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YOFF URBAIN

An urban design and strategic plan for the Yoff Stadium Precinct, Dakar, Senegal


Project name: Made by: With the help off: Date: Commissioned by: Type of project: University: State study project: State project:

Yoff Urbain Roos Marijn Limburg Cheikh Dramé 2012 William Deijman, Dakarkids Study Rotterdam Academy for Architecture and Urban Design Finished August 2012 Feasibility study

YOFF URBAIN „Widely adored vital public spaces serve as long term social sustainable places, they are as important as hospitals and education in rapid urbanising area’s.“ E. Peñalosa. The project ‚Yoff Urbain‘ involves developing an urban design and strategic plan for the Yoff Stadium Precinct (YSP), an open area in Yoff. Yoff is one of the northern districts of Dakar, the capital of Senegal. The objective is to expand the currently popular sports program and prayer activities related to the stadium into a vibrant multipurpose area for different usergroups. The YSP is one of the few left over open spaces in Yoff and therefore very precair. In order to preserve as much open space as possible, a strategy is made where spaces and elements are multifunctional and adaptable to diverse usage and future change.


self organisation beauty organic

opportunism density

sports colourfull

autonomy

painfull

entrepreneurship


AFRICA

WEST SENEGAL

SENEGAL

DAKAR

*

Senegal Rufisque

Diourbel

Dakar Dakar Africa

8 km

Thies

M’bour Fatick

1790 - The Republic of the Lebou got established on the peninsula of Cape Vert. Yoff is one of the villages. All villages had its own internal leadership, lead by the Djaraf.

The Lébou*1 migrated from Ethiopia to Egypt to Mauritania to end up in Senegal, Cap Vert Mid-sixteenth century - the first Lébou setteled in Cap Vert Source: (UNESCO 2000)

The routes of the Lébou from fifth to the 12th century

1430 - Yoff gets established by the Djolof

Conversion to Islam. C at first fa resistance from

Source: (UNESCO 2000)

After a huge epidemy, Yof colonial influence is visible in t

0

500

1000

1500

1600

1700

1800

1850

Curren Stadium Pr

Top: Geographical position of the site Bottom: Evolutionary timeline of Yoff


DISTRICT: YOFF

SPATIAL FRAMEWORK YOFF

YOFF STADIUM PRECINCT

Towards Cambarene, Pikine Towards N‘gor, Almadies

Conversion aced heavy m the Lébou

Towards Thies, Rufisque, M‘bour, St-Louis

International Airport

Dakar city center Routes on a metropolitan scale Routes on a city scale

Towards Dakar city center ± 6km

1960 - 1980 Léopold Sédar Senghor President. Parti: Union Progressiste Sénégalaise, or UPS

1980 - 2000 Abdou Diouf President. Parti Socialiste

2000 - 2012. Abdoulaye Wade President. Parti Démocratique Sénégalais

1996. Yoff changed administratively from being a rural community to a commune of Dakar 1884 - Layenne order was established by a Yoff-born Lébou marabout, his mausuleum is in Yoff

2012 - current Macki Sall President. Parti: APR: Alliance pour la République

Today, Yoff is granted special autonomy in the constitution, laws and practices of Senegal. In which three different constitutions are in power to different extend: the mayor of Yoff, the Layenne and the Lébou

ff got partly rebuild. The the more rigid structure of the village.

1900

1920

1940

1960

1980

1996. Apecsy sold the stadiumarea, it became land of the Yoff community

2000

2020

2010. Dakarkids initiates a redevelopment of the Yoff Stadium Precinct

nt outlines of the Yoff recinct projected on older maps

source: google maps

2040

source: Gen Europe


Situatedness

YSP

Towards Cambarene, Pikine Towards N‘gor, Almadies

Leopold Sengor International airport

Towards Thies, Rufisque, M‘bour, St-Louis

Towards Dakar city center ± 8km

? ?

? ?

1940

1960

1980

2000

2020

1940

1960

1980

Top left: urban framework - Dakar; Right: Urban framework - Yoff Bottom left: Urban evolution - Dakar; Right: Urban evolution Yoff

Situatedness

The so called situatedness tells how the site is culturally, historically, and physically embedded.The Yoff stadium Precinct is located just off one of the main arteries of Dakar. The images below show urban evolutions of Dakar and Yoff. Dakar has grown tremendously fast after becoming independend in 1960. Around 1990

the expansion of Dakar reached the village of Yoff, which was itsself meantime also rapidly expanding and densifying. Yoff changed administratively from being a rural community to one of the „arrondissements“ of Dakar in 1996.

