” says Kunkel, and generated “excitement and energy to push forward with schematic design and obtain support from the Tribal Council.” The walk demonstrated the Housing Authority staff’s and non-tribal participants’ deep commitment to the community. The walk took a community tradition and made a sitespecific planning tool out of it. It helped the Housing Authority plan “for future development in a sensitive and culturally respectful way for generations to come, while seeding new traditions that build on memories of the past.”
The walk showed the elders that their world will not be lost to time.
FROM THE TEST KITCHEN
Q. What went well and what didnâ€™t go as well? The collaborative action accomplished more than I would have hoped. It helped us start to outline future work and helped to sculpt how we could write grant proposals. If I were to do this differently, I would make sure to document the collaborative action in more depth, through video, photo, writings, and more. Q. What do you think the limitations of this collaborative action were in its capacity to create change? Any thoughts on how it could be linked to other endeavors? Well, the straightforward limitations were the dollars. If there were more dollars, we might have been able to do this event for two days, or on multiple weekends. Another limitation was our ability to take in and process all the information the walk generated. If we had more internal or professional capacity, there would be no end to the ideas from the walk that could have been further developed. We linked the walk to further projects and planning initiatives, which we have pursued through additional grants and opportunities for the trail, as well as our housing and trading post development plans. Q. What advice would you give to communities on similar collaborative actions? I would advise others to involve as many people from the community as possible, including youth, elders, professionals, non-professionals, teachers, workers, and more. All persons and groups have the ability to contribute lots of different types of knowledge, both about potential projects and through sharing their personal experiences and ideas.
Pueblo bread is a staple food which is always served during any celebration hosted at the Puelbo. Itâ€™s a key part of cultural gatherings from weddings to feast days, to name days. 9 cups white or wheat flour (approx.) 1 package dry yeast 2 tbsp. salt 2 tbsp. lard (or butter) 2 cups of water Soften and dissolve yeast in warm water. Mix lard, flour, salt and dissolved yeast in a large bowl. Add warm water a little at a time kneading and rolling to even out all ingredients. Let dough rise in bowl, covered with cloth. Set near warm place for approximately 5 to 6 hours. After dough has risen, knead the dough and let rise once more for approximately 20 to 30 min. After the dough has risen a second time, knead the dough for 2 or 3 more min. Shape into balls and other shapes and put in greased baking pans. Cover with a cloth and let rise one more time in a warm place. Bake in a 400-degree oven for 50 to 60 min. or until tops have browned and loaves sound hollow when tapped.
G E N E R AT I N G F R E S H I D E AS A N D E N E R GY
Tour De Farce YA K I M A , WA
Dreamed up by residents, the “Tour De Farce” was a fake bike race through Yakima to showcase everything that Yakima is not yet but could be. Attendees dressed up as their favorite place, chalked out bike lanes on the street, and created sidewalk art throughout town. Participants also designed bike racks, six of which were fabricated and installed in the city.
• Nathan Poel, Rose Fellow
• Sidewalk chalk...............................................................$20
• Host Organization: Office of Rural and
• Idea Jam and Tour De Farce participants • Community volunteers: Rebecca Brown, Amelia Rutter and Megan Newell
• Printing and banners................................................$90 • “Baseball diamond” chalk......................................$33 • Paper and markers......................................................$15
• Fabricator: Yakima Maker Space
• Bike racks: Steel and bolts............................$1,300
• City of Yakima
• Bike racks: Waterjet cutting..........................$1,100 • Bike racks: Powder coating..............................$900 • Staff time.....................................................................$1,530 • From city: permit
THE PROCESS 1. Rose Fellow Nathan Poel hosted an “Idea Jam”: a community get-together and brainstorming session on the topic of spreading love in our community. Brought beer, snacks, and inspirational video snippets. 2. Took issues identified in the Idea Jam and proposed specific interventions for community approval. Thought through the time and financial parameters of each and whether it fit the money we had available through our grant. (Not that dreaming big isn’t great, but we had to start somewhere). Two themes rose to the surface: encouraging healthy active lifestyles, and creating more bike and pedestrian connectivity between residences and the downtown business area. 3. Scheduled and marketed event—it helps to find a brilliant graphic designer and 71
bribe them with beer. Be sure to invite local media and neighbors personally. 4. Mapped out the route and talked through potential traffic issues. Used this information to obtain an event permit from the City of Yakima. 5. Gathered supplies: event banners, start and finish lines, sidewalk chalk, streamers, and bubbles. 6. Showed up for a 6 am pre-tour: chalked out bike lanes on the route with a baseball diamond line chalker (available at most high schools). 7. During the tour, left time for strategic stops to create chalk artwork along the street and let bikers leave their mark. 8. Invited children at community events to draw their version of a cool bike rack. 9. Continued to bribe aforementioned graphic designer into translating drawings into viable bike racks. 10. Fabricated bike racks at the local maker space, installed them downtown, and gifted them to the city for ongoing maintenance.
