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Report On DWASA and Its Role in Public Life 1. INTRODUCTION OF THE STUDY Statement of the Problem: Dhaka Water Supply and Sewerage Authority (DWASA) is entrusted with supply of piped water to Dhaka Metropolitan City, DND area, Narayanganj Municipality and adjacent area. As of June 2007, 75% city area was under DWASA water supply coverage. Out of which 83% is from Ground water sources tapping through 466 Deep Tube Wells; the remaining 17% of the water is supplied from the two major treatment plants situated at Saidabad, Chandnighat and two smaller units in Narayanganj. The population of Dhaka City is presently about 12.5 million and the growth trend indicates that by the year 2025 it would be about 22 million. In order to meet the growing demand, DWASA is installing high capacity water wells tapping the upper Dupitalia aquifers. But this upper aquifer is in stressed condition. In most part of the city area the ground water recharge in upper aquifer is much less compare to the abstraction, causing ground water mining. The average ground water depletion in most of the areas in the city is reportedly around 2-3 meter/year. The present rate of depletion gives an alarming indication that there is an urgent need to alleviate pressure on the upper aquifer being exploited and explore for more suitable and sustainable sources to supplement the present water supply. The nearest dependable surface water are the peripheral rivers. These rivers are no more considered to be suitable as a source of water supply due to continued pollution. For this reason, there is an urgent need to find alternate sources for Dhaka city water supply. Such probable sources may include: the differ aquifer (around 300 meter depth)and surface water sources from far- off major rivers like Padma, Meghna and Jamuna . It is also worthwhile to investigate exploitable potential of aquifers located in the vicinity of Dhaka city. Demand management is given utmost importance by any water utility services in large cities around the world in order to optimize the use of the scarce water resources. In Dhaka city, demand management is imperative to support in the development of an immediate, mid-term and long-term strategy for water supply. In this regard, prediction of the growing population along with the urbanization process the various uses of water including domestic, commercial and industrial consumptions has to be evaluated. The three fourth of the World surface is covered by water. Yet most of the human disease is caused due to scarcity of water or the use of impure water. As an evitable corollary the price of water is increasing almost every year. The cheapest way to obtain water for meeting increasing demand is to use all the water already produced. It is to be kept in mind “Not a single drop of water should go without use”. Therefore, effectively use of produced water can reduce Non Revenue Water as well as System loss. Significance of the study: Non-Revenue Water is an issue familiar to the concerned people and headache for the Management. It is the difference between system input volume and billed authorized consumption, and it consist of the following. • Unbilled Authorized Consumption • Apparent losses and • Real losses. Like the unplanned development of Dhaka City’s other services, the water distribution network has been expanded haphazardly mostly under some crash programs, leading to mismanagements in operation and notably in distribution system. Approximately more than 55% of the total water production has been calculated as unaccounted-for water (UFW) or Non-Revenue Water (NRW) in the form of system losses during the year 2001. Out of this 55, 25% has been estimated to be technical loss and the rest 30% commercial or administrative loss. The identified aspects of inefficient management leading to these system losses are:


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unplanned development of distribution system delayed attendance to repair works and lack of professional execution lack of preventive maintenance malpractices of Revenue Inspectors for personal gain and other purposes consumption by house owners through bypass and illegal connections lack of coordination between Waste Prevention, MODS Revenue and Meter Divisions and absence of the monitoring of follow-up actions etc.

Based on the Surveyors’ investigation, there seems to be a lack of coordination between the Engineering, Commercial and Secretariat Departments resulting in negligence of taking into consideration of several important factors concerning NRW. The lack of prompt communication for transmitting valuable information in Waste Prevention and leak Detection fields between Engineering and Commercial Departments and subsequent delayed remedial measures to control wastage of water is one example of such lack of co-ordination. Though a picture of decentralization is projected in the management of supply, distribution and consumption with the division of DWASA into 6(six) Zones within Dhaka City and inclusion of Narayangonj as the seventh zone at a later stage (March, 1990) complete assessment of independent distribution and consumption within each zone is not possible due to interlinked type of the existing system (in Dhaka City) which is a major obstacle for adopting appropriate strategy to control Technical Loss. Also lack of administrative and financial autonomy of each zone is creating unnecessary bottlenecks and lengthy formalities in urgent decision making in the field of controlling UFW. The shortcomings related to UFW in specific areas are stated next. Most of the Government-owned organizations are suffering from poor performance. These are being treated as loosing concern or sick organization. Years after years these kinds of organizations are not able to raise optimum revenue collection. Where is the problem? Man, machine and material are available in this organization. Actually, the problem is prevailing in the whole management system. The report shall be enable to reveals clarion call to make the sense that non-revenue water which contribute system loss hunching the backbone of national economy, ensign poor services for consumers and affecting the interest of all concerned. Scope of the Study: Demand for water, by definition, would include the amount of water demanded by a unit of consumption for given socio-economic conditions, pricing strategy, basic human needs and for a given level of quality of life. Demand for water for Dhaka city, therefore, by definition, it would be the amount of water demanded per day by various types’ consumers in Dhaka city. To make a reasonable projection on the demand for water, firstly, individual demand will be estimated and then various assumptions are used to quantify aggregate water demand for the city. Based on the analysis of demand and supply using a simulation model can be developed using MS Excel to determine demand for water from 2010-2035. X 100 HOUS=POP/(

........................ [1]

.................................................................................. [2]

Where, HOUS= No. of houses, POP=Population,

POP’= HOUS. i. Where,

.

.......................................................................... [3]


POP’= Population living in it type of house,

i= Percent of the ith of house, and

WD’= W.POP’........................................................................................ [4] Where, w= Water demand per capita per day in liter for ith type of house, WD= Total water demand for ith type of houses. TWD=

).(1- )

.............................................................. [5]

Where, Users and TWD = Total water demand in Dhaka and value

=10% and = 30%.

GWDPC=TWD/POP ............................................................................ [6] Where, GWDPC= Gross water demand per capita and POP= total population. LCD =

.............................................................................. [7]

Where, LCD=Per capita per day water demand in liter POPt= POP(t-1).ert ............................................................................... [8] Where POPt = Population survey in Dhaka WASA in period t and r=4.27% as the annual growth rate using exponential growth rate. The above simulation model was run for 25 years time period (2005-2030) for five various types of houses: Katcha, semi-pacca, pacca, one- story, multi-story and high rise building. Consequently, the model will have 15 variables, 15 equations and 25 parameters for each year of simulation. Population forecasts were done using annual exponential growth rate. Objectives of the study: Non-Revenue Water (NRW) will be gradually becoming a serious issue affecting the interest of all concerned and will be one of the major crisis being faced by the authority presently.  To face the challenges in solving the unsolved problem i.e. concern over practical problem initiates study.  To assess the Technical, Financial & Management standard and propose amelioration achievable in this regards  To unfold and identify the consumers those who have illegal connections have estimated actual below real consumption cheating those who pay for water  To enumerate details about service connections including storage facilities.  To collect billing information, arrear etc.  To identify malpractice on the service connection and associated activities.  To collect information on sewer connection/septic tank etc. Limitation of the study: This study is limited to NRW management and forecasting of drinking water sources for DWASA only. Revenue Department is the main focus here. It emphasizes on major hardles for revenue earning. Personal interview technique and conducting survey the explore ledger/records are the sources for collecting information which may be of adulterated. Documents and procedures are not maintained properly in these types of organizations. The reliability of the report depends on the authenticity of the information provided by the relevant persons. METHODOLOGY Introduction:


The organization Dhaka Water Supply and Sewerage Authority (DWASA) is one of the main utilities. It is the most important sector of the Government of Bangladesh. The potable water distribution network installed and covered the whole area of Dhaka city and now its extension is going on the periphery of the city as well as N.Gonj. For the purpose of portray the non-revenue water some survey were conducted on specific fields, these areas were selected randomly. Necessary information gathered form previous studies. 2.1 Vaiables covered: Collection of data from primary and secondary sources Report review of previous studies Comparative study of non-revenue water Analysis of non-revenue water 2.2 Sampling Design: Leakage of pipe lines, improper and irregular connections, nonmeter connections and disorder water meters are the causes of non-revenue water. A rendom holding-to-holding survey was conducted on selected industries and the sample size was 23 only. 2.3 Sources of data : The set of information has been collected from both primary and secondary sources. 2.4.1 Primary sources are as under: 1. Data furnished by revenue department of DWASA. 2. Data furnished by Waste Preevention Division of DWASA. 2.4.2 Secondary sources are as under: 1. Different circulars. 2. Annual report of DWASA MIR. 3. ADB’s Asian Water Supply 2.5 Collection of data Dhaka WASA has 2533.73 Km water lines. The number of holdings with water connections is 245916. In the old part of Dhaka city there are 1,643 numbers of street hydrants. The percentage of coverage is about 75%. The quality of water supplied is generally good. But in some instances contaminated water is found. So most of the people do not feel that the water supplied is safe for drinking and so for drinking purposes they boil it. The contamination comes through leakages of old and dilapidated distribution pipe lines. Dhaka WASA could not yet provide water meters to all the holdings. The number holdings with water meter are 170,040 and the remaining 74,876 holdings do not have water meters (September, 2007). In the case of holdings without water meter water bills are made on the basis of estimates. The water tariff comprises of two categories, viz. i) Domestic/ Community/ Social, ii) Commercial and industrial. The rate for the first category is Tk. 5.00 per 1000 liters. The rate is three times this amount for the second category connectivity. Initiatives are underway for installation of more water meters with a view to provide water meters to all the customers. The rate of water is very low considered to that of other countries in this region. But the considerations of customers’ lower ability to pay and socio-political aspects have forced to keep water rate at such low levels. The system loss is a very common phenomenon in water supply industry. At present the total system loss of Dhaka WASA is about 55%. Of this about 25% is administrative loss and 20% is technical loss. Seepage through leaks and joints in dilapidated old distribution pipes, uncontrolled flow through street hydrants and irregularities in the distribution system are responsible, to a great extent, for the persisting technical system loss. Pilferages, corrupt practices of under-billing, non-payment of bills


are responsible for administrative system losses. It is the high time that these losses be considered seriously and proper measures for mitigations are to be taken immediately. In this regard, Dhaka WASA has started to take some reformation measures. Dhaka WASA has decided to lease out it’s revenue collection divisions. Of the 7 revenue collection divisions, 5 have been leased out in last 7 years to private companies. The results of this reformation measures indicate positive results. In very short period of time, the remaining 2 revenue collection divisions will be leased out. Other reformation and restructure measures are underway. 2.5.1 National Policy for Safe Water Supply & Sanitation: Safe water and sanitation are considered most essential for the development of public health. One of the government’s important goals is to ensure that all people have access to safe water and sanitation services at an affordable cost. To achieve this goal and to ensure that development in the water supply and sanitation sector is equitable and sustainable, the government of Bangladesh, in 1998, formulated a policy named National Policy for Safe Water Supply and Sanitation is essential. The government has already started implementation of various aspects this policy. For achieving these objectives, steps will be taken for: a. Facilitating access of all citizens to basic level of services in water supply and sanitation. b. Bringing about behavioral changes regarding use of water and sanitation; c. Reducing incidence of water borne diseases; d. Building capacity in local governments and communities to be effectively with problems relating to water supply and sanitation; e. Promoting sustainable water and sanitation services; f. Ensuring proper storage, management and use of surface water and preventing its contamination; g. Taking necessary measures for storage and use of rain water; h. Ensuring storm-water drainage in urban areas. 2.5.2 Community participation in Water Supply and Sanitation services: One of the strategies of this policy envisages development of water supply and sanitation sector through local bodies, public-private sector, NGOs, CBOs and women groups involving local women particularly elected members of the local bodies in the sector development activities. In the line with the strategies outlined in the National Policy for Safe Water Supply & Sanitation, Dhaka WASA has, in collaboration with some NGOs (Water Partners International, Care International etc.) have started water supply and sanitations services for slum-dwellers in Dhaka city. In some areas high capacity underground water reservoir has been installed which is connected to DWASA water mains. Water is pumped from the underground reservoir with hand-pumps. Sanitation services include individual household pit latrines or community sanitation blocks. This landless slum-dwellers were being denied their access to water supply and sanitation services. 2.5.3 Future development plans: Actual increase in population in Dhaka city has proved that all the earlier prediction grossly underestimated. A recent study has predicted that the population of Dhaka Metropolitan city would reach about 14.0 million by the year 2005 and the demand for water supply would be around 2,200 mId. By the year 2020 the population of the city will reach 25 million creating a demand of around 5000 mId (Table-3). Year

Population (million)

Water Demand (mld)

1990 1995 2000 2005 2010

6.5 8 10 14 18

1050 1280 1600 2200 2800

Existing Water Supply and Planned 510 770 1130 1800 2600


2015 2020 2025 2030

20 21 22 24

3800 5000 6100 7000

3400 4500 5500 6400

Considering the rapid expansion of the city concomitant with the high rate of population growth and other physical and infrastructure developments, there would be huge demand for piped water, sanitation and storm water drainage in near future. Only through ground water abstraction, increasing demand for water supply cannot be met as the ground water abstraction is showing strong signs of rapid depletion. A water supply Master plan for the Dhaka city was prepared in 1992 for an area of about 360 sq km which has now become redundant as the prediction on population and water demand has been surpassed by huge margin. Some ad-hoc measures have been undertaken to meet the growing demand on water supply. These measures are mainly dependent on abstraction of ground water, which has already reached its optimum level. It appears that no further abstraction is possible as the recharge of ground water is declining very fast. Dhaka WASA has decided to expand the capacity of the Saidabad Water Treatment Plant by 225 MLD is the 2nd phase. The project has been started. There is planning for 3rd phase, which will add 450 MLD more. Moreover planning is underway for construction of another water treatment plant, which will use water from the river Padma to supply another 900 MLD of water. 2.5.4 Limitations of master plan : Dhaka WASA, despite of severe resource constraints, is trying to provide the most important basic services like potable water supply, sewerage and storm water drainage facilities. The high population growth in Dhaka city is creating tremendous pressure on all utility services. As mentioned earlier, 83% of the DWASA’s water supply is based on ground water source. The groundwater aquifer is declining by about 2-3m every year rendering ground water abstraction too expensive and uncertain. On the other hand, the sources of surface water, the peripheral rivers, although having sufficient water, are being polluted heavily. It has become evident that DWASA has to switch over, as soon as possible, from groundwater to surface water sources . But a huge capital investment is needed in this regard. Initiatives have been taken by DWASA for installing surface water-based water treatment plants. DWASA is hopeful that appropriate assistance will be available from the government of Bangladesh and international donor communities. Sewerage and storm water drainage facilities, although not considered as urgent as the water supply, are also to be developed immediately considering their very significant role on the public health and the environment. 2.6 Programs for reducing system loss: Unaccounted for water is ‘the difference between the amount of water supplied from the waterworks, as measured through its meters, and the total amount of accounted-for water. Accounted-for water includes water consumption as recorded by customers’ meters, water stored in service reservoirs, and authorized free use such as for flushing and sterilization of mains and routine cleaning of service reservoirs. 2.6.1 Components of unaccounted-for water Unaccounted-for water effectively comprises the following: (a) Apparent water loss This is water loss arising from meter inaccuracies and improper accounting of water used in the commissioning and filling of new mains, connections and service reservoirs, and for cleaning and flushing of the water distribution system during maintenance. (b) Real water loss


This is water loss due to leaks and illegal draw off from the transmission and distribution system. 2.6.2. What percentage should System Loss of unaccounted-for-water be? Unaccounted-for water is often taken as a measure of the efficiency of a water supply system. The question of what percentage unaccounted-for water should be depends on the economics of reducing the water loss, that is whether it will be more economic to take action to reduce water loss further and postpone development of new water sources, or to proceed with new source development and accept water losses at their prevailing level. In cities with cheap and plentiful water supply sources, the unit cost of water will be low and spending large sums of money on measures to reduce unaccounted-for water can be uneconomic. However, water is a limited and strategic resource in Singapore and priority is accorded to water conservation and demand management. Cost is only one factor considered in all programs. Proactive measures are taken to prevent leaks from occurring and, in the event that leaks do occur, they are promptly repaired. Measures taken to control unaccounted-for water will, by reducing levels of wastage, not only extend existing resources to their maximum potential, but also bring about operating cost reductions and deferment of capital works investments. 2.6.3 Factors affecting system loss of water In the early 1980s, Singapore’s unaccounted-for water was about 11 per cent of total output. This high percentage was viewed with concern and PUB began intensifying its efforts to reduce unaccountedfor water by implementing various programmes and water conservation measures. In Singapore, the main contributing factors to unaccounted-for water are: • Meter inaccuracies; • Losses through leakage; • Inaccurate accounting of water used in new and existing installations; • Illegal draw off. Control measures have, therefore, been directed at these main areas and can be broadly categorized as follows: • Leakage control • Full and accurate metering policy • Proper accounting of water used • Strict legislation on illegal draw off 2.6.4 Water Conservation Planning To reduce system losses, a comprehensive plan has been developed and is being implemented. The major components of the plan are: • Implementation of a rehabilitation program based on leak detection findings; • Replacement of all asbestos cement pipes, which have become hydraulically inefficient and unable to withstand anticipated higher pressures; • Use of air valves and wash-out valves at appropriate locations on the water distribution system; • Introduction of improved leak repair procedures, which will accelerate repairs once leaks are detected and introduce a more comprehensive format for recording repairs; • Securing all valves in the system by provision of valve chambers, protection tubes on street caps, and valve covers and marker plates to facilitate easy location for routine checks; • Installation of consumer meters on 100 per cent of property connections within one year; • Replacement of all existing defective meters; • Implementation of a program for reducing and, if possible, eliminating under billing and unauthorized connections; • Systematically eliminating public taps. In addition to the above plan, two major programs have been initiated to reduce unaccounted-for water. 2.6.4.1 Private sector participation in billing and collection


Billing of consumers and collection of revenue in five out of seven zones of DWASA was contracted out on an experimental basis in September 1997. The contract for one zone was awarded to a private company and the other to Collective Bargaining Agent of DWASA. Results obtained in both zones to date indicate that significant progress is being made in identifying and eliminating unmetered and unauthorized connections. 2.6.4.2 NGO participation To reduce water losses in slum areas and realize revenue, DWASA has awarded a formal contract to an NGO in 13 slum areas in the city that have been provided with metered connections. The NGO, which runs other income generating programs within the slums, collects consumer payment for water and deposits the collections in DWASA’s bank account. This program is also running quite well. 2.6.9 Institutional mechanism, legal instruments and financial incentives for efficient use of water A formal institutional mechanism has been established in DWASA to deal with unaccounted-for water more effectively. A new Waste Control Division has been established and, under a technical assistance program, its staff has been trained in leak detection and unaccounted-for water management. Staff of the Division also routinely checks for unauthorized connection and meter tampering. The Division collaborates closely with other divisions responsible for disconnection and revenue collection. Legal instruments have been strengthened with the enactment of the Water Supply and Sewerage Authority Law of 1996. Under this law, jail sentences and fines were instituted for the first time for people indulging in meter tempering and making unauthorized connection. Penalties are now applicable to both taker and provider of such unauthorized services, including personnel of DWASA. To dispose quickly of cases, including those under the Public Demand Recovery Act, a magistrate has been deputed to DWASA by the Government. Financial incentives for economical use of water have not yet been introduced, primarily because water connections are provided mainly to communities rather than individual dwellings. The number of dwellings per connection varies widely from one to about 150, with an average of about six dwellings per connection. Community connections of this type offer no incentive to individual consumers to conserve water, as users develop a tendency to distribute their individual wastage across the community. Community connections also prevent the application of a block tariff, with lower unit rates for small consumption and higher rates for high consumption. Preliminary study has indicated that the high income group would effectively pay less under such a tariff because their dwellings usually have individual connections that would record a lower total consumption than connections shared by less privileged communities. 2.6.6 Technical measures for water conservation A number of technical measures are being taken to conserve water and reduce wastage that occurs at many points in the system. As the distribution system is not fully pressurized, consumers first store water in underground tanks from where it is lifted to their rooftop tanks by pump. In the distribution system, water is lost through leaking pipes, joints, valves and service connections, and further losses occur on consumers’ premises through overflow from both the underground and rooftop tanks and through leaking fittings and faucets. Conservation measures have been introduced to prevent losses from all points on the distribution system. DWASA personnel have been trained to locate and repair leaks in the distribution system quickly, and rehabilitate and replace non-serviceable pipes. Consumers have been advised to guard against overflow by installing appropriate devices in their tanks. Public awareness campaigns have also been launched through newspapers, magazines, television and radio, to educate consumers on the importance of conservation. These awareness campaigns have achieved only limited success, however, due to the prevalence of community connections, which provide no incentive to individuals


to conserve water. DWASA is now contemplating the introduction of individual meters for every dwelling. Conservation measures have also been initiated to reduce losses in community and religious institutions, for which the Government pays DWASA a fixed monthly amount based on a fixed consumption quota. It has been observed that these institutions use a significantly higher quantity of after than their quota. A monitoring program has been initiated to quantify water use by these institutions through the installation of meters. Public taps which numbers about 1,643 are major points of water loss and effective conservation measures are expected to provide high dividends. As a first step, it has been decided not to increase the number of public taps; instead they will be reduced in phases. In the meantime, installing meters on public taps and leasing their management to private operators is being actively considered. The private operators would in turn sell water to consumers, and the arrangement would assist water conservation as well as realize increased revenue for DWASA. A crash metering program has been launched by June 1998, DWASA hopes to achieve 100 per cent consumer metering. Since the introduction of a rising block tariff is currently inappropriate due to the prevalence of community connections, alternative mechanisms to discourage high consumption are being investigated. These include tariff surcharges based on one or more of the following physical features of consumers’ dwellings: • Total floor space; • Number of toilets; • Height of the building (for example, a ten storey building could he charged 5 per cent more than a five storey building of the same plan area). 2.6.7 Public awareness program and the role of communities and NGOs An elaborate public awareness program has been launched through the mass media, directed at creating consumer awareness of potential areas of water losses and ways to prevent losses. The program targets four major categories of consumers, (i) domestic, (ii) community areas such as markets and places of worship, (iii) slum dwellers, and (iv) users of public taps. Part of the program is a video that guides viewers through various sections of the distribution system where losses occur, and recommends remedial measures. The video dramatizes the problem by quantifying annual losses in drips, and shows the annual extra cost payable by consumers if the drips are not repaired immediately. In the domestic category, the program has not been very successful to date, primarily due to the lack of significant financial incentive to individual users arising from shared connections. In the community area category, the program has also not succeeded due to the high incidence of unauthorized connections, the users of which have no incentive to conserve water. In places of worship, for which the Government pays the water bills, wasting water has become a way of life. To date, there has been no systematic effort to involve the community in the water conservation program but a participatory approach is now being designed. The program in which an NGO acts as the intermediate vendor of water in slum areas has become quite successful and the NGO is planning to expand its coverage beyond the 11 pilot areas. The NGO is effectively supported by the UNDP/World Bank Water and Sanitation Program. To promote further the efficient use of water in slum areas, a strong component has been built into a project entitled Basic Infrastructure Delivery for Urban Areas supported by the Asian Development Bank. 2.6.8 Water reuse and alternative sources The existing water supply deficit in Dhaka of about 35 per cent of demand is already placing stress on water resources in and around the city. Overwhelming dependence on groundwater, which represents about 95 per cent of the city’s water sources, has aggravated the situation. Excessive exploitation of groundwater has caused the water table to fall by about 25 m over the last 35 years. The present rate


