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Effect of Different Count of Yarn on Grey Fabric Properties 1. Flammability Test

FLAMEPROOF FABRIC: Flameproof fabrics are absolutely necessary for protective clothing in many industrial processes where the chances of inflammable fabrics being ignited are high. In the domestic sphere many serious and tragic accidents are the results of clothing catching fire, e.g. a dress is ignited when a young lady is powdering her face and using a mirror placed over the mantelpiece. Some definitions and terms used relating to flammability Flammable: A flammable fabric is one which propagates flame, i.e. it continues to burn after the igniting flame has been removed. Flame-resistance rating: The time in seconds necessary for the propagation of flame 100 in. in a vertical strip. Flame-proof: A flame-proof fabric is one which does not propagate flame, i.e. any flame goes out quickly when the igniting flame is withdrawn. Flame-resistant: A Flame-resistant fabric is one whose flame-resistance rating is high, i.e. above 150. Durably fame-proof material: Flame-proofed material which, after being submitted to a washing treatment, remains -flame-proof. Factors affecting flame-resistance:


Some general conclusions on the factors which affect the flame-resistance of fabrics are included in a report published by the British Standards Institution. Fiber content: The flame-resistance of a fabric is partly dependent on the fiber from which it is made. Cellulosic fibers such as cotton, flax, and viscose rayon give fabrics of low flameresistance; wool fabrics are usually difficult to ignite; nylons and Terylene, both thermoplastic fibers, shrink from the flame and tend not to ignite, although special stiffening treatments and certain dyes may result: in the flammability of nylons and Terylene. Type of yarn: It has been found that for all practical purpose yarn structure in itself does not affect the flame-resistance of a fabric. Fabric structure: The flame-resistance of a fabric appears to be largely independent of the manufacturing process by which it has been made, e.g. weaving, knitting, twisting, lace making, fiber bonding, felting. Fabric weight: 1.For fabrics which propagate flame it has been found that flame-resistance is related to their weight as well as to their fiber content; for any given fiber, the heavier the fabric the higher will be its flame resistance. 2. For a given fiber the flame-resistance rating of a fabric has been found to be directly proportional to its weight in ounces per square yard; a 6 oz cotton fabric, for instance, will have twice the flame-resistance of a similar cotton fabric weighing 3 oz. The graphs in illustrate this relationship. 2. Perspiration Test

Introduction: The garments which come into contact with the body where perspiration is heavy may suffer serious local discoloration. This test is intended to determine the resistance of color of dyed textiles to the action of acid and alkali perspiration.


SDC recommended multifibre fabric to the test specimen and immersed into water, drained and placed between two plates under a specific pressure and time in a testing device. Any change in color of the specimen and staining of the multifibre fabric is then assessed with the corresponding Grey scales for color change and staining. 3. Absorbency Test Definition of Absorbency:Absorbency is the ability of a fiber to take up moisture and is expressed as moisture region, which is the percentage of moisture that bone-dry fiber will absorb from the air under standard conditions of temperature and humidity. The moisture regain of a fiber can be changed. For example on cotton fiber when mercerization is done, it increases cotton’s absorptive power and acetylation lower’s it. Absorbent fibers are hydrophilic or water loving while non-absorbent fibers are hydrophobic or water hating.

Related terms of absorbency Water proof: To treat textile material e.g. with fats, waxes or rubber, to prevent the absorption of water. The additions may be#Physical films #Physical coatings #Physical combined. The feature of a water proof (fabric) is the low degree of permeability to air. Shower proof:


To treat textile materials in a manner to delay the absorption and penetration of water. The fabrics retain a degree of permeability to air. The feature of a shower proof fabric is the normal degree of permeability but not properly water-proof. Water repellent: A state characterized by the non-spreading of a globule of water on a textile material. Water retention: This is the moisture remaining in and on a material after a specified mechanical treatment. Wet ability: According to British Cotton Industry Research Association(B.C.I.R.A):A drop of water (or sugar solution) is placed on the specimen which is mounted horizontally. The time taken for the contact angle to drop to 45 degree is noted the reciprocal of the time taken for this purpose is called the wetting velocity or wet ability. Wetting Time: The wetting time can be described by a test developed by Baxter and Cassie.A fabric stripe is immersed in water of 20 .Then it is withdrawn from the water at a speed of 8mm/min.At the start of the test a large receding contact angle is seen but after sometime the angle is to decrease to 90 .This time taken to decrease the angle to 90 is called the wetting time. 4. Stiffness Test

Stiffness: A fabric property to describe its resistance against deformation. Stiffness means resistance to bending. It can be measured by finding out the bending length or bending modulus or flexural rigidity. We used bending length for stiffness test. Shirley stiffness tester is used for this test.


5. Shrinkage Test

Definition: Reduction in length or width of a fiber ,yarn or other textile, induced by conditioning ,wetting, steaming , chemical treatment ,wet processing as in laundering, dry heat or mechanical action. Shrinkage Tests: A fabric would have great technical merit if its dimensions remained constant throughout its useful life. Suits would retain their shape and shirt would retain their size if fabrics could be produced which maintained their original finished settings. One very important dimensional is that which occurs when a fabric is washed. It is common practice to buy shirts and similar cloths a little on the large size in the hope that after a few washings they will have shrunk to the desired fit. It is not proposed to go into the theories of shrinking or the technology of its prevention, but it is necessary to define the different types of shrinkage. Relaxation: During manufacture, fabrics and their component yarns are subjected to applied tension under varying conditions of temperature and moisture content. In the finished state the fabric may be temporarily set in a stretched condition. When crimp was discussed earlier it was noted that such stretching upsets the balance of warp and weft way crimp percentages. The hot and wet conditions of washing allow the strains to relax and therefore the material shrinks.


6. Pilling Test

Definition:Pilling is fabric surface fault characterized by little pills of entangled fiber clinging to the cloth surface and giving the garments cloth surface and giving the garments an unlikely appearance. The pills are formed during wear and washing by the entanglation of loose fibers which protrude from the fabric surface. Effect of fibers and yarns construction on pilling: Pilling is a characteristic of any man-made fibers. Fabrics containing fibers such as acrylic, nylon, or polyester have a tendency to pill. Abrasion from normal wear and cleaning causes the fibers to unravel and the loose ends ball up on the fabric surface. Natural fibers like cotton, linen, or wool may also pill at times, but the balls of fibers are usually removed during laundering. When short staple fibers are used in the formation of yarns, the degree of twist is another important factor. Tightly twisted yarns composed of short staple fibers are considered more secure than loosely twisted yarns composed of short staple fibers. Usually the higher the twist of the individual fibers, the moirĂŠ securely they are bound and the less likely they are to pill. Effect of construction of the fabric on pilling: The construction of the fabric is also important in determining its susceptibility to pilling. A very tight, compact construction, such as denim, usually pills very little. However, a loosely knitted or woven fabric will show more pilling with both wear and cleaning. Pilling is often more noticeable on knitted fabrics, such as sweaters, than on woven. Lint often becomes tangled in the little balls of fiber which makes the pilling appear more obvious. Causes of pilling: 1. Due to wear and finishing. 2. Due to rubbing action of fabrics with particular parts of a garment. 3. Due to soft twisted yarn. 4. Due to excess short fibers.


