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View with images and charts Training and Development OF SHELL CORPORATION BANGLADESH LTD. OVERVIEW: 1:1 OVERVIEW OF THE SHELL CORPORATION BANGLADESH LTD.: Back in 1994 a visionary person Mr. Md. Zahirul Islam decided to start his business from the scratch and form a company. He understood that their unique business perspectives would help build a firm that would last for decades and would one day become a pioneering organization in the country. 17 years from that day, Shell Corporation Bangladesh Limited has come a long way to becoming one of the most recognized business houses of the nation. The owner / founding director had a firm belief that the only way to move forward was to combine sincere dedication, develop a culture of innovation and striving to honor commitments. Over the years this has been tremendously beneficial for the Company, which has become synonymous with the word ‘trust’. Our unique understanding of economic and industrial priorities and our dedication towards excellent client service has helped us to branch out in a number of commercial ventures. Construction, Material Handling, Power generation, healthcare, real estate, yarn spinning and Port services are but a few of the areas we are directly involved in. As a result, the Company has a very remarkable achievement in the space of 17 years. However, we have no plans to slow our growth pace. Bangladesh has now ventured into a new millennia, with many more business opportunities than there were in the past. Now that we have solidified our foundations, we hope to add many more bricks to what could one day be a world renowned business empire. 2.2 Work outline: Shell Corporation Bangladesh Limited ,is one of the biggest, reputed and leading Trading Company in Bangladesh since 17 years .We are doing Indenting, Import, Export, Marketing, Industrial Consulting & Complete Machinery supply on turn key basis, Government Tenders and Industrial Raw Materials . More about Shell Corporation Bangladesh ltd.• We are a very strong marketing Company • Have introduced several products first time in Bangladesh from many countries especially from Japan. • Have branches in the main cities for securing maximum business. We are customer focused: With the help of our well trained and highly experienced sales staff we are capable of delivering on time and have a long list of satisfied customers. Company Outline Name of Company: Date of Establishment: Address in Bangladesh: Regd. Office: Bangladesh

Shell Corporation Bangladesh Ltd. 1994 (Bangladesh) 24-25, Dilkusha Commercial Area, Dhaka-1000,


Liaison Office:

House No. 196, Road No. 1, New DOHS, Mohakhali, Dhaka-1206, Bangladesh Tel: 880 2 9889629 Fax: 880 2 9891473 E-mail: yurika@dhaka.net

Representative Director: Employees: • •

Md. Zahirul Islam

Capital Amount: Annual Sales Turnover As if (Dec 31, 2010)

BD. TK. 19, 00, 00,000/= equivalent to (±) US$ 2,676,055BD.TK. 122, 40, 36,512/= equivalent to (±) US$ 17,000,507-

1206 for the manufacturing unit for beverage & other. 63 for the international trading, marketing & after sales service on behalf of our foreign principals / suppliers in Bangladesh for industrial items. Diploma Engineer Mechanical – 31person BSc Engineer Mechanical – 9person Diploma Engineer EEE – 13person BSc Engineer EEE – 4person Sales Admin – 6person Facilities and core business:3 divisional offices equipped with warehouse and workshop for sales and after sales service for the industrial machineries, construction & material handling Equipment, Agriculture Equipment, Airport Equipment, Timber & forestry Equipment, Compaction Equipment, Power Generation.

Main Handling Items from Japan in Bangladesh (beside our European and American supplier) for import and indent in Bangladesh as exclusive agent: ================================================================ MAZDA Motor Corporation Ltd. Japan HITACHI Industrial Equipment Systems co., Ltd. Japan KAWASAKI Gas Turbine Co., Ltd. Japan KAWASAKI Helicopter Co., Ltd. Japan HIOKI Instrument Co., Ltd. Japan SUMITOMO Metal co., Ltd. Japan YAMATO Scale Co., Ltd. Japan OBE Machineries Co., Ltd. Japan NIIGATA Gas Engine Co., Ltd. Japan KOMATSU Utility Co., Ltd. Japan KOMATSU Diesel Co., Ltd. Japan KOMATSU Construction Machineries Co., Ltd. Japan YANMAR Co., Ltd. Japan Bankers:

2.3 Mission:

Bank Asia Limited. Mohakhali Branch, Dhaka-1000 National Bank of Pakistan, Motijheel Branch, Dhaka -1000 National Bank Ltd. Mohakhali Branch, Dhaka -1000 Standard Chartered Bank, Dilkusha Branch, Dhaka-1000 HSBC, Dhaka-1000  


Mission of us is to remain in Top of trading Business in comparison to others offering quality products in affordable best price for the Clients. Building our future together that is our motto here at Shell Corporation Bangladesh Ltd. 2.4 Vision: We make progress possible through excellence in technology, integrity & best in class customer services. 2.5 Organogram of Shell Corporation Bangladesh Ltd.:

Fig: Organogram of Shell Corporation Bangladesh Ltd. 03 Training and Development of Shell Corporation Bangladesh Ltd.: About Training and Development TRAINING DEFINED It is a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge, sharpening of skills, concepts, rules, or changing of attitudes and behaviors to enhance the performance of employees. Training is activity leading to skilled behavior. • It’s not what you want in life, but it’s knowing how to reach it • It’s not where you want to go, but it’s knowing how to get there • It’s not how high you want to rise, but it’s knowing how to take off


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It may not be quite the outcome you were aiming for, but it will be an outcome It’s not what you dream of doing, but it’s having the knowledge to do it It's not a set of goals, but it’s more like a vision Training is about knowing where you stand (no matter how good or bad the current situation looks) at present, and where you will be after some point of time. Training is about the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA) through professional development.

3.2 ROLE OF TRAINING 3.2.1 Objective of Training and Development • Prepare training budget for department or organization. • Evaluate instructor performance and the effectiveness of training programs, providing recommendations for improvement. • Analyze training needs to develop new training programs or modify and improve existing programs. • Conduct or arrange for ongoing technical training and personal development classes for staff members. • Plan, develop, and provide training and staff development programs, using knowledge of the effectiveness of methods such as classroom training, demonstrations, on-the-job training, meetings, conferences, and workshops. • Conduct orientation sessions and arrange on-the-job training for new hires. • Confer with management and conduct surveys to identify training needs based on projected production processes, changes, and other factors. • Train instructors and supervisors in techniques and skills for training and dealing with employees. • Develop and organize training manuals, multimedia visual aids, and other educational materials. • Develop testing and evaluation procedures. 3.3 Training and development - processes overview •

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Here's an overview of some simple processes for training and developing management and leadership skills, and any other skills and abilities besides. Use your own tools and processes where they exist and are effective. Various tools are available on the free resources section to help with this process, or from the links below. Refer also to the coaching and development process diagram. Obtain commitment from trainees for development process. Commitment is essential for the development. If possible link this with appraisals and career development systems. Involve trainees in identifying leadership qualities and create 'skill/behaviour-set' that you seek to develop. Training and development workshops are ideal for this activity. Assess, priorities and agree trainee capabilities, gaps, needs against the skill/behaviorset; individually and as a group, so as to be able to plan group training and individual training according to needs and efficiency of provision. Use the skill/behavior-set tool for this activity. Use the training needs analysis tool for assessing training needs priorities for a group or whole organization. Design and/or source and agree with trainees the activities, exercises, learning, and experiences to achieve required training and development in digestible achievable Elements - i.e. break it down. Use the training planner to plan the development and training activities and programmers. Record training objectives and link to appraisals.


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Establish and agree measures, outputs, tasks, standards, milestones, etc. Use the SMART task model and tool. The Figure shows the depicts of input and output of the training and development (T&D) process. Employee training and development is an attempt to improve current or future employee performance by developing their attitudes or enhancing their skills and knowledge. One major purpose of T&D is to remove performance deficiency, both current and anticipated. Conducting training to improve performance is particularly important to organizations with stagnant or declining rates of productivity, and changing mode of operation. Training is also essential to organizations that are incorporating new technologies which may consequently increase the likelihood of employee obsolescence. Another purpose of T&D, especially relevant to organizations that are introducing new technologies, is to make the current work force more flexible and adaptable. An organization that is able to increase its adaptability capacity can enhance its chances of survival and sustainable profitability. T&D can also increase the level of commitment of employees to the organization and will also accentuate the perception that the organization is a good place to work. Obviously, greater commitment can result in a low turnover rate and less absenteeism, thus increasing productivity. T&D is also important because it is generally recognized that society at large will be the indirect beneficiary when individuals become more productive and contributing members of organizations. The correlation between T&D and organizational performance will be proven in the case under study, where the need for better management is most urgent.