of decline has been estimated at 2-3 m per annum. Many experts have voiced concern that further decline in the water table may cause disastrous land subsidence in the city. A study conducted in 1991 did not indicate any immediate risk but the potential cannot be totally ruled out. The city is surrounded by a system of four rivers but the quantity’ and quality of available water are becoming increasingly uncertain. The two largest rivers, the Buriganga and the Shitalakhya, are perennial, although their flows have declined significantly over the last decade due primarily to large scale upstream withdrawal for irrigation, domestic and industrial use. The other two rivers, the Turag and the Bulu, have low flows, especially during the months of March, April and May when water demand in the city is highest. Water quality in these rivers has deteriorated much faster than expected. Industrial waste especially from tanneries, and dyeing and electroplating industries, has contributed to a rapid build-up of heavy metals in the river water. In the dry season, levels of chromium and aluminium threaten to exceed the limits for potable water quoted in international standards. Long-term plans include cleaning up the rivers by enforcing anti-pollution laws but the only short-term alternative is to locate alternative sources of water. Four alternative potential sources of water have so far been identified, and are described below. Necessary steps are being taken to assess their technical and economic viability, and social and environmental acceptability. 2.6.8.1 Recycling of drainage water With assistance from the Asian Development Bank and the World Bank, a flood control and drainage project for Dhaka is scheduled for completion in mid-1999. The city has been encircled by protective structures to prevent the entry of flood water and three pumping stations are being built to expel runoff from the city. Run-off will be temporarily stored in two balancing reservoirs with a combined capacity of 16.5 million m3 and plans are under preparation to recycle this water. Potable reuse may be problematic since the storm drainage system is significantly polluted by a large number of unauthorized connections discharging domestic sewage and industrial waste. If the recycled water cannot be treated economically to potable standards, other uses, such as toilet flushing, garden irrigation, washing, fire fighting and recreation, will be considered. 2.6.8.2 Seasonal Surface Water Treatment Plants For about six months each year during and immediately following the rainy season, river flows are high and pollution levels low due to increased dilution. Feasibility studies will be conducted to assess the technical and economic viability of constructing seasonal water treatment plants to provide treated surface water during this peak flow period. Groundwater abstraction from the deep tube wells would be reduced in areas served by the seasonal plants, possibly leading to cessation of groundwater mining and recovery of the water table. This would ultimately have a positive impact on the environment. 2.6.8.3 Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting The city’s rainfall averages 1,500 mm per annum of which over 80 per cent enters the drainage system as run-off. Pilot projects are being developed to examine the possibility of storing the run-off for domestic and or industrial use, utilizing run-off from large public and commercial buildings in the first phase. Harvested rainwater would be used initially for non-potable purposes. Later, appropriate treatment would be given to increase the water quality to potable standard. If rainwater harvesting proceeds on a substantial scale, it would help to reduce flooding in the city during high intensity storms. 2.6.8.4 Basin Transfer The feasibility of basin transfer of both groundwater and surface water is being investigated. In the short term, plans have been made to transfer groundwater from an abundant aquifer about 25 km north-west of the city. A proposal has been received from a private sector water developer to build, own -and operate the transfer system and negotiations will be held to reach agreement on a contract.


As part of long-term planning, the feasibility of transferring surface water from the Meghna River, located about 30 km south-east of the city, will be investigated. 2.6.9 Identification of major problems in promoting efficient water use Ensuring efficient water use in a city of over 12.5 million people is a formidable but essential task in developing a sustainable water supply system. Some of the important considerations in achieving this goal are described below. 2.6.9.1 Billing individual consumer dwellings Efforts will be made to install meters at every individual dwelling. Wastage of water would then have a noticeable financial impact on each family rather than being absorbed by the community, and pressure would mount to use water more efficiently. The major difficulties in implementing this program relate to location and reading of the large number of meters to be installed. Community reticulation systems, especially in high rise buildings, were not designed for installation of separate meters at each dwelling unit and would need significant modification. The number of staff employed to read meters and issue bills would need to be increased at least fourfold. 2.6.9.2 Block tariff system After individual metering is achieved, a block tariff can be introduced with unit rates increasing as consumption rises. Such a tariff is expected to encourage more efficient use of water. 2.6.9.3 Awareness campaign Further and more aggressive public awareness campaigns will be launched stressing to each consumer that his/her waste is depriving a friend, neighbor or relative of much needed water. 2.6.9.4 Public taps and community connections Inefficient use of water occurs at public taps and connections to community areas such as markets and places of worships. For example, the Government pays for an assumed consumption of 200 m3 per month at each place of worship, whereas actual consumption is estimated at between two and three times this quantity Managers of these community areas have no incentive to ensure efficient use of water when it is charged at a flat rate It has, therefore been decided to install meters in community areas each of which will have to pay for water used in excess of the quota paid for by the Government. Efforts are being made to eliminate as many public taps as possible in favor of direct connections to dwellings for public taps that remain DWASA will make arrangements for their management by an NGO or other private sector organization. The ongoing slum area pilot project managed by an NGO will be expanded and strengthened. Water connections have been metered in some market places and bazaars. Specific people have been made responsible for paying water bills and are now managing each operation as a business Efforts will be made to regularize all such connections. 2.6.10 Suggestions for action at national and international levels Inefficient use of water in urban areas is gradually becoming a major problem for water utility managers. Utilities in the water-short cities of developing countries will have to improve management practices and increase community and NGO participation to improve water use efficiency. The utilities alone, however, will not achieve this goal. Strong commitment is needed from governments, in the form of funds to initiate studies and pilot projects to address the various issues. Legal instruments need to be strengthened to achieve more effective enforcement of penalties against unauthorized users. At the international level, a network should be established to deal with the issue of efficient water use in urban areas. This would enable exchange of experience leading to widespread option of successful solutions. A quarterly newsletter should be issued to keep the interested countries and utilities


informed about recent developments. Funding studies on a regional basis and helping to train utility staff, are two other areas where international cooperation would have a positive impact. It should be recognized that the countries and utilities participating in the network would have varying levels of performance on efficient water use Those with lower than average performance would benefit if short-term consultants could be provided to help with specific problems To coordinate these activities a secretariat should be established at ESCAP & UNO. ORGANIZATION PROFILES Historical Background of DWASA Dhaka Water Supply and Sewerage Authority (Dhaka WASA) was established on 14 th November, 1963 under East Pakistan Ordinance No. XIX of 1963. It is a successor-organisation to the then Directorate of Public Health Engineering (DPHE) and the then Dhaka Municipal Committee (DMC) in respect of potable water supply and sewage disposal in Dhaka City area. Assets liabilities and concerned manpower of the previously mentioned two organisations engaged in the Dhaka City area were transferred to Dhaka WASA under the following notifications: a. Transfer of assets from DPHE under notification No. IE-79/63/1191-PHE, dated 14-11-1963. b. Transfer of manpower from DPHE under notification No. IE-79/63/1192-PHE, dated 14-11-1963. c. Transfer of assets from DMC under notification No. S-VIII-IE-54/63/11-PHE, dated 6-1-1964 d. Transfer of manpower from DMC under notification No.13-PHE, dated 6-1-1964. Let’s look at the hard facts. In 1963, at the time of inception of DWASA , Dhaka City had a population of about 8.22 Lakhs and DWASA inherited 10,621 number of registered services connection. Water demand in 1963 was appx. 150 MLD (150,000 m 3 /day) and water production was appx. 127 mld (127,000 m3/day). At present, the estimated population is about 12.00 million and there are about 238304 registered service connections. Water demand has been increased by about 14 times due to tremendous growth of population during these years but water production did not increase to meet the total requirement. Present water demand exceeds 2200 MLD per day i.e. 2,200,000 m 3/day against the present production of 1600 MLD (1600,000 m3/day). Utility Profiles DHAKA WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE AUTHORITY Address

:

98 Kazi Nazrul Islam Avenue, Kawran Bazar, Dhaka-1215, Bangladesh.

Telephone

:

Fax

(880-2) 812 109

:

(880-2) 8117829-31/8120223-27

Website

:

Head

Engr. Md. Raihanul Abedin

:

www.dwasa.org.bd Managing Director

The Dhaka Water Supply and Sewerage Authority (DWASA) is a government organization set up in 1963 which is responsible for Water Supply and Sewerage for Dhaka and the nearby city of Narayanganj covering a total population of 12 million people. The original water supply system, which was built in 1874, has billing and collection that are privatized although staff and top management appointments and


salaries, tariffs, and budget for O&M and development are under government control. The utility is responsible for water production, distribution and source development. DWASA has a partly developed management information system with a computerized billing system. It is currently following 1997-2002 Development Plans for both water supply and sewerage. The urban poor is provided with street hydrants (public stand posts) with bills paid by the city corporation. General Data

Connections

238304

Staff

3,740

Annual O&M Costs (Tk. in lac)

1578.24

Annual Collections (Tk. in lac)

30136.44

Annual Billings (Tk. in lac)

38229.48

Source of Investment Funds

47 % national government grant and rest

About Water Utility

grant/equity 53% externally funded Tariff

(Effective September 2005)

Structure Category

Rates

METERED

(Tk./ 1000 litres)

Residential & Community

5.25

Commercial & Office Industrial

17.50

Industrial

77.50

NON-METERED Residential

23.19% per annum or annual

Commercial & Office

valuation of holdings (for all three

Industrial

catagories)

Notes:

1.

2. 3. 4. 5. Priority Need of Utility

I

All consumers pay on metered use except of house connections and of Institutional connections, which are non-metered. Non-metered consumers payable that rate based on property valuation. Public stand post consumption is free to users but paid to DWASA by the city corporation Billing is done every two months and consumers pay through banks. Tariffs setting aims to make the utility commercially able and to allow it to add new facilities. In February 2007, 1500 new connections were installed price for new connections ranges from Tk.3600 to Tk. 5700 for 20 mm and 25 mm connections, respectively, payable in advance (Including meter). Sewerage charge is added to water bill at 100% of water bill for connected users. As seen by Management II 1) Institutional reform 2) Improvement of financial

Consumers’ Opinion 1) More tube wells 2) Privatize the water utility


management Average monthly consumption is about 139000 litres /house hold of 20 persons with many engaged in car washing and gardening. The water bill averages Tk. 487 compared to the monthly power bill of Tk.1,641. Of those interviewed only 41% have 24- hour water supply. With 21% considering water quality good, 91% boil their drinking water. About 23% experienced water service interruption in the month preceding the interview. Overall rating of the utility is fair (44%) to good (15%). Major The average daily production increased by 39% while the total connections increased by Changes in 45%. Staff/1,000 connections ratio improved from 21.3 to 18.5 NRW was reduced from the Water 62% to 51% while water availability improved from an average of 6 hours/day to 17 Utility hours/day. (19912002) Consumer Survey Findings

3.2 Nature of Business: DWASA is purely a utility service controlled under LGRD ministry government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. Profit making is not the targeted goal. Nevertheless, return should be ensured from the available investment. Balance or surplus amount of money shall be used to develop smallscale project. Tariff setting aims to make the utility commercially able and alllow it to launching new product add new facilities and services. There was no mineral water production plant under government sector. Recently DWASA introduced a bottled water production plant at Mirpur. It is commissioned at the fag end of 2006 and marketing the same. Now it is only the government owned mineral water production plant in the country. It’s quality & purity is very high but price is cheaper relative to other mineral water product available in the country. 3.3 Organizational Overview: DWASA is a 100% state owned organization. On November 14, 1963 it started its journey. At the then it had only one water treatment plant name Dhaka Water Works installed in old Dhaka at Chadnighat near the bank of the river Buriganga and eight Deep Tube Wells. The treatment plant was constructed and commissioned in 1874. In revolution of time, the organization introduced more Deep Tube Wells. It had minimum number of work force skilled, semi skilled worker inherited from Dhaka Municipal Corporation. Demand of water is being increasing day-by-day production of water is being increasing. Both the races are not alike. Water demand is higher relative to available supply. Surface water treatment plant is preferably feasible for producing water. Dhaka WASA is abstracting ground water almost 95%. Whereas it had start its journey with a surface water treatment plant. Now water bodies are badly polluted. Preliminary investment of surface water treatment plant (SWTP) is relatively higher than ground water abstraction. Apparently finding no other alternative the authority as well as government severelly installing deep tube wells. The following table presents the DWASA at a glance. Items

Unit

Position

Position

Position as

Position

Position

positiona

as on

as on

on

as on

as on

s on

30/06/02

30/06/03

30/06/04

30/06/05

30/06/06

30/06/07

Nos.

394

391

402

418

460

465

Nos.

3

3

3

3

3

3

Water System: Number of DTW in Operation Water Treatment Plant


Items

Unit

Position

Position

Position as

Position

Position

positiona

as on

as on

on

as on

as on

s on

30/06/02

30/06/03

30/06/04

30/06/05

30/06/06

30/06/07

Water Line

Km

2127.48

2358.86

2475.62

2520.91

2520.91

2533.73

Water Connection

Nos.

202894

212543

217003

225489

238304

243477

Over Head Tank in

Nos.

38

38

38

38

38

34

Public Standpipes

Nos.

920

920

920

920

920

1643

Religious Institutions

Nos.

970

970

970

970

983

1827

Sewer Line

Km

631

779

786

808.89

881.02

881.02

Sewer Connection

Nos.

47338

48777

49707

50130

50719

59229

Sewage Lift Station

Nos.

26

26

26

27

29

29

Sewage Treatment

Nos.

1

1

1

1

1

1

Nos.

3

3

3

3

3

3

Total Pump

Nos.

10

10

10

10

10

10

Total Capacity

Cu.M/

41.60

41.60

41.60

41.60

41.60

41.6

Operation

Sewerage System :

Plant Storm Water Drainage System: Storm Water Total Pumping Station

Sec. Box Culvert

Km

6.50

6.50

6.50

8

8

8

Open Channel

Km

56.00

56.00

56.00

65

65

65

Pipe Drain B/Sewer

Km

187.00

187.00

187.00

230.08

230.08

230.04

Investment Project

Nos.

7

7

7

4

8

8

Technical Assistance

Nos.

1

1

1

1

1

1

Class-I Officer

Nos.

166

160

147

154

161

157

Class-II Officer

Nos.

200

196

188

275

173

173

Staff

Nos.

3489

3443

3349

3401

3406

3405

Total

Nos.

3855

3799

3684

3730

3740

3735

Development Project

Project Personnel :

Corporate Name: Dhaka Water Supply & Sewerage Authority.


Logo: Green drop of water Slogan: Be preventing from wastage of water and be conservative of using water. Foundation: 14th November, 1963.

Corporate Head Office: 98, Kazi Nazrul Islam Avenue,Kawran Bazar, Dhaka-1215. Organization’s Mission and vision Mission: Supply safe water to the consumers and disposal of waste water and sewage. Increase water production service area, service coverage and ensure water availability. Bring down the NRW to a justifiable limit. Establish excellent friendly atmosphere between the consumers and the employees by reducing water supply hazards and redering outstanding services. Safe the water bodies by treating and properly disposal of waste water and sewage. Vision: Water is not necessary for life water thy name is life. Healthy and well educated nation is must for uplift and prosperity of the country. To produce and supply contamination free, coliform free and disinfected pure water for all spheres of lives, irrespective of poor and rich. Objectives of DWASA: The main objectives of DWASA are as follows: 1. To deliver safe drinking water of high standard quality in sufficient quantity to domestic and non-domestic users with special emphasis of basic needs (Drinking, cooking, washing) for the strata population in service area. 2. To ensure safe and hyegenic, disposal of waste water to improve the health and living conditions in service areas. 3. To support environmental protection from hazardous waste and sewage 4. To improve performance by using available resources efficiency through adoption of modern technology to bring down the NRW in an acceptable range. Service Area & Structure Up to June 1989 the service area of Dhaka WASA was confined within the Dhaka Metropolitan Area. In the early part of 1990 the responsibility of water supply of the Narayanganj Municipality has been handed over to Dhaka WASA. At present the service area of DWASA Eextends from Mirpur and Uttara in the North and to Narayanganj in the south. For better operation, maintenance and customer care, the total service area of DWASA is divided into 7 geographic zones, which includes 6 in Dhaka City and 1 in Narayanganj. There is an office for each zone and this office carries on the responsibilities of engineering operation as well as revenue activities. So respected consumers can obtain all possible services and counseling from one place. DWASA Coverage Area Coverage: Water Supply : Dhaka east & West – 260 sq.km DND area – 57 sq.km, Narayanganj – 33 sq.km, Total – 350 sq.km Sewerage : -110 sq.km, Drainage : -150 sq.km Service coverage: Water supply : 80 percent of the total demand Sewerage : 30 percent of the total need Drainage : 38 percent of the total need Water Supply DWASA Production (August 2007) Daily Production Capacity : 1797.1 mld Surface water treatment capacity :


Sayedabad 225 mld, Chadnighat 39 mld Narayanganj 46 mld, (Godnail + Sonakanda) Groundwater Production Capacity : 1487.1 mld Operational DTW 466 Daily Actual production : 1663.7 mld

Surface Water, 17% Surface Water Groundwater Groundwater, 83%

Supply Sources Sewerage System Coverage & Production Coverage area : 110 sq.km (30% of DCC area) Population served : 20% of total population Treatment plant : Pagla Sewerage Treatment Plant Treatment capacity : 1,20,000-50,000 CuM Sewerage Connections : 50,853 nos., Sewerage line : 881 km

3.7.3 Storm-water Drainage Coverage Service area : 150 sq.km Box culvert : 12.0 km, Open channel : 65.0 km Pipe drain : 250 km, Pump station : 3 nos. Pump capacity : 54 cusec Temporary pumping arrangement Total Nos. a.6ďƒ?25 = 150 Cusec b. 145ďƒ?5 = 725 Cusec


3.8 Revenue Earnings The main source of earning of DWASA is water and sewer bills. In the recent years, DWASA has substantially increased its revenue earning. Both the billings and collections are improving gradually, but the system loss is still above the expected level. So several steps such as: formulation of special task force, metering program for non-metered connections, no connections without meters, rehabilitation of old water lines, importing and marketing of meters in private sector, leasing out of the billing and collection activities, computerization of billing and collection etc. have been taken to reduce system loss and improve revenue earnings. 3.9 Tariff Rates for Water & Sewer Water Unit Per thousand litre (for metered

Residential & Social Holding

Industrial & Commercial

(in Taka)

Holding (in Taka)

5.50

18.25

32.25%

39.20%

connection) Yearly rate on the basis of annual valuation of the holding Minimum rates per month

¾" dia

1" dia

1.5: dia

2" dia

52.50

105.00

210.00

262.50

3.10 Community Programme • One of the primary goal of DWASA is to ensure save water and sanitation to the urban poor. DWASA has singed an MoU with NGOs to provide safe water and sanitation to urban slums. Currently DWAS is providing water & sanitation to the poor living in the slums in Mirpur area in collaboration with NGOs since 2000. • DWASA has a plan to expand the activities in other parts of the city with the help of different NGOs working for water & sanitation sectors. 3.11 DWASA Bottled water Plant Brand Name : Shanti, Commissioned : July 30, 2006 Production : 42,500 bottle per shift Water purification capacity : 10,000 litre/ hr Bottle size : 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 5000 ml & 20 litre Retail Price 500 ml

Tk. 9.00

1000 ml

Tk. 12.00


1500 ml

Tk. 16.00

2000 ml

Tk. 20.00

5000 ml

Tk. 36.00

Demand for three utility services increased with the increase in population in Dhaka City and in the above context, DWASA needs to expand, maintain and modernize its service. DWASA provides piped water which has traditionally been obtained fro ground water sources. 83% of its total supply is from Deep tubewells and only 17% comes from surface water sources. With the ever increasing demand of a growing population and a developing manufacturing and Industrial sector, the traditional reliance on groundwater for the City's Water Supply can no longer be sustained. It is very difficult to ensure uninterrupted water supply depending on a huge number of deep tubewels. Besides, the water quality conditions in the entire river system surrounding Greater Dhaka is Deteriorating as domestic and industrial waste directly discharged to the rivers. This uncontrolled discharge is a great concern for DWASA which is affecting the water quality of the surrounding rivers, the source of raw water for its water treatment plants. So immediate measures have to be taken to control pollution created by untreated liquid and solid waste disposed from domestic and industrial sources. DISCUSSION ON NON-REVENUE WATER & ITS PHENOMENON Investigation of service connection installation procedures and findings: There are unconfirmed reports that swervice connection contractors/Zoneal Service connection group are giving un-authorized service Connections to some “prospective customers” (who have already applied for service connections but have not deposited service connection installation fees according to demand notes) by entering into un-lawful and unethical agreement with them for illicit moneymaking. The survey team under took sample field investitagion against such “prospective Customers” under MODS Zone-III. Investigation Procedure of Service Connection (S.C.) List of Service Connection application totalling 159 for the first three months (January, February & March) of the year 2001 were selected for investigation. The list of Demand Notes (D.N.) for the above mentioned period was collected from MODS Zone-III office and list of Connection Permists (C.P.) up to the middle of August. The reason for collecting list of C.P. for the period much later than that of demand note was due to the facts that some C.Ps were issued at much later dates than those of issue of D.N. After thorough checking of list of D.N. and C.P. 12 (twelve) customers were identified against whom no C.Ps were found. They were marked as suspecious cases and field investigations were undertaken against them. Analysis : The findings of the field investigations of the 12 (Twelve) cases against whom no C.Ps were issued is shown here-under in the tabulated form. Finding of Field Investigations


Item Description

No.