PÓNGANSE EL CASCO, CHICOS Y CHICAS!
TOUR FARSA FA K E I T YOU M AK E I T. DE
UNA CARRERA DE BICICLETA, MÚSICA, CAMARADERÍA PARA FESTEJAR LA POTENCIAL AQUÍ EN YAKIMA
Súmate a nosotros
EL SABADO 28 SEPTIEMBRE de
Principio Miller Park
A LAS 2PM A LAS 3PM POSTERIORMENTE
t. nd S N2
t. tES Eas
ve. aA akim EY
t. nd S N2
t. nt S Fro
Nos encontramos en Miller Park. Arrancamos. Terminamos celebrando en Kiwanis Park.
de moda según tu lugar favorito. E Spruce St.
. e St ruc E Sp
Fin Kiwanis Park
2 MILLES DE LARGO (no es nada)
GRATUITO! PARA TODOS! PASEEMOS JUNTOS! !
Para saber mas: facebook.com/IdeaJamYakima
Yakima suffers from an image problem. It is seen as a place of limited opportunity for creativity and growth. While the city is surrounded with opportunities for outdoor activities like river rafting, hiking, and rock climbing, the city, and downtown in particular, has a carcentered infrastructure that does not naturally promote active lifestyles. While the surrounding valley also boasts a yearly abundant harvest of healthy fruits and vegetables, the city was named one of fattest cities in the country in recent years, with about one in three adults labeled obese, according to a Yakima Herald article. Nathan Poel, a Rose Fellow based at the Office of Rural and Farmworker Housing which works with predominantly first or second-generation Latino migrant workers, helped found a quarterly event called the “Idea Jam,” to gather the creative minds of Yakima in dreaming up community change. The meetup had previously spun off several groups in town including a home-brewing club and
a guerilla gardening effort. At the spring 2013 Idea Jam, attendees reflected on the theme of love and forgiveness and focused on reconnecting neighborhoods. Out of the brainstorm, the planning team dreamed up “Tour De Farce,” a fake bike race through Yakima to showcase “everything that Yakima is not yet but could be.” The event was designed with a sense of playfulness; attendees dressed up as their favorite place, chalked out bike lanes on the street, and created beautiful sidewalk art throughout the community, leaving their mark on the street as they went by. The event was also paired with a bike rack design competition, in partnership with the Yakima Maker Space (another Idea Jam spinoff). Six of these racks were selected to be fabricated and installed downtown as a reminder of the event and its goals. The bike route strategically went from the north to the south of the city, highlighting residential neighborhoods
Impact Facts that didn’t make it into the city’s recent downtown revitalization plan, with its proposed bike lanes, public plazas, and local food market. “The ride deliberately showcased these communities and how they could easily be connected to the greater economic development of the area,” says Poel. At the event, participants signed a letter to City Council expressing interest in more bike and pedestrian infrastructure. Poel did identify a few missed opportunities. “I think we could have worked harder to find and keep stakeholders from the Hispanic community involved. We had some representation early on but that fell off as we moved ahead. Ideally we want collaborative actions to represent the full demographic of the community they are serving,” he says. Tour De Farce is now becoming a semi-annual event that promotes healthy lifestyles, alternative transportation options, and positive engagement with Yakima’s downtown. Poel says of the event, “the dialogue we had around Tour De Farce was that forgiveness is an act of collectively acknowledging the things that are wrong about our community and then choosing to live into a new reality.” He continues, the action was an “‘act of love’ in inviting our community to imagine what a new reality might look like.”
People Engaged Idea Jam attendees 32 Tour De Farce riders 30 Bike rack design entries 72 Neighborhoods represented via costume 8 Placemaking New custom fabricated bike racks installed 6 Miles of temporary chalk bike lanes 1.4 Chalk art sketches promoting biking and safe streets 38 Political Change Signatures on pro-bike letter to city council 76 Advocacy groups founded promoting biking & walking 1 Group rides hosted since the Tour de Farce 11 Health Length of ride 2 mi. Calories burned, on average in a 2 mi. bike trip 125
YAKIMA CITY COUNCIL ESTABLISHES
Bicycle/Pedestrian Advisory Committee.