5. Due to migration of fibers from constituent yarn in fabric. 6. Yarn hairiness. 7. Due to heat formation of thermoplastic fibers. 8. Low denier of nylon filament. 7. Crease Resistance & Recovery Theory of crease resistance & recovery: Several terms are used to describe creasing characteristics of the fabric. Crease or wrinkle resistance means that a fabric resists bending twisting and other deformations.Crease recovery means that a fiber or fabric can bend and twist and then recover from this deformation. A fabric that resists bending when the body bend is less comfortable then one that gives and then recovers its original smoothness. Therefore crease recovery describes the performance that the consumer desires in a fabric. BOCK and MCCORD define crease resistance as that property of a fabric which causes it to recover from folding deformations that normally occur during its use. The recovery will depend on time varying for different fabric from an instantaneous recovery to a slow disappearance for the crease. Wrinkle may be regarded as fabric dimension which are not severe enough to produce crease. Factors affecting crease recovery Yarn structure: Yarn structure must be considered when a crease forms in a woven or Knitted fabric, the yarns bend. The fiber in the outer side of the yarn are strained, those on the inner side are compressed. Researchers who have investigated the factors of fabric structure related to crease resistance and recovery suggest that the following principles operate. 1. The most important factor in the crease resistance is the freedom of the yarn and fibers to release. Loosely woven fabrics generally allow more fibers redistribution and motion and therefore have better crease recovery. 2. Stiffer fabrics will become creased to a looser degree than will more flexible fabrics. Since greater pressure is required to form a crease in stiff fabrics. Stiff fabrics will form fewer wrinkles during washing and drying but once wrinkles have been formed wrinkle recovery is less than, it is far more flexible fabrics. Strength of the bond and cross links:


Fabric crease recovery is depended on the resiliency of the fibers. Fiber resiliency is depended on the strength of the bond and cross link that hold the molecular chain together after a cloth is bend, thus preventing the formation of a wrinkle. 8. Tightness factor

Definition: Munden first suggested the use of a factor to indicate the relative tightness or looseness of plain weft knitted structure, to be used in a similar manner to that of the cover factor in the weaving industry. Originally termed the cover factor but now referred to as the tightness factor. Tightness factor, K is a number that indicates the extent to which the area of a knitted fabric is covered by the yarn. It is also an indication of the relative looseness or tightness of the knitting. The ratio of the area covered by the yarn in one loop to the area occupied by that loop is called tightness factor (TF). The total area covered by yarn is: S x l x d Where, l is loop length in mm. d is yarn diameter in mm (assuming the yarn to have a circular cross section and the fabric to be theoretically flat and not three-dimensional). The simplified formula is TF, K =

Tex l

Where, l= Stitch length in SI unit. Stitch Length: Stitch length is defined as the length of yarn required to form a knitted loop. Stitch length is a length of yarn which includes the needle loop and half the sinker loop on either


side of it. Generally the larger the stitch length, the more extensible and lighter the fabric and poorer the cover, opacity and bursting strength. Stitch length = 1 needle loop + 1 sinker loop Measurement of stitch length: 1. Off m/c: (In fabric) • Hattra course length tester • Shirley crimp tester 2. On m/c: (During knitting) • •

Yarn speed meter Yarn length counter

The yarn length counter: It is the simplest in construction providing a reading of the amount of yarn feed in a certain time period. It is particularly suitable for attaching to a moving yarn feeder on a circular revolving cam box m/c. After a specific number of revolutions, the machine is stopped to enable the yarn length reading to be taken; this is then divided by the number of knitting m/c revolution in order to obtain the course length for that feed. The yarn speed meter: It may calibrate & provides a direct reading of the rate of yarn feed, usually in meters per minute, whilst the machine is running. The meter may be hand-held and can be used on a revolving cylinder m/c without the need to stop it. To obtain the course length it is necessary to divide the reading by the number of knitting m/c revolutions per minute.


9. Wales per inch & Course per inch

Object: i)To calculate the no. of Wales per inch. ii) Calculation of course per inch. 10. Fabric GSM


Fabric weight per unit area and unit length: The weight of a fabric can be described in two ways. One s the weight per unit area other is the weight per unit length. In fabric descriptions, the weight per unit length is usually referred as the weight per running yards. It is necessary therefore to know the agreed standard width upon which the weight per running yard is based. 11. Bursting Strength Test

Definition: 1. The ability of a material to resist rupture by pressure. 2.The force required to rupture a fabric by distending it with a force applied at right angles to the plane of the fabric under specified conditions. Burst strength is a measure widely used for knit fabrics, nonwoven fabrics, and felts where the constructions do not lend themselves to tensile tests. The two basic types of burst tests are the inflated diaphragm method and the ball-burst method. Yarn count, Machine gauge & Stitch length For single jersey fabric: Serial number

Yarn count

Machine gauge

Stitch length

01

24

24

2.72

02

28

24

2.72

03

30

24

2.72

04

32

24

2.72

Serial number

Yarn count

Machine gauge

Stitch length

01

26

24

3.00

For rib fabric:


02

28

24

3.00

03

30

24

3.00

Serial number

Yarn count

Machine gauge

Stitch length

01

30

24

3.00

02

32

24

3.00

03

34

24

3.00

For interlock fabric:

Yarn properties Table:The property table of Yarn Yarn count

T.P.I

Actual Count

Actual Strength

C.S.P

24’s

19.05

23.60

116

2737.6

26’s

19.93

25.52

102

2603.04

28’s

20.46

27.50

102

2805

30’s

20.46

29.78

90

2680.2

32’s

20

31.50

85

2677.5

34’s

22

33.64

80.2

2697.928

CHAPTER-3 Method & Experimental Process 1. Wales per inch & Course per inch Method used:By A.S.T.M(American Society For Testing Materials) Methods of measuring threads per inch: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

one inch counting glass-a simple microscope traversing thread counter – a traveling microscope filled with a pointer to aid counting Fabric dissection - a known width is unraveled and the threads are difficult to distinguish. Parallel line gratings – a rapid optical method. Taper line grafting - a development of no Parallel line gratings.


