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Make an Egg Float in Salt Water An egg sinks to the bottom if you drop it into a glass of ordinary drinking water but what happens if you add salt? The results are very interesting and can teach you some fun facts about density. What you'll need:    

One egg Water Salt A tall drinking glass

Instructions: 1. Pour water into the glass until it is about half full. 2. Stir in lots of salt (about 6 tablespoons). 3. Carefully pour in plain water until the glass is nearly full (be careful to not disturb or mix the salty water with the plain water). 4. Gently lower the egg into the water and watch what happens

Make an Egg Float in Salt Water What's happening? Salt water is denser than ordinary tap water, the denser the liquid the easier it is for an object to float in it. When you lower the egg into the liquid it drops through the normal tap water until it reaches the salty water, at this point the water is dense enough for the egg to float. If you were careful when you added the tap water to the salt water, they will not have mixed, enabling the egg to amazingly float in the middle of the glass.


Mixing Oil and Water Some things just don't get along well with each other. Take oil and water as an example, you can mix them together and shake as hard as you like but they'll never become friends.....or will they? Take this fun experiment a step further and find out how bringing oil and water together can help you do your dishes What you'll need:     

Small soft drink bottle Water Food colouring 2 tablespoons of cooking oil Dish washing liquid or detergent

Instructions: 1. Add a few drops of food colouring to the water. 2. Pour about 2 tablespoons of the coloured water along with the 2 tablespoons of cooking oil into the small soft drink bottle. 3. Screw the lid on tight and shake the bottle as hard as you can. 4. Put the bottle back down and have a look, it may have seemed as though the liquids were mixing together but the oil will float back to the top.

Mixing Oil and Water What's happening? While water often mixes with other liquids to form solutions, oil and water does not. Water molecules are strongly attracted to each other, this is the same for oil, because they are more attracted to their own molecules they just don't mix together. They separate and the oil floats above the water because it has a lower density. If you really think oil and water belong together then try adding some dish washing liquid or detergent. Detergent is attracted to both water and oil helping them all join together and form something called an emulsion. This is extra handy when washing those greasy dishes, the detergent takes the oil and grime off the plates and into the water, yay!


Make Your Own Quick Sand Quick sand is a fascinating substance, make some of your own and experiment on a safe scale. Amaze your friends by demonstrating how it works What you'll need:    

1 cup of maize cornflour Half a cup of water A large plastic container A spoon

Instructions: 1. This one is simple, just mix the cornflour and water thoroughly in the container to make your own instant quick sand. 2. When showing other people how it works, stir slowly and drip the quick sand to show it is a liquid. 3. Stirring it quickly will make it hard and allow you to punch or poke it quickly (this works better if you do it fast rather than hard). 4. Remember that quick sand is messy, try to play with it outside and don’t forget to stir just before you use it. 5. Always stir instant quicksand just before you use it

Make Your Own Quick Sand What's happening? If you add just the right amount of water to cornflour it becomes very thick when you stir it quickly. This happens because the cornflour grains are mixed up and can’t slide over each other due to the lack of water between them. Stirring slowly allows more water between the cornflour grains, letting them slide over each other much easier. Poking it quickly has the same effect, making the substance very hard. If you poke it slowly it doesn’t mix up the mixture in the same way, leaving it runny. It works in much the same way as real quick sand.


Baking Soda & Vinegar Volcano Use baking soda and vinegar to create an awesome chemical reaction! Watch as it rapidly fizzes over the container and make sure you've got some towels ready to clean up. What you'll need:    

Baking Soda (make sure it's not baking powder) Vinegar A container to hold everything and avoid a big mess! Paper towels or a cloth (just in case)

Instructions: 1. Place some of the baking soda into your container. 2. Pour in some of the vinegar 3. Watch as the reaction takes place!

Baking Soda & Vinegar Volcano What's happening? The baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) is a base while the vinegar (acetic acid) is an acid. When they react together they form carbonic acid which is very unstable, it instantly breaks apart into water and carbon dioxide, which creates all the fizzing as it escapes the solution. For extra effect you can make a realistic looking volcano. It takes some craft skills but it will make your vinegar and baking soda eruptions will look even more impressive


Raw or Boiled Egg? Surprise your friends and family with an easy science experiment that answers an otherwise tricky question. Two eggs look and feel the same but there is a big difference, one is raw and the other hard boiled, find out which is which with this fun experiment What you'll need: 

Two eggs, one hard boiled and one raw. Make sure the hard boiled egg has been in the fridge long enough to be the same temperature as the raw egg.

Instructions: 1. Spin the eggs and watch what happens, one egg should spin while the other wobbles. 2. You can also lightly touch each of the eggs while they are spinning, one should stop quickly while the other keeps moving after you have touched it

Raw or Boiled Egg? What's happening? The raw egg's centre of gravity changes as the white and yolk move around inside the shell, causing the wobbling motion. Even after you touch the shell it continues moving. This is because of inertia, the same type of force you feel when you change direction or stop suddenly in a car, your body wants to move one way while the car wants to do something different. Inertia causes the raw egg to spin even after you have stopped it, this contrasts with the solid white and yolk of the hard boiled egg, it responds much quicker if you touch it. This is a good experiment to test a friend or someone in your family with, see if they can figure out how to tell the difference between the eggs (without smashing them of course) before showing them your nifty trick.


