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VIEW WITH IMAGES AND CHARTS A Study On The Accidents Occurred On The National Highway-1 And Road Safety Audit On Seleceted Portion Of That Highway TASK-1 

Context diagram for system

Fig: Context Diagram OF Driving School 

The AIMS and objective of the system.

Current system is working on manually paper based activities to update the system from manual to automation is needed for the system more efficient. Where the system need to store some detail record such as customer, instructor s vehicles, lesson book, lesson complete; By using the system the customer is notified about any of due payments. 

A level 1 the top-level Data flow Diagram (DFD) for the system including : o o o o

The Process description The Data Flow description The Data store contents The External entity definitions


Fig: Data Flow Diagram(DFD) Process description: In Data Flow Diagram(DFD), there have processes.  Process enquiry: In this process a learner what to know information to the receptionist or administrator. Then learner gets information from receptionist or administrator.  Process Booking: In this process learner request for lesson booking to the receptionist/administrator.  Process lesson: In this process receptionist or administrator give list of daily lesson and car information to the instructor.  Process Payment: Receptionist or administrator requests for payment. And the learner gives the payment daily or monthly.  Process due payment proceeding: The receptionist or administrator sent a reminder for due payments after tha14 days of last payment. If the learner don’t pay the dues then Approximately 28 days of sending reminder the


receptionist or administrator investigate legal proceedings to recover the own money. Data Flow description: Learner enquires for the lesson information, the receptionist or administrator sends lesson information to the learner. Then learner request for lesson booking. Receptionist or administrator then adds all information in booking information and learner information. After that receptionist or administrator collect all of the information and make a schedule for instructor to allocate lesson, car and time then receptionist or administrator send it to the instructor. Instructor contacts with the learner and ensure his schedule. Receptionist or administrator requests the learner for the payment. The learner pays all of his payments. After that receptionist or administrator store the payment information in the data store named payment info. A reminder has been sent to learner after the 14 day’s of last payment period. If the learner doesn’t pay his payment; after the 28 days the receptionist or administrator will take legal proceedings to recover their owned money. Data store contents: From the process booking we find store 3 data contents. These are following:  Lesson info which contains information about lesson.  Booking info which contains information about booking.  Learner info which contains information about learner. From the process lesson we got 1 data store contents that is related with the process. These are following:  Instructor info which stores details about Instructor From the process payment we find a data store content. That is following:  Payment info which contains information about payment. From the process due payment proceedings we find a data store contents. That is following:  Legal proceedings info which contains information about legal proceedings. External entity definitions: External entity: External entity is a source of data or information that comes from the outside of the boundary of investigation or proposed system. In the scenario we got a external entity and that is “learner”.


Task 2 ď ś An entity relationship diagram for the system.

Fig: Entity Relationship Diagram ď ś Entity descriptions for all entities in the diagram. Entity:o Instructor: - Instructor is an internal entity. He taught the learner how to drive. o Booking: - Booking is a link entity. It stands between two another entities. o Invoice: - Invoice is an entity of the system. Invoice is given by Administrator or receptionist to the learner. o Learner: - Learner is an external entity. Learner is the customer of the system.


o Teach: - Teach is a link entity. o Administrator: - Administrator is an internal entity. o Vehicle: - Vehicle is an entity; used to learn driving. o Payment: - Payment is a link entity. Learners have to pay for his lessons. o Lesson: - Lesson is entity of this system. Lesson is given by the Instructor to learner. ď ś Appropriate attributes for all entities including primary and foreign keys. Invoice Invoice number(P.k) Learner ID(F.k) Lesson ID(F.k) Date Payment amount Last pay date Total

Instructor Instructor ID(P.k) name address contact number Lesson ID (F.k) Vehicle ID(F.k) Salary

Payment Payment ID(P.k) payment type Payment amount Learner ID

Vehicle Vehicle ID(P.k) Model number Chassis number Scheduled time

Learner Learner ID(P.k) name address contact number Lesson ID(F.k) Payment Type (monthly/daily)

Lesson Lesson ID(P.k) Lesson Duration Lesson Charge

Administrator Administrator ID(P.K) Administrator Name Administrator Address Administrator Contact number

ď ś Relationships detailing optionality and degree of relationships between entities.