3.4 Concept of Training and Development • A vital aspect of any sort of evaluation is its effect on the person being evaluated. • Feedback is essential for people to know how they are progressing, and also, evaluation is crucial to the learner's confidence too. • And since people's commitment to learning relies so heavily on confidence and a belief that the learning is achievable, the way that tests and assessments are designed and managed, and results presented back to the learners, is a very important part of the learning and development process. • People can be switched off the whole idea of learning and development very quickly if they receive only negative critical test results and feedback. Always look for positives in negative results. Encourage and support - don't criticize without adding some positives, and certainly never focus on failure, or that's just what you'll produce. • This is a much overlooked factor in all sorts of evaluation and testing, and since this element is not typically included within evaluation and assessment tools the point is emphasized point loud and clears here. • So always remember - evaluation is not just for the trainer or teacher or organization or policy-makers - evaluation is absolutely vital for the learner too, which is perhaps the most important reason of all for evaluating people properly, fairly, and with as much encouragement as the situation allows. • Conventional 'training' is required to cover essential work-related skills, techniques and knowledge, and much of this section deals with taking a positive progressive approach to this sort of traditional 'training'. • Importantly however, the most effective way to develop people is quite different from conventional skills training, which let's face it many employees regard quite negatively. They'll do it of course, but they won't enjoy it much because it's about


work, not about themselves as people. The most effective way to develop people is instead to enable learning and personal development, with all that this implies. So, as soon as you've covered the basic work-related skills training that is much described in this section - focus on enabling learning and development for people as individuals - which extends the range of development way outside traditional work skills and knowledge, and creates far more exciting, liberating, motivational opportunities - for people and for employers. Rightly organizations are facing great pressure to change these days - to facilitate and encourage whole-person development and fulfillment - beyond traditional training.

3.4.1 Typical Reasons for Employee Training and Development • Training and development can be initiated for a variety of reasons for an employee or group of employees, e.g. • When a performance appraisal indicates performance improvement is needed • To "benchmark" the status of improvement so far in a performance improvement effort • As part of an overall professional development program • As part of succession planning to help an employee be eligible for a planned change in role in the organization • To "pilot", or test, the operation of a new performance management system • To train about a specific topic 3.4.2 Typical Topics of Employee Training 1. Communications: The increasing diversity of today's workforce brings a wide variety of languages and customs. 2. Computer skills: Computer skills are becoming a necessity for conducting administrative and office tasks. 3. Customer service: Increased competition in today's global marketplace makes it critical that employees understand and meet the needs of customers. 4. Diversity: Diversity training usually includes explanation about how people have different perspectives and views, and includes techniques to value diversity 5. Ethics: Today's society has increasing expectations about corporate social responsibility. Also, today's diverse workforce brings a wide variety of values and morals to the workplace. 6. Human relations: The increased stresses of today's workplace can include misunderstandings and conflict. Training can people to get along in the workplace. 7. Quality initiatives: Initiatives such as Total Quality Management, Quality Circles, benchmarking, etc., require basic training about quality concepts, guidelines and standards for quality, etc. 8. Safety: Safety training is critical where working with heavy equipment, hazardous chemicals, repetitive activities, etc., but can also be useful with practical advice for avoiding assaults, etc. 9. Sexual harassment: Sexual harassment training usually includes careful description of the organization's policies about sexual harassment, especially about what are inappropriate behaviors. 3.5 General Benefits from Employee Training and Development There are numerous sources of online information about training and development. Several of these sites (they're listed later on in this library) suggest reasons for supervisors to conduct training among employees. These reasons include:


Increased job satisfaction and morale among employees Increased employee motivation Increased efficiencies in processes, resulting in financial gain Increased capacity to adopt new technologies and methods Increased innovation in strategies and products Reduced employee turnover Enhanced company image, e.g., conducting ethics training (not a good reason for ethics training!) • Risk management, e.g., training about sexual harassment, diversity training 3.6 Basic Terms in Training and Development Information At its most basic form, a piece of information about something is a "unit of awareness" about that thing. (A field of philosophy, epistemology, includes analysis of what is really information and what isn't. This field might visit the question: "If a tree falls in the forest, does it make a sound?") Some people think that this awareness occurs only in the brain and, therefore, usually comes from some form of thought. Other people also accept information as a form of realization from other forms of inquiry, e.g., intuition. • • • • • • •

Knowledge Knowledge is gleaned by organizing information. Typically, information evolves to knowledge by the learner's gaining context, perspective and scope about the information. Skills Skills are applying knowledge in an effective and efficient manner to get something done. One notices skills in an employee by their behaviors. Task A task is a typically defined as a unit of work, that is, a set of activities needed to produce some result, e.g., vacuuming a carpet, writing a memo, sorting the mail, etc. Complex positions in the organization may include a large number of tasks, which are sometimes referred to as functions. Job A job is a collection of tasks and responsibilities that an employee is responsible to conduct. Jobs have titles. Role A role is the set of responsibilities or expected results associated with a job. A job usually includes several roles. Learning Typically, learning is viewed as enhancing one's knowledge, understanding or skills. Some people see learning as enhancement to one's knowledge, awareness and skills. Some professionals view learning as enhancing one's capacity to perform. Some view learning as a way of being that includes strong value on receiving feedback and increasing understanding. It's important to note that learning is more than collecting information -- more than collecting unreferenced books on a shelf. Depending on the needs of the learner, knowledge is converted to skills, that is, the learner knows how to apply the knowledge to get something done. Ideally, the skills are applied to the most appropriate tasks and practices in the organization, thereby producing performance -- results needed by the organization. Continuous Learning Simply put, continuous learning is the ability to learn to learn. Learning need not be a linear event where a learner goes to a formal learning program, gains areas of knowledge and skills about a process, and then the learning ceases. If the learner can view life (including work) as


a "learning program", then the learner can continue to learn from almost everything in life. As a result, the learner continues to expand his or her capacity for living, including working. Training This term is often interpreted as the activity when an expert and learner work together to effectively transfer information from the expert to the learner (to enhance a learner's knowledge, attitudes or skills) so the learner can better perform a current task or job. Education This term seems to be the most general of the key terms in employee training. Some professionals view education as accomplishing a personal context and understanding of the world, so that one's life and work are substantially enhanced, e.g., "Go get an education." Others view the term as the learning required to accomplish a new task or job. Development This term is often viewed as a broad, ongoing multi-faceted set of activities (training activities among them) to bring someone or an organization up to another threshold of performance. This development often includes a wide variety of methods, e.g., orienting about a role, training in a wide variety of areas, ongoing training on the job, coaching, mentoring and forms of self-development. Some view development as a life-long goal and experience. 3.7 Importance of Training and Development: • Optimum Utilization of Human Resources – Training and Development helps in optimizing the utilization of human resource that further helps the employee to achieve the organizational goals as well as their individual goals. • Development of Human Resources – Training and Development helps to provide an opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources’ technical and behavioral skills in an organization. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth. • Development of skills of employees – Training and Development helps in increasing the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level. It helps to expand the horizons of Human intellect and an overall personality of the employees. • Productivity – Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of the employees that helps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal. • Team spirit – Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work, team spirit, and inter-team collaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within the employees. • Organization Culture – Training and Development helps to develop and improve the organizational health culture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learning culture within the organization. • Organization Climate – Training and Development helps building the positive perception and feeling about the organization. The employees get these feelings from leaders, subordinates, and peers. • Quality – Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work and work-life. • Healthy work environment – Training and Development helps in creating the healthy working environment. It helps to build good employee, relationship so that individual goals aligns with organizational goal. • Health and Safety – Training and Development helps in improving the health and safety of the organization thus preventing obsolescence. • Morale – Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force.


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Image – Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image.

3.8 IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS In Organization development, the related field of training and development (T & D) deals with the design and delivery of learning to improve performance within organizations. After hiring the employees by an organization, next step is determining the need of training and development for them. It is obvious that some new employees are not experienced to their work so they need special training to perform effectively and efficiently. Different organizations held different training and development programs according to their available resources and requirements. On the other hand, the important aspect of training and development programs is that it helps to avoid the managerial obsolescence. Organizational problems either major or minor can be solved our by these programs. These programs also play an important role managing the changes in organizational structure caused by mergers, acquisitions, rapid growth, downsizing and outsourcing. Training and development programs are also important to cope up with the changes in technology and with diversity within the organization. Today because of number of changes in technological fields, these programs are increasingly emphasizing on converting the organization to learning organizations and human performance management. 3.9 Models of Training Training is a sub-system of the organization because the departments such as, marketing & sales, HR, production, finance, etc depends on training for its survival. Training is a transforming process that requires some input and in turn it produces output in the form of knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs). 3.9.1 The Training System A System is a combination of things or parts that must work together to perform a particular function. An organization is a system and training is a sub system of the organization. The System Approach views training as a sub system of an organization. System Approach can be used to examine broad issues like objectives, functions, and aim. It establishes a logical relationship between the sequential stages in the process of training need analysis (TNA), formulating, delivering, and evaluating. There are 4 necessary inputs i.e. technology, man, material, time required in every system to produce products or services. And every system must have some output from these inputs in order to survive. The output can be tangible or intangible depending upon the organization’s requirement. A system approach to training is planned creation of training program. This approach uses step-by-step procedures to solve the problems. Under systematic approach, training is undertaken on planned basis. Out of this planned effort, one such basic model of five steps is system model that is explained below. Organization are working in open environment i.e. there are some internal and external forces, that poses threats and opportunities, therefore, trainers need to be aware of these forces which may impact on the content, form, and conduct of the training efforts. The internal forces are the various demands of the organization for a better learning environment; need to be up to date with the latest technologies.