conditioning time – 24 hrs The 1 inch counting glass is not recommended when the number of threads per inch is less than 25. In each case, a 3 inch sample could be unraveled and the treads counted. In the specification it will be noted that specimen should be conditioned for at least 24 hours before testing. The regions near the selvedges should be avoided because the spacing of the threads is often a little different than in the body of the cloth. Apparatus: 1. one inch counting glass 2. Needle 3. Pencil Sample: Grey knitted fabric1. Single jersey 2. Rib 3. Interlock Procedure: i) At first set the counting glass at the desired position. ii) Then count the Wales or coarse with needle through the counting glass.. 2. Fabric GSM

Method used: By A.S.T.M Methods: 1. G.S.M cutter


2. Quadrant balance- count/100 yds² d = 1/28 πr² = 3.14 x (1128/2)² = 99.882 Objective: 1) To determine the gsm of the given sample of fabric 2) To compare the gsm of fabric Apparatus: 1) Template 2) Quadrant balance 3) Scissor 4)GSM cutter 5) Electric balance Sample: 1) Grey cotton knitted fabric i) Single jersey Machine specification: Name: G.S.M cutter. Brand: Good brand & co. ltd Scale: 100 yds for fabric

ii) rib iii) interlock


Procedure: 1) For measuring gsm we should cut the fabric sample by gsm cutter. By this way cut 10 knitted samples. 2) Now weight this sample by electric balance. 3) By this way we get the weight in gm per square meter. 4) Now find out the average of this found weight. 3.Bursting Strength Test Method Used: By A.S.T.M Method of Bursting Strength test: 01. Hydraulic bursting strength testing method 02.Mechanical bursting strength testing method

We used Hydraulic bursting strength testing method for the grey fabric samples. Atmospheric condition: Temp.- 25 c Relative Humidity- 65% Apparatus required: 1.Hydraulic bursting strength tester (Truburst-James H Heal& Co.Ltd) 2.Grey fabric Test area-50cm square (79.8 mm dia)


Clamping-6.0 bar Pressure rate-10 KPa/s Pressure drop- 10.00 KPa Diaphragm- 1.0 mm Duraflex Procedure: 01. At first required shaped samples are taken. 02. Then samples are kept on the diaphragm. 03. Now the plastic lid is kept on the sample in order to make it air tight. 04. Then the m/c is started to create required pressure to burst the sample. 05. Then the readings are taken from the monitor. 4. Flammability Test Method used: By A.S.T.M Method of the Test of Flammability: 1. Vertical strip Test 2. The visual Timing Test 3. The Hoop Test 4. The 45째 Test Working procedure of Vertical strip test: 1. The rate of propagation of the flame is measured in terms of the distance is millimeters per minute that the base of flame travels up a strip 30 cm long and 2.5 cm wide. 2. The time to travel between two markers 17cm apart is observed.


Fig: Flammability Test 3. The rate of propagation is then given as (17t) 60 cm/minute.

5. Perspiration Test Method used: By A.S.T.M Method of Perspiration Test: Color fastness to Perspiration

Apparatus:         

SDC recommended multi-fibre fabric perspirometer Non-dyeable fabric (eg.Polypropylene) acid & alkali solution Grey scale for color changing Grey scale for staining oven (to maintain temp of 37+20C) glass or Acrylic plates. Standerd lighting chamber


Recipe for perspiration: Alkali solution Disodium hydrogen orthophosphate dihydrate :2.5gm/L L-histadine monohydrochloric hydrate

:0.5gm/L

Common salt

:5gm/L

PH

:8

Acid Solution Disodium hydrogen orthophosphate dihydrate :2.2gm/L L-histadine monohydrochloric hydrate

:0.5gm/L

Common salt

:5gm/L

PH

:5.5

Sample preparation: The tested sample is prepared as below:  A 10cm × 4 cm grey fabric sample to be tested is taken.  Another two pieces of fabric sample which are scoured, bleached but unfinished same dimension sample is also taken.  One of the unfinished samples will be of same fibre of the tested sample. Another sample’s fibre type will depend on the type of fibre constitute the tested sample. Here we tested cotton sample and the two other fabric is cotton and multi fibre fabric.  Now the tested sample is placed between the unfinished samples covering and sewn together.

Test procedure:  Immerse each composite specimen in acid or alkali solution in a beaker for 30mins at room temperature, ensure that the specimen are thoroughly wetted out by agitating the samples with stirring rod, Liquor ratio 1:50.


 Place the specimen into a resin acrylic or glass plate and draw across with the stirring rod to remove any air bubbles. Place another resin plate (acrylic plate) on top of the specimens to fully enclose it with fabrics uppermost. Place a max ten specimens, ensuing that each specimen is separated by one resin plate.  Bring the upper pressure plate of the perspirometer down to rest on top of the resin plates and place the 4.5 kg wt on to the pressure plate and tighten the securing screws. This is equal to the pressure of 12.5KPa being applied on the specimens.  Now place the specimen into a oven at 37+20C / below 60OC for 4hours.  On completion of the test, remove the specimen from the oven & separate them from the resin plates Interpretation of result: Change in colour – From portion of sample change in color is compared with the untreated dyed sample on contrast basis with the help of grey scale. The grade of contrast in grey scale is the water fastness of the sample. Staining – The staining is measured by staining grey scale. Here the staining of unfinished sample is compared with the original untreated unfinished sample from staining grey scale on the basis of contrast. 6. Absorbency Test Method followed: By A.S.T.M Methods of testing: 1.The wetting time test. 2.The spray test. 3.The drop test or drop penetration test. 4.The Bundesmann test. 5.Shirley Hydrostatic head test. The Spray Test: Working Principle:


#In this test a small scale mock rain shower is produced by pouring water through a spray nozzle. The water falls on to specimen which is mounted over a 6 inch diameter embroidery hoop and fixed at an angle of 45 degree. #To carry out the test,250

of water at 70

are poured steadily into the funnel for

25-30 sec.

#After spraying has finished the sample holder is removed and the surplus water removed by tapping the frame six times against a solid object. #The assessment of the fabrics water repellency is given the spray rating.After the removal of the surplus water is accomplished the fabric surface is examined visually. #The American Association of Textile Chemists and colorists recommended the use of a chart of photographs against which the actual fabric appearance is compared. The ratings are as follows

100→No sticking or wetting or wetting of the upper surface. 90 →Slight random sticking or wetting of the upper surface . 80 →Wetting of upper surface at spray point. 70 →Partial wetting of water of upper surface. 50 →Complete wetting of whole of upper surface. 0 →Complete wetting of whole of upper and lower surface.