FIRST IDEA JAM
CITY WITHDRAWS COMMITTEE STAFF
And support during recession. LOCAL REPORTS
Hosted in Yakima.
$5k- Fetzer Institute.
SPINOFF GROUPS FORM
Yakima Maker Space, guerrilla gardening and Home Brew Club.
One third Yakima Addresses need for more bike infrastructure. residents are obese.
NATHAN POEL ROSE FELLOWSHIP
TOUR DE FARCE
SPRING IDEA JAM IDENTIFIES
Need to “reconnect” neighborhoods.
YAKIMA BIKES AND WALKS
Pedestrian and bicycle advisory committee.
Bicycle master plan.
Advocacy group is founded.
CREATIVE BIKE RACKS
CITY INSTALLS ADDITIONAL BIKE SUPPORT LETTER
Bike lanes to and from downtown.
Presented to City Council.
Tour De Farce.
NATHAN POEL REMAINS AT ORFH
FROM THE TEST KITCHEN
Q. What went well and what didnâ€™t go as well? We could have greatly increased our marketing effort. In retrospect, I would have made sure we had posters up and the event marked on community calendars at least a month in advance. I would also reach out to more community organizers in the neighborhoods we were going through. Q. What do you think the limitations of this collaborative action were in its capacity to create change? Any thoughts on how it could be linked to other endeavors? The Tour De Farce was designed to be a starting point. It was a way to begin the conversation around biking infrastructure and healthy lifestyles but required others to follow up and continue the conversation. Fortunately we had several people who were already passionate about biking and formed Yakima Bikes and Walks soon after the event. They have since hosted the second annual Tour De Farce and promise to continue the event in the future. Q. What advice would you give to communities on similar collaborative actions? Enjoy the process and the event and help others to do the same. It is much easier to rally support when volunteers are excited to help.
MOON BASE (BREWED IN SPACE) INTERSTELLAR IPA
This home-brew recipe comes from the Yakima Home Brew Club, an early Idea Jam spinoff. Massive Size: Batch Size (bbl): 23.00, Wort Size (bbl): 23.00, Total Grain (lbs): 1,300.00, Anticipated OG: 1.055, Plato: 13.64, Anticipated SRM: 7.7, Anticipated IBU: 62.1 Brewhouse Efficiency: 85%, Wort Boil Time: 60 Minutes Home Brew Size: (gal): 4.75 (lbs): 8.6 Grain/Extract/Sugar % Amount Name Origin Potential Color - SRM 69.2% 900.00 lbs. Pale Malt (2-row) America 1.036 2 6 lbs. 7.7% 100.00 lbs. C-40 America 1.034 40 0.66 lbs. 7.7% 100.00 lbs. Munich Malt (2-row) America 1.035 60.66 lbs. 7.7% 100.00 lbs. Wheat Malt America 1.038 2 0.66 lbs. 3.8% 50.00 lbs. Victory Malt America 1.034 25 0.33 lbs. 3.8% 50.00 lbs. Flaked Barley America 1.032 2 0.33 lbs. Potential represented as SG per pound per gallon. Hops Amount Name Form Alpha IBU Boil Time 7.00 lbs. Citra Pellet 14.05 42.4 60 min. 7.00 lbs. Nelson Sauvin Pellet 13.00 13.2 20 min. 7.00 lbs. Nelson Sauvin Pellet 13.00 6.5 5 min.
0.75 oz 0.75 oz 0.75 oz
Yeast WYeast 1056 Amercan Ale/Chico Gear: Boil kettle, mashtun, 5-gal carboy with airlock, cooling coil, friends to hold things while you’re pouring hot liquids, sanitizer, washed bottles and bottle capper, sanitizer.