3.10 Systematic Model Training The system model consists of five phases and should be repeated on a regular basis to make further improvements. The training should achieve the purpose of helping employee to perform their work to required standards. The steps involved in System Model of training are as follows: 1. Analyze and identify the training needs i.e. to analyze the department, job, employees requirement, who needs training, what do they need to learn, estimating training cost, etc The next step is to develop a performance measure on the basis of which actual performance would be evaluated. 2. Design and provide training to meet identified needs. This step requires developing objectives of training, identifying the learning steps, sequencing and structuring the contents. 3. Develop- This phase requires listing the activities in the training program that will assist the participants to learn, selecting delivery method, examining the training material, validating information to be imparted to make sure it accomplishes all the goals & objectives. 4. Implementing is the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead to the failure of whole training program. 5. Evaluating each phase so as to make sure it has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. Making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices. 3.11 Transitional Model Transitional model focuses on the organization as a whole. The outer loop describes the vision, mission and values of the organization on the basis of which training model i.e. inner loop is executed. Vision – focuses on the milestones that the organization would like to achieve after the defined point of time. A vision statement tells that where the organization sees itself few years down the line. A vision may include setting a role model, or bringing some internal transformation, or may be promising to meet some other deadlines. Mission – explain the reason of organizational existence. It identifies the position in the community. The reason of developing a mission statement is to motivate, inspire, and inform the employees regarding the organization. The mission statement tells about the identity that how the organization would like to be viewed by the customers, employees, and all other stakeholders. Values – is the translation of vision and mission into communicable ideals. It reflects the deeply held values of the organization and is independent of current industry environment. For example, values may include social responsibility, excellent customer service, etc. The mission, vision, and values precede the objective in the inner loop. This model considers the organization as a whole. The objective is formulated keeping these three things in mind and then the training model is further implemented. 3.12 The Training Program Design


The design of the training program can be undertaken only when a clear training objective has been produced. The training objective clears what goal has to be achieved by the end of training program i.e. what the trainees are expected to be able to do at the end of their training. Training objectives assist trainers to design the training program. The trainer – Before starting a training program, a trainer analyzes his technical, interpersonal, judgmental skills in order to deliver quality content to trainers. The trainees – A good training design requires close scrutiny of the trainees and their profiles. Age, experience, needs and expectations of the trainees are some of the important factors that affect training design. Training climate – A good training climate comprises of ambience, tone, feelings, positive perception for training program, etc. Therefore, when the climate is favorable nothing goes wrong but when the climate is unfavorable, almost everything goes wrong. Trainees’ learning style – the learning style, age, experience, educational background of trainees must be kept in mind in order to get the right pitch to the design of the program. Training strategies – Once the training objective has been identified, the trainer translates it into specific training areas and modules. The trainer prepares the priority list of about what must be included, what could be included. Training topics – After formulating a strategy, trainer decides upon the content to be delivered. Trainers break the content into headings, topics, ad modules. These topics and modules are then classified into information, knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Sequence the contents – Contents are then sequenced in a following manner: • From simple to complex • Topics are arranged in terms of their relative importance • From known to unknown • From specific to general • Dependent relationship Training tactics – Once the objectives and the strategy of the training program becomes clear, trainer comes in the position to select most appropriate tactics or methods or techniques. The method selection depends on the following factors: • Trainees’ background • Time allocated • Style preference of trainer • Level of competence of trainer • Availability of facilities and resources, etc Support facilities – It can be segregated into printed and audio visual. The various requirements in a training program are white boards, flip charts, markers, etc. Constraints – The various constraints that lay in the trainers mind are: · Time · Accommodation, facilities and their availability · Furnishings and equipments · Budget · Design of the training, etc


3.13 Methods of Training and Development It is a subsystem of an organization. It ensures that randomness is reduced and learning or behavioral change takes place in structured format. Two approaches of T & D 1. Traditional approach 2. Modern approach 3.13.1 Traditional Approach – Most of the organizations before never used to believe in training. They were holding the traditional view that managers are born and not made. There were also some views that training is a very costly affair and not worth. Organizations used to believe more in executive pinching. 3.13.2 Modern approachIt is that Indian Organizations have realized the importance of corporate training. Training is now considered as more of retention tool than a cost. The training system in Indian Industry has been changed to create a smarter workforce and yield the best results. There are many different training and development methods. o On-the-job training. o Job Rotation. o Informal training. o Classroom training. o Internal training courses. o External training courses. o On-the-job coaching. o Life-coaching. o Mentoring. o Training assignments and tasks. o Skills training. o Product training. o Technical training. o Behavioral development training. o Role-playing and role-play games and exercises. o Attitudinal training and development. o Accredited training and learning. o Distance learning - all part of the training menu, available to use and apply according to individual training needs and organizational training needs. 3.14 On-the-job training: On the job training (OJT) is job training that occurs in the work place. On-the-job training (OJT) is one of the best training methods because it is planned, organized, and conducted at the employee's worksite. New and old employee’s learns the job while doing the job and while earning his or her pay check. This approach is used to teach employees new procedures, tasks and technology. On the job training is also called hands on training. On the job training is beneficial for both the company and the new employee. On-the-job-training is the most frequently used method in the organizations. On-the-job-training can be costeffective for the business since a separate training program isn't required and the training is part of the actual work shifts. No extra equipment is needed as the new worker learns on the


equipment needed for the job anyway. On the job training often works out really well for the new employee. 3.14.1 Advantages of on the job training The most common methods of on the job training are Demonstration / instruction showing the employees how to do the job. Then there is Coaching, more intensive method of training because it involves a very close relationship between an experienced employee and the trainee. Projects give employees a different project which allows the employees to take part in different activates and give them exposure. Employees may find that they have more confidence if they are supervised and guided as they feel they are doing the job right. Employees may feel more at ease being taught or supervised by people they know rather than complete strangers at an external training course. Managers or supervisors can assess improvement and progress over a period of time and this makes it easier to identify a problem intervene and resolve problems quickly. On the job training is also productive, as the employee is still working as they are learning. As training progresses and the employee begins to feel more confident, this confidence would allow them to work at a higher standard and ultimately be more productive Training "on-the-job" provides an opportunity to get to know staff they might not normally talk to. 3.14.2 Disadvantages of on the job training One major drawback of on the job training can be finding the right time for it. The person responsible for giving and evaluating the training has to be sure that his or her other job responsibilities are being met. It can be difficult to find the right person to conduct it. The person doing the training must have the knowledge and skills with the same equipment that the learner will be working with. The trainers may possess many bad habits and pass these on to the employee being trained If the trainer has been given limited time to train the employee, This would mean that the skill or knowledge has not been fully understood If a trainer has been brought into the company externally they might not be familiar with the equipment fully or layout and this would waste time. 3.15 Job Rotation Job rotation involves the movement of employees through a range of jobs in order to increase interest and motivation. Job rotation can improve “multi-skirling” but also involves the need for greater training. Job Rotation Programs (JRP) can not only reduce turnover but they also increase learning, and provide added bench strength. Rotation programs are more common in the development of top executives but there are also many reasons to use them for technical and new hire positions. A Job rotation is the systematic movement of employees from job to job or project to project within an organization, as a way to achieve many different human resources objectives such as: • simply staffing jobs • an attraction or retention tool • orienting new employees • preventing job boredom or burnout • training employees • involving managers in the training process • rewarding employees • enhancing career development


