View with images and charts Report on Environmental problem of some rural area in Bangladesh
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction The growing environmental awareness is increasingly focusing attention upon the interactions between development actions and their environmental consequences. Recently, development projects were often formulated and assessed according to technical, economic and political criteria. The potential environmental, health and social impacts of projects were rarely considered in a vigorous manner. As a consequence, many projects have adverse affected on fish and other aquatic species by blocking their migration routes. Indirectly irrigation and food protection and control projects have contributed to conversion of forest, bush and wetland into crop field and destroyed the habitat of wild species. Environmental component such as water, air, soil, noise some time polluted by the development activity. In rural area it is found that the pollution of water is one of the main environmental issues. In addition to the inadequate sanitary system is also another serious environmental issue exits in most of the rural Bangladesh. Although Bangladesh is popularly known as a water abundant country, it faces water scarcity in the dry season. Due to encroachment on wetlands, sanitation of natural water bodies and decline of flow from the upstream reaches, the overall water availability has significantly dropped in the recent years (Islam, 1994). People's access to safe drinking water still falls critically short of the W.H.O standard (Islam, 1992). The link between water and rural life is intricate. The annual cycle of water availability and its seasonal variation has important bearings on rural life. The distribution of water over the hydrologic year is highly uneven. In the monsoon all the areas have water surplus and in the dry season, water shortage become pervasive (Islam, 1994). The major water issues in most of the rural Bangladesh include flood, drought, salinity, iron, arsenic, water logging, and storm surge.
The number of people competing for the natural resources is one key factor for determining the fresh water availability. The population of Bangladesh is growing at the rate of 1.7 percent per year. More than half of the population is under 20 years of age. Even if a two child family normally is achieved today, the country population is to reach over 230 million by the year 2030 (Islam, 2003, 2004). Thus access of good quality water will become a critical issue all over the Bangladesh and the pollution of environment will increase unless the natural resources are managed properly. 1.2 Study objectives of the study The broad objectives of this study are to develop understanding of the environmental problems in rural Bangladesh. The specific objectives of the study are as follows: • To identify and asses the environmental problems in the study areas of Kurigram and Jamalpur districts. • To identify agricultural and hydrological features of the study areas. • To assess the socio-economic profile of the study areas. • To make some recommendations to mitigate the environmental problems in rural Bangladesh. 1.3 Justification of the study Finding of these problems will be helpful for rural development planning, with emphasis on safe, good quality supply of water for household and agricultural process. The study will identify crucial socio economic and gender specific factors that may play critical role in determining the success or failure of any rural development schemes. Some of the study areas are affected by arsenic contamination. Various alternatives of water source and purification are currently being introduced and examine the efficiency of this option. The study would give the opportunity to make some useful recommendations to mitigate the environmental problems in rural Bangladesh. Through a little study have been made in this regard, but the literature reads that more studies are required to solve the environmental problems in rural Bangladesh. This study will explore the cultural and environmental aspects of environmental management and environmental resources use. Such information will helpful for both macro and micro level of planning and management of environmental resources. 1.4 Scope of the study About half a century ago the people of the rural Bangladesh were very much dependent on small canals as their main source of water for uses in the rice field but most of the small canals have been dried out for development activity. After the monsoon are casing a lot of hardship to the villagers. Water for drinking and household purpose was collected from far away places or source of water where good quality of water can be found. As the local government department and DPHE give them some hand tube well greatly relieved the hardship of the villagers.
The situation of sanitation remains disappointing as before. Despite efforts of NGO's and Govt. most household in rural Bangladesh still use open toilets or no toilets at all. The most prevalent type diseases that the people suffer in Bangladesh include diarrhea, dysentery, jaundice and skin diseases. All of which are water born diseases and due to the not adequate sanitation system. This is polluting the environment. Safe drinking water and sanitary system are the indicators of the human development. Poor water management can lead to death of local wild species in a subtle way, during floods many of the remaining wild species are forced to come out from their hidings, these animals either get killed or captured or washed away by flood water. Flood protection and availability of irrigation water have allowed people to increases both command area and the cropping intensity of previously cropped lands. As a result, wood and bushes have all but vanished from the rural landscape leading to loss of habitat for wild species. As Bangladesh is an agro based country, for high production in crop field, farmers use chemicals, both fertilizers and pesticides. Through surface run off and seepage, these chemicals eventually end up in natural water bodies and polluting environment. CHAPTER II MEHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY 2.1 Introduction The study has been carried out based on both primary and secondary data and information. Several field visits were made to collect primary hydrological, social, agricultural, economic, ecological and environmental data and information. In addition, different or gradually like Department of Environment (DOE), Institute of Water Modeling (IWM), Bangladesh Water Development Board (BWDB), Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation (BADC), local union parishad's chairmen, members were contracted for authentic data and information. 2.2 Selection of the study areas The study areas have been selected from two regions of the country, one in north Bengal in kurigram district and another is in the Dhaka division in Jamalpur district which shown in Figure 2.1. These areas represent different hydrological regions and agricultural zones. The study areas have different types of environmental issues, such as water related problems, like flood, drought, high iron concentration, etc. Each study areas consists one or more villages that were selected through field visit. These locations use irrigation water for growing rice and vegetables on commercial basis. They use both surface and ground water for irrigation purpose. In kurigram district, Dhasherhat village has some problems with the water use in the paddy field; the quality of the water is very much poor compare to the other region of the country. Two locations uses limited irrigation and it mainly grows Boro rice and some vegetables.
Figure 2.1: Maps of Jamalpur and Kurigram districs of Bangladesh In the study areas estimates have been obtained on water use in households especially water uses for drinking and particularly water use for cooking. In addition people use water for washing, bathing, defecation and other purpose. The actual amount of water uses is some what very difficult to estimate. Villagers do not have running water and collection of water
sometime demands physically and time consuming activity. Thus most households fetch mainly water for drinking and cooking from hand tube wells. The rest of the water needs are met by nearby ponds or other sources. Agricultural activities such as cropping, fisheries and horticultures depend heavily on the supply of adequate, good quality water. Thus it is expected that there will be a close linkage between water availability and the socio-economic profile of a community. This linkage is bidirectional. It can also determine the level of access to water or lack of it to various members of the community. The community can take actions to alter the temporal and spatial distribution of water to suit its needs. Given such codependences this study examines the socio-economic profiles of the study areas. In a relatively short period of time a good overview of the present situation can be provided. The answers given by the persons interviewed however may not always be in accordance with what happens in reality. Some times the persons interviewed try to give â€œthe correct answer" or the answer they think the persons interviewing would like to hear. This is particularly true if the questions relate to behavior. 2.3 Questionnaire survey and data collection Different types of interviews have been carried out. A community interview is conducted to involve all of the residents of a village to pin point their problems in their villages. Such an interview provides a lot of information in relatively short period of time. However, some community members may hesitate to speak up in a big group. So Focus Group Discussions (FGD) was the family members. (FGD) conducted with a group of randomly encountered persons and with systematic selected groups on the basis of gender, age, wealth, etc. Group interview sometime less time consuming but they are less suitable for discussing sensible issues. Key information interviews are conducted with persons who represent the community of the village. Individual interviews carried out through the villagers. There is a good rapport between the interviewer and the respondent. I have to prepare the questionnaire in Bangla to make it understandable to the villagers. It is important to carefully select the time and place of the interviews. During the interview only the group persons or the person being interviewed and the interviews were present. This is to avoid that others disturb the interviewed or influence the answers given. To ensure a good gender differentiation it is important to possibly avoid interviewing women in the presence of their husbands or family members. Before the interview starts, the interviewer introduced him properly. Explaining why the interview is being conducted, ask for permission to record the results and ask for any queries and thank the group or individual for their participation. (Sample questionnaire is given in Annexure B) 2.4 General observations during field survey A community walk is an observation tool that is used by external reviewer and as well as in a participatory way together with community members. By walking as in a participatory way together with community members an indication of the situation is obtained and registered. The walk may include brief house visit, with in for discussions about water supply or
sanitation while appreciating for in house situation. One person or several persons involved at the same time with small group. Large group is avoided since disrupt the normal situation too much. The walk is planned during the time of the day when most water and activity take place. In combination with interview and observation give a powerful tool, it supplements and also helps the cross checks information obtained in interviews. When done in a participatory way it difference between rich and poor are considerate. Recording of the observations is done according to the plan. Important issues that included in a community walk is the type and state of settlements, general environment conditions, drainage of water, water availability, general hygiene behavior of men and women, water source, water points, state and functioning of development activity and their consequence to the environment and water. 2.5 Mapping The purpose of mapping is to gather information about a community by having its members create their own village map. It is also used to collect information about exiting problems and perceive the value which community members give to certain situations. It is proposed to community members to draw a map either on a sheet in a board or even the soil. In this map they are asked to highlight the following points. main location of settlement and distribution of population including main topography identification of schools, shops, markets, masque, localization of water points, zones of infections or problems, water source, distribution system of water in irrigation, garbage disposal zones, persons using the facilities specification of which water points have continuous or seasonal variations, type of water, functioning, where is the population with the lowest willingness to pay and identification of the economic activities of men and women. The village map, in combination with a ranking tool such as the pocket chart the most important problems and needs related to water supply and sanitation is identified. 2.6 Pocket chart A pocket chart is kept, is an effective method to collect information about people's perceptions, habits, desirers and will. It provides quantitative information by a system of votes. The result is used to discussions with the community members. The pocket charts is used to identify different sources of water. Drawings are prepared beforehand preferably by a local artist. An alternative is to ask the participants to make drawings. The tool is used in combination with mapping, the drawing, instance, represents the problems related to water supply and sanitation and other environmental problems. 2.7 Socio-Economic profile The social and economic structure of the rural communities has a major bearing on how the environmental resources will be demanded and used for various purposes. The study areas are located in agriculture-based communities.