2000

2020


Old village of Yoff

Newly build areas

Images of Yoff

There is a distinction between the old villlage of Yoff and the newly build area‘s. In the traditional village of Yoff, over the years the roads became smaller and the urban structure became chaotic due to unregulated building expansions. It is very lively in the traditional village and there is close connectedness between the inhabitants, in terms of extended families, muslim brotherhoods and

ethnical backgrounds. Newer areas are more open, greener and as oppose to the old village and far not everyone that lives in these newer areas is physically connected to traditional Yoff. Inhabitants of the newer area‘s come from all over Senegal. The YSP, (Yoff Stadium Precinct) is situated just outside the traditional village.


Situatedness Yoff beach Mausuleum of the Layennes Dakarkids Islamic cemetery The marble Yoff stadium store

commercial areas weekly market commerce around fishery

LeopoldThe Senghor cemetery International airport

Leopold Sengor International airport

Stadium

Prayerfield

2700m2

3500m2

commmercial housing

10.000m2

cultural activities (religion, performance, art etc.)

30.500m2

religion at times education sport

green

religion at times

prayerfield

±500 users/ week

prayerfield

Section A

Yoff Stadium

±1500 users/ week stadium

monday

tuesday

wednesday

thursday

friday

saturday

Section A

sunday

Top left: entities that operate on a city-scale; Right: commercial activity Middle left: the site - Yoff Stadium Precinct (YSP); Right: Usage Bottom left: Rhythm analyses; right: altitudes

1. Entities on a city-scale show why people from outside Yoff currently come to visit Yoff. 2. Commercial activity takes place alongside the main roads of Yoff, one of these commercial roads runs directly passed, and one ends right at the YSP. Image 3. shows the YSP, with on the west site the prayer area and on the east site the existing ‚stadium‘, the total area covers ±45.000m2. The prayer area is used 3 times a year for a period of a few days. The remaining time it is open to the

community for predominantly sport activities. 4. Aside commercial activity and housing, there are a few mosks and schools in close proximity to the site. 5. The current YSP fascilitates about 2000 users a week with peaks on wednesday and in the weekends. 6. There is a hight difference of 6 meters between the highest and the lowest point of the site, this is over ±300 meters length.


Urgence

? Premiership stadium first/second division stadium

From top to bottom: Badly maintained High walls make the area uninviting Uniform usage Yoff stadium is legging behind in comparison to other first division stadiums

Urgence The main reasons why the need for revitilizing the YSP is so important are the following. The current airport in Yoff is moving outside the city, therefore there will be a great loss of jobs of many people in Yoff that work there. This in addition to the thousends of people who are currently already jobless in Yoff. Also, the current very few sport facilities are badly maintained and

falling apart while it is a stadium where first division is played. This while other first division stadiums are in a far better state and have more and better facilities. Thirdly Both area‘s, the stadium and the prayerfield are surrounded by high walls and therefore very uninviting to the community. And last, the usage is very uniform, for which it only serves a very limited part of the community.


Potentials Approximit data Yoff area: Inhabitants: Inhabitants/HA: Average living area/individual (interior):

3,5 km2 140.000 426 16m2

„There is so much tension in the use of public spaces within the African cities that we need to start thinking of them as being a multifunctional space rather then a static space with just one purpose.“ Oladayo Oladunjoye, Architect

„Successful public spaces are lively places where the many functions of community life take place, and where people feel ownership and connectedness - true common ground.“ Platform for Public Space

Top: Nolli map of a part of Yoff, showing the urban density Bottom: Inspiring quotes on potentials of public space

Potentials

Currently, there is incredible little open space in Yoff, not to mention the open space that is public and serving community life. The Yoff Stadium Precinct is one of the few left over open spaces in Yoff and therefore very precair. The Yoff stadium Precinct shoulden‘t remain hidden, monofunctional and unmaintained, but it has

a potential to become a public space for everyone to meet and play.


Multilayered

Yoff Stadium Precinct = a potential! for diverse programme for diverse usergroups in time

multilayered A multilayered approach

Multilayered

As said, the Yoff stadium has potential to serve the community of Yoff. This means including diverse programming and serving diverse usergroups (varieing in age, gender, background, economic circumstances etc.) at the same time and over time. This we call a multilayered approach.


3 Methods

Stadium precinct. The objective is to expand the currently Stadium precinct. The objective expand theinto currently popular sports program related is toto the stadium a vipopular sports program to the stadium into vibrant multipurpose arearelated for diverse usergroups. Theaplan brant multipurpose area for diverse usergroups. plan is adaptable to future user-dynamics while beingThe resilisience adaptable to future user-dynamics being resilto undesired development suchwhile as real estate or ience undesired development such as real estate or wasteto dump (corners). waste dump (corners).

sustainalbe area’s, they are as important as hospitals and sustainalbe are as important as hospitals and education inarea’s, rapidthey urbanising area’s. education in rapid urbanising area’s. The Yoff Stadium Precinct is one of the few left over open The YoffinStadium is one the few over spaces Yoff andPrecinct therefore veryofprecair. Inleft order to open prespaces Yoff and therefore very precair.a In order to preserve asinmuch open space as possible, strategy is reserve as much open space as possible, a strategy is required where spaces and elements are multifunctional quired where spaces and elements are multifunctional and adaptable to diverse usage and/or future change. and adaptable to diverse usage and/or future change.

economy economy

social social

vitality vitality social social economy economy environment environment feasibility resilience feasibility resilience

environment environment

Vitality [vaɪˈtælɪtɪ] n. - The power or ability to continue in existence, live, or grow

Feasibility [fz-bl] adj. - Capable of being accomplished or brought about

Resilience [r-zlyns] n. - The property of a material that enables it to resume its original shape or position after being bent, stretched, or compressed; elasticity.