exposing employees to diverse/ international environments

3.15.1 Why is Job Rotation Important? Job rotation is seen as a possible solution to two significant challenges faced by business: (1) Skills shortages and skills gaps, and (2) Employee motivation. Skills shortages occur when there is a lack of skilled individuals in the workforce. Skills gaps occur when there is a lack of skills in a company’s existing workforce which may still be found in the labor force as a whole. Job rotation is often used by employers who place employees on a certain career path or track, usually for a management position, where they are expected to perform a variety of duties, and have a variety of skills and competencies. Job rotation is often confused with cross training. While both interventions perform essentially the same service of providing employees with a varied set of skills, job rotation goes beyond this. Besides being used as a means of management training, job rotation can also be used as a form of job enrichment, by adding increased responsibilities, increasing challenge, and reducing boredom or burnout. 3.15.2 Benefits of Job Rotation Some of the major benefits of job rotation are: It provides the employees with opportunities to broaden the horizon of knowledge, skills, and abilities by working in different departments, business units, functions, and countries. Identification of Knowledge, skills, and attitudes required. It determines the areas where improvement is required. 3.16 Role Playing: In role playing, trainees assume various roles and play out that role within a group to learn and practice ways of handling different situations. A facilitator creates a scenario that is to be acted out by the participants and guided by the facilitator. While the situation might be contrived, the interpersonal relations are genuine. Furthermore, participants receive immediate feedback from the facilitator and the scenario itself allowing better understanding of their own behavior. 3.16.1 Team Building: Team building is the active creation and maintenance of effective work groups with similar goals and objectives. Not to be confused with the informal, ad-hoc formation and use of teams in the workplace, team building is a formal and methodological process of building work teams with objectives and goals, facilitated by a third-party consultant. Team building is commonly initiated to combat ineffectual group functioning that negatively affects group dynamics, labor-management relations, quality, or productivity. By recognizing the problems and difficulties associated with the creation and development of work teams, team building provides a structured, guided process whose benefits include a greater ability to manage complex projects and processes, flexibility to respond to changing situations, and greater motivation among team members. 3.16.2 Mentoring: Mentoring refers to programs in which companies select mentors—also called advisers, counselors, and role models—for trainees or let trainees choose their own. When trainees have questions or need help, they turn to their mentors, who are experienced workers or managers with strong communication skills. Mentors offer advice not only on how to perform specific tasks, but also on how to succeed in the company, how the company's corporate


culture and politics work, and how to handle to delicate or sensitive situations. Furthermore, mentors provide feedback and suggestions to assist trainees in improving inadequate work. 3.16.3 Technical Training: Technical training seeks to impart technical knowledge and skills using common training methods for instruction of technical concepts, factual information, and procedures, as well as technical processes and principles. Likewise, sales training concentrates on the education and training of individuals to communicate with customers in a persuasive manner and inculcate other skills useful for sales positions. 3.16.4 Distance Learning: Very simply put, distance learning is where the learner is geographically removed, or distanced, from the source of the learning. An example is a correspondence course where a training organization sends training materials via postal mail to the learner who returns completed assignments over postal mail. Another example is "online learning" or "elearning" where a learner uses a variety of computer and networking technologies to access (often remote) training materials, interact with learners, etc. (Note that not all online learning or e-learning is distance learning, for example, a learner might use an interactive CD-ROM on his or her computer.) 3.17 Informal Training and Development: Informal training and development is rather casual and incidental. Typically, there are no specified training goals as such, nor are their ways to evaluate if the training actually accomplished these goals or not. This type of training and development occurs so naturally that many people probably aren't aware that they're in a training experience at all. Probably the most prominent form of informal training is learning from experience on the job. Examples are informal discussions among employees about a certain topic, book discussion groups, and reading newspaper and journal articles about a topic. A more recent approach is sending employees to hear prominent speakers, sometimes affectionately called "the parade of stars". 3.18 Formal Training and Development: Formal training is based on some standard "form". Formal training might include: a) declaring certain learning objectives (or an extent of knowledge, skills or abilities that will be reached by learners at the end of the training), b) using a variety of learning methods to reach the objectives and then b) applying some kind(s) of evaluation activities at the end of the training. The methods and means of evaluation might closely associate with the learning objectives, or might not. For example, courses, seminars and workshops often have a form -- but it's arguable whether or not their training methods and evaluation methods actually assess whether the objectives have been met or not. Training is also available far beyond and outside the classroom. More importantly, training or learning, to look at it from the trainee's view - is anything offering learning and developmental experience. Training and learning development includes aspects such as: ethics and morality; attitude and behavior; leadership and determination, as well as skills and knowledge. Development isn't restricted to training - it's anything that helps a person to grow, in ability, skills, confidence, tolerance, commitment, initiative, inter-personal skills, understanding, self-control, motivation (see the motivation theory section), and more.


If you consider the attributes of really effective people, be they leaders, managers, operators, technicians; any role at all, the important qualities which make good performers special are likely to be attitudinal. Skills and knowledge, and the processes available to people, are no great advantage. What makes people effective and valuable to any organization is their attitude. Attitude includes qualities that require different training and learning methods. Attitude stems from a person's mind-set, belief system, emotional maturity, self-confidence, and experience. These are the greatest training and development challenges faced, and there are better ways of achieving this sort of change and development than putting people in a classroom, or indeed by delivering most sorts of conventional business or skills training, which people see as a chore. This is why training and learning must extend far beyond conventional classroom training courses. Be creative, innovative, and open-minded, and you will discover learning in virtually every new experience, whether for yourself, your team, or your organization. If you want to make a difference, think about what really helps people to change. Many of these methodologies are explained on this website. Explore them and enjoy them, and encourage others to do the same. All supervisors and managers should enable and provide training and development for their people - training develops people, it improves performance, raises morale; training and developing people increases the health and effectiveness of the organization, and the productivity of the business. The leader's ethics and behavior set the standard for their people's, which determines how productively they use their skills and knowledge. Training is nothing without the motivation to apply it effectively. A strong capability to plan and manage skills training, the acquisition of knowledge, and the development of motivation and attitude, largely determines how well people perform in their jobs. Training - and also enabling learning and personal development - is essential for the organization. It helps improve quality, customer satisfaction, productivity, morale, management succession, business development and profitability. As regards conventional work-related training planning, and training itself, these are step-bystep processes - see and download a free training process diagram. More free training tools are available for download at the free training tools and resources page. See for example the training planner and training/lesson plan calculator tool, which are templates for planning and organizing the delivery of job skills training and processes, and transfer of knowledge and policy etc. See also the training induction checklist and planner tool. Use these tools and processes to ensure that essential work-related skills, techniques, and knowledge are trained, but remember after this to concentrate most of your 'training' efforts and resources on enabling and facilitating meaningful learning and personal development for people. There is no reason to stop at work-related training. Go further to help people grow and develop as people.


Having said this, we do need to start with the essentials, for example induction training for new starters. Induction Training is especially important for new starters. Good induction training ensures new starters are retained, and then settled in quickly and happily to a productive role. Induction training is more than skills training. It's about the basics that seasoned employees all take for granted: what the shifts are; where the notice-board is; what the routine is for holidays, sickness; where the canteen is; what the dress code is; where the toilets are. New employees also need to understand the organization’s mission, goals and philosophy; personnel practices, health and safety rules, and of course the job they're required to do, with clear methods, timescales and expectations. Managers must ensure induction training is properly planned - an induction training plan must be issued to each new employee, so they and everyone else involved can see what's happening and that everything is included. You must prepare and provide a suitable induction plan for each new starter. Here's a free induction training checklist. These induction training principles are necessarily focused on the essential skills and knowledge for a new starter to settle in and to begin to do their job. However there is great advantage in beginning to address personal development needs, wishes, opportunities, particular strengths, abilities, talent, etc., during or very soon after the induction process. An organization needs to assess its people's skills training needs - by a variety of methods - and then structure the way that the training and development is to be delivered, and managers and supervisors play a key role in helping this process. People's personal strengths and capabilities - and aims and desires and special talents (current and dormant) - also need to be assessed, so as to understand, and help the person understand, that the opportunities for their development and achievement in the organization are not limited by the job role, or the skillset that the organization inevitably defines for the person. As early as possible, let people know that their job role does not define their potential as a person within or outside the organization, and, subject to organizational policy, look to develop each person in a meaningful relevant way that they will enjoy and seek, as an individual, beyond the job role, and beyond work requirements. If possible 'top-up' this sort of development through the provision of mentoring and facilitative coaching (drawing out - not putting in), which is very effective in producing excellent people. Mentoring and proper coaching should be used alongside formal structured training anyway, but this type of support can also greatly assist 'whole-person development', especially where the mentor or coach is seen as a role-model for the person's own particular aspirations. It's important that as a manager you understand yourself well before you coach, or train or mentor others: Are your own your own skills adequate? Do you need help or training in any important areas necessary to train, coach, mentor others? What is your own style? How do you communicate? How do you approach tasks? What are your motives? These all affect the way you see and perform see the training, coaching or mentoring role, and the way that you see and relate to the person that you’re are coaching, or training, or mentoring. Your aim is to help the other person learn and develop - not to create another version of yourself. When you understand yourself, you understand how you will be perceived, how best to communicate, and how best to help others grow and learn and develop.