In each survey areas questionnaire survey was carried out to gather important socioeconomic, environmental, water uses and culture information. A combination of stratified and random sampling was used to select the households to be surveyed. The number of households from each village was selected proportion to the populations of those villages. Within each village stratified sampling was used to determine the number of households with various occupations. Finally, for each of the occupation groups, randomly sampling was used. One hundred households were surveyed from each study areas. Availability of water determines the nature and extent of primary economic activity and the existing socio-economic fabric creates the basic demands for water. Families are very much the unit of rural communities of Bangladesh. Elderly parents stay with the son or daughter. Decisions in a family are usually made jointly. The status of women in the study areas is also considered. The women status in the society of the study areas is poorer compared to the male population both in terms of education and income. All of the study areas randomly selected for the study had typical developing country village like characteristics, very low income, high illiteracy rate, small Sand ownership. The population age distribution was very revealing. 2.8 Identification of water sources All water sources, namely river, pond, ground water and rain water for household, agricultural and other purpose were identified during the field visit and questionnaire survey. Some unique cultural water collection, treatment, and storage practice has been identified. There are off stream and in stream use of water in rural areas. The former consists of water use for crops, homestead gardens and households. The latter use for fisheries, bathing, washes in the rivers and ponds. 2.9 Cultural practice and gender issue Water is very much gender issues in rural Bangladesh. Water for house hold purpose is collected and stored and used almost entirely by women and children. The health of the entire family depends on how efficiently they carry out this important task. Women in the villages undergo several physical hardships while collecting water from distant places under unfavorable weather conditions. Moreover, there is an opportunity cost of time more time spent for water collection means less time use or available for other household and income generating activities. 2.10 Rural environment and water source Water and environment are closely linked. Lack of water can adversely affect the functioning of an ecosystem. Water management structure and development structure may block movement of water and other aquatic species. The natural environment of the rural areas is being altered by human activity and the most severe impact is felt in the form of loss of natural habitats - both land and water based. Biodiversity in all areas has decreased significantly in the last 40 years in Bangladesh. There
is an urgent need to inform local people about the value of wild species in nature and how we depend on them through food web and food chain based links. CHAPTER III GENERAL ECOLOGY 3.1 Introduction The study area has been selected in agro-ecological zones so that a wide range of environmental issues and features could be captured during the course of the study. This purpose the area has been largely successful in some unique featured that are worth having a closer look. 3.2 Jamalpur
The site in Jamalpur is a part of cultural feature that has important environmental implications. The village is situated in the estuarine flood plains of the Jamuna River. This site is also protected by a polder, which was constructed under a land reclamation project funded by the Bangladesh government. Some of the families inside this polder came from other areas of the country after losing homestead and agricultural lands due to river bank erosion. However shortage of fresh water is a major problem in this area, good quality tube wells are few in number and women often walk to collect drinking water. Besides the area had rich terrestrial as well as aquatic biodiversity according to the local elderly. With gradual elimination of natural habitats, most of the wild species are no more found inside this polder. Villagers mentioned that construction of the polder obstructed of terrestrial as well as aquatic species and adversely affected their life cycle. The area received enough water during the monsoon both in terms of river flow and rainfall. But the post monsoon months are dry and there is no culture of irrigation due to lack of water availability. Groundwater is used for irrigation purposes. The site is located to very close to the fertilizer factory. The site is located in the flood plains of the Jamuna River. Much of the village and surrounding crop fields are flooded every year. Thus frequent high flood is a problem here according to the local people during the devastating floods of 1988 and 1998 and also 1996, many species of wild lives such as snake, fox, crocodile, frog, tortoise, etc were killed to extinction as these species tried to take refuse in high lands. The people are more interested in commercial agriculture ands fishers and are not reluctant to catch or kill wildlife for personal benefit.