First, before anything else, activate your yeast packet! (If you wait until the end, you are too late.) Heat 4 gallons of water to 172 degrees F. Prepare mashtun with all grain and be sure the spigot is closed. Pour heated water into mashtun and let steep for 60 min. When the mash is ready pour the sparge into a food-safe bucket and set aside. Send 2 gallons of secondary heated (160 °F) sparge water through the mashtun to extract remaining sugars. Pour both sparges into boil kettle and heat to a boil. Once the boil breaks, add Citra pellets and start a timer for 60 minutes. Add additional hops at the times indicated. After 60 minutes, rapidly cool the wort using the cooling coil—the faster the better, since your exposed beer can pick up contaminants. Once the wort is down to room temperature (70 degrees, not warmer), pour into your sanitized carboy. Add yeast, then airlock and shake vigorously (performed best to your favorite dance tunes). Store in a cool dark place for 2 weeks. Bottling: We recommend a simple corn sugar for live carbonation. Follow instructions for your number of gallons. Store for 3 to 4 weeks in a cool dark place, then enjoy!
SITE REFRAME WITH ARTIST-LED EVENTS
Bartlett Events BOSTON, MA
Bartlett Events was a community arts and events-based series that turned a former bus yard from a community eyesore into an asset and public space. The series allowed Nuestra CDC to engage the community in a non-traditional format by allowing the experts (the communities themselves) to organize events in their own community.
• Co-organizers: Mark Matel, Rose Fellow,
Jason Turgeon of FIGMENT Boston and Jeremy Alliger of Alliger Arts
• Host Organization: Nuestra Comunidad Development Corporation
• Music coordinator: Blake Jurasin • Summer volunteers: Corinna D’Schoto and Diana Walsh
• Site installations: Youth Build Boston, Fresh Food Generation
• Artists, performers, and event organizers • Outreach partners: Youth Build Boston
Before I Die Boston, APPLAb Alliger Arts
• Food truck vendors • Community event participants
(extension cords, cable ramps, folding tables, pop-up tents, etc.).............................$3,900
(generators, portable toilets, etc.)...........$1,000
• Postcards, fliers, posters.....................................$300 • Permit fees....................................................................$500 • Banner printing of
photographs of neighborhood..................$1,000
• Paint for “Art Wall” ...................................................$500 • Paint and supplies for
Festival of Street Art..........................................$3,000
• Artist Fee....................................................................$5,000 • Recycled vinyl for art wall donated by artist Nate Swain
THE PROCESS 1. Rose Fellow Mark Matel met arts collaborators and together, based on familiarity with community concerns and knowledge of local artist culture, they dreamed up ideas for events series. Met with the owners of the property and convinced them it was a good idea. Solidified budget. 2. Managed red tape: met with city officials, police department, and other municipal authorities to figure out how to run an event of this scale and how to avoid applying for a separate permit for each individual event. In this phase, you may have to do a life safety plan that is stamped and drawn by an architect. You also need insurance. Allow at least three months for this phase, especially in bigger cities.
3. Regularly met with a very small but high-capacity team which made decisionmaking efficient so we could move forward. 4. Conducted space planning for the property including deciding where key art would be located, giving each area a “name”, and dividing area into zones to be handed over to artists. The organization Youth Build defined entry points and designed and constructed furniture. 5. Prepared guidelines for artists (for example, work must not be “rated R”). Had two artist recruitment phases. In the first phase, the arts coordinator selected a few artists for the bigger pieces, which set a high bar for quality. The second phase was open to more artists, and included a “free wall” for anyone to paint on. Marketed first to local community then to Metro Boston as a whole using Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. No paid marketing. 6. Maintained a strong web presence using social media, constantly telling the ongoing story of the series. Leadership team wrote blog posts about what happened during the week, which new pieces went up, and more. 7. After the first two events, invited community members to propose events on weekends until the end of the series. Announced, ”Pick a date, and we’ll work with you to host your event.” Had a music coordinator organize music events. Assigned responsibility for opening the site on weekends and weekdays. 8. During events, displayed physical model and images of what future development on site would look like to educate and generate interest and excitement for the project.
The events allowed the real experts, the community, to selforganize.
CRIMINAL RECORDS LOCAL FOOD POLICY COUNCIL
Cofounded by Lewis
LEGACY OF URBAN RENEWAL:
$5k- Fetzer Institute. KITCHEN JOB TRAINING PROGRAM
No grocery stores in neighborhood.
ASHEVILLE GROCERY ‘BOOM’
Poor neighborhoods left out. GEOFFREY BARTON ROSE FELLOWSHIP
From transit authority. Bank of America leaves partnership.
Underground tanks removed. RECESSION
SITE SLATED SITE HISTORY
Begins life as transit yard.