o The relationship between Instructor and Teach is one to many. An Instructor can teach many lessons. o The relationship between Learner and Teach is one to many. A learner can take many lessons to be taught. o The relationship between Learner, Teach and Instructor is many to many. o The relationship between Instructor and Lesson is one to many. An Instructor can teach many lessons o The relationship between Lesson and Booking is one to many. Many booking can be for a lesson. o The relationship between learner and invoice is one to many. An learner can have many invoices o The relationship between and Teach is one to many. An Instructor can teach many lessons o The relationship between Instructor and Teach is one to many. An Instructor can teach many lessons o The relationship between Instructor and Teach is one to many. An Instructor can teach many lessons Task 3 •

Create an Entity Life History for a driving lesson


Fig: Entity life history of the driving lesson Task 4 Create a database design for the driving school systems including: • A set of fully normalized tables showing the normalization process for each. 1. Gathering data: Invoice number Learner ID Learner name Learner address Learner contact number Lesson ID (P.K) Lesson name Lesson charge Lesson duration Instructor ID Instructor Name Instructor address Vehicle ID Model number Chassis number


Scheduled time Scheduled place Payment amount Payment Type Date Total 2. Choosing a key: ď ś Invoice number. 3. Converting to first normal form: Invoice Invoice number(P.K) Learner I Learner name Learner address Learner contact number Instructor ID Instructor Name Instructor address Vehicle ID Model number Chassis number Scheduled time Scheduled place Last pay date Payment amount Payment type Total Date

Invoice-Lesson Invoice number(P.K) Lesson ID(P.K) Learner ID Lesson name Lesson charge Lesson duration

3. Converting to second normal form: Invoice Invoice number(P.K) Learner ID Learner name Learner address Learner contact number Instructor ID Instructor Name Instructor address Vehicle ID Model number Chassis number

Invoice-Lesson Invoice number(P.K) Lesson ID(P.K) Learner ID

Lesson Lesson ID(P.K) Lesson Name Lesson charge Lesson duration


Scheduled time Scheduled place Payment amount Payment Type Last pay date Total Date

5. Converting to third normal form: Invoice Invoice number(P.K) Learner ID Instructor ID Vehicle ID Date Payment amount Payment Type Last pay date Total Learner Learner ID(P.K) Lesson ID Learner name Learner address Learner contact number

6. Optimization:

Invoice-Lesson Invoice number(P.K) Lesson ID(P.K) Learner ID

Instructor Instructor ID(P.K) Instructor Name Instructor address

Lesson Lesson ID(P.K) Lesson Name Lesson charge Lesson duration

Vehicle Vehicle ID(P.K) Model number Chassis number Scheduled time Scheduled place


Fig: Optimization

•

Data dictionary entries for all items included in the database design.


Fig: Data dictionary of entity


Fig: Data dictionary of entity


Fig: Data dictionary of entity Task 5

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 Searching for the history of account payments by a customer.


Fig: Searching account Payment of customer


Fig: The information of a customer ďƒ˜ Making an appointment for a driving lesson.


Fig Appointment Form

 Create a list of a day’s appointments for an instructor.


Task 6 ďƒ˜ All hardware that will be installed. For the system we need two Client PCs and one server PC. The configuration of Client and server PC is given bellow. Server PC Hardware Name Processor

Details Intel Xeon Quad Core X3350, (2.66 GHz, 12MB Cache, 1333 MHz FSB, 45nm.)

RAM Hard disk

DDR-2 2 GB ECC 667 BUS HDD 320 GB SATAx2 On RAID (Samsung) A4 Tech (multimedia) A4 Tech (Optical ) Asus DVD Writer Samsung 17" Wide (Resolution 1280*1024) On Board, Dual Gigabit NIC

Keyboard Mouse CD/DVD Rom Monitor Network Adapter


Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks Casing

RAID 0,1,5 YY Server Case With 400 Watt.

Client PC Hardware Name Processor RAM Hard Disk Keyboard Mouse CD/DVD Rom Monitor Network Adapter Casing Head phone

Details Intel Core 2 Duo E7500 2.93GHz 2 GB DDR2 320GB SATA A4 Tech (multimedia) A4 Tech (Optical ) Combo DVD Rom 19" Monitor LCD Wide Built-in ATX Casing Thermal Creative

 Site preparation for installation. For the Site preparation we have to consider the following topics:• • • • •

Power supply Heat dissipation Office alterations Office layout Office furniture

Power supply:-

• • • •

Each machine requires a separate power supply. Should have enough capacity of circuit for the number of PCs. We have to Keep backup incase of circuit fails. Machine shouldn’t place close to any other electrical equipment.