Occupied by flood affected people most of the natural trees covers and bushes in this village have been cleared up long ago for agricultural purposes leaving little space for wild species. Natural vegetation in this area is not rich. Exotic species of plants such as mango, jack fruit, etc. grows plenty in their season. Due to lack of water in the dry season, irrigation is very limited and the main crop is rain-fed rise which is grown in the surrounding low lying areas, in some areas, have been cleared for growing lemon and pineapple variety of tree species such as garjan, koroi, gammar and rata are found in the village. Some types of bamboo are also found in this area. Forest department has planted some trees in this area, although mostly exotic species are planted. Poverty and poor management practices are gradually destroying the remaining trees. The village has some large trees. During the field visits, migratory winter birds were observed grazing in the paddy fields. Some rare species of birds was seen also that time. The main problem of the area is shortage of drinking water through out the year erosion in the homestead areas due to the wave action caused by strong winds and current in the river and current of monsoon. The area is still home to several species of rare birds that have become endangered globally and under risks. Wild life biodiversity is positively associated with plants biodiversity. This is because trees provide the habitats for wild lives. However, as seen in the areas seem to have poor and very poor plant diversity as well as good wild life diversity. This is mainly due relative abundance of amphibians and birds. The wild life found in the area is wild cats, mongooses, rat snakes, water snakes, cobras, civets, foxes, hares, fishing cats, dhora shaps(snakes), maita shaps(snakes ), shials(Bengali foxes). There are lots of plants found in the area, such as mango trees, banana trees, bamboo trees, bots, bets, bablas, borojs, aamras, arjuns, kadams, jamms, dalims, kamrangas, litchus, kat badams, korochs, naricals, sajanas, khajurs, eucalyptus, rain trees, suparis, tals, tetuis, chaltas. 3.3 Kurigram
In kurigram district the environment found in high land. The village is located in a high land with high producing crop fields. A small swap area is situated in the village. The aquatic life and biodiversity is unique in the local region. Much of the village is surrounded by the crop field. The village is a sub urban area. The most of the house is built of GI sheet or cement. The income of the people is highest among the surveyed areas. Most of the natural tree covers and bushes in this village have been cleared long ago for agricultural or house stead. As a result, wild species are leaving this little space for wild
species. The wild life found in the area is wild cats, mongooses, rat snakes, water snakes, cobras, civets, foxes, hares, fishing cats, dhora shaps(snakes), maita shaps(snakes), shials(Bengali foxes).The area is still home to several species of rare birds that have become endangered globally. The village has some large trees. During the field visits, migratory winter birds were observed grazing in the paddy field. However, as seen in the area seem to have poor and very poor plant diversity as well as good wild life diversity. The most common fruit trees found in the villages include coconut, mango, jackfruit, banana, and guava. In short, the natural environment of the study areas in being altered by human activity and the most severe impact is felt in the form of loss of natural habitats - both land and water based. Biodiversity in all areas has decreased significantly in the last 40 years in Bangladesh. There is an urgent need to inform local people about the value of wild species in nature and how we depend on them through food web and food chain based links. CHAPTER IV SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE OF THE STUDY AREAS
4.1 Introduction The social and economic structure of the rural communities has a major hearing on how the environmental resources will be demanded and used for various purposes. The study area is located in agriculture-based communities. Agricultural activities such as cropping, fisheries and horticultures depend heavily on the supply of adequate, good quality water. Thus it is expected that there will be a close linkage between water availability and the socio-economic profile of a community. This linkage is bidirectional. Availability of water determines the nature and extent of primary economic activity and the existing socio-economic fabric creates the basic demands for water. It can also determine the level of access to water or lack of it to various members of the community. The community can take actions to alter the temporal and spatial distribution of
water to suit its needs. Given such codependences this chapter examines the socio-economic profiles of the study area. 4.2 The respondents Almost equal numbers of respondents, one hundred from each survey section, have been interviewed. The highest numbers of respondents are from section six (6) and the least numbers of respondents is from section seven (7). The survey aimed at question in the heads and male and female of the households. Among the total respondents identified as head of the family is were 66% and male and female were respectively 17% and 17%as shown in Table 4.1 and Figure 4.1. In some cases, when the male head of the household was absent, his wife took the interview, therefore, it cannot be said that about 17% of the rural households surveyed were headed by females. However the study does not overlook the gender specific issues. The respondents of the highest average age of 48 years old. About one-third of the respondents did not have any formal education. The rest had primary or higher education. Thus most of the respondents could assess the significance of the questions asked to them. Table 4.1: Composition of the respondents by gender Respon Dents Male Female Head Of the Family Total
Baga shara 65 18 15
West pingna 77 19 13
Tara kandi 60 15 21
Dasher hat 85 15 8
Fuldaher Para 81 19 20
Mia 80 16 25
Matha bhanga 15 17 17
Percen tage 66 17 17
(Head of the family is taken 100% male)
Head of the family female
male Head of the family 66%
Figure 4.1: Percentage of respondents by gender 4.3 Residence and migration The majority of the respondents are local residents of the concerned survey area. In response to the query of why they or their ancestors had migrated to a locality, most people could not
mention any specific reason. About 18% people said that they come here because they lost their home and crop lands due to river bank erosion. In addition to river erosion, land related problems faced by the respondents were a reason for migration to the current location of residence. Other reason for migration include acquiring new land, overcoming poverty, new income opportunity and settling in a less populated area than the earlier. Most of the respondents (98%) are residing here for more than 25 years, about 1% have been living here for less than 10 years, about 1% are new have been living here for less than 5 years. Resident and migration level are shown in Table 4.2. Table 4.2: Level of Migration and residents Residents 25yr 10yr 60yr
Section 1 97% 0% 0%
Section 2 98% 0% 0%
Section 3 96% 0% 4%
Section 4 95% 0% 0%
Section 5 99% 2% 2%
Section 6 99% 1% 0%
Section 7 96% 1% 0%
Percentage % 98% 1% 1%
4.4 Family The average family size has been determined to be 5.4. Among the surveyed location, the highest family size of 13 and the lowest family size of 3.In terms of male-female distribution of the family members, the male to female ratio for most of the village is one. Overall trend is consistent with the national statisticsâ€”male female ratio close to one and number of males slightly higher than the number of female. The average age of the family members is 25 years. This means that the survey areas consist of young and working age population and this has important policy implications. 4.5 Education The literacy rate has been calculated by dividing the number of people above the age of 10 with compared the national literacy rate of 54%, as shown in Table 4.1 and Figure 4.2. Most of the areas have a higher literacy rate. Table 4.3: Literacy rate due to seven selected areas SI. No.
1. Bagashara 2. WestPingna 3. Tarakandi 4. Dasherhat 5. Fuldaherpara 6. Mia 7. Mathabhanga
100 80 60 Literacy rate 40 20 0
The secondary education is the Section highest in MathaBhanga region. Around 45%of the respondents have attended secondary school. The numbers of bachelor and masters degree holders are the highest in Tarakandi and Kurigram. In addition the most of the people in Jamalpnr district have studied or go to Madrasa. 1
A comparison of female and male education levels that there has been feminization is the primary education level, there are more female respondents that are primary educated than men. It is likely that this feminization is the result of Government's decade long high emphasis on brining gender parity in the primary education. About 5% male respondents have education at Diploma/ Bachelor / Masters Level. While none of the female respondent attained education at this level. Most of the women interviewed went to traditional primary and secondary schools or Madrasa. Women are discriminated when it comes to higher education. It is a widely held view in the male dominated rural community that a girl child does not need any formal education since she will get married early and will perform house hold chores that do not require higher education. The survey suggests that average marriage age for women varies from 15 to 17 in the study areas. In the study areas it is found that below 15 years old girls are some times been get married. 4.6 Women views on education and marriage The main reason that women are socially and economically subjugated is their lack of education and financial dependence on the male head of the family. Linked to this is the age of marriage early marriage means less of getting higher education and employment. Thus the female respondents were asked two key questions: 1. What do YOU think is the right level of education for girls? 2. At what a tie a girl should get married? In response to the first question, most respondents said that girls should be educated up to SSC level. Majority of the response perceive Madrasa 6 level or less than that. A positive relation between a respondent's education level and her perception about appropriate level of education is obvious. An educated respondent wants her daughters to receive equal of higher level of education.
Some other type of education, which would perhaps give them vocational training on agroforestry or small business and the education will be specially designed for the community highlighting their unique needs and faith. Even through the main stream identified basic Madrasa level education as sufficient for their girls that again reflects the conservative nature of these villages. A main obstacle to women's education is their early marriage. As discussed earlier, the average marriage age varies 14 years to 17 years. However the female respondents think that the minimum marriage age should be 15 to 18 years. Although majority of the response are married. Majority of the respondents to this gender specific questionnaire are wives of the head of the house holds. Almost 70% of the respondents were between 20 to 50 years old. Women whose main responsibility is to housekeeping but they also participate in other income generating activities. 4.7 Housing
The houses surveyed in Jamalpur have floors made of mudâ€™s. Although the rest of the areas respondents have floor made of cement. Majority of the responds use walls made of bamboo while a sizable group has walls made of bamboo and is commonly used for making the roof except MathaBanga village, where straw and bamboo are common use. In general materials used for housing are mostly local and used universally all over the country. Economically well off families tend to use GI sheets. And may have brick walled houses but the number of such house holds is very limited. In some cases, materials used may not be an indication of economic conditions. In kurigram has the highest average income and yet most of the houses here are made of Gl sheets. Similarly in Tarakandi most of the lowest income and yet most of the houses are made of Gl sheets. Although the people has the highest literacy rate. This is a reflection of an age old cultural practice. The housing materials used may also reflect influence of the surrounding areas, Daherhat in kurigram is a semi urban areas and this may influenced local residence to use for GI sheets and brick as building materials. The housing materials in seven selected village of Jamalpur and Kurigram district are shown in Table 4.2. 4.8 NGO membership The presence of NGOs is most visible in Jamalpur district. In this district 75% of the respondents are members of NGOs and in kurigram district Dhasherhat around 50% of the respondents are NGOs members. And in Jamalpur Tarakandi areas is less than 40% is NGOs
members. The NGOs members get benefit in terms of advice, education, also advice on riverbank erosion and ways to crops with it. In other areas the main benefits are schemes for savings and loan. Among other benefits of a NGO membership include legal help, advice, small loan, training and awareness. It is evident that NGOs activities are still limited in rural areas. Moreover NGOs mostly work on health and credit related issues. So all NGO are not involved in water management treatment in a major way. Only in one NGO was conducting a pilot project on various local methods of removing and filtering training for safe drinking water and rain water harvesting. Table 4.2: Percentage of housing materials used in seven selected areas SL No.