And it's vital you understand the other person's style and personality too - how they prefer to learn - do they like to read and absorb a lot of detail, do they prefer to be shown, to experience themselves by trial and error? Knowing the other person's preferred learning style helps you deliver the training in the most relevant and helpful way. It helps you design activities and tasks that the other person will be more be more comfortable doing, which ensures a better result, quicker. 3.19 Methods of Training Used: 3.18.1 Purpose of Training and Development When the respondents were asked to indicate the reasons for conducting training and development, the most important reason cited was to improve employee performance, which will therefore improve the performance of the enterprise (96%). Through training, employees will get a chance to upgrade their technical skills and to eventually apply the newly acquired skills for the benefit of the enterprise. In addition, training and development were perceived by the respondents as an opportunity to achieve promotion and follow a chosen career path, thus leading to job satisfaction (55%), and to allow employees to acquire professional and further education qualifications through longterm training (49%). Some enterprises also undertook training to provide skilled labors for Sues in the same field of activity, or retrain their workforce so that they will be redeployed to other functions or can find employment elsewhere. Reasons for emphasizing the growth and development of personnel include • Creating a pool of readily available and adequate replacements for personnel who may leave or move up in the organization. • Enhancing the company's ability to adopt and use advances in technology because of a sufficiently knowledgeable staff. • Building a more efficient, effective and highly motivated team, which enhances the company's competitive position and improves employee morale. • Ensuring adequate human resources for expansion into new programs. Research has shown specific benefits that a small business receives from training and developing its workers, including: • Increased productivity. • Reduced employee turnover. • Increased efficiency resulting in financial gains. • Decreased need for supervision. Employees frequently develop a greater sense of self-worth, dignity and well-being as they become more valuable to the firm and to society. Generally they will receive a greater share of the material gains that result from their increased productivity. These factors give them a sense of satisfaction through the achievement of personal and company goals. 3.20 Resources Used in Training Although every human resource department may coordinate training activities, actual training is usually conducted by the respective line managers, especially for on-the-job training. One respondent even has its own training school. In most occasions, training is often done by other organizations, universities or external consultants, because such expertise may not be available within the enterprise (Figure 4). Many SOEs encourage their employees to follow short courses relevant to their personal ambition as well as the enterprise’s needs. Those


courses are usually organized by the universities or vocational institutions during evenings. Upon the completion of the course, the employees will have to present the course certificate with satisfactory results so that they can be refunded by the enterprise. As a solution, the respondents proposed that enterprise refunds should only cover up to a half or one-third of the tuition fees, in order to get more involvement from the employees in the study. 3.20.1 Resources Used in Training INCLUDEPICTURE "https://mail.google.com/mail/h/on7mhe6av3t2/? name=d33be9805ff33117.jpg&attid=0.1&disp=vahi&view=att&th=12a0f9a068e86f19" \* MERGEFORMATINET Some Sues even allows employees to pursue full time or long-term tray. 3.21 Problems of Training and Development There are several problems occurred during training and development period: It’s not all time possible to ensure of acquiring all necessary technical supports, materials sufficiently. Prepare training budget for department or organization is sometimes another hassles for trainer according to training needs. It is also a tough task to motivate all the employees in the same time period of training. How much does this job require the worker to be in contact with others (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) in order to perform it? This is another crucial factor to measure for a trainer. 3.22 Training Need Analysis Training needs can be assessed by analyzing three major human resource areas: the organization as a whole, the job characteristics and the needs of the individuals. This analysis will provide answers to the following questions: • Where is training needed? • What specifically must an employee learn in order to be more productive? • Who needs to be trained? Begin by assessing the current status of the company how it does what it does best and the abilities of your employees to do these tasks. This analysis will provide some benchmarks against which the effectiveness of a training program can be evaluated. Your firm should know where it wants to be in five years from its long-range strategic plan. What you need is a training program to take your firm from here to there. Second, consider whether the organization is financially committed to supporting the training efforts. If not, any attempt to develop a solid training program will fail. Next determine exactly where training is needed. It is foolish to implement a companywide training effort without concentrating resources where they are needed most. An internal audit will help point out areas that may benefit from training. Also, a skills inventory can help determine the skills possessed by the employees in general. This inventory will help the organization determine what skills are available now and what skills are needed for future development.


Also, in today's market-driven economy, you would be remiss not to ask your customers what they like about your business and what areas they think should be improved. In summary, the analysis should focus on the total organization and should tell you (1) where training is needed and (2) where it will work within the organization. Once you have determined where training is needed, concentrate on the content of the program. Analyze the characteristics of the job based on its description, the written narrative of what the employee actually does. Training based on job descriptions should go into detail about how the job is performed on a task-by-task basis. Actually doing the job will enable you to get a better feel for what is done. Individual employees can be evaluated by comparing their current skill levels or performance to the organization's performance standards or anticipated needs. Any discrepancies between actual and anticipated skill levels identify a training need. 3.23 Selection of Trainees Once you have decided what training is necessary and where it is needed, the next decision is who should be trained? For a small business, this question is crucial. Training an employee is expensive, especially when he or she leaves your firm for a better job. Therefore, it is important to carefully select who will be trained. Training programs should be designed to consider the ability of the employee to learn the material and to use it effectively, and to make the most efficient use of resources possible. It is also important that employees be motivated by the training experience. Employee failure in the program is not only damaging to the employee but a waste of money as well. Selecting the right trainees is important to the success of the program. 3.24 Training Goals The goals of the training program should relate directly to the needs determined by the assessment process outlined above. Course objectives should clearly state what behavior or skill will be changed as a result of the training and should relate to the mission and strategic plan of the company. Goals should include milestones to help take the employee from where he or she is today to where the firm wants him or her in the future. Setting goals helps to evaluate the training program and also to motivate employees. Allowing employees to participate in setting goals increases the probability of success. 3.25 Training Methods There are two broad types of training available to small businesses: on-the-job and off-thejob techniques. Individual circumstances and the "who," "what" and "why" of your training program determine which method to use. On-the-job training is delivered to employees while they perform their regular jobs. In this way, they do not lose time while they are learning. After a plan is developed for what should be taught, employees should be informed of the details. A timetable should be established with periodic evaluations to inform employees about their progress. On-the-job techniques include orientations, job instruction training, apprenticeships, internships and assistantships, job rotation and coaching. Off-the-job techniques include lectures, special study, films, television conferences or discussions, case studies, role playing, simulation, programmed instruction and laboratory


training. Most of these techniques can be used by small businesses although, some may be too costly. Orientations are for new employees. The first several days on the job are crucial in the success of new employees. This point is illustrated by the fact that 60 percent of all employees who quit do so in the first ten days. Orientation training should emphasize the following topics: The company's history and mission. The key members in the organization. The key members in the department, and how the department helps fulfill the mission of the company. Personnel rules and regulations. Some companies use verbal presentations while others have written presentations. Many small businesses convey these topics in one-on-one orientations. No matter what method is used, it is important that the newcomer understand his or her new place of employment. Lectures present training material verbally and are used when the goal is to present a great deal of material to many people. It is more cost effective to lecture to a group than to train people individually. Lecturing is one-way communication and as such may not be the most effective way to train. Also, it is hard to ensure that the entire audience understands a topic on the same level; by targeting the average attendee you may under train some and lose others. Despite these drawbacks, lecturing is the most cost-effective way of reaching large audiences. Role playing and simulation are training techniques that attempt to bring realistic decision making situations to the trainee. Likely problems and alternative solutions are presented for discussion. The adage there is no better trainer than experience is exemplified with this type of training. Experienced employees can describe real world experiences, and can help in and learn from developing the solutions to these simulations. This method is cost effective and is used in marketing and management training. Audiovisual methods such as television, videotapes and films are the most effective means of providing real world conditions and situations in a short time. One advantage is that the presentation is the same no matter how many times it's played. This is not true with lectures, which can change as the speaker is changed or can be influenced by outside constraints. The major flaw with the audiovisual method is that it does not allow for questions and interactions with the speaker, nor does it allow for changes in the presentation for different audiences. Job rotation involves moving an employee through a series of jobs so he or she can get a good feel for the tasks that are associated with different jobs. It is usually used in training for supervisory positions. The employee learns a little about everything. This is a good strategy for small businesses because of the many jobs an employee may be asked to do. Apprenticeships develop employees who can do many different tasks. They usually involve several related groups of skills that allow the apprentice to practice a particular trade, and they take place over a long period of time in which the apprentice works for, and with, the senior skilled worker. Apprenticeships are especially appropriate for jobs requiring production skills. Internships and assistantships are usually a combination of classroom and on-the-job training. They are often used to train prospective managers or marketing personnel. Programmed learning, computer-aided instruction and interactive video all have one thing in common: they allow the trainee to learn at his or her own pace. Also, they allow material already learned to be bypassed in favor of material with which a trainee is having difficulty. After the introductory period, the instructor need not be present, and the trainee can learn as