YSP FURTHER EVOLVES ACCORDING TO CHANGING MARKETS AND DESIRES COMPLETION SPATIAL FRAMEWORK

2010

2015

2020

VERTICAL PERSPECTIVE Research methods: • Mapping (use in space and time) • Study by design • Interchange with key informants • Literature review

TRAJECTORY: syntheses of the vertical and horizontal perspectives

HORIZONTAL PERSPECTIVE Research methods: • Participatory action research • Spatial analyses (use in space and time)

Trhee methods: Top: approach to sustainability Middle: a guided transformation process Bottom: syntheses of a vertical and a horizontal perspective

3 methods

Three main methods are used in the project. Firstly, in order to make a sustainable plan, the classical thrilogy of economy, social and environment are taken into account in every step of the desisionmaking process. Additionally, the themes: feasibility, vitality and resilience are central themes in the project. Each of these themes are again enforced in their meaning by

complying the trilogy. Secondly, the design proposal is not a fixed plan but a spatial framework. It is to be seen as a base from which things can grow organically. It aims to guide organic processes that anyhow take place in African streetlife. It guides terms of what can happen but also what cannot happen. And thirdly, the analyses is done through the combination of a horizontal and a vertical perspective.


is Yoff.“

„I‘d love to watch a performance or a concert once in a while, that will help me to let go of my daily sorrows“

Interchange people - A selection of outcomes TAKINGwithENQUETES

WORKSHOPS

A SELECION OF THE RESULTS: A SELECION OF THE RESULTS:

„My favourite place in the world is Yoff.“

„The stadium area must be come a vibrant, lively place „I‘d love to watch but also nice a performance orand quiet“ a concert once in a while, that will help me to let go of my daily sorrows“ „We want a stadium to be proud of, the tribune should seat thousends of people!“

WORKSHOPS

A SELECION OF THE RESULTS:

‚‚Us women, we want to have a space for shops and workshops, and a kindergarden”

„The stadium area must be come a vibrant, lively place but also nice and quiet“ -

WORKSHOPS

„We want a stadium to be proud of, the tribune should seat thousends of people!“

A SELECION OF THE RESULTS:

‚‚Us women, we want to have a space for shops and workshops, and a kindergarden”

„The stadium area must be come a vibrant, lively place but also nice and quiet“

INTERCHANGE WITH INFORMANS -

A SELECION OF THE RESULTS:

„knowledge on agriculture ‚‚Us women,must we want to be passed on to have a space for shops younger generations“ and workshops, and a kindergarden”

„We want a stadium to be proud of, the tribune ‚‚for many women raising kids should seat is thousends of and earningpeople!“ money difficuld to be combined“ -

INTERCHANGE WITH INFORMANS „The new stadium area should become financially self sustainable in time. It needs the right ingredients to achieve this.“

The area should also contain a Unique Selling Point like a big shop for sport merchendises

„Yoff is a very particular, it is an autonomy like in Monaco. You need to realise this when you want to upgrade the stadium. There are many parties who claim ownership off, and rights to the stadium.

The future stadium should include sports as volleyball, climbing, lutte, basketball, handball and athletics.

A SELECION OF THE RESULTS: „The prayerfield gets used for praying, about two or three times a year. It may be used for other activities but permanent developments is not allowed“

People need a place to just enjoy and to withdrawl from their daily sorrows.

APECSI soled the stadium to the Yoff community in 1996. Eversince, there has not been any clearity whoms responsibility it is. Many ideas for development got stuck on this.

„knowledge on agriculture must be passed on to younger generations“

‚‚for many women is raising kids and earning money difficuld to be combined“

INTERCHANGE WITH INFORMANS „The new stadium area should become financially self sustainable in time. It needs the right ingredients to achieve this.“

The area should also contain a Unique Selling Point like a big shop for sport merchendises

„Yoff is a very particular, it is an autonomy like in Monaco. You need to realise this when you want to upgrade the stadium. There are many parties who claim ownership off, and rights to the stadium.

Three information groups: The future stadium should include sports Top:asPeople from the street by taking enquetes volleyball, climbing, Middle:lutte, People from the street through wokshops basketball, handball and Bottom: key informants athletics.