the Parts of House
West Pingna (Jamalpur)
Roof Floor Wall
Tarakandi (Jamalpur) Dasherhat (Kurigram) Fuldaherpara (Jamalpur)
Roof Floor Wall Roof Floor Wall Roof Floor Wall Roof Floor Wall Roof Floor Wall Roof
Housing Materials Mud 65 10 77 15
Cement GI sheet 30 10 20 13 10
Bamboo Other 5 6
25 10 20
10 10 10
10 10 5 13 5 4 10
5 5 5
Whatever little amount of women manages to save from their income may have been inspire by the awareness and advocacy campaign organized by NGOs. In some of the villages, NGOs have been very active, is the best example of BRAC, ASSA, and GRAMINE have their local officers and are engaged in various education, healthcare, water supply and sanitation related activity.
NGOs seem to address gender specific issues and try to help out women through loan and savings programs and training in small scale home business. NGOs also run awareness programs for the whole community on various socio-economic and environmental issues. Some of the destitute women are being helped by NGOs through their micro credit schemes. Under such programs, women take small amount of loans which they invest in poultry, livestock or some from of cottage industry, making good and safe sanitation system, building their houses, making money by setting small industry such as making brown sugar, puffed rice, bamboo and cane artifacts and pottery item. 4.9 Ownership Ownership can be looked at from various perspectives lands, trees, livestock, ponds, tube wells, crop fields, and so forth, the information on ownerships helps identify the economic status of the respondents and their vulnerability to became poor. a.
Land and pond
Ownership of land is an important indicator of economic well being of a family. For example, when a house hold has less than 4 decimal of land it is classified as "landless". The population owning land in the study areas are better off in this sense most of them own more than 4 decimal of land, there are two types of land cropland and homestead land, which include the house and surrounding areas often used for homestead gardening. A few respondents have fallow land that is not used for any purpose. In terms of land ownership, 93% of the people own some household land. About only 12% of people do not have their own land as crop field. About 87% people have 162 acres of crop field. The rest either lease land or just work as agricultural labors. As far as distribution of hind is concerned, it can be said that land ownership pattern is in- equitable in 4 out of 10 these villages. In addition to owning land, house holds may own ponds that are used for house hold purposes and for growing fish. Fish culture can be an important source of income for the owners. One of the respondents said he owned 6 ponds from which he earned more than 2, 50,000 Tk. Per year, this indicate culture fisheries can be an important economic activity in some of the study areas. The size and depth of the ponds varied widely. Most households owned one pond, but there were households that owned 2, 3 or even 5 ponds. Some ponds are found in the inside of the house, which is mainly used by the females for the household use, washing, bathing etc. Other ponds could be located elsewhere and some level of fish culture is now becoming common place, as culture fisheries are an important income generating activity inside this area. b. Trees
Trees are valuable assets for rural house holds. The most common fruit trees found in the villages include coconut, mango, jackfruit, banana, guava. There are other species too such as litchi, pineapple, lemon, safeda, and different types of berries. People also planted some fruit trees which has some wood value. In the areas it is found that people also planted Teak and Mahogony along with fruit trees for their wood value. Which were planted as long term investment by the owner. c.
Chicken, duck, cow are the most common livestock poultry animal owned by the respondents. On average, each family owns of 5 or 4 of these animal. They earn about 50000 to 70000 per year from the chicken firming, this shows the poultry can be viable and lucrative income generating source for the rural poor people. Life stocks owned by households provide multiple benefits. Milk, meat and hide in addition labor in the crop field. Often bullocks and buffalos are used for pulling carts. Horse also used for pulling carts. Although Muslims do not own pigs but in some villagers, Hindus do own pig and eat pork. 4.10 Income
As expected, the majority of the respondents were farmers. Either they cropped their own lands or they leased lands from land owners. Some worked as farm labors and switch to other non farm occupations in the off season. The per capita income of the respondents is significantly less than the national per capita income of US$ 250 per year.
There is an exception in the Dasher hat area, the primary source of income in this areas is non agricultural, occupation such as small business, service, and house made cloths. The low level income in all the areas compare to the national average indicate the general impoverished conditions of the study areas a lot of development work will needed to improve the rural living condition and the economic conditions of these villagers. 4.11 Dependency The dependency ratio for the study areas are shown in Figure 4.3 1. Bagashara
2. WestPingna 3. Tarakandi 4. Dasher hat 5. Fuldaherpara 6. Mia 7. Mathabhanga
25 Dependency ratio
20 15 10 5 0
ure Dependency Section ratio at seven study areas This ratio has been defined as the ratio of the percentage of people under the age of 15 and above the age of 60 to percent of people aged between 16 and 60. The ratio is very high in kurigram and Tarakandi, and the lowest in Bagashara. There is a close correlation between the dependency ratio and education. Bagashara have the lowest literacy rates along with the highest dependency ratios. On the kurigram has one of the highest literacy rates and his corresponds with the lowest dependency ratio. The ratio may be negatively correlated with income. The national Bangladesh dependency ratio is 76%. 1
WATER AND ENVIRONMENT
5.1 Introduction Water usage can be broadly categorized into household and irrigation water use. Apart from these, there is in-stream use of water and fisheries and navigation. Among these, water requirement for irrigating different types of crops is relatively well known from previous agronomic studied carried out by the various organizations. But not much information is exists on domestic water use pattern. 5.2 House hold water use Fairly consistent estimates have been obtained on water use in households -particularly water use for drinking and cooking. Water use for drinking varied between 4.5 to 6 liter per person per day. Water use for cooking varied between 8 to 10 liter per family. The average water use for drinking is 4.6 liter per person per day. The average water use for cooking 5.6 liter per person per day, thus total consumption of the water use per person per day is about 10 liter per person per day. Assuming a house hold of size of six persons, the daily need of water for people for other use, consumption comes to 60 liters per day per person per household. This calculation is on the basis of the respondents answer. This is not including their water use for bathing, washing and other purpose. The total amount of water is somewhat difficult to estimate as most people in the study areas use pond and rivers water for bathing and washing. For which sample households could not provide accurate data. It is noticeable that consumption of pithier water in rural communities is much less than the same of the semi urban communities. This is due a number of reasons that in semi urban people use a lot of water for bathing and washing and toilet flushing. Which makes up about 50% of the collection of water in the studied areas? On the other hand, in the village collection of water is a physically demanding and time consuming activity; most of the house hold fetches mainly water for drinking and cooking from hand tube wells. The rest of the water needs are met by ponds and wells and some time steams. In addition, people collect another 50 to 60 liter for defecation and other purpose making the house hold use 150 lpcd per day.