his or her time allows. These methods sound good, but may be beyond the resources of some small businesses. Laboratory training is conducted for groups by skilled trainers. It usually is conducted at a neutral site and is used by upper- and middle management trainees to develop a spirit of teamwork and an increased ability to deal with management and peers. It can be costly and usually is offered by larger small businesses. 3.25.1 A Trainer A trainer is a person who actually conducts the training depends on the type of training needed and who will be receiving it. On-the-job training is conducted mostly by supervisors; off-the-job training, by either in-house personnel or outside instructors. In-house training is the daily responsibility of supervisors and employees. Supervisors are ultimately responsible for the productivity and, therefore, the training of their subordinates. These supervisors should be taught the techniques of good training. They must be aware of the knowledge and skills necessary to make a productive employee. Trainers should be taught to establish goals and objectives for their training and to determine how these objectives can be used to influence the productivity of their departments. They also must be aware of how adults learn and how best to communicate with adults. Small businesses need to develop their supervisors' training capabilities by sending them to courses on training methods. The investment will pay off in increased productivity. There are several ways to select training personnel for off-the-job training programs. Many small businesses use in-house personnel to develop formal training programs to be delivered to employees off line from their normal work activities, during company meetings or individually at prearranged training sessions. There are many outside training sources, including consultants, technical and vocational schools, continuing education programs, chambers of commerce and economic development groups. Selecting an outside source for training has advantages and disadvantages. The biggest advantage is that these organizations are well versed in training techniques, which is often not the case with in-house personnel. The disadvantage of using outside training specialists is their limited knowledge of the company's product or service and customer needs. These trainers have a more general knowledge of customer satisfaction and needs. In many cases, the outside trainer can develop this knowledge quickly by immersing himself or herself in the company prior to training the employees. Another disadvantage of using outside trainers is the relatively high cost compared to in-house training, although the higher cost may be offset by the increased effectiveness of the training. Whoever is selected to conduct the training, either outside or in-house trainers, it is important that the company's goals and values be carefully explained. Training Administration Having planned the training program properly, you must now administer the training to the selected employees. It is important to follow through to make sure the goals are being met. Questions to consider before training begins include: • Location. • Facilities. • Accessibility. • Comfort. • Equipment. • Timing.


Careful attention to these operational details will contribute to the success of the training program. An effective training program administrator should follow these steps: • Define the organizational objectives. • Determine the needs of the training program. • Define training goals. • Develop training methods. • Decide whom to train. • Decide who should do the training. • Administer the training. • Evaluate the training program. Following these steps will help an administrator develop an effective training program to ensure that the firm keeps qualified employees who are productive, happy workers. This will contribute positively to the bottom line. Evaluation of Training Training should be evaluated several times during the process. Determine these milestones when you develop the training. Employees should be evaluated by comparing their newly acquired skills with the skills defined by the goals of the training program. Any discrepancies should be noted and adjustments made to the training program to enable it to meet specified goals. Many training programs fall short of their expectations simply because the administrator failed to evaluate its progress until it was too late. Timely evaluation will prevent the training from straying from its goals. 3.26 Organizational Development Training Techniques The field of Organization Development uses a variety of processes, approaches, methods, techniques, applications, etc., (these are often termed "interventions") to address organizational issues and goals in order to increase performance. The following partial list of interventions is organized generally in the order presented by Cummings and Worley in their "Organization Development and Change" (West Publishing, 1993). The following types of interventions are often highly integrated with each other during a project for change. However, there are some basic considerations that most people make when selecting from among the many choices for organizational development, or capacity building, activities. Considerations include: 1. First, does the change-management method (if one was used) suggest what organizational development activities to use now, for example, the method of strategic management might suggest that a SWOT analysis be done, strategic goals be established along with action plans for each goal, and then implementation of the action plans be closely monitored. 2. Is the activity most likely to address the findings from the discovery, that is, to solve the problems or achieve the goals? To find out, review any research about use of the activity, discuss the potential outcomes with experts and also with members of the organization. Consider posing your questions in online groups of experts about change. 3. Does the nature of the activity match the culture of the organization? The best way to find out is to discuss the activity with members of the organization.


4. Does the change agent and key members of the organization have the ability to conduct the activity? For example, techno structural and strategic interventions sometimes require technical skills that are not common to many people. 5. Does the activity require more time to conduct than the time available in which to address the problem or goal? For example, a cash crisis requires immediate attention, so while a comprehensive strategic planning process might ultimately be useful, the four to five months to do that planning is impractical. 6. Does the client's organization have the resources that are necessary to conduct the activity, considering resources such as funding, attention and time from people and facilities? 3.27 Human Process Interventions (Group and Individual Human Relations) With today's strong emphasis on humanistic values, the following interventions are getting a great deal of attention and emphasis during efforts for change. They focus on helping members of the organization to enhance themselves, each other and the ways in which they work together in order to enhance their overall organization. Although the types of interventions selected for a project depend on a variety of considerations and the interventions in a project often are highly integrated with each other, the following human process interventions might be particularly helpful during change projects in organizations where there is some combination of the following: many new employees, different cultures working together, many complaints among organizational members, many conflicts, low morale, high turnover, ineffective teams, etc. 3.27.1 Techno structural Interventions (Structures, Technologies, Positions, etc.) The following are examples of activities that focus on improving the performance of organizations primarily by modifying structures, technologies, operations, procedures and roles/positions in the organization. Although the types of interventions selected for a project depend on a variety of considerations and the interventions in a project often are highly integrated with each other, the following techno structural interventions might be particularly helpful in the following kinds of situations: rapid growth but few internal systems to sustain that growth, much confusion about roles, a new major technology or process has been introduced, many complaints from customers, etc. These interventions might also be useful in new organizations where internal operational systems must be developed and implemented. 3.27.2

Human Resource Management Interventions (Individual and Group Performance Management) The following activities aim to enhance overall organizational performance by improving the performance of individuals and groups within the organization. Performance is in regard to setting goals, monitoring progress to the goals, sharing feedback, reinforcing activities to achieve goals and dissuading those that don't. Performance also is in regard to developing employees, including by enhancing their overall sense of well-being. Although the types of interventions selected for a project depend on a variety of considerations and the interventions in a project often are highly integrated, the following human resource interventions might be particularly helpful in the following kinds of situations: new organizational goals have been established, a major new system or technology must be implemented in a timely fashion, many new employees, plans don't seem to get implemented, productivity is low, ineffective teams, etc.


3.27.3 Strategic Interventions (Organization and Its External Environment) The following activities focus especially on the organization and its interactions with its external environment, and often involve changes to many aspects of the organization, including employees, groups, technologies, products and services, etc. Although the types of interventions selected for a project depend on a variety of considerations and the interventions in a project often are highly integrated, the following strategic interventions might be particularly helpful in the following kinds of situations: rapid changes in the external environment, rapid or stagnant sales, significantly increased competition, rapid expansion of markets, mergers and acquisitions, the need for quick and comprehensive change throughout the organization, etc. 3.28 Some Others Training Techniques General training Techniques These tips apply essentially to traditional work-related training - for the transfer of necessary job- or work-related skills or knowledge. These tips do not apply automatically to other forms of enabling personal development and facilitating learning, which by their nature involve much wider and various development methods and experiences. When planning training think about: • your objectives - keep them in mind all the time • how many people you are training • the methods and format you will use • when and how long the training lasts • where it happens • how you will measure its effectiveness • how you will measure the trainees' reaction to it When you give skills training to someone use this simple five-step approach: 1. prepare the trainee - take care to relax them as lots of people find learning new things stressful 2. explain the job/task, skill, project, etc - discuss the method and why; explain standards and why; explain necessary tools, equipment or systems 3. provide a demonstration - step-by-step - the more complex, the more steps - people cannot absorb a whole complicated task all in one go - break it down - always show the correct way - accentuate the positive - seek feedback and check understanding 4. have the trainee practice the job - we all learn best by actually doing it - ('I hear and I forget, I see and I remember, I do and I understand' - Confucius) 5. monitor progress - give positive feedback - encourage, coach and adapt according to the pace of development Creating and using progress charts are helpful, and are essential for anything complex - if you can't measure it you can't manage it. It's essential to use other training tools too for planning, measuring, assessing, recording and following up on the person's training. Breaking skills down into easily digestible elements enables you to plan and manage the training activities much more effectively. Training people in stages, when you can build up each skill, and then an entire role, from a series of elements, keeps things controlled, relaxed and always achievable in the mind of the trainee.