A SELECION OF THE RESULTS:

„The prayerfield gets used for praying, about two or three times a year. It may be used for other activities but permanent developments is not allowed“

People need a place to just enjoy and to withdrawl from their daily sorrows.

APECSI soled the stadium to the Yoff community in 1996. Eversince, there has not been any clearity whoms responsibility it is. Many ideas for development got stuck on this.

„knowledge on agriculture must be passed on to Horizontal analyses means younger generations“

‚‚for many women is raising kids and earning money to be observation and difficuld above show- some combined“

here, of the things that are said by the interchange with a random group of people from Yoff. different informant groups. The key informants included This included taking enquets and having worksops. the president of the stadium, the ‚head‘ of the village, the Vertical means mapping, literature review, interchange head of the notables of the village, the commissioner, a with key informants etc. Where the outomes of the historican and a constructor. The area should The future stadium horizontal and the vertical perspectives correspond, also contain a should include sports as they are incorporated in the plan. The following page Unique Selling Point volleyball, climbing, lutte, likeshows a big shop for a selection of these outcomes. The images basketball, handball and „The new stadium area should become financially self sustainable in time. It needs the right ingredients to achieve this.“

„The prayerfield gets used for praying, about two or three times a year. It may be used for other activities but permanent developments is not allowed“

„Yoff is a very particular, it is an autonomy like in Monaco. You need to realise this when you want to upgrade the stadium. There are many parties who claim ownership off, and rights to the stadium.

People need a place to just enjoy and to withdrawl from their daily sorrows.

sport merchendises

APECSI soled the stadium to the Yoff community in 1996. Eversince, there has not been any clearity

athletics.


Results of varietive analyses methods - a selection Syntheses of the vertical and horizontal perspectives

Rhythms routed in

„knowledge on agriculture must be passed on to younger generations“

‚Upgrading the stadium area should also involve a Unique Selling Point like a big shop for sport merchendises

„My favourite place I know is Yoff.

„I‘d like to have have a spot where I can leave my smallest children for a couple of hours so that I can spend my time to earn money..“

„I don‘t have enough work to feed my four children, therefore 2 of them live with my mom on the countryside“

„I enjoy sitting outside underneath a tree, as it is our tradition, our culture.“

I‘d love to have a small coffee-bar where I can sell my coffee-specialities

„I‘d like to play on the streets but after a while I‘m sick of playing football, cause that is what all the boys do. There are almost no girls who play outside“

„I‘d love to watch a performance or a concert once in a while, that will help me to let go of my daily sorrows“

People love green and to sit under trees, no matter how small...

Bougainville and hybiscus are common shrubs in Senegal.

Kids dominate the streets of Yoff, they are often delivered to the streets during the day

Colourfull versus grey Goats love new green, this precludes young trees to grow

„The stadium area must become a vibrant, lively place but also nice and quiet“

Trade is extremely flexible, where people are is trade

„We wan be proud of, the trib seat thousends o people!“ dluohs muidats ffoY ehT„ sdnik lla rof ecalp a emoceb -eb dluohs tI .seitivitca fo eht fo draykcab eht emoc ,dnuoyeb dna ffoY fo elpoep gnihsirofl a emoceb tsum ti “!ecaps

eb dluohs sllaw ehT„ neht ylno ,nwod derat -secca emoceb lliw ti rof elbis “enoyreve

laiceps eb tsum erehT„ ni nerdlihc rof seitilicaf “ffoY

‚‚Us women, we have a space fo and workshops kindergarden

a evah ot ekil d‘I„ ,ffoY ni ecaps teiuq eb ot sah osla ti tub “tnarbiv dna ylevil

dluohs aera muidats ehT„ -yellov ,llabdnah etatilicaf ,llabteksab ,gnimmiws ,llab dna scitelhta ,yebgur ,ettul “.reccos


s and music are deeply n the Senegalese culture.

N

In the YSP and its surroundings extreme little green

‚‚Football (and sports in general) contributes to positive social development.“

‚‚for many women is raising kids and earning money difficuld to be combined“ ‚‚The strong sports-identity in Yoff should be exploited“, the future stadium should include sports as v olleyball, climbing, lutte, basketball, swimming and athletics.

Women and men are segregated. men and women are rarely found together in public space.

Mozaic is a common pavement.