5.3 Water for crops and vegetable
In Bangladesh about 85% of all consumptive water is claimed by the agricultural sector. This water is used for irrigating crops that include boro rice and variety of crops. Aus crop is also some time irrigated as required. During field visits and questionnaire survey, peoples who practiced irrigation were asked to provide information on the amount for various used of water in the irrigation for various crops. In general, they could only provide information on irrigation frequency and said that they applied water "as required". Thus no quantitative estimate on the amount of irrigation water applied per cultivated land could be generated. Farmers in the study areas could not provide a reliable estimate of the total cost of irrigation and water uses cost. This is due to different requirements in different locations as well as due to use of different combination of surface water and ground water. Therefore, the numbers are indicative of the order of magnitude and should be interpreted accordingly. Another way of looking at irrigation water cost is to examine the fuel used for pump; it varies 1000 to 5000 Tk. Per acr. Irrigation cost for winter vegetable could not be estimated according to limited data. But according to respondents vegetables require more water compared to rice. 5.4 Water for fisheries Fisheries can be of open water or close water type. One of the study areas is Bagashora village, situated in haor basin and this one is almost exclusively a fishermen community. Here the main house hold income comes from aquaculture. Since most of the area becomes inundated in the monsoon, there are very natural streams, and the people use ponds for washing and bathing and also for household uses. The opposite of this location is MathaBanga village, where 91% of the house holds have ponds and these are used for culture fisheries even though only 5% of the household's main occupation is fisheries. Many people from the Boropara village come here and lease the ponds for fisheries. In this way the villagers of the MathaBanga earns extra money from leasing the ponds for fisheries this indicates that farmer senile holders businessman and there who have ponds can under take commercial fish culture in their ponds as a near of secondary income. On average 49.8% household in the study areas have ponds, areas the average pond's size is about 175 sq. m. the ponds in Bagashora is very big and the average is 900 sq. m. Large and medium rivers still remains as important for fishing in the local residents. The great Jamuna River flows in left side of the village section 5, the people go in the river for
fishing there. !n kurigram district t do not have any major river near by and number of canals and ponds are here for fisheries. Some businessmen started fisheries there in their own, for commercial benefit. Some hatcheries also started business there. They are providing lots of breeding ground of fish and also providing fish protein for the local and outsiders. As a result it found that fish consuming increases last ten years in that area. Limited aquaculture is practice all over the study areas, house holds may own ponds that are used for house hold purposes and for growing fish. Fish culture can be an important source of income for the owners. One of the respondents said he owned 6 ponds from which he earned more than 2, 50,000 Tk. Per year. This indicates culture fisheries can be an important economic activity in some of the study areas. The size and depth of the ponds varied widely. Most households owned one pond, but there were households that owned 2, 3 or even 5 ponds. Some ponds are found in the inside of the house, they are also use for fisheries. 5.5 Sources of irrigation water
Irrigation claims the largest share consumptive water use in Bangladesh. Whenever possible, now people grow winter crops that include rice, wheat, vegetables, and spices. One input that is common to all these crops is water. In the monsoon most of the study areas here goes under water, thus aman is not grown except in few high land. On the other hand boro and aus are grown with shallow and deep tube well based irrigation. There are many irrigation canal dug by local people to carry the pumped water in the crop field. These canals in the areas supply irrigation water in the crop field. Irrigation is used for winter and pre-monsoon crops. Due to iron problems, the soil color has become reddish. As it is a predominantly agricultural community, about 85% of the households rely on cultivation as their main source of income. Here, deep tube well becomes the sole source of irrigation water. In the site of Dasherhat is the central north part of Bangladesh. Here, people do not practice irrigation and grow mostly rain fed aman. People mentioned lack of water or irrigation facilities as the main cause for not growing varieties of winter vegetables. People here produce lots of potatoes in winter seasons. This is grown mainly for commercial purpose. There are lots of cold storage here to collect this potatoes and preserve and for marketing. In
Jamalpur people also produce lots of potatoes and many other winter vegetables. This is grown mainly for household consumption. Dug canals is an important source of good quality irrigation water, although canals found in all over the study areas but they are not joint to the Jamuna river, people mentioned it is the only way to bring the Jamuna's water in their field but govt. did not take action to do so. These study areas have iron problems, iron water is not suitable for irrigation purpose, and deep tube wells are use for irrigation agricultural field during dry season. People in these areas do not have the awareness of the high iron concentration. 5.6 Flood, drought and other problems
A diversity of water related issued have been identified in the study areas that include most of the common water related problems in Bangladesh. These issues are local or regional in scale and people's responses these problems very widely. Some of the problems affect some communities in a significant way and some other problems affect number of households or those recur less frequently. Since the study areas are dispersed a unique area of the country and located in the same agro-ecological zones, the nature of problems do not varies widely. In general flood seems to be a very big problems, many says it is the major problems. Other areas suffer from regular flooding, goes under water nearly every year. This people do not suffer from flash flood as it is not a hilly area. I have to collect some flood and drought related Figure. (Figures are given annexure A). People have complained about drainage congestion in areas where there are embankment and other flow control structures. Often these are of inadequate design and are not operated properly leading to drainage congestion and related inconveniences. Water logging takes up agricultural land cause communication problems and breed water borne diseases. Some of the areas within the projects of BWDB and LGED. The villages in section 2 Mathabhanga are in the river protection embankment. This is a river erosion control embankment which is seemed to have generated noticeable benefit. People have mentioned that this embankment has helped save there house and crop fields from erosion and flood. Other sites do not fall inside any exiting projects. In most places people try to save them personnel belongings from flood when it comes out but not much community initiative was observed. People expect government and NGOs to come forward with help when needed. In the river bank region people convinced about benefit of the bank protection project, there is community effort to maintain and protect the embankment. CHAPTER VI
6.1 Introduction The infrastructural development in Bangladesh is closely related to considerable number of parameters or components of the environment which may be grouped under three mutually interacting major components. They are ecological, physical-chemical and human interest. The ecological components include fisheries, plantationâ€” weeds, forest, wildlife, species diversity and endangered species under aquatic and terrestrial sub groups. The physicalchemical effects are diverse and extended over a human interest's closely related to infrastructural development include various parameters under health situation, socio economic and aesthetic conditions. The physical features in rural and semi urban environment consisting of homestead, roads, canal, farmlands, wetlands, water bodies etc. A change in the system exerts certain influence on many parameters, resulting a net positive or negative impact on the environment. The understanding of the development actions and their interactions with components of the environments is needed to conduct environmental assessment of infrastructural development projects and to plan mitigating measures to prevent or minimize environmental degradation. 6.2 Impacts of Upazila Road Projects (URP) It is observed in the field that upazila road projects which are going on or which already exist have some effect on the environmental components. The magnitude of the impact some time positive and some time negative. And the impacts are: 6.2.1 Ecological impacts of Upazila Road Projects (URP) a. Fisheries The construction of roads has important consequences on flood plain ecology. Roads prevent longitudinal and lateral migration of fishes in the flood plan and obstruct the movement of fishes into natural feeding and breeding grounds in the flood plains. The magnitude of the impact measured by the length of the road passing through flood plains and the length serves the purpose of an embankment separating permanent water bodies from fish spawning and feeding areas in flood plains. The road projects have some positive impact on fishery, it permanents water bodies formed in borrow pits which stock fishes when flooded and maintain a flood plain fish ecology.