#Seven test should be made and the nearest rating assigned to each since no interpolation is allowed i.e. a raining for a specimen can not be is 75.The mean of seven ratings is reported. 7. Stiffness Test Method followed: By A.S.T.M Methods of stiffness test: 1. The Shirley stiffness tester 2. The heart loop tester 3. The Drape meter Bending length: This is the length of fabric that will bend under its own weight to a definite extent. It is a measure of the stiffness that determines draping quality. C=lf1 (Ө) C=l (cosine Ө/2/8tanӨ) Where, C=Bending length l=Unsupported fabric length Ө=Bending angle For Shirley stiffness tester Ө=41.5, & f1 (Ө) =0. Basic principle of Shirley stiffness tester: A rectangular strip of fabric, 6 inchx1 inches, is mounted on a horizontal platform in such a way that it over laps likes a cantilever & bends downwards. From the unsupported length (l) & the bending angle (Ө), the value of bending length(c) can be determined, which indicate the stiffness of the fabric. If the bending length is more than the fabric will be stiff more & vice versa.

Fig: Shirley stiffness tester


Working procedure: A test specimen is cut to size (6"x1") with the aid of the template & then both template & specimen are transferred to the platform with the fabric underneath. Both are slowly pushed forward. The strip of fabric will commence to drop over the edge of the platform and the movement of the template (i.e. the scale) & the fabric is continued until tip of the specimen viewed in the mirror cut both index lines.

Fig:Cantilever principle The bending length can immediately be read off from the scale mark opposite a zero line engraved on the side of the platform. Each specimen is tested seven times at each end & again with the strip turned over. Mean values for the bending length in courses & Wales direction can then be calculated. 8.Shrinkage Test Method followed: By A.S.T.M Sample size: Interlock- 30x30 cm, RIB & S/J- 15X15 cm Testing for shrinkage: It is logical to assume that the shrinkage test on a particular type of material should put the fabric through a washing procedure similar to that which it would go through in practice. The wide variety of fabrics on the market today encourages the manufacturers of soaps and detergents to issue washing instructions for the different types of material.


The principles of shrinkage tests are simple but it is necessary to follow the standard procedures in order to obtain comparative results. Essentially, the tests are carried out in the following stages: 1. Preparation of specimens: The fabric should be conditioned in a standard testing atmosphere before marking out. Usually three pairs of datum line are marks out in each direction. The marking out may be done with ink or with sewing thread. 2. Washing: The sample in the relevant washing solution in a washing machine conforming to certain specifications. After the specified time has elapsed the sample is rinsed. 3. Drying: After rinsing the surplus water is removed by centrifuge or by hand squeezing or rolling in toweling. Drying is completed by means of a flat-heated press or a heated flat iron. 4. Conditioning and re measuring: After drying, the specimen is conditioned in a standard testing atmosphere and the distances between the datum line measured. Percentage shrinkage: This is calculated from the mean changes in the distance between the datum lines. Percentage shrinkage= S= Where, L.B.W. is the distance between the datum lines before washing and L.A.W. is the distance between the datum lines after washing. 9.Pilling Test Method followed: By A.S.T.M


Method of pilling test: 1. The Martindale Abrasion Tester 2. Braid, Hat field and Morris's pill tester 3. The ICI Pilling box test 4. The Du-Pont random pilling Tester

Atmospheric condition: Temp. 25 c Relative Humidity- 65% Apparatus required: 1. GSM cutter 2. Scissor 3. Martindale Abrasion Tester 4. Grey fabric Procedure: 1. At first cut the fabric according to measure of the GSM cutter. 2. Two pieces are taken from each sample and they are placed in opposite to one another on the circular disk. 3. There is provision of eight heads to be set on the m/c. 4. Then the cycle of rotation is set (500 cycles). 5. After the preset cycle the m/c stops automatically and the samples are offloaded from the m/c. 6. Each sample is compared with the standard one and ratings are given. 10. Crease Resistance & Recovery


Method followed: By A.S.T.M Method of measuring crease recovery: •

The total test

The Shirley crease recovery test

Continental method.

The LINRA sunray crease evaluator

Working Procedure: 1. A specimen is cut from the fabrics with a template 2 inch long by 1 inch wide. 2. It is carefully creased by folding in half placing it between two glass and adding a 2 kg weight 3. After 1 min the weight is removed and the specimen transferred to the fabrics clamp on the instrument.

4. At the end of the time period allowed for recovery, usually 1 min the recovery angle in degrees is reed on the engraved scale. 5. Course and Wales way recovery are reported separately to the nearest degree from the mean values of seven testes. 11.Tightness factor Instrument Used for stitch length: Stitch length meter Procedure: • • • • •

First collect the length of yarn feeding in meter during knitting in required revolution. Find the average. Multiply by 1000 to convert in mm. Divide by the number of needle. Divide by revolution number.


•

Then we find the Stitch Length.

Calculation for stitch length: Here for Single Jersey fabric, the yarn lengths measured by meter for a 24G machine are 30.70m, 30.80m, 30.76m and 30.78m. So Stitch length

=

30.70 + 30.80 + 30.76 + 30.78 m 4

= 30.76 m = (30.76 x 1000) mm = 30760 mm =

30760 mm 2262

[Here total number of needles 2262 in 24G and 30 inch dia machine]

= 13.6 mm =

13.6 mm 5

[number of revolution = 5]

= 2.72 mm

CHAPTER 4 RESULT AND DISCUSSION 1.Experimental data of WPI and CPI Test Result: 1.1Table for Interlock (30 Ne) Sl no. 01 02 03 04 05 06 07

C.P.I. 41 39 38 40 40 41 41

Avg.

40

W.P.I. 30 30 30 30 30 30 30

Avg.

30


1.2Table for interlock (32 Ne) Sl no. 01 02 03 04 05 06 07

C.P.I. 40 40 40 40 40 40 40

Avg.

40

W.P.I. 30 31 30 30 30 29 30

Avg.

W.P.I. 31 31 32 31 31 30 31

Avg.

30

1.3Table for interlock (34 Ne) Sl no. 01 02 03 04 05 06 07

C.P.I. 40 40 40 40 39 40 40

Avg.

40

31


Causes of even result: Due to double jersey structure dimensional stability helps to remain result uniform. 1.4Table for rib (26 Ne) Sl no. 01 02 03 04 05 06 07

C.P.I. 42 41 42 42 42 42 42

Avg.

42

W.P.I. 25 24 25 25 26 25 25

Avg.