Shade is a more important motive for people to stay then determined structures.

nt a stadium to bune should of

e want to or a shops s, and a

Sport is part of Yoffs‘ identity, every morning and evening the beach is loaded with sporting people


POSITION Widely adored vital public area’s are long term social sustainalbe area’s, they are as important as hospitals and education in rapid urbanising area’s.

g an urban plan for the Yoff e is to expand the currently d to the stadium into a vierse usergroups. The plan amics while being resilnt such as real estate or

social economy environment feasibility

resilience

4.

vitality

A guided transformation process

public(s) spaces(s)

focuss

Espace pu

Ecole pépi

Agricultur

Espace de

2200m2 in Bassin d’ea

Parkings (8

sportculture

syntheses between vertical and horizontal perspective

3.

infrastructure

Espace de et les matc

Un podium tribune po (13.500m2

Un podium tribune po spectateu Un podium (400m2) Course de Arène de l 1000 spec

Un terrain 1000 spec

diverse usergroups

diverse programme

Programme

All previous information: the three methods, including the outcomes of the third method (the different perspectives) and including the potentials and the urgence, has lead to four themes with an according programme. These four themes are commerce, sport, culture and public(s) space(s), including urban agriculture and a treeplant school. The programme alltogether requires 140.000m2

1. 2.

environment

Programme

The Yoff Stadium Precinct is one of the few left over open spaces in Yoff and therefore very precair. In order to preserve as much open space as possible, a strategy is required where spaces and elements are multifunctional and adaptable to diverse usage and/or future change.

commerce

while the site is ‚only‘ 40.000m2 big. A solution is made by making many spaces and objects multifunctional. This way the desired programme can fit into the area of the YSP.

Un terrain ±3000 spe

Les match entrainem (7000m2)

Un terrain (750m2) Commerce (1300 m2)

Commerce


ublic maximum : 40.000m²

Required: 140.000m programmatic infill available: 40.000m2

inière (1100m2)

re urbaine (1800m²)

e jeux (700m²)

nfrastructures au (50m2)

800 m²)

e prière pour les entrainements chs des juniors (7000 m ² )

Solution: multifunctional use of space and objects

m à grande échelle et une our les spectacles et les fêtes 2)

m à moyenne échelle et une our les spectacles ± 1000 urs (2000 m²) m à petite échelle et une tribune

e fond (1000m2) lutte avec une tribune de ctateurs (2000m2)

n gazonné plus une tribune de ctateurs (2000m2)

n de rugby plus une tribune ectateurs (13.500m2)

hs des juniors et des ments sur l’espace de prière

n d’entrainement en grava finis

e - avec des structures fixées )

e en expansion (900m2)

coeur de la zone


MULTI-USE OF SPACE

4 Principles PRINCIPLE 2:

PRINCIPLE 2: THE AREA LIKE A BUTTERFLY THE AREA LIKE ACore BUTTERFLY body- the heart of the area PRINCIPLE 2:

THE AREA LIKE A BUTTERFLY High key wing low key wing low key wing

Low key high key wingwing

low key wing

PRINCIPLE 3:

PRINCIPLE PERMEABILITY AND3:OPENNESS PERMEABILITY AND OPENNESS PRINCIPLE 3: PERMEABILITY AND OPENNESS

PRINCIPLE 4:

PRINCIPLE 4: TERRACES TO MARK PRINCIPLE 4:OUTOUT TERRACES TO MARK DIFFERENT AREA’S TERRACES TO MARK OUT DIFFERENT AREA’S DIFFERENT AREA’S coeur de la zone

Left: Principle 1. The design optimises landuse by the multiuse of space and objects. Right top: Principle 2. The area like a butterfly Right middle: Principle 3. Permeability and openness Right bottom: Principle 4. Terraces

4 principles

In addition to the principle of ‚multiuse‘ there are three more project principles. The area is seen as a butterfly. The west wing is the low key wing, with little (commercial) activity. In the core, central activities take place like an information centre, a slow road, central squares and a women centre. The right wing is the high key wing: it fascilitates the big stadium and commercial

activity that functions on a city scale. Principle 3 shows the area to be open and permeable. In favor of safety, openness and accessibility. The last principle shows that the design is build up from terraces, they mark out different zones and bridge the height difference. Following pages show different area‘s of the design with additional information on the ‚what‘s‘, „why‘s“ and ‚where‘s‘.


Design - examples of programmatic usage LOW KEY WING

references

Commercial activity as continuation of the existing commercial activity in the road

Commerce

shops

Iconic element at the end of a busy road to mark the YSP climb wall

Sport

* watch tower

Public(s) Space(s)

* Douala Sound garden

Tree-plant school and urban agriculture Public(s) Space(s)

ĂŠcole pĂŠpinaire

urban agriculture

Urban agriculture


Design - examples of programmatic usage CORE

references

Small scale performance area Culture small scale performance area

Breakdance performence

Central square with women working center and adjoining playground Commerce women centre and daycare

Public(s) Space(s)

women selling home made soap Women selling home made soap playground

Women get a central position in the area

Infrastructure P (±8 cars) P (±6 cars) P (±15 cars) + k&r

road crossing the area

P (±50 cars)

a playground


HIGH KEY WING

references

Commercial activity on a city scale Couleur orange en mosaïque

Commerce

Couleur jaune en mosaïque P mosaïque Couleur Pbleu/vert en

Programme commercial

Public(s) Space(s)