b.Plantation The roads running through forest areas and plantations cause of destruction of trees in the plantation areas and altered the ecology of the areas. The roadsides may be used for plantation of trees which is a favorable impact of road construction. The roadside plantations are being encouraged in the areas under social forestry programs. c.Wetland and wetland habitats The roads encroach wetlands which altering the ecology of wetlands and swamplands and causing destruction of wetland habitats. d.Nuisance plants the borrow pits nobody's land often harbor nuisance plants like water hyacinth which invade the croplands cause considerable crop damage during flood. 6.2.2 physio - chemical impacts Upazila Road Projects (URP) a. Erosion and siltation The constriction of waterways by road and road structures increases velocity of flow to cause erosion during floods and subsequent siltation in the down stream. Improper drainage causes erosion of road surface and side slope during rainy season exerting adverse impact on adjacent lands. b. Drainage congestion and water logging The roads interfere with drainage causing flooding or drainage congestion in adjacent areas during the period of high precipitation. This causes crop damages, water pollution and some times permanent loss of agriculture lands. The congested water also provides breeding ground for mosquito. c. Flooding The roads constructed across floodplains perpendicular to the direction of water flow that cause back water effect and also increase duration, frequency and extent of flooding in the upstream. Many local respondents said this is the main reason why the flooding time increased during 1988 flood. d. Obstruction of waste water flow The roads obstruct the drainage of waste water causing serious pollution problems. Air pollution, water pollution and noise pollution are not associated with highways. 6.2.3 Human interest on Upazila Road Projects (URP) a. Loss of agricultural lands By increasing the producing of the remaining land, thatâ€™s impact fall in the agricultural land. b. Generation of employment opportunity Construction of roads and road structure generated employment during project implementation and opportunity for permanent employment during maintenance phase. The beneficial impact is proportional to the jobs created by the projects. b. Commercial and service facilities
The upazila roads provide benefits of fast communication, commodity transport facilities and thus improve the life style of the villagers. Improve access to market centers and increased service and communication facilities. c. Industrial activities Road communication promoted industrial activities in the surveyed areas which has significant socio- economic impact. d.Irrigation facilities Borrow pits by the side of the roads provided facility for small scale irrigation. By the local government both the sides of the roads have been planted with Mango trees, jackfruit trees many other fruit trees and also vegetation is growing up slowly. 6.2.4 Impacts of Upazila Irrigation Schemes (UIS) It is found that irrigation schemes in the surveyed areas have positive and negative impacts on the socio- economic and agro- ecological and also environmental parameters. They are discussed below according to the local respondents. 6.2.5 Ecological impacts of Upazila Irrigation Schemes (UIS) a. Fisheries Irrigation for the cultivation of high breed crops is invariably associated with the use of agrochemicals. Residues of pesticides drained out of irrigated land have devastating impact on fish. The concentration of chemicals causes reproductive failure and a higher affects on the fisheries in the surveyed areas. b.Wild life Pesticides sprayed in field for crop protection affect the non targeted groups of beneficial insects, birds, wild animals and also livestock. A pesticide accumulates in fatty tissues and goes on bio-magnification in food chain. c.Eutrophcation Fertilizers used in the fields drain out with irrigation water and this drainage water reaches open water bodies causing luxuriant growth of weeds, algae etc. The subsequent destruction of these aquatic plants causes water pollution and disrupts aquatic environment. 6.2.6 physio- chemical impact of Upazila Irrigation Schemes (UIS) a. Surface water pollution Residues of pesticides, herbicides, chemical fertilizers reach surface water through drainage and flooding of agricultural lands to causing surface water pollution. b.Ground water pollution Residues of agrochemicals also reach ground water through infiltration. Pollutants persist in the ground water for a very long time and travel a long distance without any alteration. c.Soil characteristics
A major part of the irrigation water applied application of irrigation water with high concentration of insecticides and pesticides constituents of water including fertilizers are soils.
leaves salts in the root zone of soil. Hence salt contents increase soil salinity. High destroy soil characteristics. Iron and other also altering soil texture and permeability of
d.Ground water table Higher rate of groundwater pumping in the areas which is surveyed for irrigation lowers the ground water level many times beyond suction limit and interfered with drinking water supply. According to the officials it is expected that the present low water table areas will be expanded rapidly in the coming years as more ground water will be used for irrigation. e.Water logging Irrigation with inadequate drainage lead to water logging in relatively low lying areas and causing water pollution and loss of agricultural land. 6.2.7 Impact on human interest on Upazila Irrigation Schemes (UIS) a. Health and nutrition The increase in irrigation especially increases food production that influences the health and nutrition of the people of the areas. b. Employment Intensive agricultural activity generated employment opportunities and share cropping for landless farmers. On the other hand a reduction in open water fishery turned the fishermen unemployed. c. Land ownership pattern Intensive agriculture inputs which the marginal and poor farmers with small land holdings cannot provide in time, increases in the price of land in areas under irrigation scheme also motivate the farmers with small plots within the scheme to sell their lands. 6.2.8 Impacts of Upazila Embankment Projects (UEP) To protect the irrigation and house stead and other infrastructure embankment projects taken in the surveyed areas. The excavation of drainage canal projects taken by the Local Govt. Engineering Departments LGED and some by the local people. The impacts are discussed below according with the surveyed finding and observations. 6.2.9 Ecological impacts on Upazila Embankment Projects (UEP) a. Open water fisheries Embankment prevents inundation of floodplains which is the natural breeding, nursery and feeding ground of different species of fishes. Embankment also prevents lateral migration of fishes during flood. As a result the flood plain fish productivity is greatly affected.
The excavation of drainage canals provide opportunity for fish culture and stocking offish for natural spawning in flood plain during monsoon. The length of canal having sufficient water in any season taken into account in the assessment of positive impact. b.Wetland and wetland habitat Complete drainage of wetland and other water bodies for agriculture disrupts natural habitat for fish, migratory birds and other aquatic animals. According to the local some species of fish reptiles and exotic plants have already been affected by drainage projects. Open water fish producing has been greatly affected in the areas during the last two decades. c. Plantation The embankment is often used by plantation of trees which may be accounted as positive impact of the project. 6.2.10 physio- chemical impact of Upazila Embankment Projects (UEP) a. Flood control and drainage facilities The objective of the embankment is to protect the surveyed areas from flooding and in some location to prevent early flooding to avoid crop damage. Similarly the drainage canals are made to salvage water logged areas or expand agricultural land with wetlands. b.Erosion and salutation The embankment is made of soil and brick block having no vegetation cover on side slopes may suffer from erosion problem during heavy rainfall and cause sedimentation and siltation in nearby surface waters. c.Water togging The embankment is made to not only flood water from getting in they may also prevent water behind the embankment from draining out. The situation may lead to water logging characterized by environmental degradation and loss of agricultural land. D.Early flooding The drainage canals without proper planning may cause early flooding which may damage crops and interfere with tradition cultivation practice. E.Soil fertility The areas protected from erosion and flood by embankment is deprived of yearly deposition of a fresh fertile layer of soil. Thus the embankment may affect soil characteristics and natural fertility of protected lands. 6.2.11 Evaluation of impacts The magnitude of the impacts cither positive or negative has to he quantified to conduct EIA. The most common measurements of some parameters are length, number and area affected or benefited. The evaluation of some of the parameters related to quality of life is very difficult to meet the require specialized training and long experience. The scope of this guideline will make a quantities and qualitative evaluation of various related environmental parameters
based on available information, experience, field observation. simple survey and measurement correlate them to the magnitude of the impacts. The following mitigation measures may be helpful a. Allow control flooding to avoid loss of breeding and feeding ground in flood plain or compensation of loss by fish culture, b. Provide adequate opening in roads and embankment for drainage. c. Prevent drainage from agricultural land d. Avoid complete drying up of wetland e. Restore alternative habitat for endangered species, f. Find alternative route to avoid forest or agricultural land loss through planning exercise. g. Incorporate destruction of nuisance plants in maintenance programe. h. Convert the plants in compost for application as a soil conditioner, i. Reduce use of pesticides and insecticides through integrated management system, j. Select appropriate soil for road construction and compact the road material properly, provide proper slope k. Avoid road construction across the flood plain in the direction to flood flow. i. Stabilize road surface with a suitable stabilizer to avoid dust blowing. m. Use surface water is available. n. Prevent unplanned construction and unauthorized uses of roads and embankments. The social and economic structure of the rural communities has a major hearing on how the environmental resources will be demanded and used for various purposes. The study area is located in agriculture-based communities. CHAPTER VII RURAL ENVIRONMENTS AND CULTURE 7.1 Introduction High incidence of diarrhea diseases and infant mortality in rural site of developing countries is related to lack of safe water supply and sanitation and unhygienic behavior. Every year, respondents say children under five years of age die of diarrhea and every child suffers an average of two diarrhea attacks a year. Against this back ground it is obvious that in the overall objectives given for water supply and sanitation projects stress the contributions to improve health. This makes it very important to understand how transmission of water borne diseases is taking place. 7.2 Health and sanitation problems Access to safe drinking water and sanitary toilet are important human development indicators. To minimize exposure to water borne diseases, one needs to use both safe water and sanitary toilet. The situation with sanitation has remains disappointing as before. So far, the main thrust of the government and the NGOs has been to ensure safe drinking water in the rural areas through providing hand tube wells. The program has been comprehensive and it is claims more than 90% of the population of Bangladesh has access to save drinking water. Five out of the seven villages in the study areas seem to support this claim.