25

1.5Table for rib (28 Ne) Sl no. 01 02 03 04 05 06 07

C.P.I. 43 42 43 43 44 43 43

Avg.

43

W.P.I. 23 25 23 24 24 25 24

Avg.

24


1.6Table for rib (30 Ne) Sl no. 01 02 03 04 05 06 07

C.P.I. 40 41 40 40 39 40 40

Avg.

40

W.P.I. 26 26 25 26 26 26 26

Avg.

26

Causes of even result: Due to double jersey structure dimensional stability helps to remain result uniform with a little variation. 1.7Table for single jersey (24 Ne) Sl no. 01 02 03 04 05 06 07

C.P.I. 55 55 56 56 55 54 55

Avg.

55

W.P.I. 28 28 28 28 28 28 28

Avg.

28


1.8Table for single jersey (28 Ne) Sl no. 01 02 03 04 05 06 07

C.P.I. 57 58 59 58 57 59 58

Avg.

58

W.P.I. 28 28 28 28 28 28 28

Avg.

28

1.9Table for single jersey (30 Ne) Sl no. 01 02 03 04 05 06 07

C.P.I. 58 58 59 58 57 60 58

Avg.

58

W.P.I. 28 28 28 28 28 28 28

Avg.

28


1.10Table for single jersey (32 Ne) Sl no. 01 02 03 04 05 06 07

C.P.I. 59 60 59 59 58 59 59

Avg.

59

W.P.I. 28 28 28 28 28 28 28

Avg.

28

Causes of even result: Due to single jersey structure less dimensional stability. Causes a little variation. 2.Experimental data for GSM 2.1Table for interlock (30 Ne) Serial no. 01 02 03 04

Fabric wt in gm 2.34 2.34 2.34 2.34

G.S.M=gmx100 234

2.2Table for interlock (32 Ne) Serial no. 01

Fabric wt in gm 2.14

G.S.M=gmx100


02 03 04

2.14 2.14 2.14

214

2.3Table for interlock (34Ne) Serial no. 01 02 03 04

Fabric wt in gm 2.08 2.08 2.08 2.08

G.S.M=gmx100

208

Causes of result variation: Due to increasing yarn count gsm decreased respectively. 2.4Table for Rib (26 Ne) Serial no. 01 02 03 04

Fabric wt in gm 2.14 2.14 2.13 2.14

G.S.M=gmx100 214

2.5Table for Rib (28Ne) Serial no. 01 02 03 04

Fabric wt in gm 1.96 1.96 1.96 1.96

G.S.M=gmx100 196


2.6Table for Rib (30Ne) Serial no.

Fabric wt in gm

01 02 03 04

1.87 1.87 1.87 1.87

G.S.M=gmx100 187

Causes of result variation: Due to increasing yarn count gsm decreased respectively.

2.7Table for single jersey (24Ne) Serial no. 01 02 03 04

Fabric wt in gm 1.55 1.54 1.55 1.54

G.S.M=gmx100 154

2.8Table for single jersey (28Ne)

Serial no. 01 02 03 04

Fabric wt in gm 1.45 1.45 1.45 1.45

G.S.M=gmx100 145


2.9Table for single jersey (30Ne) Serial no. 01 02 03 04

Fabric wt in gm 1.35 1.35 1.35 1.35

G.S.M=gmx100 135

2.10Table for single jersey (32Ne) Serial no. 01 02 03 04

Fabric wt in gm 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20

G.S.M=gmx100 120

Causes of result variation: Due to increasing yarn count gsm decreased respectively. 3.Experimental Data of Bursting Test

Sl. No.

Fabric Type

Count

Single jersey

24

Single jersey

28

01. 02. 03.

Single jersey

01. 02. 03.

Single jersey

01. 02. 03. 01. 02. 03.

Pressure(KPa)

Height(mm) Time(s)

320.4 321.2 320.8 253.2 253.4 253

28.9 28.7 28.7 30.4 30.2 30.6

40 41 40 34 36 32

30

248.5 248.9 249

30.3 30.3 30.3

35 34 35

32

241.5 241.7 241.3

30.2 30.1 30.3

32 33 31


Cause: From the above table we see in case of single jersey fabric, when we use coarser count it requires more pressure and time to burst the fabric. So lower the count higher the strength of the grey fabric(single fabric). Sl. No.

Fabric Type

Count

Pressure(KPa)

Height(mm)

Time(s)

01. 02. 03.

Rib

26

297.7 297.9 297.5

38 37 36

39 40 38

01. 02. 03.

Rib

28

255.9 255.6 256.2

39.4 39.6 39.2

34 34 34

01. 02. 03.

Rib

30

249.6 249.1 249.9

38.7 40 38.4

33 32 34

Cause: From the above table we see in case of single jersey fabric, when we use coarser count it requires more pressure and time to burst the fabric. So lower the count higher the strength of the grey fabric( Rib 1X1 fabric). Sl. No.

Fabric Type

Count

Pressure(KPa)

Height(mm)

Time(s)

01. 02. 03

Interlock

30

452.7 452.4 453

35.7 36 35.4

54 52 56

35 35 35

46 45 47

35.3 35.2 35.4

43 43 43

01. 02. 03. 01. 02. 03.

Interlock

Interlock

32

34

368.7 368.5 368.9 340.7 340.9 340.5

Cause: from the above table we see in case of single jersey fabric, when we use coarser count it requires more pressure and time to burst the fabric. So lower the count higher the strength of the grey fabric(interlock 1X1 fabric). 4.Experimental data of Flammability test 4.1Table for Interlock (30,32,34Ne)


Serial No 01 02 03 04 05 06 07

Time taken to burn in Sec(30Ne)

Avg

Time taken to burn in Sec(32Ne)

Avg

Time taken to burn in Sec(34Ne)

38 40

39 39

39 38

36 38

37 38

38

38

38

37

37

37

39

39

39

39

38

38

37

Avg

38

Causes of Flammability test(INT.): The count used for Interlock is 30,32,34.The effect for these count variation will be negligible when Interlock fabric is subjected for flammability test and fibre composition is also same for each count of yarn. As a result the result of flammability resistance for each type of Interlock fabric is 38. 4.2Table for Rib (26,28,30Ne) Serial No 01 02 03 04 05 06 07

Time taken to burn in Sec(26Ne) 20 21 19 20 20 20 20

Avg Time taken to burn in Sec(28Ne) 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20

Avg

20

Time taken to burn in Sec(30Ne) 21 22 20 20 18 20 19

Avg

20


Causes of Flammability test(RIB): The count used for Rib is 26,28,30.The effect for these count variation will be negligible when Rib fabric is subjected for flammability test and fibre composition is also same for each count of yarn. As a result the result of flammability resistance for each type of Rib fabric is 20. 4.3Table for Single Jersey (24,28,30,32Ne) Serial No