Percentage

Remarks

No. of holdings without C.P. but

12

100.0

12 Holding out of 159

listed in D.N.-Register

application from January – March’ 2001

No. of holdings where no S.Cs were

4

33.3

1

8.3

found. No. of holding could not be traced due to incorrect address.

No holding no. available in D.N. Register.

No. of holding found with S.C. are 7 out of which holdings with S.C. documents holdings without S.C. documents

1

8.3

No C.P. was issued per Zonal C.P. Register

6

50.0

Unauthorized S.C.

100.0

Conclusion S.C. installation procedure It is obvious from the findings that 50% of the name against whom no C.Ps were issued, have taken unathorized connections and using water illegally. Therefore for exerting control on mal-practices and monitoring of the new S.C. installation, the list of Demand Note and Connection Permit should be compared carefully by the existing Waste Prevention Division, and field investigation should be undertaken against the holdings who did not deposit money to get the connection-permit to be issued against them. 4.1 Survey of Service connections and leak detection The follwing survey report and information can help to make it understand and portray the real situation prevailing in DWASA. TABLE- 4A: Service Connection and Storage Facilities TABLE- 4B: Water Meter and Billing Information The purpose of this Survey was to get details about the existing water supply condition of a few Industrial Holdings. The Survey objectives were: To enumerate details about service connections including storage facilities. To collect billing information, arrear etc. To collect information on sewer connection/septic tank etc. To identify malpractice on the service connection and associated activities if any. 4.1.1 Location of the survey area The surveyed Holdings are situated in the east of Tongi Diversion Road and south of Gulshan Diversion Road. On the south, the holdings are bounded by East-West Road, in front of Commander and Sirco Soap Chemical Industry Ltd. and by North-South Road, in front of Samah Razor Blade Factory Ltd. on the east. 4.1.2 Main Features of the survey area


The surveyer’s intention to select this area was aimed to get comprehensive idea about service connections of a few industries. These are the established Industries and Service Connections of the holdings were laid long time ago. 4.1.3 Survey Procedure A random holding-to-holding survey was conducted on selected industries according to the routine procedure. Information on service connection, storage facilities, water meters billing etc. were collected. 4.1.4 Description of Tables Detail information collected from the survey are presented in tabular forms. Table-4A shows details about holding, population, nature of use of holding, service connections and storage etc. Table-4B shows details information about meters, sewer and billing etc. Abbreviation for basis of billing in Table-4B can be explained as follows: MBilling is made on the basis of actual meter reading and the meter is running alright. ABilling is made of the basis of past average meter reading i.e. the meter is either withdrawn or not running properly. WAnnual WASA valuation. DAnnual municipal (DCC) valuation. CMinimum monthly rate is billed. Table 4.A : Hydraulic conditions and water quantities Measurement Point

3

Into pilot Area (m /d)

Out of pilot Area 3

(m /d) 1

DN 150 AC

14.5

8.6

2

DN 150 MS

14.4

21.1

3

DN 150 AC

20.0

101.9

4

DN 300 AC

146.0

367.0

5

DN 100 AC

0.0

53.5

6

DN 200 PVC

1,046.8

0.0

7

DN 150 AC

0.8

113.1

8

DN 150 DI

253.2

294.2

9

DN 150 AC

5.9

110.7

10

DN 100 AC

7.9

23.0

11

DN 150 DI

157.1

79.1

12

DN 150 AC

10.2

353.0

13

DN 150 AC

109.0

5.5

14

DN 100 AC

0.0

39.5

15

DN 300 AC

0.0

736.5

16

DN 200 PVC

1,043.3

62.3

Total

3,199.1

2,369.0

Difference

830.1

Consumption

711.0

Technical Losses

119 m /day

Table 4.B : Summary of Water consumption

3

3

5.0 m /hr


Sub-Area

No of SC

Water consumption (m3/day) minimum

maximum

average

1

72

0.10

8.83

2.65

2

40

0.20

9.60

2.50

3

93

0.22

7.40

2.03

4

63

0.30

9.40

1.54

5

24

0.30

6.37

1.66

Public Hyd

23

1.00

9.50

4.10

Total

315

0.35

8.20

2.25

Outside

106

0.50

11.00

2.71

Table 4C : Year-wise System Loss Financial

Dhaka WASA Zone(s)

Year

I

II

III

PPI Zone(s) VI

VII

Total

IV

V

All Total

Zones (I to VII)

2002-

64.25

73.60

53.36

50.29

52.31

58.76

55.32

36.02

45.07

54.25

2003 Financial

Dhaka WASA Zone(s)

Year

I

II

III

PPI Zone(s) VI

VII

Total

IV

V

All Total

Zones (I to VII)

2003-

56.45

69.81

44.76

57.82

41.60

40.71

47.61

36.59

57.07

49.32

47.89

60.05

43.43

65.62

50.84

25.95

32.10

32.77

30.49

40.59

39.42

48.47

37.99

67.55

43.04

23.52

26.90

25.65

25.37

34.11

41.51

45.08

35.44

73.89

42.52

23.98

28.13

29.62

27.38

34.82

2004 20042005 20052006 20062007 20072008

Table 4D : Minimum Rate for Both Water & Sewer Period

Rate (Taka per Month)

From

To

¾”

1”

1.5”

2”

01-11-1966

30-06-1976

3.00

3.00

3.00

3.00

01-07-1976

31-12-1982

6.00

6.00

6.00

6.00

01-04-1982

31-01-1988

8.33

8.33

8.33

8.33


01-02-1988

31-10-1990

13.00

13.00

13.00

13.00

01-11-1990

29-09-1992

14.30

14.30

14.30

14.30

30-09-1992

16-12-1993

16.45

16.45

16.45

16.45

17-12-1993

28-02-1997

18.10

18.10

18.10

18.10

01-03-1997

30-05-1997

18.55

18.55

18.55

18.55

01-06-1997

28-02-1998

19.00

19.00

19.00

19.00

01-03-1998

30-06-1999

20.33

20.33

20.33

20.33

01-07-1999

30-06-2000

21.35

21.35

21.35

21.35

01-07-2000

30-06-2002

22.32

22.32

22.32

22.32

01-07-2002

31-12-2002

23.50

23.50

23.50

23.50

01-01-2003

31-12-2003

25.00

25.00

25.00

25.00

01-01-2004

31-07-2004

26.25

26.25

26.25

26.25

01-08-2004

09-05-2007

50.00

100.00

200.00

250.00

10-05-2007

Onward

52.50

105.00

210.00

262.50

Findings of service connections and leak detection survey based on data availailable in the Table-4A and Table-4B. Altogether 23holdings were surveyed; out of which 3 holdings were found with two Service Connections each and one holding without service connections. • No. of persons worked in these Industries were 2,557 that means in addition to water required for specific industrial needs, about 112 persons in average were using water at least for 8 hrs. per day in each industry. • The oldest water service connection was of dated 01-08-56 and the latest one was found as of dated 07-08-89 which indicates that some water mains have been laid in the area at least 35/36 years back. • The water mains are of DN 450, DN 300, DN 200 and DN 150 in the surveyed area. These water mains are either MS or AC material in general. • The survey team detected existence of sewer main within 100 ft. of each holding but only 8 holdings were connected with sewer mains leaving the remaining 15 holding unconnected. Service connection pipes on all the holdings were of G.I. material, 15 connections were of dia, 19 mm, 7 of dia 25 mm and 3 of dia 50 mm. • Industrial holdings were found with their own DTW of dia 100 resp. 150 mm. Out of which two industries i.e. M/S. Nabisco Biscuit and Bread Factory holding No.262 and Commander Soap Co. Ltd. holding No. 265 have not cleared the annual renewal charge of DTW. Investigator approached Commander Soap Co. Ltd. On three different dates for collection of required water consumption and related data but due to non co-operation of this industry no data could be collected. Generally all private Deep Tube well are not metered. For monitoring of actual abstraction of ground water and its effect on the existing ground water model these DTW should be equipped with water meters. NRW is the consequences of pipeline leakage, illegal service connections and or improper connections, the total surveyed data revealed the information in this connection. The next discussion represents the Non-Revenue Water. 4.2 Non-Revenue water


The terms unaccounted for water (UFW) and non-revenue water (NRW) have been widely used in the past. The use of these terms, however, has been confusing. The International Water Association (IWA) recommends the use of NRW (IWA, 2000). IWA ``Best Practice'' Water Balance and Terminology for NRW and its components is explained in Box 4.1 and Box 4.2 In these, UFW equate to Water Losses. Accordingly, throughout this study report, reference is made wherever possible to NRW, not UFW. 4.2.1 Components of Non-Revenue Water Unbilled Authorized Consunption can include water used for fire fighting or free water distributed at standpipes or provided to religious institutions. Apparent Losses comprises unauthorized consumption and metering inaccuracies. It is estimated that in Asian cities 50-65% of NRW is due to apparent lossess. Box 4.1 International Water Association Water Balance The following are definitions of principal components of IWA water balance. System Input Volume is the annual volume put into the part of a water supply system that relates to water balance calculation. Authorised Consumption is the annual volume of metered and/or non-meterec water taken by registered customers, water supplies, and others who are implicitly or explicitly authorized to do so for residential, commercial, and industrial purposes. Water Losses can be identified by calcuating the difference between system input volume and authorized consumption. they consist of apparent losses and real losses. Apparent Losses result from unauthorized consumption and all types of inaccuracies associated with metering. Real Losses result from losses at mains, service reservoirs, and service connections (up to the point of customer metering). The annual volume lost through all thpes of leaks, bursts, and orerflows depends on their individual frequencies, flow rates, and duration. Non-Revenue Water is the difference between system input volume and billed authorized consumption, and it consits of the following. Unbilled Authorizoed Consumption (usually a minor component of water balance), Apparent Losses, and Real Losses. Box 4.2 ``IWA Best Practice'' Water Balance and Terminology Authorized

Billed Authorized

System

Consumpti

Consumption

Input

on

Volume

Billed Metered Consumption

Revenue Water

Consumption Billed Non-metered Unbilled Metered Consumption


Water

Unbilled

Losses

Authorized

Unbilled Non-metered Consumption

Consumption Apparent Losses Real Losses

Unauthorized Consumption

Non-

Metering Inaccuracies

Revenue

Leakage on Transmission and/or

Water

Distribution Mains. Leakage on Overflows at Utility's Storage Tanks Leakage on Service Connection up to Customers Meters.

Unauthorized consumption means illegal use, and this could be (i) sole illegal connections, (ii) illegal connections to properties that also have legal connections, or (iii) illegal connections for the purpose of selling water. Metering inaccuracies can include malfunctioning water meters, estimated water consumption (when meters are not working), and misreading water meters. Real Losses comprise leakage from transmission or distribution mains, leakage and overflow from utility storage reservoirs and leakage in reticulation system (especially service connections) up to the point of metering. Experience has shown that most leakage results from service connections, and largely this is due to poor construction. Consequences The issues related to high NRW rates are (i) consumers paying for inefficiencies of water utilities, (ii) a precious and scarce resource being wasted. and (iii) unnecessary investments in production. Another important consideration is that high NRW rates equate to poor governance, which results in low utility staff morale. From the consumers' point of view, those who have illegal connections or have estimated actual consumption below real consumptions are cheating. Linkage of Non-Revenue Water to Low Service Coverage Where there is low coverage with piped water there is also likely to be high NRW. It is possible that those with vested interests condone the illegal sale of utility water to SSWPs at high prices (low volumes). The total revenue obtained from this source may be of the same order of magnitude as the official sale of water by utillities. Reducing Non-Revenue Water The benefits of reducing NRW include: • need for less water to be produced, treated, and pumped, translating into the postponement of the expansion of capacity-producing less water also translates immediately into cost savings on O&M, due to savings in energy and treatment costs • reduction in apparent losses, which will result in more water being billed and more revenue for utilities- it has been shown that water metering and adequate rates redece wasteful consumption, which will likely decrease total consumption. • adequate understanding of consumption patterns, which will allow utilities to optimize system; • better knowledge of real consumption, which will improve demand projections; and • reduced sewage flows and pollution. These benefits depend on adequate pricing of water resources and service. Subsidies for water extraction, discharge of wastewater, capital investment, and operation of water supply systems lower


the cost of water as perceived by utilities and thus remove an incentive to reduce physical losses. Low water rates for consumers do not encourge utilities to meter their water consumption, detect, and deter unauthorized water use. Moreover, low rates fail to provide consumption with an incentive to deal with leaks and wastage beyond their meters. It is often said that there is no point in reducing NRW below about 20% of production, because the costs outweigh the benefits. An example from Singapore seems to disprove that theory (see Box 4.3) Box 4.3 Case Study Singapore (pop. 2.8 million) - Public Utilities Board

NRW was reduced from 10.6% in 1989 to 6% in 1994 Metering of production and consumption is 100%. Meter accuracy is very high. Production meters are calibrated every month. Domestic consumer meters are replaced every 7 years and industrial meters every 4 years. Volume of waste used for fire fighting is estimated or measured and fire deparments are billed. Commercial system is highly reliable and controls are in place to prevent tampering. Billing complaints are dealt with promptly. High and low consumption patterns are investigated. Average water rates are close to the incremental cost of water The entire distribution system is surveyed for leaks every year. Water districts can be fully isolated to monitor for leaks. Distribution pipes are cement lined to reduce corrosion and are replaced if the number of breaks exceeds three per kilometer per year. House connections are made of stainless steel Certified plumbers do in-house repairs and installations

Figure Non-revenue water in Asian cities 2001

Mapping The distribution system of most Asian cities are very poorly mapped. Only when these are well mapped can the Hydraulics be properly calculated and limitations on extensions to the distribution systems be properly controlled. Now, with global imaging tools and computerzation, this work can be


more easily accomplished and maintained.Goods records and public scrutiny (with the help of neighbors) will help eliminate illegal connections and derates the NRW. Control Measures Programs for controlling NRW should tackle at least the following three main causes of losses: (i) metering inaccuracies, (ii) unauthorized consumption, and (iii) leakage. Methods of controlling leakage include passive control, regular sounding, district metering, waste metering, combined district and waste metering, and pressure control. Selecting the most appropriate method would depend on the level of leakage, the cost of leakage, and the cost-effectiveness of each method. The proportion of all accounts that show an estimated billing amount or a minimum figure is a good indication of the whole discipline of accountability. These days, with computerized accounts, there are few excuses for not identifying and correcting these inadequacies. It might surprise some to know that in cities of developing countries, under projects assisted by development agencies, the first effort to reduce NRW often involves the purchase of leak detection equipment. This is the developed country approach, and in most cases it has little relevance when solving developing country problems. It is far more realistic to go out, repair all visible leaks (of which there are usually plent), carefully scrutinize, and accurately meter large water consumers. Entertaining the caretaker approach to O&M and reducing NRW. Pipe Replacement In Singapore and Tokyo, galvanized iron and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) service connections have been replaced with stainless steel service connections, and NRW levels in these cities (4% and 8% respectively) demonstrate the success of this approach. Singapore, Tokyo and other cities also have progrms for replacing asbestos cement pipes in distribution systems, as pipe breaks have increased over time. In Bangladesh this can not be affordable for its high price. Benchmarking Benchmarking NRW is useful, as it enables utilities to compare themselves with others. Moreover, benchmarking helps utilities compare their performance during one period with their performance during another. The leakage component can be measured in other ways - as water lost per kilometer of distribution and as water lost per connection. Rationale Legal and technical approaches to combating NRW have met with limited success. Generally, utility staff will only appear when called out in an emergency or a crisis, rather than show a daily presence in a given locality. The caretaker approach would add a social dimension to addressing the problem Remarks Reducing NRW is not technically difficult. It is however, challenging in a governmance sense. Eliminate illegal connections can only when utilities have autonomy and discipline, and when they are accountable to regulators and the public. In addition, utility employees need genuine incentives to do their jobs and replace the incentives have made for themselves through illegal connections, false meter reading, etc. The status quo needs to be overturned. Comprehensive audits of water and service levels are needed and links between NRW, low service coverage, and SSWPs need to be explored. When tariffs are much higher, consumers will put pressure on operators to eliminate leaks and chase illegal connections. Good organizational development is needed to take advantage of autonomy and deliver accountability. System loss is the ultimate result of NRW. System Loss Introduction Recently the system loss of Dhaka WASA is an important and burning issue. The organization is not collecting revenues from its available production of water and water volume supplied to consumers.


For this reason; during survey & auditing what are the causes behind it and what steps should be taken to minimize this loss that should be the focus of this study. Like the unplanned development of Dhaka City’s other services, the water distribution network has been expanded haphazardly mostly under some crash programmes, leading to mismanagements in operation and notably in distribution system. Approximately 55% of the total water production has been calculated as non - revenue water in the form of system losses during the year 2002-03 out of this, 25% has been estimated to be technical loss and the rest 30% commercial or administrative loss. The identified aspects of inefficient management leading to these system losses are: - unplanned development of distribution system - delayed attendance to repair works and lack of professional execution - lack of preventive maintenance - malpractices of Revenue Inspectors for personal gain and other purposes - consumption by house owners through bypass and illegal connections - lack of coordination between Waste Prevention, MODS Revenue and Meter Divisions and absence of the monitoring of follow-up actions etc. Management of System Loss. System loss can be classified into (a) Technical loss and (b) Administrative or Commercial loss. To bring down the current level of NRW to an acceptable level, due attention should be paid to find efficient management strategies to control them. System loss calculation There are around 460 Tube wells running under Dhaka WASA. There are seven zones divide the total operation area named maintenance, operation, distribution & services (MODS). Besides there are four surface water treatment plants producing water. In an average about 160.00 crore litters of water producing from both sources everyday and distributing the same. At the end of the month tariff of water is receiving through billings. But it is seen that billing is inconsistent to the production as well as distribution. It means the billed water is lower than the produced water. Therefore, difference in between production and billing is simply called system loss. Usually system loss can be revealed in percentage. Suppose the organization producing 4800 crore liters of water in a per month after a month billed water is 2688 crore liters only. Here the system loss = 4800–2688 X 100 4800 = 44% Technical System Loss The amount of Water lost through leakages of pipes, valves and fittings is generally termed as Technical loss. The technical procedures to be followed to control Technical losses. The major components which contribute to efficient management-control of Technical losses are: - Preventive MAINTENANCE under a Set Programme - improved REPAIR facility, method and workmanship - AWARENESS for the urgency of quick repair actions - EFFICIENT MOBILISATION with Leak Detection Task Force - daily CO-ORDINATION with Leak Detection Task Force during REPAIR WORK and Follow-up actions - SPOT-DECISION in vital repair works to minimize water wastage and inconvenience to consumers - cutting down of OFFICIAL-APPROVAL PATH for emergency procurement of vital repair material in special circumstances - monthly ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION of repair activity and repairing spreads to find drawbacks in repair system and management and rectify the same in future. - regular STOCK-INVENTORY of repair material and advance requisition for items before reaching exhaustion-level.


-

allocation of SUFFICIENT FUND to respective MODS Zone for facilitating purchase of urgent repair material if not available in DWASA stores, specially at crucial circumstances. implementation of TECHNICAL ISOLATION of each MODS Zone and sub-zones to identify the correct water balance and sources of major leakage .

Causes of Technical Loss: • Old & worn out pipe lines leakage. • Low quality pipe material used; • Aged pipe, Damaging pipes by other utility services during road cutting; laying & working. • Disjointing • Excess pressure on pipes exerting from transport or so Discuss the issue with different levels of officers’ employees and practically there are so many distribution lines which has been laid 20/30 year ago. These old/long time used pipes in water distribution network having different sizes of leakages which experience bulk quantity of supplied water wasting through leakage, reform to as technical loss. While study the compliant desk of different MODS zones, it is evident that officers and employees concerned are not sincere to attaining and solving the problems like pipeline leakage. Pipeline leakage is one & only the cause of technical loss. It is mentionable that a water loss> 150 gallons per minute result from a 1" (One inch) diameter hole at a pressure of 40 psi. Figure 4.1 Complaint received, settled & unsettled Total no. of complaints received

No. of complaints settled

No. Of complaints unsettled

4470

4500 3273 4000 3500

No. complaints

3000 2500 1197

2000 1500 1000 500 0 1 MODS Zone-1-7

Figure 4.1

Analyzing the bar chart, it is seen that the competent authority was not attentive to alleviate the leakage complaints. Almost 1197 (27%) complaints remain undone i.e. the concern officers had not taken any step to solve these complaints.Figure 4.1 shows the total number of complaints, complaints attained & unsettled complaints. So, eliminating the leakage is vital for reducing system loss. Non technical or Administrative /Commercial loss: Non-technical or administrative/commercial loss evolved from theft water, illegal connections, by pass lines, disorder or damage meter, average billing non-metered connections unrecorded water supply, billing errors etc. These can be reducing by taking administrative actions. Causes of Non-technical/ Commercial loss. Non-technical loss is a serious issue for revenue earning. Discussed with various levels of staff and officers within the organization specially with the revenue wing and checked the meter books, computer meter reading, data entry sheets etc. From this study, following facts are founded: (i) Billing is less then actual bill by tampering meters. (ii) Illegal connections. (iii) Billing on the basis of annual valuation. (iv) By passing meter connections. (v) Using non-metered water. (vi) Unrecorded water connections The procedure to control commercial unaccounted for water which is in the order of 30 to 31% of the produced water, the main features of which are :


-

Complete updating of consumer/customer data by CONSUMER SURVEY in every alternative year. IMPROVED PROCEDURE of handling water and sewer connections and connection of nonmetered water connections. STREAMLINING PROCEDURES of meter reading, modifying job descriptions of Meter Readers, Revenue Inspectors and Revenue Supervisions Introduction of EFFICIENT BILL-PREPARATION and control procedure Stream lining revenue COLLECTION AND CONTROL MODIFICATION OF PROCEDURE for enhanced performance on revenue accounting, controlling and handling of arrears Implementation of strict policies on DISCONNECTION PROCEDURES and realisation of unpaid bills.