The most prevalent types of diseases that the people in the study areas suffer from include diarrhea, dysentery, jaundice and skin diseases, all of which are water borne. This indicates the despite access to tube well water, people still need to be trained on personal and family health. Despite efforts by DPHE and some NGOs most households in rural Bangladesh still open toilet at all. In five villages surveyed, about 70% of the households use sanitary toilets but in the rest of the villages. The picture is really dismal. The situation is really bad in other two villages where only 30% and 50% of the households have sanitary latrines. 7.3 Hygiene behavior People in the study areas often have a poor understanding about the relationship between health, water and sanitation. In some areas this understanding may exists but people still practice unhygienic habits. Observations have shown that it is often easier to change technology than people's behavior and practices. Keeping this in mind, the questionnaire is redesigned with emphasis on health and hygiene behavior. Observation and questionnaire survey indicated that about 96% of the populations of the study areas use tube-well water for drinking; many people use some unsafe sources for other purposes like personnel and domestic needs. As a result incidences of morbidity and mortality from water borne diseases are still high in the areas. Behavioral changes in sanitation leaves much to be desired (local government division 1998). It may be mentioned that diarrhea is the most important cause of death and almost 19% of all infant death were cause by diarrhea (Bangladesh bureau of statistics 1998). Water and sanitation related diseases include various types of diarrhea, worm infestations, skin and eye infections and vector borne diseases. It is important to be familiar with various transmission patterns, so as to be able to identify which particular hygiene behaviors and measures can help to interrupt disease transmission. As the impact of water supply and sanitation improvements on a disease depends on its transmission route, water supply and sanitation facilities can be expected to affect the diseases in a group in a similar way. 7.4 Cultural aspect Every body have some notion about what is good and what is bad for our health and what is clean, hygiene, or pure, and what is dirty. These notions may differ per family, local community, or religious, socio-economic or ethnic group. What these notions have in common is that they influence our daily practice and hygiene behaviors. They may however not necessarily be in line with what is needed to avoid transmission of diseases. In rural study areas, people believe sweet or sugary food is the cause of worm infestation. Another said that in rural areas the excreta of babies and little children are considered to be harmless. The defecation in the open by children is acceptable and very common practice.
Some traditional behaviors may not be based on an understanding of disease transmission but are basically healthy. In many different communities human excreta are considered to be polluting and dangerous. Also among many groups of people the left hand is used for canal cleaning and no matter how well this hand is washed afterwards, it remains "dirty" and should never be used for handling and serving food, eating, shaking hand, etc. Cultural views on causes of water and sanitation related diseases often vary between different groups of people, like women and men, rich and poor, old and young, etc. Cultural views on causes of water and sanitation related diseases often vary between different groups of people may change with time, these perceptions result hygiene behaviors which are not always grounded in health reasons hut may be good, so no need to change. 7.5 Access to water supply and sanitation facilities Without the resources to construct and maintain water supply and sanitation facilities is difficult to attain levels of personnel, domestic and environment hygiene conducive to health. Resources relate not only to money, but also to the availability of land, time, materials and also technology. All together they need management skills for achieving improved facilities (Islam, 1992, 1999, 2001). In this part of Bangladesh, water collection, often a responsibility of women, and usually also children, can be very time consuming and arduous work. Water carrying from a long distances can absorb a quarter or more of the daily food intake; the task thus leaves less time and energy for other essential activities. Water availability is a major factor in facilitation improvements in hygiene practices. But an improved water supply alone does not always lead to the use of more water, as people may not be accustomed to doing so, or there may be other constraints. Where facilities are presents, socio-economic criteria are determined whether people are allowed and can afford to use them. Sometimes particular socio economic groups are excluded from access, notably by the local elite or political or religious power groups. In a number of cases, people lack the money to buy or the time to collect sufficient quantities of water for daily needs. Water supply and sanitation in the poor neighborhoods is often of a much lower standard and at a much higher price than in the well off neighborhoods. On the other hand, for household work tube well water is used by only a small number of the population of the study areas. This is in part due to limited awareness to the health hazard related to the use of ponds or rivers for household purpose, but is also dependent on how far the water source is. Unless it is close enough, it is extremely unlikely that people would use the tube-well for all household purpose (govt. of Bangladesh). 7.6 Socio economic factors
Our health related behavior is not only determined by a complex mix of our knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, norms, and customs. Socio- economic determinants like social values and structure, income, resources constraints and education and even political factors also play a dominant role. Hygiene behavior and the prevention of water and sanitation-related diseases are influenced by socio-economic factors, such as proper housing, nutrition, clothing and education. Although the precise relation is difficult to establish, it is not difficult to imagine that families with better housing find it easier to maintain personal and domestic hygiene than people with poor housing, especially when poor housing is combined with crowding. More and better clothing can be washed more regularly; better nutrition provides a barrier against disease transmission. Education may help to develop hygienic behavior. Where poverty causes families, including mothers of small children, to make every effort to earn a living insufficient time will be left to spend on behavior conducive to prevent of water and sanitation related disease. Adequate hand washing is very important for good health. Study indicated that as a rubbing agent, soil was commonly used 40%, soap used by 29%, and reported unaffordable by about 81% of non user. Good hand washing behavior was positively associated with better social and economic indicators including education of women observed. Both hands sufficiently contaminated after traditional hand washing. After standardizing the observed components of hand washing procedures, the use of any rubbing agent, such as soil, ash or soap, produced acceptable cleaning. The use of rubbing agent, such as soil or soap, rinsing with safer water, and drying with a clean cloth or in the air produced acceptable bacteriological result (ITN PUBLICATION). 7.7 Hygiene education Hygiene education can be defined as "process which promotes conditions and practices that prevent water and sanitation related diseases" (ITN PUBLICATION). Hygiene education is needed to improve the current sanitation situation in the study areas. Hygiene education is an important component of water supply and sanitation programmers because it helps users to appreciate the need for proper water supply and sanitation facilities. It also maximizes the potential health benefits of improved water supply and sanitation facilities. It will help the need for proper operation and maintenance of improved sanitation facilities, creates a willingness to contribute to the operation and maintain cost. Many hygiene approaches will teach people about water and sanitation related diseases. What they are, how they are caused, and how they can be prevented. But the education does not itself reduce the risks of transmitting these diseases, only actions can. 7.8 Health
Women receive less than adequate health care in Bangladesh and it is no exception in the study areas. The main reason for such negligence is poor socio economic condition that prevails in rural Bangladesh. Previously rural women had very little access to professional health care, this situation has lately improved due to home visits by NGOs worker or health workers. The health workers discuss about child health, mother's health, women education, birth control, personal health and family planning gets the most of the attention and sanitation is the least discussed topic. The situation in the study areas is about 12% use sanitary toilet, yet as much 82% respondents do not receive any advice on proper sanitation from health workers. This is same as for the safe drinking water. People do not know and do not get sufficient advice to make pure water for drinking. About coping with other water related issues, there seems to be a total lack of initiative. Despite the fact that water borne diseases are pervasive, little attempt is made for boiling or filtering water before it is used for drinking and cooking. The reason is that hand tube wells are used in all the villages as the primary and almost exclusive source of drinking water and the villagers perceive this source as "safe". They are not to blame - for many years this is the message that has been given to them. Beside boiling water is expensive and not many can afford to boiling water on regular basis due to difficulty in gathering fuel. For water purification people use more options than previously they had but they do not try to use it. Only some time when they collect water from river or some other source, they use tablets or filtering as a method of water purification, some time they also they even do not want to do that. As a result, they are drinking unsafe water and water borne and water related diseases are breaking out. 7.9 Women and water A few things is very clear, the primary house hold activities such as cooking and housekeeping and child care are almost exclusively performed by women in the location as all in the Bangladesh. In study areas, women are also involved in income generating activities. They are raising poultry, handicraft and cattle. The most common tasks performed by women are cooking, taking care of children, household chores, collecting water and fuel. In the study areas, it is found that women are solely performing in collection of water. But women in relatively well off families do not collect water themselves. Their maid, adult children or family members are used for this purpose. Significant amount of time of a woman's and their effort is taken up because of water collection. On average, a woman spends 70 minute of a day just for the water collection. It is assumed that she is collecting water only once in a day to use all domestic purpose other than drinking. This increases the opportunity cost for women by reducing their leisure and working time. Women and water is not only interrelated in terms of time taken by women to collect water for household chores. Depending on the distance of water source, women endure both physical and social problems. The main hardship faced by women during water collection is induced by weather factors. Water must be collected in rain or sun.