Time taken to burn in Sec(24Ne)

01 02 03 04 05 06 07

16 18 17 18 19 20 18

Avg Time taken to burn in Sec(28Ne) 17 18 19 18 19 17 18 18

Avg

18

Time taken to burn in Sec(30Ne) 18 20 19 18 17 18 16

Avg Time taken to burn in Sec(32Ne)

18

17 16 18 18 19 18 19

Avg

18

Causes of Flammability test(S/J):The count used for s/j is 24,28,30,32.The effect for these count variation will be negligible when s/j fabric is subjected for flammability test and fibre


composition is also same for each count of yarn. As a result the result of flammability resistance for each type of s/j fabric is 18 . 5.Perspiration Test Alkali Solution Fabric Name S/J

Rib Interlock

Count Changing Scale Grey fabric)

Staining Scale (100%cotton Fabric)

Remarks

24 28 30 32

5 5 5 5

5 5 5 5

Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent

26 28 30 30 32 34

5 5 5 5 5 5

5 5 5 5 5 5

Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent

Acid Solution Fabric Name S/J

Rib Interlock

Count 24 28 30 32 26 2. 28 3. 30 30 32 34

Changing Scale (Grey fabric) 5 5 5 5 1. 5 5 5 5 5 5

Staining Scale (100%cotton fabric 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

Remarks Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent

Cause: since we have used grey fabric(i.e undyed) there is no staining of color. That’s why the rating of the all samples were found same. So, we can say that there is no effect of yarn count on color fastness properties of the grey fabric(S/J,Rib 1X1,Interlock 1X1)


6.Absorbency (Spray Test) 6.1Table for Interlock (30,32,34 Ne) Serial No 01 02 03 04 05 06 07

Rating for 30 Ne 90 90 90 90 90 90 90

Avg Rating for32 Ne 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90

Avg

90

Rating for 34 Ne 90 90 90 90 90 90 90

Avg

90

Cause: We have used grey fabric containing 100% cotton and the rating of absorbency are same for all the samples. So, there is no effect of yarn count on the absorbency property of grey fabric (Interlock 1X1).

6.2Table for Rib(26,28,30 Ne) Serial No 01 02 03 04 05 06 07

Rating for 26 Ne 90 90 90 90 90 90 90

Avg

90

Rating for 28 Ne 90 90 90 90 90 90 90

Avg

90

Rating for 30 Ne 90 90 90 90 90 90 90

Avg

90


Cause: We have used grey fabric containing 100% cotton and the rating of absorbency are same for all the samples. So, there is no effect of yarn count on the absorbency property of grey fabric (Rib 1X1). 6.3Table for Single Jersey (24,28,30,32 Ne) Serial No 01 02 03 04 05 06 07

Rating for 24 Ne 80 80 80 80 80 80 80

Avg

80

Rating for 28 Ne 80 80 80 80 80 80 80

Avg

80

Rating for 30 Ne 80 80 80 80 80 80 80

Avg

80

Rating for 32 Ne 80 80 80 80 80 80 80

Avg

80

Cause: We have used grey fabric containing 100% cotton and the rating of absorbency is same for all the samples. So, there is no effect of yarn count on the absorbency property of grey fabric (Single jersey).


7.Result of stiffness test 7.1Table for Interlock (30Ne) Serial no 01

Unsupported fabric Average length(wales wise) in cm 1.90

02

1.92

1.88

03

1.88

1.90

04 05

1.90 1.91

06 07

1.86 1.90

1.90

Bending length c

Unsupported fabric Avg length(course wise) in cm

Bending length , c

1.85

0.95

1.88 1.88

1.88 0.94

1.87 1.88

7.2Table for Interlock (32Ne) Serial no 01

Unsupported fabric Average length(wales wise) in cm 2.15

02

2.15

2.12

03

2.14

2.13

04

2.15

05

2.15

2.12

06

2.13

2.12

07

2.15

2.13

2.15

Bending length , c

1.075

Unsupported fabric Average length(course wise) in cm 2.12

2.14

2.12

Bending length , c

1.06


7.3Table for Interlock (34Ne) Serial no

Unsupported fabric Avg length(wales wise) in cm

01

2.00

Unsupported fabric length(course wise) in cm 1.99

02

2.01

1.98

03

2.00

1.98

04 05 06

2.02 2.00 2.01

07

2.00

2.00

Bending length , c

1.00

1.98 1.98 1.99

Avg

Bending length , c

1.98

0.99

1.98

Causes of variation: Due to count variation & dimensional stability we find the variation in the tested result.

7.4Table for rib (26Ne) Serial no 01

Unsupported fabric length(Wales wise) in cm 1.45

Average

Bending length , c

Unsupported fabric Average length(courses wise) in cm

02

1.45

0.78

03

1.45

0.78

0.78

Bending length , c


04 05

1.44 1.44

1.45

0.725

0.74 0.78

06

1.45

0.78

07

1.45

0.77

0.77

0.385

7.5Table for rib (28Ne) Serial no 01

Unsupported fabric length(Wales wise) in cm 2.00

Ave

Bending length , c

Unsupported fabric Ave length(courses wise) in cm

02

2.00

0.83

03

1.98

0.84

04

2.00

05

2.00

0.84

06

2.00

0.82

07

2.01

0.84

Bending length , c

0.84

2.00

1.00

0.84

0.84

0.42

7.6Table for rib (30Ne) Serial no 01 02

Unsupported fabric Ave length(Wales wise) in cm 1.90 1.90

Bending length , c

Unsupported fabric length(courses wise) in cm 0.80 0.80

Ave

Bending length , c


03 04 05 06 07

1.89 1.90 1.90 1.88 1.90

1.90 0.95

0.80 0.80 0.80 0.81 0.80

0.80

0.40

Causes of variation: Due to count variation & dimensional stability we find the variation in the tested result. Testing for single jersey For single jersey: The test can not be continued for the curling tendency 8.Experimental data for shrinkage test 8.1Table for Interlock (30 Ne) Sl no.

Course wise shrinkage(cm)

01 02 03 04 05 06 07

25.5 26.2 25.7 26.0 26.2 25.4 26.0

Avg.

25.83

% shrinkage=

13.9%

Wales wise shrinkage(cm) 26.4 26.5 26.1 26.2 26.5 26.5 26.4

Avg.

%shrinkage

26.37

12.1%


8.2Table for Interlock (32 Ne) Sl Course wise no. shrinkage(cm) 01 02 03 04 05 06 07

26.4 26.1 26.2 26.2 26.3 26.4 26.1

Avg.