UJAMAA FREEDOM MARKET
Prevent Lewis & Allen from ﬁnding employment.
Team applies for grants. FUNDING
$5k- Fetzer Institute.
On rebranding project.
NEUSTRA CDC TEAM
MATEL MEETS COLLABORATORS
Begins planning series.
MARK MATEL ROSE FELLOWSHIP
PUBLIC HOUSING RESIDENTS BUSINESS LICENSE
Approved, market locations approved.
See potential of small business.
$4800- Whole Foods.
$25K- CDBG Startup Fund.
Continues in rest of city.
ARTS COMMISSION LAUNCHES PROGRAM
Supporting pop-up arts in neighborhood.
Engage artists for construction sites. BARTLETT YARDS PASSES LARGE PROJECTS REVIEW
BARTLETT ARTIST FOUNDS UP TRUCK
Mobile arts engagement eﬀort in neighborhood. BOSTON ARTS COMMISSION
Names series one of best street art collections in city.
Community members write letters of support.
RISE OF LARGE-SCALE
Public art in Boston. MARK MATEL REMAINS AT NEUSTRA CDC
The Roxbury neighborhood in Boston is home to Bartlett Yards, an 8.5-acre parcel that had served as a mass-transit storage and repair site since 1870 and was now seen as a neighborhood eyesore. In 2005, Bartlett Yards was slated for redevelopment and in 2007 Nuestra Comunidad Development Corporation and a partner were designated as the developers for the site. This $140 million mixed-use project would contain over 323 apartments and for-sale homes, and 56,000 square feet of retail space. After the project lost momentum during the recession, Neustra CDC and its Rose Fellow, Mark Matel, wanted to help the community reframe the site and its meaning to the neighborhood. After meeting a few partners, Matel and his collaborators hatched the idea to turn Bartlett Yard into a temporary art park for six months. Matel says, “I was inspired by artist Rick Lowe’s Project Row Houses to spur economic growth in a community through art and art institutions.” Matel hoped the project could have a chain-
reaction effect, inviting local community members to come and meet their neighbors while welcoming local artists to participate and activate vacant lots in their community. Matel and his partners got to work, securing permitting and funding to host community events ranging from block parties to political rallies to fashion shows. The site was treated as a giant canvas and artists were selected to paint and create installations in different sections. The former bus yard was made available to any community member who wished to host an event any weekend from May to September 2013. Matel notes that the Bartlett Events planners created the frame, but the community created the content: “We intended to provide a public space for community members to gather. We did not plan or curate the specific art pieces to emerge as part of the process.”
Impact Facts The event series unearthed members of Roxbury’s street art scene—usually submerged because street art is often considered vandalism. The art at Bartlett Events expressed the neighborhood’s culture, community, and demographic proudly within the neighborhood and in the larger city. The series received extensive press during the summer which brought politicians, city officials, and arts enthusiasts to Roxbury from all over the metro Boston area. The event series spurred partnerships with arts organizations such as Harbor Arts in East Boston which, Matel says, “would not have been possible without Bartlett Events.” The event series helped generate and link Roxbury to a larger conversation “about the role of the arts industry in Boston and how the creative economy can help drive the future of Boston as an arts destination,” reflects Matel.
People Engaged Attendees 3000+ (est.) Artists involved 200+ Events hosted ~50 Press pieces on series 200+ Economic Development Attendees from outside neighborhood 3000+ (est.) Neighborhood artists given platform 175+ Construction workers to be employed in future development 400+ Arts and Placemaking
In addition to building capacity among community members who wanted to see change in their community, Bartlett Events brought more voices into the conversation on neighborhood development. Bartlett Events’ unique format “allowed us to reach youth, a demographic that normally don’t attend community meetings,” says Matel. After the series, the development team rebranded the future development into a “creative village” which will include a plaza with public art and events. The development team believes it was through the events that generations of community members were able to envision a new future for the Bartlett bus yard. As Matel says, Bartlett Events has allowed Nuestra CDC “to engage the community in a nontraditional format by allowing the experts (the communities themselves) to self-organize events in their own community.”