Programme commercial avec un espace P d’expension tribune Ensured good visibility and accessibility

Élément iconique en mur élevé

A stadium for 3000 spectators for sports and culural activities

Terrain athlétique

north south orientation of the sportsfield Zone de jardin is favorable

backside tribune faces fackside existing dwellings

Sport

opennes to open area‘s

the stadium stands out because of its position, orientation and altitude

École pépinière Agriculture urbaine

tribune corresponds with altitude The stadium can also be used for big events de likefemmes a hiphopcomconcert lines Commerce

Reasons why the orientation of the stadium is favorable

binées avec garde d‘enfants

A part of the stadium can be used for court related sports, lutte and cinema and theatre jardin d’enfant

Culture tribune with a stage and cinema-screen (±1000 people)

Terrains de sport Terrains de sport public cinema in Jenin

A part of the stadium can be used for court related sports, lutte and cinema and theatreLutte Sport

Commerce

Public(s) Space(s)

Parking des voitures, vélos et taxis gym and fysiotherapy underneath tribune food and beverages, gym and fysiotherapy underneath tribune queing area for entering the stadium

Grilles qui peuvent ouvrir Grilles fermé gyms for women and men Separate

gym - women and men separated

food and drink outgifts at the entrances of the stadium


Design - examples of objects that can be used in multiple ways FENCES fences that remain closed

stops balls

supports shrubs

keeps people out

fences that can open up

access and coverage

access stadium

retaining entire wall

cut down to seats

BORDERS existing walls

gutter and cattle grid

gutter

Multiple use of objects.

Aside the multi-use of space, the design includes also a list of objects that can be used in multiple ways. To name a few: Fences. There are fences that remain closed, functioning to stop balls, support shrubs and keeping people out or in. There are also fences that can open up. They then provide

cattle grid

access and shade. At the main entrance of the stadium, when the fence is closed, it can function as ticketsale ‚box‘. Borders. at some places the existing walls retain, sometimes they get cut down and sometimes the get entirely broken down to provide access. At the new borders of ther area, new walls get placed to avoid cattle

ticketsale


PLANTS, TREES AND SHRUBS Plants

aesthetics

roots

air quality

fruit and vege-

education

tables

trees

shrubs

+ +

to enter and to mark the borders of the YSP. At the access points of the area, a cattle grid is placed. At some points, this grid can also function as a gutter leading the water to the green area‘s. Flora. Flora in itself is already multifunctional, for it carries a lot of functions. In case of the YSP, plants offer beauty, roots that enhance the quality and

shadow

windbreaker

absorption level of the ground, air quality, sometimes fruit and vegetables and they can be used for educatoin purposes. Trees and shrubs also have all these qualities and in adition trees provide shade and shrubs function as windbreakers.


The spatial framework


Couleur orange en mosaïque Couleur jaune en mosaïque Couleur bleu/vert en mosaïque Programme commercial Programme commercial avec un espace d’expension tribune Élément iconique en mur élevé Terrain athlétique Zone de jardin École pépinière Agriculture urbaine

Commerce de femmes combinées avec garde d‘enfants

jardin d’enfant Terrains de sport Terrains de sport

Lutte Parking des voitures, vélos et taxis Grilles qui peuvent ouvrir Grilles fermé


Some impressions...

Top: Existing situation - stadium Bottom: Impression new stadium


Top: Existing situation - prayerfield Bottom: Impression new prayerfield


Top: Existing situation - wall around the sportsfield on the South-East end of the YSP Bottom: Impression new stadium on the South-East end of the YSP


Implementation Syntheses of the vertical and horizontal perspectives

Rhythms routed in

adjusting design architecture and engineering formalizing steering committee

implementation phase 1

business plan

social preparation

cost estimation mobilizing recources

SECOND GO MOMENT

FIRST GO MOMENT 2012

2013

„knowledge on agriculture must be passed on to younger generations“

2014

2015 ‚Upgrading the stadium area should also involve a Unique Selling Point like a big shop for sport merchendises

„My favourite place I know is Yoff. adjusting design architecture and engineering

implementation phase 1

formalizing steering committee

social preparation

cost estimation

„I‘d like to have have a spot where I can leave my smallest children for a couple of hours so that I can spend my time to earn money..“

mobilizing recources

SECOND GO MOMENT

FIRST GO MOMENT 2012

2013

2014

„I don‘t have enough work to feed my four children, therefore 2 of them live with my mom on the countryside“

2015

Implementation Phase 2 & 3

„I enjoy sitting outside underneath a tree, as it is our tradition, our culture.“

I‘d love to have a small coffee-bar where I can sell my coffee-specialities

„I‘d like to play on the streets but after a while I‘m sick of playing football, cause that is what all the boys do. There are almost no girls who play outside“

COMPLETION SPATIAL FRAMEWORK Kids dominate the streets of Yoff, they are often delivered to the streets during the day

People love green and to sit under trees, no matter how small...