26.24

% shrinkage=

12.5%

Wales wise shrinkage(cm) 25.6 26.4 26.5 26.4 25.8 25.9 26.1

Avg.

%shrinkage

26.1

13%

Avg.

%shrinkage

25.91

13.6%

8.3Table for Interlock (34 Ne) Sl Course wise no. shrinkage(cm) 01 02 03 04 05 06 07

26.7 26.2 26.1 26.8 26.4 26.2 26.5

Avg.

26.41

% shrinkage=

11.96%

Wales wise shrinkage(cm) 25.8 25.9 25.6 26.1 26.3 25.8 25.9

Causes of variation: Due to increasing yarn count dimensional stability of fabric reduced when they are immersed into liquid e.g. dye bath & washing bath liquor.


8.4Table for rib (26 Ne) Sl no.

Course wise shrinkage(cm)

01 02 03 04 05 06 07

12.8 12.6 12.5 12.6 12.7 12.8 12.6

Avg.

12.65

% shrinkage=

15.6%

Wales wise shrinkage(cm) 12.9 12.5 12.4 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.4

Avg.

%shrinkage

12.52

16.5%

8.5Table for rib (28 Ne) Sl Course wise no. shrinkage(cm) 01 02 03 04 05 06 07

13.6 13.8 13.9 13.4 13.8 13.9 13.4

Avg.

13.68

% shrinkage=

8.8%

Wales wise shrinkage(cm) 13.4 13.5 13.3 13.4 13.6 13.4 13.6

Avg.

%shrinkage

13.45

10.33%


8.6 Table for rib (30 Ne) Sl Course wise no. shrinkage(cm) 01 02 03 04 05 06 07

13.9 13.6 13.4 13.9 13.5 13.4 13.4

Avg.

13.58

% shrinkage=

9.4%

Wales wise shrinkage(cm) 13.1 13.0 13.1 13.1 13.2 13.0 13.1

Avg.

%shrinkage

13

13%

Causes of variation: Due to increasing yarn count dimensional stability of fabric reduced when they are immersed into liquid e.g. dye bath & washing bath liquor.

8.7 Table for single jersey (24 Ne) Sl no.

Course wise shrinkage(cm)

01 02 03 04 05 06 07

11.9 12.0 12.1 12.0 12.1 11.9 11.8

Avg.

11.97

% shrinkage=

20.2%

Wales wise shrinkage(cm) 14.1 14.3 14.1 14.4 14.0 14.2 14.2

Avg.

%shrinkage

14.19

5.4%


Causes of variation: Due to increasing yarn count dimensional stability of fabric reduced when they are immersed into liquid e.g. dye bath & washing bath liquor. 8.8 Table for single jersey (28 Ne) Sl no.

Course wise shrinkage(cm)

01 02 03 04 05 06 07

11.8 11.6 11.5 11.8 11.7 11.6 11.5

Avg.

11.64

% shrinkage=

22.4%

Wales wise shrinkage(cm) 14.2 14.1 14.2 14.1 14.2 14.0 14.1

Avg.

%shrinkage

14.12

5.8%

8.9 Table for single jersey (30 Ne)

Sl Course wise no. shrinkage(cm) 01 02 03 04

11.6 11.5 11.3 11.4

05 11.4 06 11.5

Avg.

11.47

% shrinkage=

23.53%

Wales wise shrinkage(cm) 14.2 14.3 14.2 14.1 14.1 14.3

Avg.

%shrinkage

14.21

5.2%


07 11.6

14.3

8.10 Table for single jersey (32 Ne) Sl Course wise no. shrinkage(cm) 01 02 03 04 05 06 07

11.9 11.5 11.3 11.4 11.6 11.5 11.7

Avg.

% shrinkage=

11.56

22.93%

Wales wise shrinkage(cm) 14.5 14.3 14.2 14.3 14.1 14.5 14.3

Avg.

%shrinkage

14.3

4.7%

9.Experimental Data of pilling Test Sl. No.

Fabric Type

01. 02. 03. 04.

Single jersey

Count

Rating

24

2-3

28 30

2-3 2-3

32

2-3

Cause: we have used 100% cotton yarn .Though they are of different count, it is observed from the table that they exhibit same characteristics when they are tested for pilling. So we can say that, there is no effect of count on pilling properties of grey fabric (single jersey).

Sl. No.

Fabric Type 01.

02. 03.

Rib

Count 26 28 30

Rating 2-3 2-3 2-3


Cause: we have used 100% cotton yarn .Though they are of different count, it is observed from the table that they exhibit same characteristics when they are tested for pilling. So we can say that, there is no effect of yarn count on pilling properties of grey fabric (rib 1X1). Sl. No.

Fabric Type

01. 02. 03.

Interlock

Count

Rating

30

2-3

32 34

2-3 2-3

Cause: we have used 100% cotton yarn .Though they are of different count, it is observed from the table that they exhibit same characteristics when they are tested for pilling. So we can say that, there is no effect of yarn count on pilling properties of grey fabric (interlock 1X1). 10.Crease Recovery 10.1 Table for Rib (26,28,30 Ne) Serial No

Crease Recovery Angle in Degree30Ne

Avg

C.R.A 28Ne

01 02 03 04 05 06 07

132 127 128 130 130 131 132

146 144 148 130 145 145 140 147

Avg

C.R.A 26Ne

160 160 159 145 160 161 160 160

Avg

160

Cause: The coarser count adds to the strength of the fabric. This contributes to the stiffness. So lower the count higher the stiffness and lower the flexibility. So there is an effect of yarn count on the crease recovery properties of the grey fabric (Rib1X1). 10.2Table for Interlock (30,32,34 Ne)


Serial No

C.R.A 34Ne

Avg

C.R.A 32 Ne

01 02 03 04 05 06 07

164 163 167 166 168 168 166

168 170 170 166 168 164 166 168

Avg

C.R.A 30Ne

Avg

168

170 175 172 170 165 168 170

170

Cause: The coarser count adds to the strength of the fabric. This contributes to the stiffness.So lower the count higher the stiffness and lower the flexibility. So there is an effect of yarn count on the crease recovery properties of the grey fabric (Interlock1X1). Single Jersey: Due to curling this test can not be done for S/J fabric. Crease Recovery in% 30 Ne Interlock--(170/180) * 100=94% 32 Ne Interlock--(168/180) * 100=93.3% 34 Ne Interlock--(166/180) * 100=92% 26 Ne Rib---------(160/180) * 100=88% 28 Ne Rib---------(145/180) * 100=80.5% 30 Ne Rib---------(130/180) * 100=72.22% CHAPTER 5 COMPARATIVE STUDY 1.Comparative study of CPI & WPI Sl no.