Heat dissipation:• • •

Allow better air flow for the machine Allocate a distance from window so that direct sunshine can’t touch the PC. In case of large machines full air conditioning system will be needed.

Office alterations:We have to consider Office alteration for a number of reasons: • If new large computer is needed for the organization; office alteration required at that situation. • In case of Company reorganizations office alteration would be necessary.


Office layout:-

• •

Air conditioning requirements can be a cause of office alteration. We also have to consider office alteration for the Security requirements

The manual routine of the office is bound to change with the computerbased system. We to change the office layout to run the new procedures frequently.

Office furniture:• With new computer equipment New Office Furniture Is required. • Placing of the PCs On a desk, height of the chairs in case of keyboard entry.  Changeover procedures from current paper system There are various methods of Changeover procedures.  Direct Changeover  Parallel running  Pilot running Here we can use direct changeover to change our system paper-based to computer. Direct changeover is the complete replacement of the old system by the new one, although data transfer may be spread over a period. This method is the cheapest in setup effort. When the user department has experienced in the disciplines of IT and the analyst has total confidence over their system, then direct conversion is the right method.  Input of current data held in paper records into the new system. We can entry the data of current system by the staff. It will be affordable for the organization; the receptionist or any other staff can be used for the task. If the staff enters the data for a limited time everyday, it will not be a big deal after few days of starting.  Requirements for pri-printed stationary & other media . Some pri-printed stationary is necessary for any system such as prospectus, form, daily appointment sheet. These should be printed although the system runs on computer. We can use printer, scanner as media for the system.  System testing System testing is the final stage of validation, when leading to system sign-off by the user. The testing is carried out to ensure that the system works accurately before it will be hand over to the user. System testing is also known as acceptance testing .Users will have been involved with the analyst, in the specification of acceptance tests early in the project. At the system testing stage we have to test all of the procedures of the existing system. The procedures are enquiry, booking, appointment, payments, learner details and schedule info.


The testing takes place to check the performance of the system  Staff training. Training is needed to give user staff the skills which are required in their new jobs. There are various methods are used for training: o Hands-on training sessions o Formal lectures o Informal discussion or seminars o Computer assisted training o User manual o Programmed learning texts o Quick-reference guides, taking a selection In our system we select the hands-on training session for the staff training. Because hands-on training session contains as much practical works as possible.  Planning of timescales. Tasks 1.All hardware that will be installed.

Estimated time 15 days

2. Site preparation for installation.

45 days

3. Changeover procedures from current 10 days paper system 4. Input of current data held in paper 15 days records into the new system.

5. Requirements for pri-printed stationary & other media 6. System testing

20 days

7. Staff training.

15 days

Task -7 1. Title: • Report on: System analysis and Design • Author: Abdullah Istiaqe


2. Executive summary: Brief description of the tasks are given below: Task 1 In task we have represented a i. Context diagram ii. State the aims objectives of the system: To transfer the paper based system to an electronic system. iii. A level 1 (top-level) Data flow Diagram for the system and which included the: o Process description: In the process some activities takes place on the data. Data flows into a process o Data Flow description: The data which leaves one process and exactly reaches at the next process; is indicates the data flow. o Data store contents: A data store indicates that a repository of data that is accessed or changed. o External entity definitions: External entity is a source or recipient of data that is outside the boundary of investigation. Task-2 In task 2 we have represented: i. ii. iii. iv.

An entity relationship diagram for the system. Entity descriptions for all entities in the diagram: Entity is a thing about which the organization holds the information..: Appropriate attributes for all entities including primary and foreign keys. Relationships detailing optionality and degree of relationships between entities. The relationships between two entities; describes the way by which an occurrence of an entity is linked to or influenced by other occurrence.

Task-3 In task 3 we have represented: •

Create an Entity Life History for a driving lesson

Task- 4 In task 3 we have represented: o Create a database design for the driving school systems including: o A set of fully normalized tables showing the normalization process for each. o Data dictionary entries for all items included in the database design.