Establishing a relevant 'skill set' is essential for assessing and prioritizing training for any role. It is not sufficient simply to assess against a job description, as this does not reflect skills, only responsibilities, which are different. Establishing a 'behavior set' is also very useful, but is a more difficult area to assess and develop. More information and guidance about working with 'Skill-Sets' and 'Behavior Sets', and assessment and training planning see training evaluation, and performance appraisals, and other related linked articles on this site. Using Skill-Sets to measure individual's skills and competencies is the first stage in producing a training needs analysis for individuals, a group, and a whole organization. You can see and download a free Skill-Set tool and Training Needs Analysis tool the free resources page. This will not however go beyond the basic work-related job skills and attributes development areas. These tools deal merely with basic work training, and not with more important whole person development, for which more sophisticated questioning, mentoring and learning facilitation methods need to be used. Psychometric tests (and even graphology - handwriting analysis) are also extremely useful for training and developing people, as well as recruitment, which is the more common use. Psychometric testing produces reliable assessments which are by their nature objective, rather than subjective, as tends to be with your own personal judgment. Your organization may already use systems of one sort or another, so seek advice. See the section on psychometrics. Some of these systems and tools are extremely useful in facilitating whole-person learning and development. Some tips to make training (and learning, coaching, mentoring) more enjoyable and effective: • keep instructions positive ('do this' rather than 'don't do this') • avoid jargon - or if you can't then explain them and better still provide a written glossary • you must tailor training to the individual, so you need to be prepared to adapt the pace according to the performance once training has begun • encourage, and be kind and thoughtful - be accepting of mistakes, and treat them as an opportunity for you both to learn from them • focus on accomplishment and progress - recognition is the fuel of development • offer praise generously • be enthusiastic - if you show you care you can expect your trainee to care too • check progress regularly and give feedback • invite questions and discussion • be patient and keep a sense of humor Induction training techniques: • assess skill and knowledge level before you start • teach the really easy stuff first • break it down into small steps and pieces of information • encourage pride • cover health and safety issues fully and carefully • try to identify a mentor or helper for the trainee As a manager, supervisor, or an organization, helping your people to develop is the greatest contribution you can make to their well-being. Do it to your utmost and you will be rewarded


many times over through greater productivity, efficiency, environment and all-round jobsatisfaction? Remember also to strive for your own personal self-development at all times - these days we have more opportunity and resource available than ever to increase our skills, knowledge and self-awareness. Make use of it all. 3.29 Recognize and acknowledge training and development achievements - letter examples As an employer or manager, take the time to recognize and thank employees for successfully (or unsuccessfully) completing training and development courses, projects or challenges. Receiving recognition is a powerful motivator and stimulant towards further training and personal development. And yet the opportunity to acknowledge people's achievements is often overlooked. A simple letter of congratulations - especially in this age of disposable emails, or a mention in a company magazine or newsletter is often all that it takes to give people a huge boost. An email, or even a verbal 'well done' or pat on the back is better than nothing at all, but a letter is a very powerful indeed. Think about it: A letter, sent to the home address, is special. It's on official letter headed paper. It's personally signed. It took time and care to write, sign and send. It's something people tend to keep. It is likely to be opened so that the partner or family sees it too, which dramatically adds to the power of the recognition. So, an email is good, but not nearly so impact as a letter. Here's are some short examples of simple sample letters of congratulations or encouragement for completing training and development aims, successfully, and also encouragement for unsuccessful effort, when some people need a boost more than ever. Letters of recognition and congratulations are appropriate from line managers and higher up the organization especially. An individual signed letter of congratulations from the MD or CEO is a hugely motivational event in most employees’ lives. People's valiant failures deserve recognition too, and often help the person to keep positive, and keep striving to succeed in the future. Remember that training and development is not restricted to training courses. Projects, delegated tasks, job-swaps, temporary postings and other responsibilities can all be forms of learning and development and are worthy of recognition when carried out well, or encouragement when a brave effort fall short. Adapt these examples to give encouragement to people when they are striving to improve and achieve. It can make the difference between them wanting to try again or not. 3.30 Summary of Above Suggestions to Enrich Training and Development Some Basic Requirements of Learners • Learners Must Be Willing to Grow, to Experience • Growth Involves the Entire Learner • Growth Requires Seeking Ongoing Feedback Some Basic Requirements of Supervisors • Include Learners in Development of Training and Development Plan • If Available, Have Human Resources Representative Play Major Role • Provide Ongoing Feedback and Support • When Assessing Results of Learning, Maximize Feedback About Performance • Budget Necessary Funds for Resources Learner Will Need • Set Aside Regular Times for Supervisor and Learner to Meeting Developing the Training and Development Plan • Document a Training and Development Plan (Goals, Methods and Evaluation)


Don't Worry About Whether Your Plan is Perfect or Not -- The Plan is Guide, Not Law • Remember that Development is a Process Selecting Training and Development Goals • Select 2-4 Goals to Get Started • Determine the Goals Yourself -- Don't Adopt Them from Another Program • Set Realistic Expectations • Don't Forget the Most Important Sources of Suggestions: Supervisors and Subordinates • Integrate Results Expected from the Learner with Goals in the Performance Plan Basic Principles about Adult Learning When Selecting Methods • Adults Learn Best by Applying Information to Current, Real-World Needs • Adults Learn Best by Exchanging Feedback About Experiences. •

3.30.1 Purpose of Training and Development Reasons for emphasizing the growth and development of personnel include • Creating a pool of readily available and adequate replacements for personnel who may leave or move up in the organization. • Enhancing the company's ability to adopt and use advances in technology because of a sufficiently knowledgeable staff. • Building a more efficient, effective and highly motivated team, which enhances the company's competitive position and improves employee morale. • Ensuring adequate human resources for expansion into new programs. Research has shown specific benefits that a small business receives from training and developing its workers, including: • Increased productivity. • Reduced employee turnover. • Increased efficiency resulting in financial gains. • Decreased need for supervision. Employees frequently develop a greater sense of self-worth, dignity and well-being as they become more valuable to the firm and to society. Generally they will receive a greater share of the material gains that result from their increased productivity. These factors give them a sense of satisfaction through the achievement of personal and company goals. 3.30.2 The Training Process The model below traces the steps necessary in the training process: • Organizational Objectives • Needs Assessment • Is There a Gap? • Training Objectives • Select the Trainees • Select the Training Methods and Mode • Choose a Means of Evaluating • Administer Training • Evaluate the Training 3.30.3 Selection of Trainees


Once you have decided what training is necessary and where it is needed, the next decision is who should be trained? For a small business, this question is crucial. Training an employee is expensive, especially when he or she leaves your firm for a better job. Therefore, it is important to carefully select who will be trained. Training programs should be designed to consider the ability of the employee to learn the material and to use it effectively, and to make the most efficient use of resources possible. It is also important that employees be motivated by the training experience. Employee failure in the program is not only damaging to the employee but a waste of money as well. Selecting the right trainees is important to the success of the program. 3.30.4 Training Goals The goals of the training program should relate directly to the needs determined by the assessment process outlined above. Course objectives should clearly state what behavior or skill will be changed as a result of the training and should relate to the mission and strategic plan of the company. Goals should include milestones to help take the employee from where he or she is today to where the firm wants him or her in the future. Setting goals helps to evaluate the training program and also to motivate employees. Allowing employees to participate in setting goals increases the probability of success. 3.30.5 Training Methods There are two broad types of training available to small businesses: on-the-job and off-thejob techniques. Individual circumstances and the "who," "what" and "why" of your training program determine which method to use. On-the-job training is delivered to employees while they perform their regular jobs. In this way, they do not lose time while they are learning. After a plan is developed for what should be taught, employees should be informed of the details. A timetable should be established with periodic evaluations to inform employees about their progress. On-the-job techniques include orientations, job instruction training, apprenticeships, internships and assistantships, job rotation and coaching. Off-the-job techniques include lectures, special study, films, television conferences or discussions, case studies, role playing, simulation, programmed instruction and laboratory training. Most of these techniques can be used by small businesses although, some may be too costly. Orientations are for new employees. The first several days on the job are crucial in the success of new employees. This point is illustrated by the fact that 60 percent of all employees who quit do so in the first ten days. Orientation training should emphasize the following topics: • The company's history and mission. • The key members in the organization. • The key members in the department, and how the department helps fulfill the mission of the company. • Personnel rules and regulations.