Meter tampering:


Meter tampering is one of the main causes of commercial system loss in Dhaka WASA. • In Dhaka WASA 70% of the total non-technical system loss is happening from meter tampering. • Revenue inspectors are working in a certain area for a long time. They are collecting meter reading then based on their reading they prepared & produced bills against the respective holding in the areas concerned. They know each other (Revenue Inspector & Consumer) and develop a relation by induction. and offer undue previlege to each other (give & take). Ultimately, both the parties (inspectors & consumers) engaged themselves in meter tampering ignoring the responsibility, morale ethics and organization’s goal. This is the main causes of meter tempering. In November 2004 survey conducted by waste prevention division, total surveyed population is 2520 (Consumer) 368 consumers are commiting this kind of offence like meter tampering. This is 15% of the total population mentioned. It is seen from the field survey, these cases are happening years together but no effective action is taken. A Poject Manager mentioned that non-availability of adequate number of meters encouraging and facilitating meter tempering. The organization fails to supply water meters in due time. So it is not possible on their part to replaced tampered meter and or installed new one. Illegal water connection: It has been obeserved from the field survey report conducted by waste prevention division. (August 2002 - November 2004). The total number of water connections are 2520; whereever 72 connections are illegal out of 2520. This is published data, real information is quite different and the magnitude is certainly higher. Billing on the basis of Annual valuation: As per WASA. levy Rule 1966, while issuing the C.P.if there is no meter then annual valuation (Assessed by DCC) is applicable for preparation of water bill. Bill is to be calculated based on annual valuation fixed by the city corporation, once it is proven that annual valuation is not assessed properly in that case WASA will refix the valuation then prepare compatible bill. In 2003-04 total number of non-metered consumers were 73721. During survey, it was found that City Corporation fixes their valuations. These were done before 1988. All revenue zones of Dhaka WASA used to prepare bills based on the then valuations. Meanwhile a large number of meters were procured by the organization. But the revenue zone did not employed these meters for these old consumers. During survey, it was found that the connections were taken in 1969 but meters were installed in 1997. i.e. after long 29 years meter was connected which is reality but deplorable fact for us. Non-metered billing is running for the last 29 years. An audit team cheeked and verified the ledger of different revenue zones by random sampling. Consumers’ ledger has been checked, information about valuation is written but there is no sign of R.O, A.R.O & R.I and no authentication or certification. Even though what is the origin of these valuation and how it is established in WASA is not mentioned at all. In this connection, the audit team asked the concerned officers. But they could not answered satisfactorily and could not produce any paper in favor of these so called valuations. Most of the cases valuations of the installations or buildings are inconsistent with the reality. Therefore, there is doubt enough of billings, which are preparing based on annual valuations. Figure 4.2 shows the number of consumers & estimated bills.


No. of Estimated bills

Total no. of consumers

Total no.of non metered estimated bills

250000 196453

210771

201930

192641

200000

No. of consumers

150000

100000 58435

73721

64913

56090

50000

0 1/1/1900

1/2/1900

1/3/1900

1/4/1900

Financial year

Figure 4.2

Using water through bypassing meter: It is found from a survey report conducted by waste prevention division; out of 2520 connections, 36 approved meter connections were bypassed. While surveying, the team confirmed by physical survey and compared the information, that the concern Revenue Inspector (RI) did not send any report to the competent authority. Even no action has been taken by the concern zones office after unfold the fact revealed by Waste Prevention Division (WPD.) Whereas the consumers using water through bypass lines which incurred system loss. This is indeed serious offence declines revenue. Using water without meter: Some data has been taken from the ledger by random sampling. Connections are given by the zones office as per demand of the city dwellers. While issuing the connection permit, usually price of meter is collecting by the office but due to non-availability of water meter, consumers are not getting water meter. However, connections and other accessories are sanctioned legally. The following statistics showed a clear picture in this regard. The organization is taking the price of meter when issuing the connection permit (CP) but during the last four years total number of connections is given 35,938, whereas meter is issued only 1462. Which is 4% only, the rest 96% of the total connections are non metered. The figure 4.3 shows the non-metered connections. Non-metered connection

Meter issued, 1462, 4%

Service connection Meter issued

Service connection, 35938, 96% Figure 4.3


Therefore, number of meter connections is very poor relative to non-metered connections. Consumers paid the price of meters, but authority is not providing the meters for a long while. The organization received around Tk.20.00 crore against these connections but enable to provide only 1462 meters. From the thorough study, it is observed that the organization supplied small number of meters to the consumers in time. Incase of supplying meters DWASA is not maintaining its continuity also. Some mentionable data (Population size) is collected by random sampling and studied that 246 consumers got their connections and after a long time gap they got the meters. Time gap between connection & meter issue

15- Above year, 22%

1-5 month, 25% 1-5 month 6-12 month 1-3 year

6-12 month, 4%

10-15 years, 14%

1-3 year, 9% 6-10 years, 13%

3-6 years 6-10 years 10-15 years 15- Above year

3-6 years, 13%

Figure 4.4

The figure 4.4 shows the time gap between meter connection and connection permit. From discussion and observation, there are 2,38,304 available connections where non metered connections are 90555. It means that 38% of the consumers using water without meter. It is the sole responsibility of the organization to provide water meters to the bonafied consumers in proper time. The issue of meter and CP is to be done simultaneously. WASA is receiving enough money against meters when giving water connection to the consumers and raising a fund but supplying meter is very minimum with respect to connection and it`s function is limited and not prompt at all. Meter demanded, 2, 112505

Demand & Supply of Meters

120000 Meter procured, 2, 27700

100000

80000

60000

Meter demanded Meter procured

40000

20000

0

Figure 4.51

2

The figure 4.5 shows the demand & supply of water meters. At present, actual system loss is around 50%. Sometimes this information may be changed for convenient representation and reporting purpose, the authority manipulates the actual magnitude of system loss. Non-meter water supply is one of the major causes of immense magnitude of system loss. Study & review the whole system and activities. It is found that 25% system loss is technical loss and rest 30% is administrative loss. Total administrative loss caused by theft water. A large number of holdings are out of metering this is one of the main causes, which facilitate water, stealing and enhanceing system loss. Therefore, it is possible to minimize system loss to some extent if the organization provides meters for each separate connection. 4.3.12. Number of Account is less then the connections:


Obviously, an account is to be opened against every single connection and it should be done simultaneously. It is the convention and regulation of DWASA. Recording the used water accordingly and billing the same are very important tasks for reducing system loss and increasing the revenues. If the account is not open timely then billing is not possible against the holding. If the competent authority does not issue bills then used water remains unrecorded. Therefore opening an account of connection against each holding is one of the most important tasks for officials. Regarding improvement of system loss proper activity should be done by revenue wing. In the fiscal year 2002 - 2003, 10253 nos. in 2003- 2004, 10613 nos. & 2004-2005, 6232 number of consumers have had water connections. Nevertheless, their accounts were not opened while issuing the CP. Therefore, they were totally remain untouched with the billing system. Whereas all these consumers were using water after having the connections. Though they were using water but not recorded at all and billing was not possible against these connections. This is one of the main causes of non-revenue water that contributes undesigned system loss. Studying the water production reports, papers concerned billings, following bar chart (Figure 4.6) showed the actual picture about total production, billing and unbilled water. Unregistered consumers

238304

250000

233304

225304

226100

219306 202774 200000

No. of consumers

150000 Total no. connections Registered consumers Unregistered consumers 100000

50000 22530 15165

12204

0 2003-2004

Figure 4.6

2004-2005 Financial year

2005-2006

Analyzing the data available in the table (4E) the system loss published by Dhaka WASA compared with the targeted system loss set by the Govt. makes some differences. FY

Total target set by

System loss published by

Actual system loss (%)

Govt. (%)

DWSA(%)

2002-2003

37.00

41.00

50.49

2003-2004

36.00

54.25

55.54

2004-2005

36.68

49.32

49.86

Table 4E: Targeted, published & actual system loss The information available in the above table sorted it out the gap among three captions. This is really unpalatable for the authority. In 2002-2003 actual system loss was 50% but published data is only 41%. Therefore wrong information is furnished to the WASA Board as well as ministry. For this reason WASA has lost a huge amount of revenues. Govt. has set a maximum system loss limit. But WASA has surpass that limit. This high magnitude system loss contributes excessive loss of revenues. FY

Actual system

Acceptable

Excess system

Amount of revenue

loss

(targeted)

loss compares to

lost

(%)

system loss

target limit (%)

limit (%) 2002-2003

50.49

37.00

13.49

27.65

(Crore taka)


2003-2004

55.54

2004-2005

49.86

36.00

19.54

49.02

36.68

13.18

36.13

Table 4F: Actual and targeted system loss and lost revenue For preparing this report, the participant made Managing Director (MD) of Dhaka WASA. At the time of valuable discussion, MD pronounced that an acceptable range of system loss is 20% but could not produce any document in support of this utterance. If we assume that it is set out standard then the administrative/commercial system loss got higher magnitude stated in the table (4F). FY

Total system

Acceptable

Non-technical system loss

loss (%)

technical loss (%)

(%)

2002-2003

50.49

20.00

30.49

2003-2004

55.54

20.00

35.54

2004-2005

49.86

20.00

29.86

Table 4G: Total system loss, acceptable technical loss and non-technical/commercial system loss The management failed to overcome these hurdles and eleminate this ailment of system loss. Whereas these losses may be alleviate by taking administrative actions. For improving the revenue income WASA has taken some programs. By turns lease out of Revenue Zone is one of the main programs. This program designated by “Programs for Performance Improvement (PPI)�. The following table (4G) shows a comparison statement of performance between lease out PPI zones and non-lease out zones. Name of the

Lease out/non

Acceptable

Actual system

Zones

lease out

system loss set by

loss (%)

Remarks

Govt. (%) Zone-1

Non-lease out

36.68

65.00

Zone-2

Non-lease out

36.68

77.00

Zone-3

Lease out

36.68

42.00

Zone-4

Lease out

36.68

48.00

Zone-5

Lease out

36.68

36.00

Oldest lease out zone

Zone-6

Lease out

36.68

55.00

Zone-7

Non-lease out

36.68

65.00

(N. Gonj)

Table 4H: Zonewise system loss


It is observed in FY 2003-04 system loss of PPI Revenue zone-5 is 36%. This is much less than other revenue zones. and somewhat lower than the maximum limit set by the Govt. The matter is discussed thoroughly that lease out revenue zone is administered and directed by Cooperative Association of Dhaka WASA. All the directors and others fellows of this association are the employees of DWASA. They are successfully operating the PPI zone. They are capable enough to reduce system loss. Therefore when these employees were under the administration of DWASA they could not able to optimize the targeted system loss like PPI zone. This phenomenon is deplorable and not acceptable to general mass as well as to the nation. By considering the comparison, Dhaka WASA may set a tolerable system loss. System losses of some renowned cities are depicted in the following table (4H).

Sl. No.

Year

Name of the cities

System loss

Comments

(%) nd

1

DWASA, Bangladesh

50.00

2 highest position

2

Delhi, India

44.00

3

Karachi, Pakistan

34.00

4

New York, USA

10.00

1 lowest position

5

Manila, Philippine

55.00

1 highest position

6

Mexico city, Mexico

32.00

7

Toronto, Canada

10.00

8

Seoul, South Korea

35.00

9

Vietnam city, Vietnam

50.00

st st

st

1 lowest position

Table 4I: System loss of different cities 4.4 . Water Supply System in the third world cities People in the third world can only envy the level of health risk faced by those who can turn on a tap or a flush a toilet. Allure of work opportunity in the third world cities coupled with lack of employment in rural areas, in flux of new population in the cities created tremendous stress on existing utility services particularly water supply and sanitation systems. Most cities in Africa and many in Asia like Dakar, Kinshasa and chitagong for example have no sewerage of any kind. Streams, gullies and ditches are where most human excrement and household waste end up. People dream their drinking water from a standpipe which only operates for a few hours each day. Women still wash clothes and bathe their children in a muddy stream. Approximately 60% of the total water supply distributed by Finland's waterworks consists of groundwater. In Nairobi, Jakarta, Bankok and elsewhere, families are forced to purchase water from a vendor, paying ten times the rate charged to houses with main connections (In Khartoum, it is 18 times more expensive). In some parts of Sudden, half of household income is spent on water. No.

Particulars/parameters

Amounts/ ranges

i.

Water proportion in human bodies

65%

ii.

By stopping drinking water(or drinks & food

within 3 or 4 days

containing water) a man would die. iii.

Using of water per day , per person a) Toilet flushing

35 litres


b) Cooking and drinking

30 litres

c) Bathing

30 litres

d) Using a shower

12-25 litres

e) Others

20 litres

f) Total

140 litres

iv.

The average daily for a family

480 litres

v.

Die from water related diseases per day (UNO

25,000 people

report) vi.

Water need To make a car

31600 litres

To make one ton of steel

4124 litres

To make one pair of leather shoes

53 litres

To make a comic

9 litres

Table 4J: Water Related informations (source: UNO report) As city population rapidly expands, water and sanitation services are put under pressures unimaginable to those who build them. UNO celebrates "Sanitation Day" & "Water Day" every year. Europe encourages action in city halls and Africa (eg-Lagos) for urban filth. At the end of 1990s, 2.5 billion people in the third world were without a safe supply of drinking water and 3.6 billion without any proper means of waste disposal. The next chapter of the study contains the analysis and findings. Actually, these are the total extraction in a nutshell from the previous all. ANALYSIS AND INTERPETITATION OF FINDINGS Since the creation of DWASA as a separate entity for supplying water and disposing of sewage for the inhabitants of Dhaka City, Unaccounted for water (UFW)/Non-Revenue water is gradually becoming a serious concern for DWASA and is one of the major crises being faced by the Authority presently. This report is focusing on the existing technical and management standards related to NonRevenue Water and proposing necessary amelioration. Findings of service connections and leak detection survey data are available in the Table-4A and Table-4B (Section-1 of chapter-4). Following analysises are made based on information available in the table• Altogether 23 holdings were surveyed; out of which three holdings were found with two Service Connections, each and one holding without service connections. • No. of persons worked in these Industries were 2,557 that means in addition to water required for specific industrial needs, about 112 persons in average were using water at least for 8 hrs. per day in each industry. • The oldest water service connection was of dated 01-08-56 and the latest one was found as of dated 07-08-89, which indicates that some water mains have been laid in the area at least 35/36 years back. • The water mains are of DN 450, DN 300, DN 200 and DN 150 in the surveyed area. These water mains are either MS or AC material in general. • The survey team detected existence of sewer main within 100 ft. of each holding but only 8 holdings were connected with sewer mains leaving the remaining 15 holding unconnected.


• •

Service connection pipes on all the holdings were of G.I. material, 15 connections were of dia, 19 mm, 7 of dia 25 mm and 3 of dia 50 mm. Industrial holdings were found with their own DTW of dia 100 mm & 150 mm. respectively. Out of which two industries i.e. M/S. Nabisco Biscuit and Bread Factory holding No.262 and Commander Soap Co. Ltd. holding No. 265 have not cleared the annual renewal charge of DTW. Surveyer approached Commander Soap Co. Ltd. On three different dates for collection of required water consumption and related data but due to non co-operation of this industry no data could be collected. Generally, not all private Deep Tube well are metered. For monitoring of actual abstraction of ground water and its effect on the existing ground water model these DTW should be equipped with water meters.

Findings of water meter Water meters were found installed in each service connection surveyed. Out of twenty two meters, one meter was found damaged, 3 others were not functioning and 8 meter seals were found not in order. The diameter of the meters varies from 19 mm to 50 mm.The physical condition of 2 meters was bad. The survyer gaged this 2 meters were tampered. It should be mentioned here that, during this sample survey it was not possible to verify on the spot whether the meters are tampered or not. Findings on Billing In two holdings where the water meters were found out of order, the billing is done on minimum rate i.e. Tk.14.30/month only. The billing should be on average consumption basis, which is a common practice in DWASA in case of nonfunctioning meters. These holdings are No. 237/A of A/c. No.243/Tej and Holding No.263 of A/c No.3,661/Tej. • • •

6.44% of annual valuation is billed for sewer charges from 11 holding which are within 100 ft. of WASA sewer main but not connected. Usual sewer charges are being billed to 8 holding which are connected with WASA sewer main. Remo Chemical Industry at holding No. 235 does not pay sewer charge 6.44% of annual valuation of holding though it is situated within 100 ft. of WASA sewer main. Based on above-mentioned findings it is evident, that considerable additional revenues could be gained by DWASA if necessary technical adaptation and billing according to prevailing WASA rules and regulations are followed.

As Of Shortcomings Related To Non-Revenue Water Based on the Survey Reports, there seems to be a lack of coordination between the Engineering, Commercial and Secretariat Departments resulting in negligence of taking into consideration of several important factors concerning NRW. The lack of prompt communication for transmitting valuable information in Waste Prevention and leak Detection fields between Engineering and Commercial Departments and subsequent delayed remedial measures to control wastage of water is one example of such lack of co-ordination. Though a picture of decentralization is projected in the management of supply, distribution and consumption with the division of DWASA into 6(six) Zones within Dhaka City and inclusion of Narayangonj as the seventh zone. Complete assessment of independent distribution and consumption within each zone is not possible due to interlinked type of the existing system (in Dhaka City) which is a major obstacle for adopting appropriate strategy to control Technical Loss. Also lack of administrative and financial autonomy of each zone are creating unnecessary bottlenecks and lengthy formalities in urgent decision making in the field of controlling NRW. The shortcomings related to NRW in specific areas are stated in the following: • The available system maps are often not complete in information & many cases giving misleading and wrong information.


• • • •

Existing manpower and logistics of waste prevention division are not sufficient to dectect leakge & service connection malpractices. Current work procedure is inconvenient the information of meter tampering is communicated to the Meter Division through Revenue Division creating a lengthy process of information flow and possibilities of interference. Existing technical personnel in sufficient. Irregularities are available in new service connection.

Non-Revenue Water (problems in a nutshel) 1. NRW includes water not build as a result of leakage, illegal use, inadequate measurements & free use (authorized) 2. NRW average 30% of the production in Asian cities, but ranges from 4 to 65%. In Bangladesh it is around 50%. 3. High NRW water is connected low-piped water coverage. 4. There is need to determine whether physical losses (leakage) are maintained to mask the illegal use. 5. Consumers pay for utility in efficiencies. 6. A precious and scarce resource is being wasted. 7. Unnecessary investments in production are made. Issues of Demand Management Demand management is given utmost importance by any water utility services in large cities around management is imperative to support in the development of an immediate, mid-term and long-term strategy for water supply. In this regard, prediction of the growing population along with the urbanization process, the various uses of water including domestic, commercial and industrial consumptions has to be evaluated. The demand management component of the study aims at : 1. Assessing the demand for water for domestic, commercial and industrial users for the next 25 years in Dhaka. 2. Developing a comprehensive strategy for water abstraction from various sources of supply (as identified by IWM team) for the purpose of DWASA management. Assessment of Water Demand Demand for water, by definition, includes the amount of water demanded by a unit of consumption for given socio-economic conditions, pricing strategy, basic human needs and for a given level of quality of life. Demand for water for Dhaka City, therefore, by definition means the amount of water demanded per day by various types of consumers in Dhaka City. To make a reasonable projection on the demand for water, firstly, individual demand is estimated and then various assumptions are used to quantify aggregate water demand for the city. Consuming units in Dhaka city includes: Residential, Commercial and Industrial. It has been observed that commercial and industrial demand for water in Dhaka is stable around 10% of the residential demand. Consequently the study used a household survey to determine the demand for water by having style of people of Dhaka city. Table 6.1 shows the sample plan of the survey. A total of 639 households were surveyed to understand the demand for water in these households based on (a) type of house (b) living style in terms of use of gadgets in the house (c) location of the houses etc. The sample is based on the available GIS data for 30 words of Dhaka City where housing structure was clearly defined. The GIS data, however, was spread across various zones of Dhaka City and based on it, a sample was created that was proportional to the distribution of house by type in each zone. Table 5.1 Sample


Type of house Hi-rise

Multi-

One

Semi pucca

Katcha

Total

storied

storied

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

Zone 1

3

36

12

27

11

89

Zone 2

4

11

6

10

3

34

Zone 3

12

66

17

33

8

136

Zone 4

2

54

10

39

16

121

Zone 5

4

66

19

39

13

141

Zone 6

9

32

7

23

6

77

Zone 7

3

12

7

14

5

41

All Zone

37

277

78

185

62

639

Note- 1 : 'Katcha house' means houses wall made of bamboo or other materials, 'Semi-pucca' houses are with brick wall and tin roof, 'One storied' means houses with concrete roof, 'Multi-storied' buildings are houses with more than I floor up to 6 floors, and 'hit-rises' are buildings with at least 7 floors. Note- 2 : The sample plan was pre-determined using the proportion of clients within residential category for various zones (6). Columns 1-5 were pre-determined using the GIS data based on available samples in each zone. However, this table shows the actual sample that was used to drive conclusions in this study. The discrepancy between planned and actual sample is due to nonresponsiveness in the data. Household Profile Age of the House Table 1.2 provides information on the average are of the houses in Dhaka City. It shows age of the hirise buildings are about 8 years on average, multi-storey are of 15 years of age, one storey buildings in Dhaka city are of 25 years old and other buildings are below 20 years of age. There is a wide range of variation in terms of age but the average provides a general picture of the aging pattern of houses in Dhaka City. Table 5.2 Age of the Household Type of house

Mean age in years

Std. Deviation

Hi-rise

8.11

11.81

Multi storey

15.10

13.12

One storey

25.18

39.36

Semi pucca

21.74

20.88

Katcha

16.42

14.35

Average for the city

17.92

20.79

Source : IWM water demand survey, 2006 Characteristics of the Houses in Dhaka City To understand the demand for water, the basic characteristics of the houses in Dhaka City is needed to be known. A wide degree of variability exists among them not only interms of the type of hosues but also in terms of facilities and features within the houses and in the premises. For example, in a hi-rise building on average 27 families live where as in a multi-storey building the average number of


families living is only 6. Similarly, size of household living in these premises varies between 4.7 and 5.8 depending on the type of the house. These are shown in details in Table 6.3. Characteristics of Houses in Dhaka City Water heating