„I‘d love to watch a performance or a concert once in a while, that will help me to let go of my daily sorrows“

YSP FURTHER EVOLVES ACCORDING TO CHANGING Bougainville and hybiscus are MARKETS AND DESIRES common shrubs in Senegal.

Colourfull versus grey

2010

2015

2020

Goats love new green, this precludes young trees to grow

Planning - top: long term and below: short term „The stadium area must become a vibrant, lively place but also nice and quiet“

Implementation

This project might be brought into realisation. The diagrams above and the following text briefly describes the next steps that are to be taken. The next phase involves 1. adjusting the design after gaining new input from the community of Yoff and 2. formalizing a steering committee. After this is done, there is the first go moment. Hereafter a business plan

needs to be made with the steering committee,. This can be done after flfurther architecturally design and Trade is extremely exible, where people are is trade engineering and an according cost estimation. After this the business plan will be used to mobilize recourses. If there is enough money for first implementation, there is the second go moment and the realization of the spatial framework / the design can take off in phases. The so called phase includes infrastructure and

„We wan be proud of, the trib seat thousends o people!“ dluohs muidats ffoY ehT„ sdnik lla rof ecalp a emoceb -eb dluohs tI .seitivitca fo eht fo draykcab eht emoc ,dnuoyeb dna ffoY fo elpoep gnihsirofl a emoceb tsum ti “!ecaps

eb dluohs sllaw ehT„ neht ylno ,nwod derat -secca emoceb lliw ti rof elbis “enoyreve

laiceps eb tsum erehT„ ni nerdlihc rof seitilicaf “ffoY

‚‚Us women, we have a space fo and workshops kindergarden

a evah ot ekil d‘I„ ,ffoY ni ecaps teiuq eb ot sah osla ti tub “tnarbiv dna ylevil

dluohs aera muidats ehT„ -yellov ,llabdnah etatilicaf ,llabteksab ,gnimmiws ,llab dna scitelhta ,yebgur ,ettul “.reccos


s and music are deeply n the Senegalese culture.

N

In the YSP and its surroundings extreme little green

‚‚Football (and sports in general) contributes to positive social development.“

‚‚for many women is raising kids and earning money difficuld to be combined“ ‚‚The strong sports-identity in Yoff should be exploited“, the future stadium should include sports as v olleyball, climbing, lutte, basketball, swimming and athletics.

Women and men are segregated. men and women are rarely found together in public space.

Mozaic is a common pavement.

nt a stadium to bune should of

e want to or a shops s, and a

Phasing proposition

Shade is a more important motive for people to stay then determined structures.

Sport is part of Yoffs‘

parking, can be done with little first money. After identity,this every morning and the beach is loaded this evening implementation the YSP phase 2 and three can with sporting people follow accoring to the available resources. The image above shows what phase 2 and 3 look like. During all phases, the big sportsfield can remain in function.


Optional future usage - a wednesday in june in 2018

There is a class at the ĂŠcole pepinaire, people are working at the terrain for urban agriculture and there is some recreational activity on the prayerfield.

A wednedsay in june 2018.

Some examples are shown of optional future use. This example shows a wednedsay in june, 2018. In the morning there is a first division soccer match, herefor the stadium is closed off. Throughout the day there are several trainings in several area‘s. And from eight to eleven there are classes in the tree plant education area. The bottom image on the right page shows the

occupation at 4pm this day: There is a soccer training going on on the prayerfield and there are youth matches for girls in soccer and rugby on the main field of the stadium. Meanwhile there are two clubs training lutte and basketball on the court and lutte pit in the stadium.


a wedensday in june commerce class at ĂŠcole de pepignaire urban agriculture

closed area

youth sport soccer, rugby, basketball and climbing training and matches

public(s) space(s) basketball training

public(s) space(s)

occupation playground information centre commerce in covered central women area

parking area streets

sprint training

closed area

public(s) space(s)

youth sport soccer, rugby, basketball and lutte training and matches

first division soccer match

lutte training recreational basketball

recreational volleyball basketball training dressing rooms

spectators on tribune dressing rooms commerce

closed area 0:00 AM

1:00

2:00

3:00

4:00

5:00

6:00

7:00

8:00

9:00

10:00 11:00 12:00 PM

1:00

2:00

3:00

4:00

5:00

6:00

7:00

8:00

9:00

10:00 11:00 00:00

youth matches rugby and soccer for girls

classes at the ĂŠcole pepiniere

soccer training

public(s) space(s) sports culture commerce infrastructure

basketball training boys

lutte training boys


Optional future usage - a saturday in february 2020

Top: There is still some commercial activity in the late evening in the high key wing. Shops are not really expanded yet Bottom: Shops in the street remain open untill late and the climbschool is just about to call it a day.