Task 5 In task 3 I have represented: o Searching for the history of account payments by a customer. o Making an appointment for a driving lesson. o Create a list of a day’s appointments for an instructor. Task 6 In task 3 I have represented  All hardware that will be installed: Configuration of the server and client pc.  Site preparation for installation: To prepare site we have to consider following topics:• • • • •

Power supply Heat dissipation Office alterations Office layout Office furniture  Changeover procedures from current paper system

There are various methods of Changeover procedures.  Direct Changeover  Parallel running  Pilot running Here we will use parallel running to change our system manual to automation.  Input of current data held in paper records into the new system.  Requirements for pri-printed stationary & other media: We have to consider some pri-printed stationary like prospectus, form, daily appointment sheet.  We can use printer, scanner as media.  System testing. System testing is a process which is carried out to ensure that the system works accurately and efficiently before it is put into live operation  Staff training: Training aims to give user staff the specific skills required in their new jobs. In the system we choose the hands-on training session for the staff training  Planning of timescales: Describing timescales for the tasks.


3. Terms of reference: • Range: The invested area of the system is a driving school. • Focus on: It focused on changing the paper based system to a electronic system. 3. Method: The aims and objective of the system is to transfer the paper based system to an electronic system. To fulfill the objective of the system here I have done following diagrams: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

Context diagram Data flow diagram. Entity relationship diagram. Entity life history Normalized table Data dictionary.

4. Description of all tasks: TASK-1  

A context diagram of the system A statement of the AIMS and objective of the system.

Current system is working on manually paper based activities to update the system from manual to automation is needed for the system more efficient. Where the system need to store some detail record such as customer, instructor s vehicles, lesson book, lesson complete; By using the system the customer is notified about any of due payments. 

A level 1 (top-level) Data flow Diagram for the system including : o o o o

Process description Data Flow description Data store contents External entity definitions

Process description: In the data flow diagram we get some processes.  Process enquiry: In this process learner enquire for the information to the receptionist or administrator. Then learner gets information from receptionist or administrator.  Process Booking: In this process learner request for lesson booking to the receptionist or administrator.  Process lesson: In this process receptionist or administrator give list of daily lesson and car information to the instructor.


 Process Payment: In this process receptionist or administrator requests the learner for payment. And the learner gives the payment daily or monthly.  Process due payment proceeding: The receptionist or administrator sent a reminder for due payments after tha14 days of last payment. If the learner don’t pay the dues then After 28 days of sending reminder the receptionist or administrator investigate legal proceedings to recover the own money. Data Flow description: Learner enquires for the lesson information, the receptionist or administrator sends lesson information to the learner. Then learner request for lesson booking. Receptionist or administrator then adds all information in booking information and learner information. After that receptionist or administrator collect all of the information and make a schedule for instructor to allocate lesson, car and time then receptionist or administrator send it to the instructor. Instructor contacts with the learner and ensure his schedule. Receptionist or administrator requests the learner for the payment. The learner pays all of his payments. After that receptionist or administrator store the payment information in the data store named payment info. A reminder has been sent to learner after the 14 day’s of last payment period. If the learner doesn’t pay his payment; after the 28 days the receptionist or administrator will take legal proceedings to recover their owned money. Data store contents: From the process booking we find store 3 data contents. These are following:  Lesson info which contains information about lesson.  Booking info which contains information about booking.  Learner info which contains information about learner. From the process lesson we got 1 data store contents that is related with the process. These are following:  Instructor info which stores details about Instructor From the process payment we find a data store content. That is following:  Payment info which contains information about payment. From the process due payment proceedings we find a data store contents. That is following:  Legal proceedings info which contains information about legal proceedings. External entity definitions:


External entity: External entity is a source of data or information that comes from the outside of the boundary of investigation or proposed system. In the scenario we got an external entity and that is “learner”.