Fabric Type

Count

Result


01 02 03

Single jersey Rib Interlock

CPI 58 40 40

30 30 30

WPI 28 26 30

C.P.I

W.P.I Causes of CPI & WPI result variation:CPI of single jersey is most because it’s loops are closely attached. Rib & Interlock has the same CPI for their double jersey structure.WPI of all jersey is about same due to same take up tension. 2.Comparative study of Fabric GSM Sl no. 01 02 03

Fabric Type Single jersey Rib Interlock

Count 135 187 234


Causes of variation in G.S.M: Though we used same count & same stitch length but due to different fabric structure g.s.m varies small to large from single jersey to interlock.

3.Comparative study of Bursting Strength

Sl. No.

Fabric Type

Count

Pressure(KPa) Height(mm) Time(s)

01.

Single jersey Rib

30

248.8

30.3

35

30

249.53

39.03

33

30

452.7

35.7

54

02. 03.

Interlock

According to pressure

According to height


According to Time

Cause: Since we have used grey fabric i.e unfinished, so the bursting strength largely varied on the thickness and compactness of the fabric.The single jersey fabric is thinner than the rib and interlock fabric. That’s why they required less pressure to burst. 4.Comparative study of flammability Fabric Name 1.Interlock 2.Rib 3.Single jersey

Cause:

Count-Ne 30`s 30`s 30`s

Flammability 38 20 18


From GSM calculation of 30 count s/j, rib, & interlock we got results respectively 1.35,1.87,& 2.34. we know that, the heavier the fabric , the higher will be flame resistance. As rib &interlock is more heaiver than s/j; so flame resistance higher in interlock and lowest in s/j. 5.Comparative study of Perspiration test For Acid solution

Fabric Name

Count

1.SingleJersey 2.Rib 3.Interlock

30’s 30’s 30’s

Changing Scale (Grey Fabric) 5 5 5

Staining Scale (100% Cotton) 5 5 5

Remarks Excellent Excellent Excellent

Comparative study of Perspiration test For alkali solution Fabric Name

Count(Ne)

1.Single Jersey 2.Rib 3.Interlock

30`s 30`s 30`s

Changing Scale (Grey Fabric) 5 5 5

Staining Scale (100% Cotton) 5 5 5

Remarks Excellent Excellent Excellent

Cause: Since we have used grey fabric which contains no dyestuffs or chemicals except only the natural color of cotton, there is no staining of color. That’s why the ratings for all the sample are same. 6.Comparative study on Absorbency Test Fabric Name 1.Single Jersey 2.Rib 3.Interlock

Count-Ne 30`s 30`s 30`s

Absorbency 80 90 90


Cause: The variation of value in absorbency occurs among the s/j,rib & interlock due to following reason: S/J is a light weight fabric. In this fabric inter yarn space is available.So rate of absorbtion is higher in s/j than rib & interlock. 7.Comparative study of stiffness Sl no. 01 02 03

Fabric Type Single jersey Rib Interlock

Count 30 30 30

Result W.W.BL.

C.W.BL.

0.95 0.95

0.40 0.94

W.W.BL

C.W.BL Causes of stiffness test result variation: We have used grey fabric (cotton) in case of testing procedures. Bending length of interlock fabric is most so stiffness also most among three fabric, because interlock fabric is double thicker than single jersey made from the same count’s yarn. Rib fabric is less stiff than interlock because it has vertical cord appearance. For single jersey the test can not be continued for the curling tendency. 8.Comparative study of Shrinkage Test


Sl no.

Fabric Type

Count

01 02 03

Single jersey Rib Interlock

30 30 30

Result C.W.S. 23.53 9.4 13.9

W.W.S. 5.2 13.3 12.1

C.W.S

W.W.S Causes of shrinkage test result variation: Single jersey fabric is the most relaxed structure among three fabrics. For this reason in a average it has maximum shrinkage. On the other hand interlock has less shrinkage than single jersey because; it has single jersey structure on both side of the fabric. Due to vertical cord effect rib has the lowest shrinkage rate. 9.Comparative study of pilling test Sl. No.

Fabric Type

Count

Rating

01. 02. 03.

Single jersey Rib Interlock

30 30 30

2-3 2-3 2-3

Cause: We used grey fabric and the samples were 100% cotton. The rubbing action of the abrasion tester influenced all the samples equally. 10.Comparative study on Crease recovery


Fabric Name 1.Single Jersey 2.Interlock 3.Rib

Count 30`s 30`s 30`s

Crease Recovery Angle None 170 130

Cause: We know crease recovery depends largely upon the stiffness of the fabric. Since the stiffness of the interlock fabric is greater than rib fabric due to its structure, it shows greatest crease recovery. The structure of single jersey is the most flexible it shows zero recovery angle in case of grey fabric. By applying crease finishing we can improve this property of a fabric.

11.Tightness factor The simplified formula is TF, K =

Tex l

Where, Tex is yarn count and l is the stitch length in mm. From the formula we can say that,if stitch length is same the tightness factor directly proportional to the square root of count of the yarn. So coarser the yarn more the tightness factor and vice versa. CONCLUSIONS In this study, with some of the experiments it was seen the properties of the fabric dependent on the yarn count whereas some of them were independent of the yarn count. We used unfinished fabric so we cannot say how the count of yarn will affect the properties in case of


a finished fabric. But this project gives us a primary idea how the fabric may behave in the future. It also helps us to determine the types finishing to be applied on a fabric. Limitations of the Study: Like all other scientific work, this study has its own limitations. Due to lack of time and money we couldn’t use better facilities to determine the effect of yarn count more accurately. All other parameters that can affect the properties of fabric has been tried to kept constant. But since all the tests have been performed by inexperienced students, this cannot be claimed that we had been able to do that. There is more scope to work on the topic in future and there should be an ongoing research . BIBLIOGRAPHY 1) Starfish manual in knitting-finishing: Journal 2) Circular knitting; - Iyer/Mammal/Schach. 3) Knitting Technology; -David J. Spencer.( Third Edition) 4) Principle of textile testing; -J.E. Booth (Third Edition) 5)Textile Terms And Definition -The Textile Institute,Menchester 6)Watsons textile design and color -Z. Grosicki (7th Edition) 7) www.indiantextilejournal.com 8) WWW.EMERALDINSIGHT .COM 9)www.encyclopedia.com 10)www.fibre2fashion.com

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Effect of Different Count of Yarn on Grey Fabric Properties  

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