Some companies use verbal presentations while others have written presentations. Many small businesses convey these topics in one-on-one orientations. No matter what method is used, it is important that the newcomer understand his or her new place of employment. Lectures present training material verbally and are used when the goal is to present a great deal of material to many people. It is more cost effective to lecture to a group than to train people individually. Lecturing is one-way communication and as such may not be the most effective way to train. Also, it is hard to ensure that the entire audience understands a topic on the same level; by targeting the average attendee you may undertrain some and lose others. Despite these drawbacks, lecturing is the most cost-effective way of reaching large audiences. Role playing and simulation are training techniques that attempt to bring realistic decision making situations to the trainee. Likely problems and alternative solutions are presented for discussion. The adage there is no better trainer than experience is exemplified with this type of training. Experienced employees can describe real world experiences, and can help in and learn from developing the solutions to these simulations. This method is cost effective and is used in marketing and management training. Audiovisual methods such as television, videotapes and films are the most effective means of providing real world conditions and situations in a short time. One advantage is that the presentation is the same no matter how many times it's played. This is not true with lectures, which can change as the speaker is changed or can be influenced by outside constraints. The major flaw with the audiovisual method is that it does not allow for questions and interactions with the speaker, nor does it allow for changes in the presentation for different audiences. Job rotation involves moving an employee through a series of jobs so he or she can get a good feel for the tasks that are associated with different jobs. It is usually used in training for supervisory positions. The employee learns a little about everything. This is a good strategy for small businesses because of the many jobs an employee may be asked to do. Apprenticeships develop employees who can do many different tasks. They usually involve several related groups of skills that allow the apprentice to practice a particular trade, and they take place over a long period of time in which the apprentice works for, and with, the senior skilled worker. Apprenticeships are especially appropriate for jobs requiring production skills. Internships and assistantships are usually a combination of classroom and on-the-job training. They are often used to train prospective managers or marketing personnel. Programmed learning, computer-aided instruction and interactive video all have one thing in common: they allow the trainee to learn at his or her own pace. Also, they allow material already learned to be bypassed in favor of material with which a trainee is having difficulty. After the introductory period, the instructor need not be present, and the trainee can learn as his or her time allows. These methods sound good, but may be beyond the resources of some small businesses. Laboratory training is conducted for groups by skilled trainers. It usually is conducted at a neutral site and is used by upper- and middle management trainees to develop a spirit of teamwork and an increased ability to deal with management and peers. It can be costly and usually is offered by larger small businesses. 3.30.6 Trainers Who actually conducts the training depends on the type of training needed and who will be receiving it. On-the-job training is conducted mostly by supervisors; off-the-job training, by either in-house personnel or outside instructors.


In-house training is the daily responsibility of supervisors and employees. Supervisors are ultimately responsible for the productivity and, therefore, the training of their subordinates. These supervisors should be taught the techniques of good training. They must be aware of the knowledge and skills necessary to make a productive employee. Trainers should be taught to establish goals and objectives for their training and to determine how these objectives can be used to influence the productivity of their departments. They also must be aware of how adults learn and how best to communicate with adults. Small businesses need to develop their supervisors' training capabilities by sending them to courses on training methods. The investment will pay off in increased productivity. There are several ways to select training personnel for off-the-job training programs. Many small businesses use in-house personnel to develop formal training programs to be delivered to employees off line from their normal work activities, during company meetings or individually at prearranged training sessions. There are many outside training sources, including consultants, technical and vocational schools, continuing education programs, chambers of commerce and economic development groups. Selecting an outside source for training has advantages and disadvantages. The biggest advantage is that these organizations are well versed in training techniques, which is often not the case with in-house personnel. The disadvantage of using outside training specialists is their limited knowledge of the company's product or service and customer needs. These trainers have a more general knowledge of customer satisfaction and needs. In many cases, the outside trainer can develop this knowledge quickly by immersing himself or herself in the company prior to training the employees. Another disadvantage of using outside trainers is the relatively high cost compared to in-house training, although the higher cost may be offset by the increased effectiveness of the training. Whoever is selected to conduct the training, either outside or in-house trainers, it is important that the company's goals and values be carefully explained. Training Administration Having planned the training program properly; you must now administer the training to the selected employees. It is important to follow through to make sure the goals are being met. Questions to consider before training begins include: • Location. • Facilities. • Accessibility. • Comfort. • Equipment. • Timing. Careful attention to these operational details will contribute to the success of the training program. An effective training program administrator should follow these steps: • Define the organizational objectives. • Determine the needs of the training program. • Define training goals. • Develop training methods. • Decide whom to train.


Decide who should do the training. Administer the training. Evaluate the training program. Following these steps will help an administrator develop an effective training program to ensure that the firm keeps qualified employees who are productive, happy workers. This will contribute positively to the bottom line. • • •

3.30.7 Evaluation of Training Training should be evaluated several times during the process. Determine these milestones when you develop the training. Employees should be evaluated by comparing their newly acquired skills with the skills defined by the goals of the training program. Any discrepancies should be noted and adjustments made to the training program to enable it to meet specified goals. Many training programs fall short of their expectations simply because the administrator failed to evaluate its progress until it was too late. Timely evaluation will prevent the training from straying from its goals. 3.31 Findings of the Study The data from this study contributed measures of academic self-concept, self-esteem, and personal growth initiative and some basic understanding of how organizational culture and other workplace issues influenced participation. The study identified perceptions of participation issues from an interdisciplinary perspective, and drew attention to the complexity, the multidimensional nature, and interrelationship of the reasons for nonparticipation in learning activities. Through internship period, some advantages and disadvantages are found. These are Advantages • Instruction showing the employees how to do the job. • Makes close relationship between an experienced employee and the trainee. • Employees find that they have more confidence if they are supervised and guided as they feel they are doing the job right. • Employees feel more at ease being taught or supervised by people they know rather than complete strangers at an external training course. • Managers or supervisors assess improvement and progress over a period of time and this makes it easier to identify a problem intervene and resolve problems quickly. • As training progresses and the employee begins to feel more confident. • This confidence would allow them to work at a higher standard and ultimately be more productive. Disadvantages • Generally, Shell Corporation Bangladesh Ltd. is a sales oriented intending company, and they have no separate HRD. The administration department maintains HRD. • The person responsible for giving and evaluating the training has to be sure that his or her other job responsibilities are being met. It’s difficult to find the right person to conduct it. • The person doing the training must have the knowledge and skills with the same equipment that the learner will be working with, but in Shell Corporation Bangladesh Ltd. deals with the equipments those are really unknown.


It’s a long time process to know about the equipments, which are Shell Corporation Bangladesh Ltd. deals with

3.32 Recommendation • Develop a process for recruiting and assigning team members. • Develop a process for team evaluation. • Develop a process for team development. • Review and adapt current human resource policies, procedures and practices to be sure all sections apply to teams/and or team members. • Develop future policies, procedures and practices to apply to teams and/or team members. 4. 1 Conclusion The Commission had made significant progress in its effort to reduce deterrents to training and development. Financial resources were available to provide reimbursement for course tuition and books, although policy for administration of the training and development fund has yet to be written. Some employees worked unregulated hours and thus had flexibility to access training opportunities at unconventional times. Training and development opportunities had been offered at regularly scheduled staff meetings. However, it is important that training is relevant to the needs of the participants. Needs of individual workers appeared so diverse that delivering a training session relevant for all staff may be extremely difficult. A collective commitment by leaders and managers at all levels may be necessary to move the Commission towards becoming a model learning organization. Investing in people, 97 in lifelong learning and in career development could play a key role in assisting the Commission to fulfill its mandate. At the very least, as a result of this study, Commission employees now know they have access to a training and development fund should they choose to participate in personal and professional growth opportunities. 4.2 Bibliography References Ajzen, I., & Driver, B.L. (1992). Application of the theory of planned behavior to leisure choice. Journal of Leisure Research, 24, no. 3, 207-224. Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Alexandris, K., & Carroll, B. (1997). An analysis of leisure constraints based on different recreational sport participation levels: Results from a study in Greece. Leisure Sciences, 19, no. 1, 1-15. Amundson, N.E. (2003). Career dimensions: Employability dimensions. Food for thought. no. 1, Ottawa, ON: Canadian Career Development Foundation. Amundson, N.E., Jang, A., & To, N. (2003). Trends in today’s Canada. Food for thought. no. 12, Ottawa, ON: Canadian Career Development Foundation. Apps, J.W. (1979). Problems in continuing education. New York: McGraw-Hill.

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