Area of murals 10,000+ sq. ft. Years of site transit history reframed 100+ Mayoral candidates visiting series 3, at least
FROM THE TEST KITCHEN
Q. What went well and what didn’t go as well? Almost everything went so much better than we could have hoped for. The one thing I wish we could have achieved was a quick demolition after the summer. The project wasn’t demolished until almost two years later, and the site was just sitting there. Graffiti popped up. People were wondering what was happening with the development process. Momentum was lost. We wanted to do another series the next year and applied for an ArtPlace America grant but didn’t get it, which is too bad, but that’s just par for the course with competitive grants. The site was finally demolished in the spring of 2015, almost two years after the events series took place. Q. How do you attract a high caliber of art to a project like this? I think the opportunity was really great—Bartlett Yards was an opportunity for artists to have a blank slate to create upon. The other key components are having guidelines, and working with partners with curatorial experience who could attract and select that first set of artists to set the bar high. Q. What advice would you give to communities on similar collaborative actions? It is important to note that the Bartlett Events team set up an infrastructure that empowers residents and is flexible to change. We merely provided the environment and asked for the innovation and ideas from the community. When a process or initiative is heavy-handed with rules and guidelines of “how to play,” it can inhibit innovation. The key is to provide the space. Those who work, live, and play locally understand what the needs of a place are more so than others, they just need the opportunity to let their ideas flourish.
Caribbean oxtail is served in some of the best mom-and-pop restaurants in Roxbury. Roxbury and Dorchester are known for having a large Caribbean heritage. 2 pounds oxtail, cut in 1 to 1.5-in. chunks and trimmed of excess fat ½ cup unsifted flour plus 2 tbsp 2 tbsp. beef drippings or cooking oil 2 medium-size yellow onions, peeled and minced 2 qts water, or 6 cups water and 1 pint beef broth or bouillon 2 tbsp. tomato paste 2 tsp. salt ¼ tsp. pepper 1 bay leaf ½ tsp. thyme 3 cloves 2 sprigs parsley 2 medium-size carrots, peeled and diced 1 stalk celery, diced ⅓ cup dry sherry or port wine (optional) Dredge oxtails in ½ cup flour, then brown in drippings in a large, heavy kettle over high heat; drain on paper toweling. Turn heat to moderate and stir fry onions 8 to 10 min. until golden; sprinkle in remaining flour, mix well, and brown lightly. Slowly add water, stir in tomato paste, salt, and pepper, also bay leaf tied in cheesecloth with thyme, cloves, and parsley. Return oxtail to kettle, cover, and simmer 3 hours until meat is fork tender; cool and skim off fat; remove cheesecloth bag. Separate meat from bones, cut in bite-size pieces, and return to kettle along with carrots and celery. Cover and simmer 10 to 15 min. until carrots are tender. If you like, mix in sherry or port wine. Serve as is or strain kettle liquid, serve as a first course, and follow with oxtail and vegetables. Source: The New Doubleday Cookbook
W H AT YO U ’ L L N E E D
Tools & Techniques RELATIONSHIP BUILDING
Relationships, especially relationships on the one-to-one level, were key to every single one of these actions. Invest time in getting to know the community you are in and its multiple groups and interests. There are no shortcuts to doing this.
Another way to create relationships and get past the anonymity of technology. Meet people where they are. Take time to find out about their lives and share who you are.
BREAKING BREAD TOGETHER
You can visualize what is possible while avoiding the red tape and high cost of a full-blown project. Temporary installations often generate community and political will for long-term change (such as Tour De Farceâ€™s bike lanes).
Food brings people together and breaks down barriers. Conversation Pieces in Chicago started with a series of dinners. A relaxed, informal setting facilitated a safe space for difficult conversations.
Many of the collaborative actions use bright colors to brand a project or signal reinvestment in a previously forgotten or uncared-for space. Color is an inexpensive way to brighten up a spaceâ€”just be sure to use it judiciously, in a way that is thoughtful about the context.
Productive conversations about issues in need of forgiveness often require skillfull conversation leaders. Facilitation includes asking questions, making sure people feel heard and safe, and sometimes asking people to show rather than tell.
Mobile elements allow more immediate action. For example, the mobile workshop in Chicago and Ujamaa Freedom Market used trucks, making it easier to meet people where they are. They can take advantage of a smaller investment than a brick-and-mortar can.
Whatever your action, you need to get the word out and invite people. While social media is a great tool, not all people have access to digital platforms. Knock on doors. Post fliers. Call people up. Make personal invitations. Involve people. Ask who should be at the table that is not already involved.
The issues our communities face are not always easy to talk about. They are built on histories of incarceration, poverty, and racism. It’s important to talk about tough issues honestly and learn how to listen and be aware of dynamics of power.