Garages

Car washing

4.71

2.64

24.30

75.70

5.40

83.78

37.80

Multi-

6.01

5.52

2.50

30.20

48.70

11.60

54.51

27.80

1.92

5.83

2.16

35.10

32.10

1.30

28.57

22.70

2.98

5.11

1.63

8.10

8.10

0.50

1.64

1.10

Katcha

4.87

4.73

1.17

4.80

4.80*

Total

5.77

5.32

2.10

25.40

32.20

5.60

32.55

17.40

provision

English Commode

27.54

facilities

Gardens

Hi-rise

house

House

Bath rooms

Percent of Houses with

Household size

Average Number of Family living in the

Type of

storey One storey Semi pucca

Note : 'Katcha house' means house wall made of bamboo or other materials. 'Semi-pucca' house are with brick wall and tin roof, 'One storey' means house with concrete roof, 'Multi-storey' buildings are houses with more than I floor up to 6 floors, and 'hi-rise' are buildings with at least 7 floors * a strange result! Source : IWM Water Demand Survey, 2006 Table-5.3 further shows that average number of bathrooms per house/ flat is 2.1. For hi-rise and multi-stores building it is significantly above 2 on average. For poorer households (living in katcha and semi -pucca houses it is less than 2. Similarly, 84% of the hi-rises have garage the facilities and about 38 percent of them wash their cars inside the premise using common water facilities, English commode (hi-commode) which is becoming a norm for modern apartments, 75% of the hi-rise apartments use this commode and around 48% of multi-storey houses also use nigh commode. The survey result has surprisingly showed that even semi-pucca and katcha houses has high-commode which is likely because of not understanding the meaning of high-commode by the respondents in the katcha houses. However, we have ignored them during our analysis. Table 5.3 further shows that the family size using in a typical hi-rise building is 4.71, and H increases to 583 fur one storey buildings A slight reduction in family size is noticed for people living in semipacca and katcha houses and it is most likely due to the fact that these people might have left family members in their villages. Demand Side Issues The average water consumption of household per person per day has been estimated using survey data and it shows that depending on household characteristics consumption per person per day varies horn 53 litre to 239 litre while to the average for the city stands at 124 litre per day. Clearly the lifestyle of people has an impact on the water consumption. Table : Average per Capita Daily Consumption of Water by House Type Type of House

Litre/ capita/ day


Hi-rise

238.58

Multi-storey

140.39

One storey

138.11

Semi pucca

107.88

Katcha

53.13

Average for the city

124.00

Source : IWM Water Demand Survey, 2006 Factors affecting water consumption To understand the factors affecting the water consumption per person per day, the study used several analytical approaches. First using the standard mean-value comparison the study found the following results (Table 5.5) Table : Comparison of water consumption by living standard Indicators of living standards

Litre per person per day Yes

No

Garden in the premise

161.09

115.38

Commode in the toilet

183.68

104.51

Car washing facility

232.71

109.29

Water heating facility

247.86

121.89

Dishwasher

225.52

121.46

Washing machine for clothes

212.22

115.91

Attached Batch

153.29

109.46

Bathtub

238.61

112.77

Shower in the bathroom

159.53

100.64

Floor-tiles in the Bathroom

164.45

109.19

Table 5.6 shows the level of water consumption by number of bedrooms in a house. It shows the water consumption increases up to 308 litre per person per day for houses with more 4 bedrooms This problem shows the possibility of misuse as number of inhabitant increases in a house. Table 5.6 Per capita Water Consumption (in Liter) by number of bedrooms and by house type Hi-rise One-bed House

Multi-

one

semi

Katcha

All

storey

storey

pucca

107.98

113.17

71.13

44.70

81.04

Two- bed House

201.45

110.20

138.77

113.86

73.38

117.71

Three-bed House

301.85

207.36

117.99

123.16

50.92

169.52

Four-bed House

308.59

194.53

173.15

118.29

164.06

Source: IWM Water Demand Survey, 2006 Table 5.7 Show that in Dhaka roughly 43 percent of people consume (presently) water below 100 litres a day. About 20 percent of the people of Dhaka consume water above 200 litres a day. Table 5.7 Ranges in Water consumption (per capita per day in litre) Range

Valid percent

Cumulative


Below 100

43.3

43

100 to 150

22.5

66

150 to 200

13.7

80

200 thru highest

20.6

100

Total

100

Source : IWM Water Demand Survey, 2006 Table- 5.8 Illustrates the type of payment scheme used by households to pay WASA bills. It shows that 15% of katcha houses, 6 percent of semi-pucca houses, 5 percent of one storey houses and 2.7% of multi-storey houses use other’ type of payment. This is a reflection of loop-holes in the bill collection system by WASA. However, most people pay their bills using monthly payment scheme, Overall, 4.6% people use other modes of payment to pay water bills. Table Billing Method by House Type Monthly

Bi-monthly

Tri-monthly

Others

Hi-rise

93.50%

3.20%

3.20%

0.00%

Multi storey

96.40%

0.40%

0.40%

2.70%

One storey

95.10%

0.00%

0.00%

4.90%

Semi pucca

92.50%

0.70%

0.70%

6.20%

Katcha

82.40%

0.00%

2.90%

14.70%

Total

94.00%

0.60%

0.80%

4.60%

Source : IWM water demand survey, 2006 The results so far presented illustrate that in terms of mean water use, households having garden, commode in toilet, car washing facilities, water heating facilities, dishwashers, washing machines, attached bath, bathtub, shower and floor-tiles (all these representing living standards) use more water per capita than houses without such facilities. Consequently, it is important to analyze the relationship between gadgets with quantity of water use. To determine the most important factors that affects them, the following regression model was used : lcd = f (house type, living standards gadgets) The Final regression results show that water consumption per person per day is highly linked with the type of houses. Table 5.9 Regression Result : Dependent Variable (Water consumption in litre per person per day) Unstandardized

Standardized

Coefficients

Coefficients

t

Sigma

11.416

0.00

B

Std. Error

Beta

Intercept

104.818

9.181

Type of house

7.687

4.062

0.104

1.893

0.059

Dummy for car

44.005

12.011

0.202

3.664

0.00

47.442

22.744

0.109

2.086

0.038

washing facility Dummy for Dishwasher


Note : Type of House 0=Kathca, 1=Semi pucca, 2=one storey, 3=multi-storey and 4= hi-rise, Car washing facility= 1 (if exists) =0 (otherwise); Dishwasher =1 (if exists)= 0 (otherwise). Table 5.9-shows that with types of house going up from katcha to hi-rise water consumption per litre person per day go up by 7.68 litres. I louses with ear washing facilities at home consume higher amount of water and with dishwasher also consume higher amount of water. Overall, the regression output confirms that standard of living and particularly housing type is a major factor in determining the water consumption at the house. Consequently during the estimation for future need of water, the have used several scenarios on changes in the lifestyle of the people living in Dhaka. Regression analysis also confirms that except for ear washing and dishwashing facilities all other variables manifesting living style is absorbed in the house type variable. Based on the results, housing type has been used to proxy the life style. Water Supply Issues Quality of water supplied by WASA has been identified by consumers as a major problem during the survey. Table 5.10 shows that overall 35 percent of’ the residents of’ Dhaka have mentioned that quality of water are a major problem for them. Table Problem in Water Quality by Zone (Percent reporting) Bad smell

Colored

Bad taste

Dirty

Others

Zone 1

35.9

12.6

12.6

36.9

1.9

Zone 2

36.9

9.2

16.9

36.9

0

Zone 3

31.7

18.6

9.7

37.2

2.8

Zone 4

38.7

9.2

10.4

38.7

2.9

Zone 5

30.5

16.8

13.2

36.5

3

Zone 6

42.9

12.1

8.8

36.3

0

Zone 7

28.3

23.3

23.3

25

0

Total

35

14.3

12.4

36.3

2

Source : IWM Water Demand Survey, 2006 Survey data further shows that these problems persist in all zones almost equally. Over all 35 percent people reported by smell in their water and 36 percent reported that their water is dirty. Color water and water with bad taste are report by 14 and 13 percent of the people in Dhaka City. In terms supply interruptions survey data shows that in winter and in pre-monsoon periods supply interruption increases from 18 percent to over 30 percent for the subscribers (Table 5.11). Table Supply interruption by season Quality of water supply in

Uninterrupted

With interruptions

Winter

66.8

31.2

Pre-monsoon

64.5

34

Monsoon

80.6

18.4

Source : IWM water demand survey, 2006 In terms of source of water for the people in Dhaka, Table 5.12 shows that 93 percent people mentions that DWASA is their major source of water. However, it further shows that people living in Hi-rise and multi-storey buildings use deep tube well as the alternative source of water while people living in katcha houses use mostly tubewell as an alternative source of water.


Table 5.12 Source of Water Type of House

WASA

DTW

TW

Market

Hi-rise

97.3

2.7

0

0

Multi-storey

95.7

2.5

0.4

1.4

One storey

94.9

0

2.6

2.6

Semi pucca

93

2.2

3.2

1.6

Katcha

75

5.4

17.9

1.8

Total

93.1

2.4

3

1.6

Source : IWM water demand survey, 2006 Water Demand Forecast for DWASA Based on the analysis of Demand and Supply using a simulation model has been developed using MS Excel to determine demand for water from 2005 to 2030. The model equation is described in scope of the study (1.3). The simulation model was run for 25 years time period (from 2005 to 2030) for five various types of houses: Katcha, Semi Pucca, One-storey, Multi-storey, and Hi—rise buildings. Consequently, the model has 15 variables, 15 equations and 25 parameters for each year of simulation. Population forecasts were done using annual exponential growth rate. Total number of equations in the model is 375 and total number of variables is also 375 in the complete exercise. Table Parameters used in the model Houses

Percent of

Family

Number of

Number of

Water

Population

House

Size

Families

Floors per

consumption

(POP)

per

building

per capita

(2005)

building

per day in litres

High-rise

1.668%

4.714

27.54

9.32

238.58

8,308,945

Multi-storey

47.471%

5.521

6.01

3.67

140.39

(4.27%

One storey

8.993%

5.833

1.92

-

138.11

grow rate)

Semi Pucca

34.186%

5.109

2.98

-

107.88

Katcha

7.682%

4.725

4.87

-

53.13

All Houses

10%

5.318

5.77

-

124.00

Source : IWM water demand survey, 2006. * ADB Report TA 4651 BAN- Dhaka Water supply project Baseline Results The model has been simulated using the current state of Dhaka city for people living within DWASA zones (zone 1 through 7). It excludes extended areas of Dhaka which might be included in DWASA zone in future. Thana included in this are: Demra, Kotwali, Motijheel, Sabujbag, Shyampur, Sutrapur, Dhanmondi, Hazaribag, Kamrangir Char, Lalbag, Ramna, Kafrul, Mirpur, Mohammadpur, Tejgaon, Cantonment, Pallabi, Uttara, Badda, Gulshan, Khtlgaon, and Narayanganj PS. Using the population of 2005, the baseline result forecasts the demand for water up to 2030 for 25 years. The results are shown in Table 5.14.


Baseline results show that with the current population of 8.31 million in Dhaka WASA area, the total demand is 1606 MLD and it will rise up to 4073 MLD by the year 2030, an approximate rise by 2.5 times. This is based on no changes in the per capita demand for water except for the people living in katcha houses, where it has been assumed that a moderate rise of per capita water demand will increase from the current 53 litre to 100 litre. This change was made based on the assumption that the government of Bangladesh strive for achieving its MDG goals, water demand will increase at the poorest household for hygiene and for sanitary reasons. Table Baseline Forecasts of Water Demand for DWASA Year

Population

Business As Usual

Million

MLD

GLCD

LCD

2005

8.31

1,606.54

193.35

123.04

2010

9.96

1,958.02

196.51

125.05

2015

11.90

2,378.80

199.66

127.06

2020

14.10

2,859.27

202.82

129.06

2025

16.57

3,413.03

205.97

131.07

2030

19.48

4,073.08

209.13

133.08

Source : Simulation Model Note : * the number has slightly changed from 124 lcd 123.04 during the Simulation due the rounding of numbers at several points. Simulating Various Alternative Management Situation To understand the impact on demand for water when various measures are adopted to alter both the demand and supply sides, five alternative cases were developed for the simulation exercise. Theses cases are expected to reflect changes that might happen in future. These are: Case I: Improvement in leakages from 30% to 20% Currently the physical leakage in the water distribution system stands between 30-40 percent. There is no accurate data on this. However, it has been stipulated that with improved management of the pipelines and their maintenance it can be reduced to 20%. Based on this assertion by experts, the model developed a case to understand the changes in the demand for water. Case II: Vertical rise in the height of multi-storey and hi-rise buildings As the government has approved the new Dhaka I3uiiding Codes, Ii is expected the average height of Dhaka city will go up. Although it is difficult to assume how high the city will grow over the next 25 years, for the purpose of simulation it has been assumed that multi-storey buildings will increase its height to accommodate 10 families unit instead of current 6 families per unit (already many buildings with 6 floors have increased its height by 2 additional floors in many parts of Dhaka city). Our survey data shows that with the current height hi-rise buildings accommodate nearly 27 families per unit while it could go up to 40 families per unit through raising the height of the building. The model assumed that the height will increase to meet this situation in the next 25 years. Based on these assumptions, demand fur water has been estimated for the next 25 years using the model. Case III: Improvement in System loss plus Vertical rise of the city buildings Case III is designed to understand the cumulative impact on the demand for water if city height increases while at the same time there is improvement in the physical loss of water during distribution (possible through increased investment in water infrastructure and better maintenance). Case IV: Demand Management Survey data reveals a wide degree of variation in consumption of water per person per day for various types of houses. Table 1.13 shows that water consumption increases from 53 litre per person per day


to as high as 238 litre per (day per person for people living in hi-rise buildings. Interestingly, average per capita water demand is 124 while it is nearly 100 litres for people living is semi-pucca houses and around 140 for one-storey and multi-storey buildings. Considering, the huge variation in water consumption by differences in living standards, it has been assumed that it is possible to reduce water consumption to 140 litre per day if use of water-guzzling gadgets could be regulated in these buildings. The case IV presents the forecasts in demand for water if such measures are adopted. Case V : Improvement in system loss plus vertical rise in heights of houses plus demand management While the cases above are interesting, the survey data and also discussions around suggest that a more realistic future is when DWASA improves its efficiency in terms of controlling physical leakages while at the same time the city goes higher in altitude and also a more stricter regulatory control is imposed on water guzzling devices used at homes. This might be useful to reduce water demand to some tolerable limits form supplier's point of view. Case V is designed to understand of such policy implementation. Simulation Results : Demand Forecasts for Baseline Scenario Based on the above cases, the baseline scenario is simulated using the model to forecast the next 25 years demand for water within DWASA territory. According to the model, of the Dhaka City Development as it is and no plan no demand management is established, the total water demand per day will increase form the current 1606 MLD to as high as 4629 (Case II) MLD, However, Case V suggests that with proper management of both water demand and water supply systems, it is possible to reduce the demand to 3780 MLD. However, it is also clear from the model that per capita water demand per day in litres will also increase from the current 123 led to 151 lcd if no demand management is imposed over the next 25 years. If, however, demand management and also supply efficiency are ensured it will come down to 141 lcd under the current baseline scenario. Table 5.15 Baseline simulation results by improving efficiency in demand and supply Year

Population

Business

Case I

Case II

Case III

Case IV

Case V

As Usual 2005

8.31

1,606.54

1,606.54

1,606.54

1,606.54

1,606.54

1,606.54

2010

9.96

1,958.02

1,903.63

1,957.82

1,903.43

1,936.25

1,882.27

2015

11.90

2,375.80

2,247.38

2,509.63

2,373.98

2,323.80

2,319.22

2020

14.10

2,859.27

2,633.54

3,137.96

2,890.23

2,766.85

2,785.85

2025

16.57

3,413.03

3,062.97

3,836.31

3,442.84

3,268.19

3,268.75

2030

19.48

4,073.08

3,563.94

4,629.61

4,050.91

3,860.27

3,780.456

Figure 5.2 above shows that led increases significantly depending on which case comes into effect over the next 25 years. Results also show the advantage of demand management to reduce the speed of growing demand for water. Scenarios of Changes To develop a good and effective forecasts on water the above cases in terms of improving management aspects (both demand and supply) is not sufficient unless we also develop a good counterfactual scenario of what the world would look like in Dhaka in future years. This means we need to answer the following questions: Will the Dhaka city look like the way it is in future years? Or more precisely, will the current distribution of housing type persist in future? If not, how will Dhaka look like in the next 25 years? More importantly, as the economy expands and become stronger, will the current pattern of housing remain as it is now? Based on these set of queries, four counterfactual scenarios were developed and all the five cases were super—imposed on it for each of these counterfactual scenarios. These are:


Table Counterfactual Scenarios on Housing Structure in 2030 Name of

Scenario

Katcha

Semi-

Area

One-storey

Pucca

Multi-

High-rise

storey

Baseline

-

7.682%

34.186%

8.993%

47.471%

1.668%

Motijheel

I

1.25%

47.04%

5.93%

38.84%

6.94%

Ramna-

II

2.57%

14.42%

10.54%

67.12%

5.35%

Mohakhali

III

7.97%

48.62%

7.61%

32.96%

2.84%

Mixed

IV

3.93%

36.69%

8.03%

46.31%

5.04%

Eskaton

Note : Data from GIS Maps from IWM Scenario I : Like that of Motijheel Thana The first counterfactual scenario is more urbanized than other scenarios. Census data based on GIS mapping shows that currently Motijheel has the most percentage of hi-rises while the least percentage of katcha houses. Under this scenario Table-5.17 shows the future demand for water. Table Simulation result-scenario I-when Dhaka is like Motijheel Year

Population

Business

Case I

Case II

Case III

Case IV

Case V

As Usual 2005

8.31

1,606.54

1,606.54

1,606.54

1,606.54

1,606.54

1,606.54

2010

9.96

2,070.62

2,013.10

2,070.43

2,012.92

2,035.12

1,978.40

2015

11.90

2,635.57

2,493.11

2,792.72

2,641.76

2,518.02

2,517.98

2020

14.10

3,304.75

3,044.07

3,664.14

3,374.86

3,037.89

3,073.19

2025

16.57

4,086.75

3,667.60

4,693.56

4,212.17

3,576.95

3,599.40

2030

19.48

5,032.77

4,403.67

5,941.01

5,198.39

4,146.65

4,072.22

Note : Simulation result Table 5.17 shows if Dhaka city grows like that of Motitheel and become more metropolitan than today, the projected water demand will go up to 5032 MLD. However, if the city also at the same time grows in heights of buildings, the demand will further increase up to 5941 MLD. However, if the Demand management steps are imposed along with tightening grip on physical leakages, the daily water demand will be around 4072 MLD. As significant rise in water demand is predicted. Similarly, Figure 5.3 show further that without demand management the demand for water per person per day will rise above 194 litre. This is important to understand the need for imposing demand management actions in Dhaka as early as possible. Scenario II : Like that of Ramna-Eskaton Area The second counterfactual scenario is rather residential with offices and also with government housing like that of Ramna-Eskaton area. The housing structure of Ramna-Eskaton area is shown Table 5.16 above. Under this scenario Table 5.18 shows the future demand for water. Table Simulation results Scenario II when Dhaka is like Ramna-Eskaton area Year

Population

Business

Case I

Case II

Case III

Case IV

Case V

1,606.54

1,606.54

1,606.54

1,606.54

1,606.54

As Usual 2005

8.31

1,606.54


2010

9.96

2,085.81

2,027.87

2,085.60

2,027.66

2,054.22

1,996.95

2015

11.90

2,661.47

2,517.60

2,835.83

2,682.55

2,562.62

2,578.47

2020

14.10

3,332.56

3,069.46

3742.05

3,446.62

3,115.33

3,201.28

2025

16.57

4,101.03

3,680.41

4,800.50

4,308.14

3,695.45

3,820.64

2030

19.48

4,991.38

4,367.46

6,021.31

5,268.64

4,308.42

4,400.68

Note : Simulation result Table shows if Dhaka City grows like that of Ramna-Eskaton area and become more residential cumcommercial than today, the projected water demand will go up to 4991 MLD. However, if the city also at the same time grows in heights of buildings, the demand will further increase up to 602 MLD. But if the Demand management steps are imposed along with tightening grip on physical leakages, the daily water demand will be around 4400 MLD for the same population. Similarly Figure 5.4 shows further that without demand management the demand for water per person per day will rise above 195 litre. However, with appropriate demand management the water demand per person per day could be reduced up to 164 litre. This further strengthens the argument for demand management. Scenario III : Like that of Mohakhali Thana The third counterfactual scenario is also urbanized but also commercial than other scenarios. The housing structure of Mohakhali is shown Table 5.16 above. Under this scenario Table 5.19 shows the future demand for water. Year

Population

Business

Case I

Case II

Case III

Case IV

Case V

As Usual Million Litre per Day 2005

8.31

1,606.54

1,606.54

1,606.54

1,606.54

1,606.54

1,606.54

2010

9.96

1,964.71

1,910.14

1,964.52

1,909.95

1,939.65

1,885.59

2015

11.90

2,397.85

2,268.23

2,525.85

2,389.32

2,330.18

2,318.08

2020

14.10

2,909.58

2,679.87

3,172.47

2,922.01

2,775.47

2,770.55

2025

16.57

3,509.46

3,149.52

3,907.26

3,506.51

3,277.58

3,227.79

2030

19.48

4,226.09

3,697.83

4,747.77

4,155.17

3,864.13

3,695.16

Note :Simulation result Table shows if Dhaka city grows like that of Mohakhali and become more commercial-cumresidential than today, the projected water demand will go up to 4226 MLD. However, if the city also at the same time grows in heights of buildings, the demand will further increase up to 4748 MLD. However, if the Demand management steps are imposed along with tightening grip on physical leakages, the daily water demand will be around 3695 MLD for the same population and it is less than what would be under the baseline scenario. Similarly, Figure 5.5 shows further that without demand management the demand for water per person per day will above 155 litre. However, with appropriate demand management the water demand per person per day could be reduced up to 138 litre. This further strengthens the argument for demand management. Scenario IV : A Mixed Area-like Motijheel-Mohakhali-Ramna Combined The fourth counterfactual scenario is developed using the weighted average of the housing structure of Motijheel-Mohakhali-Ramna areas. The housing structure of the mixed area is calculated and in shown in Table 5.16 above. Under this scenario Table 6.20 shows the future demand for water. Table 5.20 Simulation results – Scenario IV – when Dhaka is like Motijhel-Mohakhali-Ramna Eskaton area.