Task-2  An entity relationship diagram for the system.  Entity descriptions for all entities in the diagram. Entity:o Instructor: - Instructor is an internal entity. He taught the learner how to drive. o Booking: - Booking is a link entity. It stands between two another entities. o Invoice: - Invoice is an entity of the system. Invoice is given by Administrator or receptionist to the learner. o Learner: - Learner is an external entity. Learner is the customer of the system. o Teach: - Teach is a link entity. o o o o

Administrator: - Administrator is an internal entity. Vehicle: - Vehicle is an entity; used to learn driving. Payment: - Payment is a link entity. Learners have to pay for his lessons. Lesson: - Lesson is entity of this system. Lesson is given by the Instructor to learner.

 Appropriate attributes for all entities including primary and foreign keys. Invoice Invoice number(p.k) Learner ID(F.k) Lesson ID(f.k) Date Payment amount Last pay date Total

Instructor Instructor ID(p.k) name address contact number Lesson ID (f.k) Vehicle ID(f.k) Salary

Payment Payment ID(p.k) payment type Payment amount Learner ID

Vehicle Vehicle ID(p.k) Model number Chassis number Scheduled time

Administrator

Booking

Learner Learner ID(p.k) name address contact number Lesson ID(f.k) Payment (monthly/daily) Lesson Lesson ID(p.k) Lesson Duration Lesson Charge

Type


Administrator ID(P.K) Administrator Name Administrator Address Administrator Contact number

Task 4 Create a database design for the driving school systems including: • A set of fully normalized tables showing the normalization process for each. 1.Gathering data: Invoice number Learner ID Learner name Learner address Learner contact number Lesson ID (P.K) Lesson name Lesson charge Lesson duration Instructor ID Instructor Name Instructor address Vehicle ID Model number Chassis number Scheduled time Scheduled place Payment amount Payment Type Date Total 2.Choosing a key: Invoice number. 3. Converting to first normal form: Invoice Invoice number(P.K) Learner ID(F.K) Learner name Learner address Learner contact number Instructor ID(F.K)

Invoice-Lesson Invoice number(P.K) Lesson ID(P.K) Learner ID(F.K) Lesson name Lesson charge Lesson duration


Instructor Name Instructor address Vehicle ID Model number Chassis number Scheduled time Scheduled place Last pay date Payment amount Payment type Total Date

5. Converting to second normal form: Invoice Invoice number(P.K) Learner ID(F.K) Learner name Learner address Learner contact number Instructor ID(F.K) Instructor Name Instructor address Vehicle ID Model number Chassis number Scheduled time Scheduled place Payment amount Payment Type Last pay date Total Date

Invoice-Lesson Invoice number(P.K) Lesson ID(P.K) Learner ID(F.K)

Lesson Lesson ID(P.K) Lesson Name Lesson charge Lesson duration

5. Converting to third normal form: Invoice Invoice number(P.K) Learner ID(F.K) Instructor ID(F.K) Vehicle ID Date Payment amount Payment Type Last pay date Total

Invoice-Lesson Invoice number(P.K) Lesson ID(P.K) Learner ID(F.K)

Lesson Lesson ID(P.K) Lesson Name Lesson charge Lesson duration


Learner Learner ID(P.K) Lesson ID(F.K) Learner name Learner address Learner contact number

Instructor Instructor ID(P.K) Instructor Name Instructor address

Vehicle Vehicle ID(P.K) Model number Chassis number Scheduled time Scheduled place

6. Optimization:

Fig: Optimization •

Data dictionary entries for all items included in the database design. •

Task 6

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 All hardware that will be installed. For the system we need two Client PCs and one server PC. The configuration of Client and server PC is given bellow. Server PC Hardware Name Processor

Details Intel Xeon Quad Core X3350, (2.66 GHz, 12MB Cache, 1333 MHz FSB, 45nm.)


RAM Hard disk Keyboard Mouse CD/DVD Rom Monitor Network Adapter Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks Casing Client PC Hardware Name Processor RAM Hard Disk Keyboard Mouse CD/DVD Rom Monitor Network Adapter Casing Head phone

DDR-2 2 GB ECC 667 BUS HDD 320 GB SATAx2 On RAID (Samsung) A4 Tech (multimedia) A4 Tech (Optical ) Asus DVD Writer Samsung 17" Wide (Resolution 1280*1024) On Board, Dual Gigabit NIC RAID 0,1,5 YY Server Case With 400 Watt.