A saturday in february 2018.

This week, there are prayer activities on the prayerfield. This praying takes place at night. But during the day, tents also occupy the prayerarea. The remaining area of the YSP can be used for other activities. The bottom image on the right page shows the situation at 9PM: The shops on the west side of the area are still open because of the prayer activities. The praying just com-

mences, for it to continue for the entire night. In the central workshop and shop centre, women are selling food and beverages for during the night.


a saturday in february commerce

closed area

urban agriculture Area occupied by prayer tent

Prayer activities recreational basketball

Prayer activities

recreational volleyball trainig volleyball

public(s) space(s)

occupation playground information centre

commerce in covered central women area

parking area streets

closed area

public(s) space(s)

rugby training

youth sport soccer, rugby, basketball and lutte training and matches

lutte training recreational basketball

recreational volleyball basketball training dressing rooms

dressing rooms commerce

closed area 0:00 AM

1:00

2:00

3:00

4:00

5:00

6:00

7:00

8:00

9:00

10:00 11:00 12:00 PM

1:00

shops stay open at night because of the prayeractivities

public(s) space(s) sports culture commerce infrastructure

area occupied by tents for prayeractivities of the Layennes

women make and sell food and beverage

2:00

3:00

4:00

5:00

6:00

7:00

8:00

9:00

10:00 11:00 00:00


Optional future scenario - on a busy day

Top: People queuing for tickets and to enter and there is many commercial activity. Bottom: The expanded commercial area.

2027, in a peak year on a peak day.

Pretty much every area is occupied on every moment of the day. There‘s a wedding ceremony on the prayerfield in the morning. Meanwhile there is a rugby match, attracting 3000 spectators. All parkingplaces in and outside the area are in use. Commerce is booming and at night there‘s a hip hop event with Daraa J, a big hiphop musician in Senegal. The image

on the bottom of the right page shows the situation at 7:15PM: The area behind the stadium is full of people that are queuing to enter the stadium. Women selling home made food and beverages, partly from the selfharvested fruits en vegetables. Incrementable shops are grown to wholesome shops.


a future scenario - busy commerce

closed area

urban agriculture

youth sport soccer, rugby, basketball and climbing training and matches

replacement of grown up trees

wedding ceremony extra parking

extra parking

occupation playground information centre commerce in covered central women area parking area streets

entrance and exit spectators

youth sport soccer, rugby, basketball and lutte training and matches

1:00

2:00

3:00

rugby match

Hiphop event

dressing rooms dressing rooms spectators on tribune commerce

closed area 0:00 AM

entrance and exit spectators

4:00

5:00

6:00

7:00

8:00

9:00

10:00 11:00 12:00 PM

1:00

2:00

3:00

4:00

artist backstage area artist backstage area spectators on tribune and on the field 5:00

6:00

7:00

8:00

9:00

10:00 11:00 00:00

hip hop event daraa J incremented shops incremented shops

public(s) space(s) sports culture commerce infrastructure

women selling food and beverages

entrances stadium bars and take aways underneath the tribune


Preclusions

Facing east from the kiss and ride zone

What does the spatial framework preclude?

So far we discussed the opportunities, the ‚can‘s“ of the spatial framework. But the design also carries elements that preclude certain things to happen, the ‚can not‘s‘. To list a few.. A. The spatial framework aims to avoid undesired random use: 1. through clearity 2. by generating pride and

3.transparent management (external actor) B. The spatial framework aims to be a safe area through openess and transparency C. The spatial framework also excludes certain undesired routings such as 1. entering the stadium during an event, 2. entering the YSP by car or charette, 3. goats and sheep to enter the YSP.


Results

±500 users / week

prayerfield Yoff Stadium

±3500 utilisateurs/ semaine

prayerfield Yoff Stadium

±1500 users/ week

monday

tuesday

wednesday

thursday

friday

saturday

sunday

monday

tuesday

wednesday

thursday

Top: From ±2000 users per week to a plurification of this amount Bottom: From a venue serving a limited amount of people to a venue that functions on a city scale

Results The revitalization of the Yoff staium Precinct will generate various valuable concequences. The images above show a few of these achievements. Next to the physical, aestetical, functional, economical etc. benifits, it is pride that will be the greatest achievement of this project. Cause pride will generate further development. Part of

the revitalization of the YSP will also be cleaning up the dirt and the mess in the area around the stadium, a strip from the main road to the beach. This all in all is to function as an example for the rest of Yoff and neighbouring villages.

friday

saturday

sunday


?

!

Premiership soccer stadium first/second division soccer stadium

Top: From a space with hardly any green to an area with trees, shrubs, grass and plants Bottom: From a stadium that is legging behind to the best stadium amongst first division stadiums


YOFF URBAIN


Yoff Urbain  

Urban design of a central open space for everyone to meet and play in Yoff, Dakar, Senegal.

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