Year

Population

Business

Case I

Case II

Case III

Case IV

Case V

As Usual Million Litre per Day 2005

8.31

1,606.54

1,606.54

1,606.54

1,606.54

1,606.54

1,606.54

2010

9.96

2,042.13

1,985.40

2,041.93

1,985.21

2,011.19

1,955.13

2015

11.90

2,568.94

2,430.94

2,722.54

2,875.37

2,473.22

2,474.58

2020

14.10

3,189.13

2,937.36

3,534.41

3,255.38

2,980.22

3,019.42

2025

16.57

3,909.18

3,508.24

4,480.42

4,020.89

3,520.97

3,554.27

2030

19.48

4,750.08

4,156.32

5,570.36

4,874.07

4,106.40

4,056.02

Note : Simulation result3 Table 5.20 shows if Dhaka city grows like that of a mixed area then the projected water demand will go up to 4750 MLD. However, if the city also at the same time grows in heights of buildings, the demand will further increase up to 5570 MLD. But if the Demand management steps are imposed along with tightening grip on physical leakages, the daily water demand will be around 4056 MLD for the same population. Similarly, Figure 5.6 shows further that without demand management the demand for water per person per day will rise above 182 litre, However, with appropriate demand management the water demand per person per day could be reduced up to 151 litre. This further strengthens the argument for demand management. To understand the comparison of water consumption found in the simulation exercise, Table 5.21 shows a comparison of water consumption of selected countries. It shows that water consumption varies from 91 to 237 lpcd for various countries. Comparing the level of economic development in these countries, the estimate in our model seems reasonable as it lies between 127 and 196 lpcd. Table Water consumption per capita per day in litres selected countries Asian cities water use

Latin American Cities Water use Lcd

Year

Metered

Year

(lcd) Katmandu, Nepal

91

1995-96

Sta. Calarina, Brazil

143

1990

Dhaka, Bangladesh

95

1995-96

Minas, Brazil

154

1990

Beijing, China

96

1995

Bogota, Colombia

167

1992

Mandalay, Myanmar

110

1995-96

Santiago, Chile

204

1994

Hong Kong, China

112

1996

Costa Rica

208

1991

Suva, Fiji

135

1995

Brasilia, Brazil

211

1989

Shanghai, China

143

1995

Sao Paulo, Brazil

237

1988

Colombo, Sri Lanka

165

1995

Singapore

183

1995

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

200

1996

Manila, Philippines

202

1995

Seoul, Republic of Korea

209

1995

Delhi, India

209

1995-96

Sources : Asian Development Bank (1997) and Yopos and dianderas (1996)


In above scenarios, Case I represents improvement in efficiency in delivery of water by reducing physical leakages, Case II represents improvement in standard of living and resulting increase in the average height of’ the multi-storey and hi-rise building (this is quite plausible given the sharp rise in the land prices and given the new Dhaka Building Code approved by the government), Case III shows a combination of Case I and Case II, Case IV illustrates demand management for water where water consumption of hi-rise building is reduced to the level equivalent of multi-storey building and Case V shows a combination of Case III and Case IV. In all justification, Case V is the most rational scenario. Similarly, out of four counterfactual scenarios developed in above the Scenario IV presents the most rational scenario in terms of changes in the housing structure over the next 25 years. A comparison of the results of Business As usual (BAU) case in Baseline with that of Scenario IV would show he changes in the structure of the building would affect the demand for water, similarly, a company of Baseline BAU case that of Scenario IV and Case V would show the impact of improvement demand and supply management. The questions, however, is how to impose regulations to reduce demand for water on consumers who are water-guzzlers? There are several steps a) imposition of restriction on trading of gadgets that are water guzzle, like standard shank attached to English Commode which uses nearly 20 litre of water per flash, etc.; b) imposing differential prices for water by i) water consumption per house per month and ii) by living style. Figure 5.7 and 5.8 provide two different piece of information that could be used to determining which policies might be more feasible. Figure 5.7 shows that pattern of water consumption per person per day by house types. It shows while the people living in poor condition do use less water per person some of they also found to be using more water per capita than expected (between 140-240 lcd). Consequently, imposition of differential tariff to punish heavy water users could end-up punishing people of all living styles. This is, however, not a bad move for the government given the fact that while the average water use is 124 led some of them are using higher than that. Figure 5.8 on the other hand, is designed to understand the pattern of water users irrespective of their living style. It shows that 53% of users consume less than 107 led or 18725 litre per month (per house), 20% consumes between 18725 and 24500 litre per month (between 107 and 140 lcd) and 27% consumes more than 24500 litre per month (higher than 140 lcd). Consequently, Figure 5.8 suggests that for a three-tier tariff system, the lowest rate would be effective for 53% of the people, the second tier of rate tariff shall be effective on next 20% of the people and the third and the highest tier of tariff shall be effective for 27% of the people. However, to further modify understanding on the three-tier tariff a detailed estimated of water consumption per house per month is estimated from survey data assuming normal distribution of water consumption across people in various living style. Table 5.22 shows that if 88% of the people living in katcha houses are likely to consume less than 25000 litre per month (lpm) and this is 69% for semi-pucca houses, 52% for one-storey buildings, 59% for multistorey building and 55% of hi-rise consumers. It further shows that 99% of all people living in katcha houses consume less than 40000 lpm. It is 95% for semi-pucca houses, 84% for one-storey, 89% for multi-storey and 89% for hi-rise consumers. The table also illustrates litre per month of water consumption by living style. This table could be used to determine the level of tariff and could be used to determine the impact of multi-tier tariff structure on subscribers. Table Cumulative Probability of Water Consumption (Litre) per House Per Month House Type Litre per house per month

Katcha

Semi pucca

One storey

Multi storey

Hi-rise

All house


10000

40.9%

26.9%

18.8%

21.8%

16.2%

23.7%

15000

59.6%

40.4%

28.5%

32.9%

27.0%

35.6%

20000

76.3%

55.2%

39.9%

45.9%

40.5%

49.1%

25000

88.3%

69.3%

52.3%

59.3%

55.2%

62.6%

30000

95.2%

81.0%

64.5%

71.6%

69.3%

74.8%

35000

98.4%

89.4%

75.4%

81.8%

81.0%

84.5%

40000

99.5%

94.8%

84.2%

89.4%

89.4%

91.3%

45000

99.9%

97.7%

90.6%

94.4%

94.8%

95.6%

50000

100.0%

99.1%

94.8%

97.3%

97.7%

98.0%

55000

99.7%

97.4%

98.8%

99.1%

99.2%

60000

99.9%

98.8%

99.5%

99.7%

99.7%

65000

100.0%

99.5%

99.8%

99.9%

99.9%

99.8%

99.9%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

70000 75000

99.9%

Source : Estimate from IWM survey data using normal probability distribution of water consumption Figure 5.9 illustrates the proportion of monthly water consumption by type of living (house type). Both Table 5.22 and Figure 5.9 is presented in this study to provide a reference table for determining the differential tariff structure. Synchronizing the Supply with Demand Dcmand forecast for existing DWASA serving area Assuming that demand management is in place either through restricting sales of water-guzzling gadgets (for example by limiting the size of shanks, the number of bathrooms, improving the water taps. etc.) or by imposing a multi-layer tariff structure or both it is possible to limit the growth of water demand up to certain level. Table 5.23 Demand and Supply of Water from 2005-2030 Year

Population

Optimistic

Million

Moderate

Pessimistic

MLD

2005

8.31

1,606.54

1,606.54

1,606.54

2010

9.96

1,955.13

1,958.02

1,996.95

2015

11.90

2,474.58

2,375.80

2,578.47

2020

14.10

3,019.42

2,859.27

3,201.28

2025

16.57

3,554.27

3,413.03

3,820.64

2030

19.48

4,056.02

4,073.08

4,400.68

Source : Simulation Model This study has developed 4 scenarios and 6 cases. 01 them, scenario IV and Case 5 is most Optimistic scenario while Scenario I, Case 5 is the most pessimistic scenario and the BAU in Scenario I is the moderate scenario. This business as usual scenario, therefore, means that city grows as usual and there is no change in height of the buildings, neither there are changes in the reduction in system loss nor an improvement


in consumer’s awareness to reduce wastage of water. The optimistic scenario means that the city developed like that of Mohakhali area, there has been an increase in the average number of floors in a multi-storey and hi-rise buildings, a demand management is strictly imposed and physical loss of water during distribution is reduced to 20%. The pessimistic scenario is that the city is developed like that of Ramna-Eskaton area, there is increase in the average number of floors in multi-storey and hirise buildings, demand management is imposed and the physical loss of water reduced to 20% through better maintenance of distribution pipelines. Table 5.23-presents the three-scenario of demand and supply (existing) to understand the future pace of shortage in Dhaka’s water demand for it existing zones after considering the following options: a) improving the physical leakages during distribution from 30% to 20% by 2030, b) limiting the demand for water to 140 lcd by imposing harsh tariff structure or restricting use of certain waterguzzling gadgets or raising awareness at the consumer level. Demand forecast for extended DWASA area As the population of Dhaka increases and Dhaka city expands, government is likely to bring new areas within the jurisdiction of Dhaka serving area. Several studies include the following thana in the new DWASA zones: Bandar, Kaliganj (part of Purbachal), Keraniganj, Narayanganj DND area, Rupganj, Savar PS and surrounding area, and Tongi PS. Table 5.24 illustrates the demand, supply and shortage given the expansion plan of DWASA’s supply sources. Table Demand and Supply of Water from 2005-2030 in Extended DWASA Surplus/ (Shortage) Year

Population

BAU

Optimistic

Pessimistic

Supply

BAU

Moderate

Pessimistic

2005

10.28

1,988

1,988

1,988

1,568

(420)

(420)

(420)

2010

12.33

2,419

2,329

2,448

2,474

55

145

26

2015

14.72

3,062

2,869

3,115

2,924

(138)

55

(191)

2020

17.44

3,736

3,447

3,802

3,374

(362)

(73)

(428)

2025

20.50

4,397

4,044

4,453

3,374

(1023)

(670)

(1079)

2030

24.10

5,018

4,677

5,038

3,374

(1644)

(1303)

(1664)

Note : Demand forecasts are based on simulation model, *supply forecasts includes operation of Singair Well Field (105 mld), Dhaka Deeper wells (231 mld), SWTP2 (225 mld), SWTP3 (450 mld), Meghna water Treatment Plant (450 mld) and Mawa WTP (450 mld). BAU, Business As Usual. Population in millions and water in MLD. Table 5.24 shows that given the huge expansion plan of DWASA, it is still largely insufficient to meet the growing Demand for water in Dhaka City. It shall be noted that in all our demand forecasts we have assumed that demand management is in place and to further cut in demand is near impossible. Figure 5.10 is the diagrammatic view of Table 5.24. Findings and Analysis In the above sections, it has been shown that to meet the demand for water in Dhaka neither the demand management nor the current supply expansion plan is enough. However, both of these policies are critical to reduce the water shortage to this level. For example, if demand management fails, estimates show that demand for water will go as high as 7450 MLD (for extended DWASA area population). Considering these demand management should become an important first step for DWASA to manage its water. Without this, Dhaka could plunge into a deep water crisis within the next 10 years period. It is further suggested that the following measures are adopted to meet the need for water in Dhaka.


a) Implementation of demand management policies using the following initiatives : i) Setting standards for water-related gadgets and banning of water-guzzling gadgets in Dhaka City. this is an important first step and it has been used in many other countries. ii) Changing differential pricing using multiple-tier DWASA should consider institutionalizing a pricing mechanism that would be able to track both standard of living and also quantity of consumption. DWASA should consider improving the water supply system and at the same time charge differential tariff for two types of consumers one basic tariff structure for people living multi-storey and hi-rise buildings and one basic tariff structure for people living in other houses. Secondly, there shall be multiple slabs in designing the tariff structure under each category. The slab structure could be derived using the Tab1e 5.22. iii) Raising level of awareness about the waste of water among the consumers many consumers arc not simply aware of the water they often misuse because of carelessness. For example, shaving without shutting the lap wastes three times more water than with shutting. A standard toilet-flash wastes 20 litres of water while it can be done with less than 2 litres of water if improved gadgets are used. b) Implementation of DWASA’s current expansion plan of supply sources and its completion by 2010. This is important if we are to improve the water supply situation in Dhaka city in the-short run. For long run, more sources shall be explored. c) Developing a comprehensive plan to encourage people to use water-saving gadgets through negative taxing or other financial incentives. Development of a pricing policy to affect water demand needs farther study. This sample is based on only 639 household and that the consumption of water is measured using actual payment data per household. The estimates is still within the range that has been used in similar other studies. However, it is possible to significantly improve the estimate if an elaborate study is taken using accurate physical measurement of water used per household from all over the Dhaka city. It could also be useful if DWASA considers developing an experiment using differential pricing to understand the price sensitivity of demand. These were beyond the scope of this study it is recommended far any future studies on water demand. In particular, this has to be carried out during the detailed feasibility studies of water supply sources.( See Annexures-C) Table A2: Use of an Extra Pump to Pull Water from WASA pipelines by type of House Percent of House Type of House With extra pump Without extra pump Hi rise 28.60% 71.40% Multi storey 26.20% 73.80% One storey 16.70% 83.30% Semi pacca 17.90% 82.10% Katcha 7.30% 92.70% Total 21.10% 78.90% Table A3: Existence of Extra Pump to Pull Water by Type of House Extra pump to pull water from WASA pipeline Zone With Without Zone 1 5.80% 94.20% Zone 2 13.90% 86.10% Zone 3 19.80% 80.20% Zone 4 19.30% 80.70% Zone 5 33.10% 66.90% Zone 6 35.10% 64.90%


Zone 7 Total

2.60% 21.00%

97.40% 79.00%

Table A4: Monthly Electricity and Water Bills by Type of House Type of house Monthly Electric Bill (Taka) Monthly Water Bill (Taka) Hi rise 1089.39 412.59 Multi storey 972.37 249.74 One storey 580.68 271.24 Semi Pacca 456.55 181.37 Katcha 172.82 94.90 Total 646.15 94.90 Table A5: Problem in Quality of Water by Zone Problem in Quality Zone Yes No Zone 1 57.10% 42.90% Zone 2 63.90% 36.10% Zone 3 49.30% 50.70% Zone 4 62.50% 37.50% Zone 5 52.50% 47.50% Zone 6 64.90% 35.10% Zone 7 50.00% 50.00% Total 56.30% 43.70% GROUND AND SURFACE WATER SOURCES IN DHAKA CITY Analysis of Water Supply in Dhaka City Dhaka Water supply and Sewerage Authority (DWASA) is entrusted with supply of piped water to Dhaka Metropolitan City and its adjacent area. In order to meet the growing demand, DWASA is installing high capacity water wells tapping the upper Dupitila aquifers. But this upper aquifer is in stressed condition. In most part of the city area the groundwater recharge in upper aquifer is much less compared to the abstraction, causing groundwater mining. The average groundwater depletion in most of the areas in the city is reportedly around 2-3 m/year. The present rate of depletion is alarming and may cause devastating events like land subsidence and other environmental degradation. This gives an alarming indication that there is an urgent need to alleviate pressure on the upper aquifer being exploited and explore for more suitable and sustainable sources to supplement the present water supply. The nearest dependable source of surface water is the Buriganga and Sitalakhya River. These rivers are no more considered to be suitable as a source of water supply due to continued pollution. For this reason, there is an urgent need to find alternate sources for Dhaka city water supply. Such probable source may include: exploiting the deeper aquifer (>300m depth) and surface water sources from far- off major rivers like Padma, Meghna and Jamuna. It is also worthwhile to investigate exploitable potential of aquifers located in the vicinity of Dhaka city. Options for DWASA Preliminary assessment gives us an idea that there are actually five options for development of water supply sources for DWASA. Three of the options are already being availed. The options are as follows: 1) The upper aquifer of Dhaka City 2) The deeper aquifer of Dhaka city 3) Deeper aquifer of areas adjacent to Dhaka city. In this study, only the deeper aquifer of Singair Upazila would be investigated.


4) The peripheral rivers of Dhaka city 5) Larger rivers like, Meghna, Jamuna and Padma In this report, preliminary assessments of each of the sources have been made. Further detailed assessment would be carried out within the project in the future, after more data becomes available. Upper Aquifer of Dhaka City The upper aquifer of Dhaka city, lying within a depth of 200m, is already under extensive exploitation by DWASA. In addition to DWASA, various private enterprises and individuals are using DTWs to abstract water from upper aquifer. According to DWASA records, there are around 1326 privately owned DTWs in Dhaka of various capacities apart from 466 DTWs of DWASA. Over ten years, from 1991 to 2000, numbers of DTW plants were increased from 151 to 320 and consequent annual productions by DWASA DTWs were increased from 205 to 390 million cum of water annually. During the year 2004 annual production of 431 million cum of water was obtained by operating 400 DTW plants on average. Presently, DWASA reports that 75% of total demand of the Mega city is meet up and about 82% of supply provided from groundwater from upper aquifer. In most part of the city area the groundwater recharge in the upper aquifer is much less compared to the abstraction, causing groundwater mining. Water table in the upper aquifer is fast declining. It has been found that the water table is declining at a rate of 2-3 m/yr.The present rate of depletion is alarming and may cause devastating environmental degradation. There is an urgent need to alleviate pressure on the upper aquifer being exploited and explore for more suitable and sustainable sources to supplement the present water supply. Specific drawdown during continuous pumping by DTWs installed earlier in the upper aquifer is increasing and as a result numbers of under-performing & failure DTW is increasing day by day. Many of the failed DTWs could be regenerated using well-tested techniques. This would allow increase in tube well yields. DWASA can explore this area. Deeper Aquifer of Dhaka city The aquifer systems underlying Dhaka city is the Dupitila sand formation overlain by Madhupur clay. Shallow aquifer system or Upper Dupitila aquifer beneath Dhaka city is being explored from the inception of the DWASA. But the deeper aquifers under Dhaka city and its adjoining areas are yet to be fully explored. Recent exploration by installing production wells in different places in the city has provided very encouraging outcome. Lithological information extracted from lithological logs of DWASA deep production wells and analysed to assemble the hydro-stratigraphy of the region up to the depth of 3l9m, which attributed both shallow and deeper aquifer system under Dhaka city. The third or deeper aquifer system composed of medium to coarse sand with occasional finer sediments and its average thickness is 93m. Piezometric head of the third aquifer indicates the presence of good amount groundwater storage in that aquifer. Results of lithological characterization indicate the continuity of similar hydro-stratigraphic sequence through out the area (Annexure-D). Classification of hydro-stratigraphic assemblage reveals that within the 305m explored depths on an average 35% of the sediment columns is containing deeper aquifer system while 32% is composed of first and second aquifer system. Considering regional hydrogeological setting, fault features, history of geological deposition and geological map of the region, it is believed that a long aquifer corridor exists in between Brahmaputra- Jamuna fault line and Madhupur tract. This long corridor may be the main course of long distant recharge channel for deeper aquifer systems of the Dhaka City.


Deeper Aquifer of Singair Upazila The aquifer system of Singair Upazila and Dhaka City is not similar. It reveals from the available subsurface information up to the depth of 305m, that in most of the places Singair Upazila has Holocene floodplain aquifer system. According to the available data there exists two aquifers system in different depth in Singair Upazila. One is upper shallow aquifer system and another is deeper aquifer system. The shallow aquifer system composed of fine to medium sand lies below the topsoil and composite formation. This layer is separated from the lower coarse sand gravel layer by intermittent and discontinuous clay lenses, making some parts of the aquifers as perched ones. It is considered as the major aquifer system down to a depth of 120m for irrigation. It is evident from the present study findings that the Singair deeper aquifer system is separated by Aquiclude found in three locations namely Kasta in south-western part, Kamura and Fordnagar in north-western part of the Singair. Aquiclude is grey to deep grey and light brown in colour is composed of silt and clay. Maximum aquiclude thickness of 61.52m in Kasta and minimum Aquiclude thickness 9.1m has been found in Kamura Primary School area. In general the deeper aquifer system of the Singair Upazila exists within the depth range of 215m to 300m. A gravel horizon is also present in Singair deeper aquifer system. Thickness and concentration of gravel horizon vary from place to place but overall concentration is relatively high. The deeper aquifer system is composed of coarse sand and gravels, making it an excellent aquifer with high hydraulic conductivity and storage coefficient. It can be assumed from the hydrogeological information that the Singair deeper aquifer system has the continuation for subsurface distant through flow for attaining sufficient recharge volume. However, it large scale arsenic contamination of the shallow aquifer system has been detected. There is need for further investigation regarding the connectivity of the shallow and deeper aquifer system in Singair. It is also a great concern whether the deeper aquifer would get contaminated if it is exploited for water supply to Dhaka city by vertical percolation of contaminated water from shallow aquifer. This issue should also be addressed in the present study. The Peripheral Rivers of Dhaka city The peripheral river system of Dhaka consists of mainly three distinct river systems as follows.  Dhaleswari-Kaliganga River System  Bangshi-Turag-Buriganga River System  Banar-Lakhya River System Preliminary assessment has been made to investigate water availability and water quality status in these rivers. Locations of and dependable flows at selected sites for quantitative and qualitative assessment of these river systems have been described in the following tables.

River

Location for Assessment

Kaliganga

Near Taraghat Bridge

Buriganga

Near Chadnighat

Lakhya

Near Narayanganj

Lakhya

Near Majhina (7.5 km /s Sarulia Inake)

River

Location for

80%

50%

Assessment

dependable 3

flow (m /s)

Minimum

dependable 3

flow (m /s)

depth of flow (m)


Kaligana

Near Taraghat

13.4

13.9

2.78

Bridge Buriganga

Near Chadnighat

49.0

121.0

9.463

Lakhya

Near Narayanganj

81.0

173.0

4.17

Lakhya

Near Majhina (7.5

60.0

115.0

5.9

km /us Sarulia Inake)

From the tables it is evident that water availability in Buriganga River and Lakhya River is quite significant. However, multi-sectoral and more importantly environmental flow requirement needs to be assessed before further exploitation of these sources. It is unfortunate for the Dhaka city dwellers that these sources have become so polluted that these may not be economically viable source for water supply as the cost of treatment of polluted river water is very high. Recent example is the Saidabad Water Treatment Plant. After 3 years of its commissioning, DWASA is looking for an altemative intake location for the plant. Due to the deteriorating quality of the raw water coming through its intake structure at Sarulia, the Saidabad water treatment plant is facing significant problems in treating water during the dry season. The main concern for the Saidabad water treatment plant during the dry season is the high concentration of Ammonia and algae in the intake water. High ammonia interferes with the treatment processes in a number of ways, including lowering algae removal efficiency and increasing the chlorine dose requirement. Although, ammonia does not have any particular toxic effect, its presence in the treated water would cause taste and odor problems. Besides, high organic loading and presence of toxic metals in the raw water are also of particular concern. Larger Rivers Larger rivers, which have been investigated, includes Padma and Meghna. Evidently these rivers have sufficient flows round the year as shown in table below. The water quality in these rivers are good except for large sediment load in monsoon. The main criteria for harnessing the water resources of large rivers for water supply to Dhaka city would be their economic viability. The pre-feasibility study to be conducted through this project would provide a good idea about future possibility of exploitation of these sources. River

Location for

80%

50%

Minimum

Assessment

dependable

dependable

depth of flow

flow (m3/s)

flow (m3/s)

(m)

Padma

Near Mawa

6025.0

7330.0

14.29

Meghna

Near Baiddyerbazar

187.0

291.0

12.37

Five water sources have been identified and investigated. (i) Further exploitation of the upper aquifer (<200m depth) is not sustainable. (ii) The deeper aquifer (>300m depth) offers good option. But it is yet to ascertain the recharge mechanism and long-term sustainability of these aquifers. Also important would be to assess the risk of land subsidence. (iii) A rich deeper aquifer in Singair Upazila has been discovered. However, it is yet to be ascertained whether the aquifer would develop connectivity with the upper aquifer which is arsenic contaminated in most part. (iv) Due to increase in pollution of peripheral rivers, the cost of treatment of water is liable to be very high. As a result, exploiting the peripheral rivers as water sources may not be economically viable. (v) The major rivers, Meghna and Padma Rivers, offer very good option as water sources for Dhaka city water supply. However, large


investment is required to exploit these sources. Also, economic viability of exploitation of these sources would be a critical factor. Limitation of Electricity: It is reportedly known that DWASA DTW plants are usually kept under operations for 24 hours a day and the plant is kept in shutdown only on following occasions : • When supply voltage remains 10 % below or above the rated voltage. • During the load shading, low voltage & interruption in power supply wherein plant operation with standby generator set is not possible. • During electro-mechanical faults/breakdown and maintenance works • When the plant becomes problematic or less productive. During the allowable voltage fluctuations (10% below of rated voltage), discharge by the DTW plant situated at Kawran Bazar was observed at intervals of one hour on May 2, 2005. Discharge rates with respect to minor fluctuations in operating voltage are plotted in figure 6.2. It is apparent from the plot that little variation in production occurs in a DTW plant due to 10% voltage fluctuations which may be ignored.