Under the scorching sun of summer, it is extremely difficult to walk half a mile or more with a pitcher full of water. It is on the other hand very risky to do the same in outpouring rain when the roads get muddy and slippery. CHAPTER VIII CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 8.1 Conclusions Based on the analyses of the data and information collected the following conclusions are drawn: 1. The life and culture in the study areas are intricately linked with water and influenced by age old tradition and modern day priorities. One thing is very clear: life in rural communities still revolve around agricultural activities that are closely tied with the natural cycle of water availability. Lately, water quality has become a major consideration since detection of high levels of arsenic and iron in groundwater and salt water intrusion in the coastal areas. All of these take place in the complex socio economic and cultural fabric of the rural communities. 2. All the study areas selected for this study had typical developing country village like characteristics very low income, high illiteracy rate, small land ownership and so on. The population age distribution was very revealing about 51% of the population was below the age of 20 and only 4% were above the age of 60. This leads to a very high dependency ratio. This huge mass of young people must be given proper education, training and healthcare. Otherwise these communities will face serious problems from a large number of unemployed youth. 3. The status of women in the study village is poorer compared to the male population both in terms of education and income. Women are particularly vulnerable as in most cases they do not have any income or savings of their own. In case of family emergencies or natural disasters such as floods, drought and cyclone, women suffer significantly more than the males of the same family. Families are very much the unit of rural communities in Bangladesh. Elderly parents stay with the son or daughter. Decisions in a family are usually made jointly. However, some important decisions have a strong gender slant. While making decisions on land and asset, the male head of the family dominates. On the other hand, decisions on family planning and children's education are mainly formulated by the female head of the family. 4. The life style in the study areas is traditional agriculture and fisheries arc the main sources of income in most villages. Alternative income generating activities from poultry, livestock and fish farms are very limited. There is much room for intervention in this area that can significantly lift the income and standard of living in rural Bangladesh. Where appropriate, villagers can and do engage in trading, which can provide employments to many. Almost every house of the study areas has sanitary latrines. People in general have a very poor understanding of the relation between health and sanitation. Rural sanitation
suffers much from the poor understanding of the health benefits of sanitary latrines. 5. The link between water and rural life is intricate. The annual cycle of water availability and its seasonal variation has important bearings on rural life. The distribution of water over the hydrologic year is highly uneven in the monsoon all the areas have water surplus and in the dry season, water shortage becomes pervasive. The major water issues in the study areas include flood, drought, salinity, iron, and water logging. 6. Not much mobilization was observed in terms of water supply for drinking or irrigation. Due to poor socio economic condition, lack of education and lack of rural institutions, the responsibility of providing water for the households and agriculture primarily lies with the government and the NGOs. In fact, NGOs activities arc also limited to easily accessible places and remote areas are still neglected. When local communities became part of a larger regional project, there was little involvement of the local people. The participatory approach in water management is yet to he introduced in these areas. 7. Tube well water is mainly used for drinking. Tube well is widely believed to be a safe source of drinking water. Only recently, the villagers are learning about the danger of arsenic in water collected from shallow tube wells. Other household chores washing, bathing and cleaning are still done using pond and river water, which could be the reason behind the prevalence of water borne diseases. 8. While water for agriculture is mainly arranged by men, water for household needs is almost exclusively collected by women. Major problems faced by women in this regard include unfavorable weather (rain, mud and heat), physical hardship, time involvement and social problems (religious restriction on working outside, security while collecting water after sunset) 9. The environmental need of water is the most neglected part water projects have adversely affected fish and other aquatic species by blocking their migration routes. Indirectly, irrigation and flood control projects have contributed to conversion of forest, bush and wetland into crop fields and destroyed habitats of wild species. During major foods, wild species become particularly vulnerable as they try to take shelter on higher grounds or trees already occupied by humans. Moreover, monoculture and commercial varieties have locally reduced biodiversity 8.2 Recommendations Based on the conclusions drawn above the following recommendations are made: 1. The work should extend to particularly observe the effect of development activities such as road, embankments, building construction etc. 2. The study can be extended to analyzed regular form irrigation schemes impacts on local ecology, water and environment.
3. Similar study can be carried out for impacts of industry implementation in local environment and water. 4. Here, the analysis is based on water uses and environmental problems, water quality is not done sophistically. Water quality should he investigated in details. 5. The probabilities of the water resource developments and its impacts can be studied. 8.3 Further Recommendations Further recommended to be conducted in this regard that can be useful for mitigation of the negative impacts and enhance the positive impacts on environment in the rural areas of Bangladesh. REFERENCES 1. Zahurul Islam, M., (1992): Water sanitation and hygiene in Rural Bangladesh, published in the J. of Irrigation Engineering and Rural Planning, the Japanese Society of Irrigation, Drainage and Reclamation Engineering, No. 23, Tokyo, Japan. 2.
Zahurul Islam, M., (1994): Regional surface water availability during dry and monsoon seasons in Bangladesh, published in the J. of, Irrigation Engineering and Rural Planning, the Japanese Society of Irrigation, Drainage and Reclamation Engineering, No. 26, Tokyo, Japan.
Zahurul Islam, M., (1999): Environmental impacts of cross bunds and sluice gates constructed over the river Baral in the Chalan Beel region, Institute of Water and Flood Management, BUET, Final Report, R 03 /1999, Dhaka.
Zahurul Islam, M., datta, A. R., Mondal, M. S. and Rahman, M. S., (2001): Environmental impacts of drainage congestion in beel Kuralia and its mitigation approach, Institute of Water and Flood Management, BUET, Final Report, Dhaka.
Zahurul Islam, M., (2003): An investigation on flood flow vulnerability and environmental impacts of Mayakanon Project, Institute of Water and Flood Management, BUET, Final Report, Dhaka.
Zahurul Islam, M., (2004): An investigation on flood flow vulnerability and environmental impacts of Modhumoti Model Town, Institute of Water and Flood Management, BUET, Final Report, Dhaka
ANNEXURE-A FLOOD AND DROUGHT PHOTOGRAPHS
Photo A-1: Local area under water
Photo A-3: Effects of early drought on a
Photo A-2: Effects of drought
Photo A-3: Effects of early drought on a wheat crop