Sometimes you need a meeting— and sometimes you need a walk or a ride. In Santo Domingo’s Gathering of Memories, important community histories were shared through a community-wide walk. Don’t be afraid to get up and get moving.
PARTICIPATORY ART TEMPLATES
Many of the collaborative actions featured elements modeled off of Candy Chang’s “Before I Die” wall, in which participants write freely in response to a prompt. Make a template or a scaffold for community members to have a visual voice.
Many of these actions created something beautiful in their communities. Learn or leverage skills such as carpentry or painting or even paper-folding. Tap into the talent in your community. Art is a visual reminder that change is possible.
Glossary SITE Designers often talk about the “site,” the physical location where a certain project has taken or will take place. In some cases, the site is the lot on which a new housing development will be built. In other cases, it’s the park that is being cleaned up and revitalized.
REQUEST FOR PROPOSALS (RFP) When cities, organizations, or other entities have projects they want done (such as designing a new library or planning a new waterfront district) they will put out a request for proposals to which interested parties can respond.
Actions or investments that improve the effectiveness of organizations and develop the skills and capabilities of communities and individuals.
A meeting in which potential designs or plans are brainstormed, developed, or analyzed and questioned. Often run by designers or project leads to solicit the feedback or ideas of experts, stakeholders, or communities.
A series of planning, thinking, and prototyping methods that bring the holistic and fluid approach of design to other endeavors such as business or community organizing and planning. It emphasizes visual and imaginative ways of thinking.
Strategies and interventions to make public spaces more vibrant, more active, more attractive, more social, and often more reflective of local character. Better bike infrastructure in Yakima and the new arts trail being developed in Santo Domingo are both examples.
A list of tasks that need to be completed to finish the construction of a project. Often generated by an architect in the final phases of a construction project and completed by the builder before the project is officially declared as finished.
An approach which involves the active participation of potential or current end users in design and decision-making processes.
whatâ€™s your collaborative action?
COMPASSIONATE LISTENING Compassionate listening can take many forms—whether it’s the big group brainstorm of Tour De Farce’s Idea Jam, the knocking on doors that led to GOODat Community Day, or the community-wide oral history walk of Gathering of the Memories. The point is to bring people to the table, unearth the issues and opportunities at hand, and build trust and participation. Here are some questions to ask all who are involved. For more resources on compassionate listening, visit the Fetzer Institute’s website. WHO ELSE NEEDS TO BE AT THE TABLE? HOW WILL YOU INVITE THEM IN?
WHAT IS NEEDED TO ESTABLISH TRUST AND PARTICIPATION?
WHAT ISSUES OR OPPORTUNITIES IN YOUR COMMUNITY WOULD YOU LIKE TO ADDRESS?
COLLABORATIVE ACTION What action are you going to take to respond to the issues you identified? Will it be an event? Will it be an installation? Will it be a new business? What can you do to create new possibilities? It’s time to brainstorm ideas and share them for collective decision-making. WHAT’S YOUR VISION? DRAW HERE.
WHO ARE YOUR COOKS?
WHAT ARE YOUR STEPS?
WHAT INGREDIENTS WILL YOU NEED? WHAT EXISTING RESOURCES DOES YOUR COMMUNITY ALREADY HAVE?
COLLECTIVELY REFLECT Take the time for joint reflection on the action and to capture what you learned. What outcomes did the action produce? Did it build new capacities or change dynamics? Can the collaborative action catalyze and generate more community transformation? WHAT DID YOU DO? WHAT MOTIVATED PEOPLE TO PARTICIPATE?
WHAT WERE THE TANGIBLE AND INTANGIBLE OUTCOMES OF YOUR ACTION? WHAT WOULD YOU HAVE DONE DIFFERENTLY?
WHAT DID YOU LEARN? HOW MIGHT THIS ACTION SPIN OFF INTO MORE COMMUNITY CHANGE?