Figure : Production rates Vs operating voltage at Kawran Bazar DTW Discharges recorded by flow meters fitted with the following pumping plants were noted in the month of April and May 2005 and average production rates for the period from February to April 2005 were calculated on the basis of operating log records. Observed and calculated rates of discharges are shown in table 6.3. Table 6.3 Calculated and observed rates of productions Sl.

DTW Plant

Pump

Calculated production rate as per log records (Feb

Observed

No

Location

capacity

– Apr, 2005)

Discharge,

Lit/ min

Operating

Production

Discharge

Discharge

(Cusec)

Hours

m3

m3/hr

Lpm

Kawran

3400

2007

308331

153.63

2580

2645

Bazar

(2.0)

Green Road,

3400

2108.5

133334

63.24

1062.43

900

Dormatory

(2.0) 2049

277389

135.38

2274.35

2588

1 2

Lpm

Qtr 3

Dhanmondi,

2600

Road # 7,

(1.5)


Near Mosjid 4

Lalmatia,

3400

Steel Tank

(2.0)

2080.5

343600

165.20

2775

2312

2063

356115

172.62

2900

3293

Complex 5

Kathal Baga,

3400

Kacha Bazar

(2.0)

Following observation are made based on the data being presented in table 6.3 • Observed production rates in DTW situated at Green Road was found quite less than that of rated capacity in the month of May, 2005. Length of upper well casing of this DTW is 59.9 meters state water level in the observation well installed in BWDB’s compound at Green Road apart from the DTW was measured 60.40 meters (from the parapet of the well) on May 29, 2005 Measured SWL of observation well and depth of housing pipes of DTW indicate that the DTW plant at Green Road has become less productive due to drawdown effect mainly and need to be replaced within short time. • The above table shows minor variations between on site observed rates and calculated rates of discharge by the DTW plants. These variations in observed and calculated data during monitoring need clarifications and understanding. The various demand further thorough and extensive study on DWASA DTWs for understanding the underlying reasons thereof. • In most of the pumping plants discharge is recorded by flow meter fitted with the discharge pipe. Actual abstraction of the plant would be little higher than that of discharge recorded by the flow meter but difference is very much negligible with respect to mass productions. In most of the plants designed/ full capacity of discharges are not achieved. In Many cases, due to drawdonw effect reduced discharge rates are maintained by controlling and throttling of the discharge stop valves. This practice is adopted to keep the pumped water level in the well above the level of pump-setting wherein depth of drawdown, subsequent effect of continuous pumping goes beyond the level of the pump-setting in the well. The practice reduced productions but is inevitable for technical ground especially during the dry season. Limitations of ground water sources : • It would be revealed that production per tube well vary in different MODS Zones. Except in Zone 7 (Narayangonj) variations would be due to different in demand and urbanization pattern. In Zone -7 production as well as hours of operation of tube wells is quite lower than those of other zones. Over the past 15 years yield per tube well (liters/ hour) is dropping in most of the cases in Dhaka City. This is believed to be caused by the combination of the following factors : o Decline of static water level increasing pumping head and friction loss resulting in reduction of well discharge. o Over abstraction by additional DTWs in the same vicinity of interferences resulting to shortage in instant recharge in the well during continuous pumping. o Well deterioration by encrustation on screen and corrosion on well casing. o Normal reduction in mechanical efficiency and performance of the pumping device For understanding the underlying reasons of declining in production of a particular tube well is particular area, detail and further investigation would be necessary. a) Pattern of Failures


Ideally a tube well if properly designed, constructed and installed with good techniques and materials should serve over a long period even over 30 years. Deterioration or failure of performance of a tube well before expiry of its life time occurs normally due to effect by hydrological parameters of the aquifers and encrustation & corrosion affecting the well fixture materials. Simple defect left in designing or in development procedures especially when well is constructed with improper sized screen and packing materials, may lead to consequent serious clogging of the well. Unfortunately numbers of abandoned and failure wells under DWASA are higher. Within the few years of installation many tube wells have been declared abandoned and replaced by new. Premature replacement of tube wells in most of the cases was unpredicted and unexpected at the time of installation. Except a few due to sand pumping, most of the replaced wells were detected as less productive or failure well in continuous pumping practice. • • • • •

Hydro-geological condition & hydraulic properties of aquifer Clogging Sand pumping Inaccurate design and defective packing Failure in mechanical performances

From performance study report (Thames Water Int’l, 1998) it is revealed that 13% to 83% of total 239 DWASA wells provided yield less than the pump capacity in 1998. From their study following aspects of hydro-geological and hydraulic parameters of aquifers are related to the factors that leads to declining of yield as well as to failure of tube well. Aquifer materials and depositional characteristics The underneath of Dhaka city is fluvial type sediments, which are generally stratified and heterogeneous in nature. The aquifers in which most of the DWASA wells have been placed may contain much finer materials which might have not been detected by the washed samples of cutting soil collected and analyzed during the well construction. Those may result to inaccurate aquifer samplings and consequently to improper well screen design. Hydraulic properties of aquifers Transmissivity and coefficient of storage of aquifers are the hydraulic properties that quantify total water bearing capacity and if those are not determined, proper planning and developing the well field in Dhaka city would not be achieved and subsequently declining in yield or premature failure of well would occur. Water qualities and fixture materials Aquifer may contain some ingredient and minerals that may have damaging properties to the well fixture materials; some minerals and bacteria lead to encrustation on screen and iron to corrosion on well casing joints resulting to reduced well life. Unbalance in abstraction and Recharge If rates of recharge in either vertical or horizontal inflow become less than that of abstraction obviously it would causes decline in instant recharge into the well during pumping resulting to reduction in yield. Interference and over pumping Additional tube wells and over pumping in the same vicinity of aquifer influences the well performance with enlarging and lengthening the cone of drawdown resulting poor yield of well.


Other factors: - Clogging of open space Minerals and bacteria that cause encrustation on well screen resulting to reduction of its open area, fully or partially and thereby clogging of open space of inflow would reduce yield or may lead to failure of the well. Sand Pumping Fine sands, silt or minute particles those are left in the aquifers till after development are pumped out during production and these leads gradually to fill the well and blocking the screen and subsequently failure of well happens. This type of problematic well needs physical treatment for rehabilitation and regeneration. Inaccurate design and defective packing. These are technical fault of designing and lowering of fixtures of well. It may happen that improper size and quantity of gravell sand packing materials are inserted and voids are left in the packing materials or in annular space between casing and bore-hole wall or screen are too close to the layer that consists of clay, silt or fine materials or the sizes of slots of the screen are oversized to the aquifer materials or proper packing and cementing are not provided in between active aquifer and nearest layer/aquifer. In all these cases sand pumping and ultimately blocking of well would occur. Failure in mechanical performance The failure of mechanical performances of pump or loss in its efficiency occurs after prolonged use which results in reduction in production or failure of the pump. This type of failure of the well could be regenerated. Similar failure or weakening of well casings and screen may result from the longer use and this type failure could not be regenerated. b) Evaluation of failure/replaced well List of replaced DWASA tube wells those were evaluated and abandoned has not completed as yet. Attempt was taken to evaluate the tube wells which have failed. For the purpose some old register- books containing records of replacement of wells lying in FM Division of DWASA at Hatkhola were checked. 60 cases of replacement record were checked out. Specified cause(s) of failure/abandon of well was not found recorded in the register. Knowledge gathered from experiences of the DWASA staff related to the replacement record-keeping was that out of those 60 replaced wells 4 were abandoned due to sand & gravel pumping and rest were due to drawdown effect. In believe to this fact, replacement due to sand pumping will stand 7% and due to lowering of pumped water level down to the pump-setting within the well during continuous running will be 93% in which other few causes may be included. Conclusion on causes of failures of wells categorically in percentage as mentioned above would not be drawn without further and extensive study of individual case history of the replacement. c) Regeneration & Rehabilitation of Wells In all cases it may not be possible to rehabilitate a failure or less productive tube well by bringing its operating and yield status up to satisfactory level. However before declaring a problematic tube well abandoned, evaluation and attempt for regeneration should be undertaken. If a problematic well after evaluation deemed to be technically and economically viable, following procedures and methods for rehabilitation of the well are usually taken: - Physical Treatment Method includes mechanical surging, brushing, back washing inside the well for creating a force movement and agitation of water by high-pressure hydraulic jetting, pumping with air compressor in and out of the well screen and surrounding aquifer and some times adding with prescribed chemical is normally applied for bailing out sand and fines and cleaning &


eliminating bio-fouling, iron oxide deposits from the casing & screen affected by encrustation and corrosion. Chemical Treatment Some chemicals are found suitable for to penetrate, loosen, dissolve and disperse deposits in the well and those are used along with physical treatment. Biocides, which will kill or control the growth of iron bacteria, are selected for chemical treatment by chlorination, hydrogen peroxide ammonium compounds. Some well cleaning chemical agents are used for traditional and acidization treatment. d) Uncountable Groundwater Abstractions DWASA is the authorized organization for abstraction of groundwater in Dhaka and Narayanganj city. Although private abstraction of groundwater in these two cities is prohibited unless permitted under the special terms & conditions given by DWASA, huge quantity of water for industrial, commercial, social and residential use is abstracted daily from the underground aquifers by privately owned tube wells of various sizes and capacities. Assessment of groundwater abstracted as well as addressing of all illegal occurrences is quit difficult. DWASA officials are undertaking effective measures in hunting and monitoring of illegal installed tube wells regularly within the jurisdiction of operation. As a result, every year reasonable numbers of privately owned tube wells are being detected and registered in the DWASA books of records. Abstraction by Privately Owned tube wells From the report of BUET (2000) it is revealed that about 944 privately owned tube wells were identified in 2000 and about 300 million cubic meters of groundwater from those privately owned installations were abstracted. In May 2005, total 1326 privately owned tube wells could be identified, out of which about 649 are not yet listed in the DWASA books of records. With few exceptions, sizes of most of the privately owned wells are of 2 inch to 8 inches in diameters. Privately owned DTWs so far detected have been grouped in Table-6.4. Table : Privately owned DTWs under DWASA Jurisdiction Zone 1

Zone 2

Zone 3

Zone 4

Zone 5

Zone 6

Zone 7 N. Ganj

Total

65

129

19

108

124

23

2

470

11

5

61

41

34

55

Total

76

134

80

149

158

78

2

677

Non-registered

75

8

7

28

35

6

490

649

Grand Total

151

142

87

177

193

84

492

1326

Category Registered Industrial & Commercial use Residential, Social & mixed use

207

On the basis of BUET (2000) and DWASA MIS reports, calculated groundwater abstracted by privately owned tube wells in Dhaka and Narayanganj city are shown aside with that of by DWASA in Figure 6.3. It is no doubt that huge numbers of privately owned tube wells of different capacities are not yet detected. Actual abstractions by privately owned tube wells would be much more than that of estimated.


Figure : Abstractions by DWASA & Private Wells in Dhaka and Narayanganj City Supply from Surface Water Sources Dhaka WASA has four Surface Water Treatment Plants in Dhaka and Narayanganj City for supplying water covering eighteen (18) percent of total supply. The Surface Water Treatment Plants are Dhaka Water Works at Chadnighat, Narayanganj Water Works (East and West) and Saidabad Surface Water Treatment Plant. Dhaka Water Works at Chadnighat is the oldest one and Saidabad Surface Water Treatment Plant has the largest capacity and latest one. Narayanganj Water Works East has the lowest capacity of supply and most of time it was found not in operation due to technical difficulties. Design Production Capacity in Million Litres per Day (MLD) of those treatment plants are shown in Table 4.5. Actual Production Capacity in Million Litres per Day (MLD) of these treatment plants are shown in Table 6.6. Table : Design capacities of surface water treatment plants

Table : Actual Capacities of Surface Water Treatment Plants


Month wise (from Jan 2003 to Jan 2005) actual production capacities and design capacities on the plot and that is shown in Figure 6.4 to 6.7. It is seen that all treatment plants producing treated water are far below the design capacities except Saidabad treatment plant. It is also seen that production capacity of Saidabad Surface Water Treatment Plant exceds the design capacities in May, June, July and August 2004. The plots clearly indicate that production capacity decline in dry season compared to wet season. It may be the reason that in dry season water quality (raw water for treatment plant) of peripheral rivers deteriorates very badly.

Figure 6.4 : Water production of Dhaka Water Works at Chadnighat


Figure 6.5 : Water Production at Narayanganj East

Figure 6.6 : Water Production at Narayanganj West

Figure 6.7 : Month wise Water Production at Saidabad Surface Water Treatment Plant GUIDELINES AND REGULATIONS OF WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM IN DHAKA CITY Strategic Management Planning In order to meet the increasing demand of utility service for Dhaka City many development partners have been showing their keen interest to assist DWASA to overcome the situation and improve the services. These Guidelines for Water Supply in Dhaka City has been developed under Water Supply Improvement program of DWASA as a strategic framework for provision of adequate and safe water supply for all population of the city and including slum dwellers. 7.1.1 Responsibility


All Water supply sewerage and Storm water Drainage facilities in Dhaka City and Narayangonj will be planned. Developed, operated and maintained by DWASA. DWASA will measure at least annually the specific capacity and efficiency of the production tube wells and rehabilitate the tube wells as and when needed. 7.1.2 Piped systems shall be designed, constructed, rehabilitated and maintained by DWASA with scour outlets so that dirt does not enter into pipelines. 7.1.3 DWASA will regularly monitor important water quality parameters and publish the results in the national newspapers! DWASA web- site. In the event of deterioration of water quality for some reasons, the people living in the risk zone must be informed about the possible health risk and protection measures to be adopted. Source Augmentation Presently DWASA can meet around 75 percent of the demand of its present service area population and the gap between demand and supply is rapidly increasing. About 82 percent of the total water supply is abstracted from underground aquifers. and the rest is derived from surface water sources. To meet the growing demand for water supply, every year DWASA replaces and installs new deep tube wells. The present rate of water extraction from existing aquifers by DWASA & other organizations, departments. companies. individualâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s etc. is alarming and if continued unabated. it may cause serious shortages besides devastating events like land subsidence. and other environmental degradation. In view of above situation DWASA will temporarily limit further development of ground water till the results of the ongoing study by the Institute of Water Modeling (1MM) is available and provides respective recommendations. In line with IWM recommendations, DWASA would urgently take actions for water source augmentation. For optimum utilization of water resources DWASA will adopt conjunctive use and management of surface. ground and rain water. Possibility of recharging aquifer by rain water should be explored. For rain water harvesting and recharge of ground water, the Government will initiate by June 2006 a process to change building code to include built- in rainwater facilities for harvesting & recharging during the design of the building before approval by RAJUK. Permission for installation of private tube wells will gradually be stopped meeting their water demand by DWASA. Protection of Raw Water Source: Groundwater may show built up of chromium, lead, manganese. iron etc. Their levels are currently within acceptable limits. Presence of harmful bacteria like E-coli has been detected in tube well water in certain areas which may be due to release of untreated industrial waste and unsanitary landfill sites. Though arsenic contamination of groundwater is very widespread in the country, arsenic levels in ground water of Dhaka are very low and within permissible limits. Surface water resources in and around the city have become severely polluted due to intensified urban and industrial development without adequate efficient and solid waste disposal and treatment facilities. The rivers surrounding Dhaka are the ultimate destination of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s untreated wastewater. The inadequate sewerage and storm water drainage system and often nonexistent environmental protection enforcement have all contributed to severe deterioration of surface water quality. Dhaka is finding it extremely hard to operate its existing surface water treatment plants due to raw water quality problems, especially during the dry season The Government will therefore, take a conscious, determined and appropriate action of enforcing environment safeguards to protect both surface and groundwater resources. The Environmental Cell of DWASA has already been established to safeguard


the surface water resources which are being empowered by the Ministry of Environment and Forest (M0EF). Service Levels: 7.4.1 Coverage with piped water supplies will be increased to 100% of the population subject to willingness to connect and pay. Standpipe water supplies will be phased out and replaced with house connections at the earliest wherever possible. Water availability will be ensured for all the users by the year 2010. Consumers shall have underground water reservoir of sufficient capacity to meet the water demanded of 24 hrs. Priority will be given to schools and slums in the provision of piped water supplies and sanitation facilities. At markets, bus stands, and public toilets 24 hour water supplies will be maintained. Private Sector Participation: To enhance the efficiency of operation and maintenance of water supply systems. private sector will be involved in the utility services. DWASA has already privatized its revenue collection services on a limited scale which has been found cost effective As such private sector participation will be expanded to all the zones of Dhaka WASA. Private sector participation will also be encouraged in infrastructure development including source augmentation along with operation and maintenance of water supply and sewerage systems. In this connection DWASA will frame specific set of rules by 2006 for commercially operating public utilities. Community Involvement The formulation of community based organization (CEO) / group on water supply, storm water drainage & sewerage will be facilitated by DWASA. These will be area-based groups and will have representation from NGOs. academia, media. professionals. slums/urban poor. schools, and both those served and unserved with piped water. The groups will provide suggestions for better service and will help raise awareness of stakeholders on water policy and monitor the implementation of the endorsed government policy and plans. These groups will also be involved in preventing unauthorized connections and reducing non-revenue water (NRW) and enhancing revenue collection. DWASA will initiate formation of these groups by July, 2006. Water for the Urban Poor Most of the urban poor live in Dhaka slums where environmental conditions are quite deplorable. DWASA in collaboration with local NGOs has initiated a pilot program to supply piped water to selected slums in the city with considerable success but the coverage is quite low. DWASA will be allowed to extend basic water supply and sanitation services to these slums providing legal connection and introducing formal billing and collections. The Government will ensure 100% water supply coverage to the urban poor of all slums. The necessary structural, financial and legal reforms will be pursued to allow DWASA to deliver services efficiently. In addition to the NGOs, possibility of private sector participation will also be explored. NGO/DWASA will take initiatives to make service connection and water reservoir for the slum dwellers in phases at their own cost. Tariffs and Regulatory Frame work Revenues from tariffs must be sufficient to cover O&M costs including electricity and the rehabilitation of wells and replacement of pumps. Tariff will be increased as per Govt. rules and


DWASA Act. 1996. NRW must be reduced to 6 months equivalent of billing from the present level of 13 months. This will be achieved through the participation of the private sector, CBOs and NGOs. Collection efficiency will be increased to over 90% and arrear for electricity shall be eliminated. An operating ratio of not more than 0.7 shall be maintained. All domestic and non-domestic connections will be metered and payment shall be made on the basis of metered consumption. The Government will establish a regulatory body to encourage private sector participation and investment, ensure affordable and sustainable service provision, improve performance and cost effectiveness of service providers (both Private sector and Government) help set rational tariff, and strengthen the overall transparency and accountability of DWASA. Resource Mobilization In order to generate adequate funds to meet the cost of building water supply, sewerage and storm water drainage infrastructure in the housing areas, the respective Private /PLiblic organization(s) will build- in the cost of providing water supply, sewerage and storm water drainage services with the cost of the housing plots. Amount of water sold for industrial/commercial use will require thorough investigation and consideration needs to be given to charging for any water abstracted from ground-water through own private tube wells. An amnesty will be called in regularizing unauthorized connections.Any unauthorized connections found thereafter will be penalized. Management DWASA will have an organogram approved with right-sizing of staff by June 2008 and approved staffing positions filled with qualified staff by the end of 2008 The capacity building of DWASA will be completed within the year 2008. NRW will be measured by production metering. Illegal connections will be addressed through declaration of an amnesty and house to house surveys by mid 2006. NRW will be targeted to be less than 30%. DWASA will conduct awareness raising programs about water supply and sanitation for one week each year.7.10.4 DWASA will gradually introduce Water Safety Plan as recommended by World Health Organization in the Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality (Annexure-B) for consistently ensuring the safety of a water supply. In this respect, DWASA will start assessment of the system. effective operational monitoring and development of management plans for appropriate actions including system upgrading and improvement Adopting Zonal Approach for Overall Service Improvement Zonal approach can be successfully adopted for overall improvement of water supply, sewerage and storm water drainage services. In zonal approach, a relatively small area shall be hydraulically isolated to form a Water Districtâ&#x20AC;? where adequate water supply of acceptable quality is ensured for 100% of the population for 24 hours and almost 100% collection of DWASA revenue can also be ensured with civil society involvement. DWASA with the assistance of ADB has already started pilot testing of zonal approach in Manikdi area. Based on the lessons learned from the pilot project, DWASA will improve water services in all other zones of Dhaka WASA wherever suitable, using the zonal approach. Policy and Legal Framework


The guidelines stated in this document will be in conformity with the National Water Policy 1998 (Annexure-A), National Policy for Safe Water Supply and Sanitation 1998 and National Policy for Arsenic mitigation 2004 in fulfilling National goals. The guidelines will mainly derive legal support from Dhaka WASA Act, 1996. Dhaka City Corporation Ordinance, 1983, Environmental Conservation Act, 1995 and Environmental Conservation Rule, 1997. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS Demand Management  People/ users are not aware that water is resources; and they are also not quite aware of water wastages. As a result they do not use the water rationally. Sometimes users do not shut down taps properly, even after they are finished using the water. Users keep the tap open while washing clothes, plates, dishes etc. Many users keep the shower/ tap open while soaping the body. Almost 80% of the street's taps remain open always.  Many people use Deep-Tube-Wells; some people/citizens abstracted ground water illegally, through motors. There are, also, illegal supply connections or supply connection without meters.  Users do not clean their reservoir periodically.  Users do not pay their bills fairly. Supply Management Issues A. Institutional Issues:  Service area has increased without creation of options for water abstraction & supply. DWASA’s is excessively depended on ground and DTW for water supply.  ‘Water production is limited in response to the quantity demanded. At the same time, the full capacity of DWASA is not being used for optimum water production.  System loss occurs. Revenue collectors arc not working efficiently. Under billing and FixedBilling contribute in system loss. It is easy to get illegal connection of water supply. Supervisory staffs are negligent about monitoring. Leakages of water pipes, are always not repaired.  Some users get more water than requirement. Irrational discrimination in supply of water. Lack of equal opportunity in getting “water supply services”.  It is difficult to manage Water Supply, Sewerage, and drainage all together. The process of Restructuring / Improving Management System has occurred yet (successfully) Lack of Long term perspective planning in the supply network. Supply System to serve the city is error some. Inadequacy of planning for efficient supply management.  Inter dept/Agency coordination is inadequate. There is no coordination between RAJUK & DWASA  Sense of ownership is not developing within DWASA  Supply management lacks accountability to the users  Misuse / irrational water usages occurs B. Technical Issues  Sufficient water can not be extracted through pumps/DTWs. DTWs are properly installed; and often get out of order.  Surface water is not being adequately used. DWASA is highly dependent ground water for water abstraction; and on Deep-Tube-Wells (DTW) for supply water in the city. Sometimes DTWs are installed at where it is not appropriate required.  Water cannot be treated adequately  Water doesn’t come adequately through supply lines The diameter of supply people are narrow.  Water does not come adequately through DTWs.