Details Intel Core 2 Duo E7500 2.93GHz 2 GB DDR2 320GB SATA A4 Tech (multimedia) A4 Tech (Optical ) Combo DVD Rom 19" Monitor LCD Wide Built-in ATX Casing Thermal Creative

Site preparation for installation. For the Site preparation we have to consider the following topics:-

Power supply:-

    

Power supply Heat dissipation Office alterations Office layout Office furniture

• • • •

Each machine requires a separate power supply. Should have enough capacity of circuit for the number of PCs. We have to Keep backup incase of circuit fails. Machine shouldn’t place close to any other electrical equipment.

Heat dissipation:• •

Allow better air flow for the machine Allocate a distance from window so that direct sunshine can’t touch the PC.


In case of large machines full air conditioning system will be needed.

Office alterations:We have to consider Office alteration for a number of reasons: • If new large computer is needed for the organization; office alteration required at that situation. • In case of Company reorganizations office alteration would be necessary. • Air conditioning requirements can be a cause of office alteration. • We also have to consider office alteration for the Security requirements Office layout:-

• •

The manual routine of the office is bound to change with the computerbased system. We to change the office layout to run the new procedures frequently.

Office furniture:• With new computer equipment New Office Furniture Is required. • Placing of the PCs On a desk, height of the chairs in case of keyboard entry.

 Changeover procedures from current paper system There are various methods of Changeover procedures. o Direct Changeover o Parallel running o Pilot running Here we can use direct changeover to change our system paper-based to computer. Direct changeover is the complete replacement of the old system by the new one, although data transfer may be spread over a period. This method is the cheapest in setup effort. When the user department has experienced in the disciplines of IT and the analyst has total confidence over their system, then direct conversion is the right method.

 Input of current data held in paper records into the new system. We can entry the data of current system by the staff. It will be affordable for the organization; the receptionist or any other staff can be used for the task. If the staff enters the data for a limited time everyday, it will not be a big deal after few days of starting.


 Requirements for pri-printed stationary & other media . Some pri-printed stationary is necessary for any system such as prospectus, form, daily appointment sheet. These should be printed although the system runs on computer. We can use printer, scanner as media for the system.  System testing. System testing is the final stage of validation, when leading to system sign-off by the user. The testing is carried out to ensure that the system works accurately before it will be hand over to the user. System testing is also known as acceptance testing .Users will have been involved with the analyst, in the specification of acceptance tests early in the project. At the system testing stage we have to test all of the procedures of the existing system. The procedures are enquiry, booking, appointment, payments, learner details and schedule info. The testing takes place to check the performance of the system.  Staff training. Training is needed to give user staff the skills which are required in their new jobs. There are various methods are used for training: o Hands-on training sessions o Formal lectures o Informal discussion or seminars o Computer assisted training o User manual o Programmed learning texts o Quick-reference guides, taking a selection In our system we select the hands-on training session for the staff training. Because hands-on training session contains as much practical works as possible.  Planning of timescales. Tasks 1. All hardware that will be installed.

Estimated time 15 days

2. Site preparation for installation.

45 days

3. Changeover procedures from current 10 days paper system 4. Input of current data held in paper 15 days records into the new system.


5. Requirements for pri-printed stationary & other media 6. System testing

20 days

7. Staff training.

15 days

6. Recommendation: There are some weaknesses of the system. It’s a manual and time consuming system. We can improve the system by making the design of the system more User friendly and useful, easy to maintain. For this purpose we have to choose a better OS for the system. 7. Assumption & choice: We need two clients PC and a server PC. The configuration of the server and client PCs given bellow: Hardware requires for the server PC Processor RAM Hard Disk Keyboard Mouse CD/DVD Rom Monitor Network Adapter Casing Head phone Hardware requires for the client PC Processor RAM Hard Disk Keyboard Mouse CD/DVD Rom Monitor Network Adapter Casing Head phone 8. Appendix: we have been represented some diagrams and data dictionary in the assignment: All of the diagrams & Data dictionary given bellow:


Fig: Context Diagram

Fig: Data Flow Diagram


Fig: Entity Relationship Diagram

Fig: Entity Life History


Fig: Data dictionary of entity


Fig: Data dictionary of entity


Fig: Data dictionary of entity 9. Reference: • • • •

Systems Analysis For IADCS Systems design For IADCS Structured Programming Method http://www.ryanscomputers.com/

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