MEET OUR TEAM
joann ware Joann works on revitalizing and providing highquality affordable housing in Seattle’s International District and throughout the Puget Sound area. interim community development association seattle, wa | fellow 2011-2013 geoffrey barton Geoffrey Barton works on urban neighborhood revitalization projects and green, affordable singlefamily manufactured housing prototypes to fit a variety of rural site conditions. mountain housing opportunities & asheville design center asheville, nc | fellow 2013-2015 emily roush-elliott Emily works on the redevelopment plan for the Baptist Town community where she is focused on integrating social and environmental sustainability. greenwood-leflore economic development foundation & carl small town center greenwood, ms | fellow 2013-2015 ceara o’leary Ceara works on broad-scale community engagement throughout the city, contributing to long-term strategies and blue-green infrastructure planning for Detroit. detroit collaborative design center detroit, mi | fellow 2012-2014 james lewis James develops inclusive sustainable design processes for supportive housing projects that combine housing development with supportive services in low-income neighborhoods around Chicago. heartland housing chicago, il | fellow 2014-2016
joseph kunkel Joseph works with New Mexico’s Santo Domingo Pueblo in design and planning, as well as furthering national dialogue through Enterprise’s Sustainable Native Communities Collaborative. santo domingo housing authority & sustainable native communities collaborative santo domingo, nm | fellow 2013-2015 nathan poel Nate works to build stronger communities and affordable housing that is specifically designed for farmworkers. office of rural and farmworker housing yakima, wa | fellow 2012-2014 mark matel Mark works to advance sustainable residential and commercial development in the Boston neighborhood of Roxbury. He uses temporary events that bring awareness to the site and test engage residents in defining the identity of future development. nuestra comunidad development corporation boston, ma | fellow 2012-2014
enterprise community partners national design initiatives Katie Swenson, Nella Young, Amber Christoffersen, Kate Deans, Taro Matsuno, and Kate Diffenderfer the fetzer institute Linda Bell Grdina, Dawn Andres, and Roselle Kovitz
IMAGE CREDITS The Cooks spread, from left: row 1: Chloe Hanna Korpi, Harry Connelly, Erin Brethaver of Asheville Citizen-Times, Richard Elliott, Rebecca Willis, Fares Ksebati, Mark Matel, Nathan Poel, Richard Elliott, Harry Connelly, Richard Elliott, Rebecca Willis. row 2: Richard Elliott, Erin Brethaver of Asheville CitizenTimes, Joann Ware, Mark Matel, Nathan Poel, Richard Elliott, Harry Connelly, Joann Ware, Mark Matel, Fares Ksebati, Ujamaa Freedom Market, Brooke Turgeon. row 3: No credit, Joann Ware, Chloe Hanna Korpi, Chloe Hanna Korpi, Harry Connelly, Richard Elliott, Rebecca Willis, Richard Elliott, Joann Ware, Cindy Kunst of Mountain Xpress, Harry Connelly. Harry Connelly. row 4: Joann Ware, Nathan Poel, Fares Ksebati, Richard Elliott, Jamie Kalven, Fares Ksebati, Rebecca Willis, Harry Connelly, Joseph Kunkel, Rebecca Willis, Tom Van Eynde, Liv Leader. row 5: Rebecca Willis, Richard Elliott, Chloe Hanna Korpi, Nathan Poel, Challenge Detroit, Mark Matel, Rebecca Willis, Richard Elliott, Harry Connelly, Challenge Detroit, Chloe Hanna Korpi.
p. 12-19 Joann Ware / p. 21 Petras Gagilas (sharealike license) p. 22 Joann Ware / p. 24 Erin Brethaver, Asheville Citizen Times / p. 26 from left: Ujamaa Freedom Market, Erin Brethaver, Asheville Citizen Times / p. 28 Erin Brethaver, Asheville Citizen Times / p. 30-31 from left: Ujamaa Freedom Market, Erin Brethaver, Asheville Citizen Times / p. 32 Geoffrey Barton / p. 34-41 Richard Elliot / p. 42-45 Rebecca Willis / p. 46-47 community participant / p. 49 Rebecca Willis / p. 51 Fares Ksebati / p. 52 Jamie Kalven / p. 55 Patricia Evans / p. 56 from left Liv Leader, Patricia Evans / p. 58 Jennifer Woodard Maderazo / p. 60 -62 Joseph Kunkel / p. 63 from left: Joseph Kunkel, Chloe Hanna Korpi / p. 64-65 Chloe Hanna Korpi / p. 67 Joseph Kunkel / p. 69 Jessica Spengler / p. 70-72 Nathan Poel / p. 74 Robert Garlow / p. 76 from left: Robert Garlow, Nathan Poel / p. 77 Nathan Poel / p. 79 Christian Kadluba (sharealike) / p. 80-82 Mark Matel / p. 83 Jeremy Alliger / p. 84-86 Mark Matel / p. 89 John Herschell (sharealike license)