 Water Supply / Distribution System arc error some. The produced water can’t distributed totally through existing supply lines. There is no Zone-Wise account water supply. There is no accurate account on the production of water. Water demand forecasting is inappropriate. Service area is not defined  Technical difficulties / errors occurs in electric supply system  The supply lines and networks arc error some. Supply pipes are inadequate limited compare to the demand. Water Pipe Network System is not modernization. New & Old Networks for water supply are being used. The diameters of supply pipes arc not same. The level of the supply lines are not even. As areas Water pressure is not same in the supply lines.  Supply lines are defective / do not work properly. Standardized materials are used.  There are leakages in the supply lines. Supply lines are not repaired or maintained required. Dirty water comes through the leakages of the supply-pipes. Many supply lines are already out of order. C. Other Issues (Coordination, Participation, Financial, Monitoring etc.)  Shortage/Inadequate Electric Supply for production water usable water. L shedding occurs. Voltages arc often unstable. LV, HV occurs in electric supply DESA/DESCO. Disturbances occur in electric supply (more in dry season).  DWASA can not spend more money on Producing is usable water. Revenue collection is not done appropriately. Water of WASA is illegally sold in bottle others. There are illegal supply connections. Operators/ supervision don w properly at all the camps. WASA personnel are not available when required.  Users do not know the schedules / limes of availability of water / people do know “what are the times to get available supply of water’?”; coordination effort very limited in this case.  Water production is not increasing in accordance with the growing demand Unplanned Urbanization occurred. Houses / Apartments are increasing in unplanned way. Construction of high rise building has increased a lot. Social and Environmental Consideration Socio-Economic Issues  River/ Canals are continually being silted up. Water bodies are being tilled UI) gradually.  Sometimes DTWs ae not installed at appropriate places or sometimes, DTWs are not installed at where it is appropriately required. Places/spaces arc not always available, and difficult to find, to install DTWs.  The procedures of Approving & Implementing Water Supply System projects are very lengthy.  Many people use water in agriculture  Per pump population is high. Spaces are not available to set up Pumps. Land prices in Dhaka city is very high / expensive  Electric bills arc getting higher  Many people cannot effort to have water reservoir. The owners of the reservoir get more water.  Water Demand has increased significantly. On the other hand, unplanned urbanization occurred. Dhaka city is growing /developing in an unplanned way. The population of the city is rapidly increasing. The city is vertically spending. Industrialization is occurring within and around Dhaka city Health awareness is increasing / rising. Environmental Issues  Ground water level is depleting. Water layer is going lower. The layer goes very low during dry season. Ground water recharge has reduced.  Natural water sources / River water is being continuously polluted / excessively polluted. Industrial wastes pollute river water. Analysis of Appreciative Inquiry (AI) Success Stories


Providing water supply services with successful projects: Water Supply System is still sustaining - that is perceived as biggest success of DWASA. The organization has been giving the water supply services to Dhaka city since 1964, in spite of limited manpower and resources and high rate of Population growth. The city would become dirty and inhabitable had WASA not been doing the job efficiently. DWASA has implemented some successful projects. Among these projects “Implementation of Saidabad Water Treatment Plant under 4th Water Supply Project” is the biggest success of Dhaka WASA (Also includes: Dhaka Water Works - BMRE., Pagla Sewerage Treatment Plant - BMRE, Many other water projects and activities such as, extracting water from ground water sources through 466 nos. of DTWs, by WASA). Participants think that theses projects have been contributing, a great deal, in increasing DWASA’s capacity of efficient water supply to the city dwellers of Dhaka. Almost all the participants opined that “Establishment of water treatment plant (both large and small scale) helped DWASA a great deal in solving water supply problems for Dhaka city”. PPI (Program for Performance Improvement) has reduced System Loss) Revenue Department is collecting revenue/ bill successfully in spite of different dimensions of problems and with shortages of manpower. PPI (Program for Performance Improvement) has been introduced since 2004-05 in Revenue Zone- 3,4 and 5 improve the overall billing, collection and reduce system loss. These zones have performed better in terms of revenue collection than previous years and system loss has also been reduced. This program is still continuing. Here DWASA officer and employees are involved under the umbrella of DWASA Cooperative society. Installation and operational of 500 KVA Step-Up-Transformer at Godnail Water Works, Narayangonj, DWASA faces severe constraint on getting undisrupted electric supply. It was also well discussed that DWASA to find out ways to be capable of providing electric-supply-support as they might require it. In this context, a participant told that “Due to low voltage at Godnail Water Works, all of my higher officials inspired me to overcome this problem and with my practical experiences/ knowledge I have just consulted my E.E; and finally set up this transformer for the first time in DWASA. Capacity of DWASA increased significantly in “area of servicing and “capability in production of water". Almost all participants opined that “Capacity as well as capability of DWASA has been increased extended by more than 100 times compared to the initial stages in respect to its’ area of servicing network and capability in production of water”. DWASA enhanced its bravery to face the extreme challenges of supplying water to uncontrolled and increasing city dwellers with its limited resources. DWASA responds to the Users At Uttara, sector#6, water shortages were experienced in some neighborhoods; measures were taken and DWASA solved the problem. There water shortage in the diplomatic zones, especially Saudi Embassy, occurred. The problem used to get more acute in dry season. Measures were taken and the problems were solved. Reward System and Financial Benefits have contributed in increasing management efficiency DWASA encourage hard work and good work; and it is positively contributing in better water supply services to the users. A participant cited, in this connection, “I was rewarded with a special award for my performance in 1990. As a result, I was highly inspired and have become more motivated and enthusiastic in performing my duty". The proposed “Pay-scale” against different positions is yet to be approved; but, already, DWASA current and retired employees are enjoying it. This helped them to get some financial so1vence DWASA recognize that a fair management system is required to improve the financial aspects of that employees to bring more speed in the work.


Possible Immediate Action The Dream Stage (To Repeat More Success Stores)  People of Dhaka city will get sufficient water according to their demand. We have to develop the whole system by improving sewerage, drainage. Appropriate measures need to be taken so that the demand of water supply, drainage and sewerage requirements can be met. Following aspects are crucial in this context Establishing 3 separate departments (water-supply, sewerage, drainage). All the zones are to be well-coordinated for more “efficient water supply” in future. Fair and adequate coordination among the revenue and engineering dept. is crucial for efficient water supply system.  Human Recourse Development. Technically sound/efficient manpower! human resources are to be developed / increased. Efficiency of the administrative management need to be increased. Reduce dependency on others (other than WASA). Ownership is to be developed within the DWASA management.  DWASA to increase its diversified production capability in an efficient way of supplying water to ever increasing population in the area. Sources of surface water treatment to be increased. Explore alternative sources for water through 20 years perspective. More water treatment plant necessary to improve the supply capability and to give better sourcc to the customers.  Flows of funds are to be there to support implementation and maintenances of’ the projects in appropriate time. Find out sources of funds, financial support from the donor agencies also important.  Proper integrated-planning is to be done and prompt actions are to be taken. Plans also necessary for the rehabilitation of’ water lines and immediate replacement of’ old pumps. Appropriate measures are to be taken for the implementation of the integrated plan. It is important for DWASA to earn acceptability to the people by increasing accountability and transparency. For this labour-politics/trade-unions are to be stopped.  For future improvement of billing, collection and reduction of system loss, DWASA will have to find out ways of means to introduce new system for improvement of such activities. Generate more revenue. We are planning to cover all slums and low income communities under a world bank study. Previously, a decision was taken on the issue that all RevenueZones are to be brought under the PPI (Program for Performance improvement). This needs to be implemented soon. The Action Plan (With a vision to repeat more success)  Discourage / stop migration towards Dhaka city from other parts of the country. An integrated Action Plan is necessary to keep the city livable. It is crucial to complete all works with proper integration of relevant concerns, according to the plan.  Usages of Surface Water DTW are to be minimized immediately; and Surface Water Treatment Plant to be constructed in more numbers. Sources of water should be shifted immediately from ground water to surface water. Reduce dependency on ground water by establishing more water treatment plants like Saidabad Water Treatment Plant.  Small scale Surface Water Treatment Plant can be established instead of DTWs, outside Dhaka city. To establish small water treatment plant for supply of more water. To counter water logging, local or foreign improved technology to be adopted.  Establishment and construction of Saidabad Water Treatment Plant Phase 2, and Pagla I Water Treatment Plant Note: Financial support from GOB/ Donors (i.e. WB) is necessary to implement / construct Saidabad Water Treatment Plant - Phase 2 and Pagla Water Treatment Plant!, in future, the water of the Padma River (from Maowa point) can be treated for supply.  Administrative structure of DWASA needs to be revised and deserves further improvement. DWASA administration needs to put more attention on MODS zones. Government should approve the "Proposed Organogram of DWASA", immediate Note: Participants opined that if govt. approves the newly proposed organogram. This crucial; and will create opportunities to solve many problems, if approved.


 Class-discrimination among different levels of employee is to be minimized. Efficient incentive and reward system are institutionally in all aspects of the work.  Have already introduced full computerization of billing and collection through BORD Basis and awarded the contract to M/S Daffodil Computers. With the implementation a computerized modern billing and collection system would be introduced in DWASA.  There is no alternative to "Increase of revenue" for the development of the supply system Action-plant, like the Rev-Zone-3, 4 and 5, need to be prepared for other Zones decision making system in participation of level of staffs/ officers need to be implement for efficient bill/ revenue collection; and thus contributing in generating more revenue through increasing "customer services" with dedication.  100% collection of the bills is necessary. Bills are to be given at a proper time and of regular basis to the customers. In order to achieve "better revenue collection", other zone need to adopt PPI so that these zones can be competitive as PPI zones. It will help "increase of revenue"; and DWASA will be more developed.  Establishment of latest technology in every section of DWASA may help in improve water supply. Rehabilitation/ repair of supply lines are necessary to maintain a minimum standard. Improved technological measures are to be taken for sewage/ waste dispose, Electrification appropriate water supply must be ensured.  Wastages of water have to be reduced. Enough awareness campaign is necessary motivate users for rational and efficient use of water. Solution of Leakage Problems For a large scale reduction in water system losses from leaking pipes and general reduction of unaccounted for water it is recommended to :  Establish accurate and appropriate water system maps in order to safeguard the proper location of pipes and leaks including the determination of the water flow in and through the area.  Carry out leak repair swiftly and with appropriate repair tools and material.  Introduce a more appropriate leak repair record formant, for easier evaluation and adaptation of required repair materials and necessary stock.  Undertake every effort for a sound and correct updating of the water supply system maps, by DWASA and also by any consultant, without which operation of the system is difficult and systematic leak detection impossible.  Never cross a sewer channel or manhole with an unprotected steel of MS pipe, because corrosion proceeds quickly, imposing the risk of serious contamination of the drinking water, not only under submerged conditions.  Provide for functioning values in the system with protection tube and street cap, to facilitate quick and efficient repair under dry conditions and to control these values every ½ to 1 year for proper functioning, otherwise they become a useless installation, liable to leakages.  Provide water meter at each service connection and establish accurate meter reading and invoicing according to actual consumption.  Replace broken of illegible meters instantly with immediate notification to the revenue section concerned.  Control allegedly non-connected holding for illegal installations on a continuous basis but irregular basis and control the use of holdings for a permanent verification of the correct billing rate. The relation of flow and leakage for an increase in pressure follows the formula of Greeley. The basic fix point in this empirical, and internationally accepted, formula is that the relative leak rate is 100% at a pressure of 5.0 bar. The relation of different percentages at varying pressure is : R = 44.643 * P 0.5 [%] Where R is the leak/ flow rate percentage [%] and P is the prevailing pressure [bar]


Based on actual measured flow/ leakages and pressure this formula allows the calculation of corresponding flow/ leakages under different pressure conditions. Form the measurements performed analysed and explained above can be concluded that :  Main losses were detected from PVC, AC, DI, MS pipes (DN 300, 150 and 100) together with service connection saddles and pipes. Predominant leak type is cracks in the pipe (suggesting careless handling during transport or/and installation).  Based on normal system operation conditions leakages are not a major factor, however loss on Revenue is substantial and can only be reduced by installation of water meters and proper billing ad collection.  The current low pressure in the system promotes leakage reduction, however permanent low pressure (below 0.5 bar) should not be the aim of a utility because supply periods and especially quantities are reduced at the same time.  Future planned pressure together with supply quantities increasing, will rise water losses through leakages to an unprecedent level, if no counter measures are introduced now!  Past leak repair done by DWASA was not appropriate to come with increased system pressure and needs to be improved in future by using suitable material and tools.  For all pipe purchases, state of the art specifications are to be adhered together with suppliers guarantee on the quality of the material.  Pipe laying for primary and secondary system should be performed by first class contractors with emphasis on proper laying techniques and pressure testing, section wise, before commissioning.  Tertiary mains may be laid by DWASA, according to standards, but never without pressure testing after laying.  Previously assumed water losses were found to comprise high quantities actually used by illegal, un-metered and also metered connections.  Invoicing of the consumed water leaves much to be desired and malpractices of some revenue inspectors, together with flat-rate bills for un-metered holding produced substantial revenue losses for DWASA. Considering the present water supply system in general and the findings of these measurements in Pilot Area 2 in particular, it is recommended :  to prepare or produce up-to-data pipeline record drawings, especially to ensure that for all extension works, ongoing or planned, accurate "As-Built" drawing are produced by contractors and/or consultants. With those maps stepwise inclusion of old mains could be accomplished by DWASA.  To provide most accurate pipe system record drawings for all MODS zones for information and general orientation, to become independent of knowledge of individual staff members. In these maps leaks and repair works can readily be inserted immediately after repair, as well as maintaining location of saddle points for new service connections.  To introduce more appropriate leak repair procedures.  To speed up leak repairs once leaks are detected.  To introduce a more comprehensive leak repair record format, which allows, after evaluation, an assessment of most frequent leak types, most effected pipe types and spare parts required for adequate stock provision. (For a Proposal refer to Annex. C).  To provide a metal tracing tape for new PVC and AC pipe laying, to facilitate easier location in the future.  To provide further leak detection training programmes, for waste Prevention Division staff and for all MODS technical site staff, to increase awareness of such occurrences based on a more sound understanding of the issue and the implication for Dhaka WASA.  To secure all values in the system by provision of o Protection tube o Street/valve cover o Valve marker plate in the direct vicinity for easy location


o Regular operational and function check at ½ to 1 year intervals.  To improve on the information transfer to DMC on the importance of operational fittings and the necessity to have them permanently accessible and to provide for better coordination of works on both sides.  To provide identification plates at all service connection for instant information and orientation of the revenue inspector about the location of the water meter and the account number of the client, and to avoid confusion in case of similar numbers in the ledger. Future planning: Supply of water to the people of Dhaka City is a very complex job. Many partners a stakeholders are involved here to meet the challenge the followings are recommended Numbers of departments/ agencies are involved in the water supply process; though DWASA is the front, line actor in providing the service. Integration and coordination of different actors, both in supply side and in demand side, are crucial to efficient water supply. A Master Plan Study in 20-25 years perspective is necessary, considering the socio-economic process, water participatory approach. Use the potentials of local resources is important in this context.  DWASA needs to shifts its dependency from Ground-Water to Surface-Water as the over level has gone down. The organization needs to explore alternative options for abstraction water.  Slums/ low income group shares major percentage of the population of Dhaka City Efficient water supply to the slum dwellers, with favorable conditions, needs to be considered and take a suitable strategy with adequate importance to the context.  DWASA needs to generate more fund/revenue to invest more in improvement of water supply system. PPI (Project Performance Improvement) can be replicated, if necessary with modification, in other revenue zones.  Sense of’ ownership is yet to be stronger for the case of DWASA management. Implementation of the proposed “organogram’’ to be approved immediately. Dhaka city had plenty of lakes, running north to south, and east to west. This kept the city green and the city had an easy way to drain out water both during rain and flood. Easy water recharge during rainy/monsoon season. Overall, with the less city population, Dhaka was clean and tidy with no noise. City dwellers had happy and hygienic life. Capacity as well as capability of’ DWASA has been increased / extended by more than 100 times compare to the initial stages in respect to its’ area of’ servicing network and capability of’ production of’ water. DWASA has enhanced its bravery to face the extreme challenges of supplying water to uncontrolled and increasing city dwellers with its limited resources. An “Appreciative Approach” would be helpful in improving the state of’ water supply in Dhaka city. CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS In the management of DWASA revenue collection with respect to transmission and distribution system, strong emphasis is placed on demand management through the water conservation policies and programs, in order to manage the water supplies efficiently from source to consumption. The strategy is to keep down the growth in water demand to an acceptable level and to minimize system loss so that existing water resources can be extended to their maximum potential. Non-revenue water is the result of pipelines leakage, improper/illegal service connections and theft water. These issues contribute system loss. System loss is a buzzword. This matter agitates all concerned specially affect the whole economy. As such, every one should explore the escape route from ailment of system loss. Technical approaches to combating NRW have met with limited success. Generally, utility staff will only appear when called out in an emergency or a crisis, rather than show a daily presence in a given locality. Caretaker approach would add a social dimension to addressing the problem.


Co-ordination to minimize commercial loss The most important factor to mitigate the ailment of commercial losses to very considerable proportion would be combined effort under the frame -work of close co-ordination between the Commercial and Engineering Departments. Instead of blaming each other for failure to attain the required target, each department should reflect on its own performance in the accomplishment of its part of the job as a component in the inter linked effort to ameliorate on the revenue generation. Non-Revenue Water (Solution in a nutshell) 1. Governance and tariffs must be tackled first. 2. Leak detection equipment comes last not first. 3. Repair visible leaks. 4. Make utility staffs responsible for small zones 5. Meter all production and consumption properly. 6. Add strict metering, provide incentives for utilities staffs for performance. Conclusion : Dhaka WASA is one of the major utilities services in Bangladesh. The name & fame as well as economic stability of this organization is fully depend on qualities of services. Collecting revenue from the sale of available water and rendering sewerage service are only the sources of revenues. Non-Rvenue Water contributes system loss, which is ultimately shortening the revenue. Therefore, for eleviating the revenues Non Revenue Water conscquences System loss should be bring down to an acceptable limit. For achieving the goals, strengthen the technical knowhow and logistics also. Employees should be healthy, honest and sincere. Restructure the organization is the claim of time .Existing compensation system /salary structure is no more effective, shall be reformed immediately. Pure water is precious and scare substance for lives. So we can not afford to waste water. It is essential that we use it with great care and the time to start doing this is now. Because water thy name is life. Recommendations: Technical point of view: It is suggested that many systems with NRW above 40% have numerous visible leaks in service connections, high rates of estimated consumptions and thousand of illegal connection that can all be addressed to reduce non-revenue water. In this case, the priority should be fixing in visible leaks (Technical loss) and paper leaks (Administrative or commertcial loss). Management point of view: The governance must be improved. This will be accomplished by promoting decentralization; strengthening; monitoring; evaluation; eleviating managerial and technical knowhow through training and development, research and learning at all levels, particularly in the O & M department and revenue department and building capacity. Besides these the following recommendations are made:  For reducing, the system loss a high power taskforce shall be reformed headed by CE. This taskforce shall work independently: enumerate irregularities, find out illegal connections, and bypass connections. The taskforce shall give recommendations for justified punishment against the person(s) and employee(s) (if any) those who involve in such crimes or irregularities.  Ensure availability quality water meter.  Introduce electronic digital water meter providing non- return valve & hour run meter associates with all other common accessories.  Find out leakage, repair immediately.  Rehabilitate old and worn-out distribution lines.  Non-metered connections shall be metered immediately.


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Ensure meter sealing to protect meter tempering. Ensure billings based on actual meter readings. Disordered meter shall be replaced by good one and stopped average billing. Every six months interval working area of RI shall be changed. The taskforce or higher authority shall check at least 10% readings (collected by inspectors) physically. Mark the consumers using water through illegal or by pass connection and regular the same immediately and press them under lawful action for their illegal activity & accountability must be high at all levels. Water services must be adequeately priced. Reliable information on producdtion and consumption is necessary. NRW programs must be institutionalized. NRW cannot be addressed in isolation. An enabling environment must be created. This means that (i) utilities must have autonomy in terms of management, and they need competent and motivated employees; (ii) tariffs must be adequate, which will result in cost and benefit incentives to reduce NRW. Construct meter chamber in a proper place as if reading shall be visible easily. Ensure meter sealing to protect meter tempering. Ensure billings based on actual meter readings.


DWASA and Its Role in Public Life