Make a Tornado in a Bottle Learn how to make a tornado in a bottle with this fun science experiment for kids. Using easy to find items such as dish washing liquid, water, glitter and a bottle you can make your own mini tornado that’s a lot safer than one you might see on the weather channel. Follow the instructions and enjoy the cool water vortex you create What you'll need:    

Water A clear plastic bottle with a cap (that won't leak) Glitter Dish washing liquid

Instructions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Fill the plastic bottle with water until it reaches around three quarters full. Add a few drops of dish washing liquid. Sprinkle in a few pinches of glitter (this will make your tornado easier to see). Put the cap on tightly. Turn the bottle upside down and hold it by the neck. Quickly spin the bottle in a circular motion for a few seconds, stop and look inside to see if you can see a mini tornado forming in the water. You might need to try it a few times before you get it working properly.

Make a Tornado in a Bottle What's happening? Spinning the bottle in a circular motion creates a water vortex that looks like a mini tornado. The water is rapidly spinning around the centre of the vortex due to centripetal force (an inward force directing an object or fluid such as water towards the centre of its circular path). Vortexes found in nature include tornadoes, hurricanes and waterspouts (a tornado that forms over water).


Making Music with Water Have you ever tried making music with glasses or bottles filled with water? I bet you favourite band hasn't. Experiment with your own special sounds by turning glasses of water into instruments, make some cool music and find out how it works. What you'll need:   

5 or more drinking glasses or glass bottles Water Wooden stick such as a pencil

Instructions: 1. Line the glasses up next to each other and fill them with different amounts of water. The first should have just a little water while the last should almost full, the ones in between should have slightly more than the last. 2. Hit the glass with the least amount of water and observe the sound, then hit the glass with the most water, which makes the higher sound? 3. Hit the other glasses and see what noise they make, see if you can get a tune going by hitting the glasses in a certain order.

Making Music with Water What's happening? Each of the glasses will have a different tone when hit with the pencil, the glass with the most water will have the lowest tone while the glass with the least water will have the highest. Small vibrations are made when you hit the glass, this creates sound waves which travel through the water. More water means slower vibrations and a deeper tone.


Make a Ping Pong Ball Float Can you control a ping pong ball as it floats above a hair dryer? Put your hand-eye coordination skills to the test while learning the important role that forces such as gravity and air pressure play in this simple experiment for kids What you'll need:  

At least 1 ping pong ball (2 or 3 would be great) A hair dryer

Instructions: 1. Plug in the hair dryer and turn it on. 2. Put it on the highest setting and point it straight up. 3. Place your ping pong ball above the hair dryer and watch what happens.

Make a Ping Pong Ball Float What's happening? Your ping pong ball floats gently above the hair dryer without shifting sideways or flying across the other side of the room. The airflow from the hair dryer pushes the ping pong ball upwards until its upward force equals the force of gravity pushing down on it. When it reaches this point it gently bounces around, floating where the upward and downward forces are equal. The reason the ping pong ball stays nicely inside the column of air produced by the hair dryer without shifting sideways is due to air pressure. The fast moving air from the hair dryer creates a column of lower air pressure, the surrounding higher air pressure forces the ping pong ball to stay inside this column, making it easy to move the hair dryer around without losing control of the ping pong ball. See if you can float 2 or even 3 ping pong balls as an extra challenge.


Experience Gravity Free Water What goes up must come down right? Well try bending the rules a little with a cup of water that stays inside the glass when held upside down. You'll need the help of some cardboard and a little bit of air pressure. What you'll need:  

A glass filled right to the top with water A piece of cardboard

Instructions: 1. Put the cardboard over the mouth of the glass, making sure that no air bubbles enter the glass as you hold onto the cardboard. 2. Turn the glass upside down (over a sink or outside until you get good). 3. Take away your hand holding the cardboard.

Experience Gravity Free Water What's happening? If all goes to plan then the cardboard and water should stay put. Even though the cup of water is upside down the water stays in place, defying gravity! So why is this happening? With no air inside the glass, the air pressure from outside the glass is greater than the pressure of the water inside the glass. The extra air pressure manages to hold the cardboard in place, keeping you dry and your water where it should be, inside the glass.


Invisible Ink with Lemon Juice Making invisible ink is a lot of fun, you can pretend you are a secret agent as you keep all your secret codes and messages hidden from others. All you need is some basic household objects and the hidden power of lemon juice. What you'll need:       

Half a lemon Water Spoon Bowl Cotton bud White paper Lamp or other light bulb

Instructions: 1. Squeeze some lemon juice into the bowl and add a few drops of water. 2. Mix the water and lemon juice with the spoon. 3. Dip the cotton bud into the mixture and write a message onto the white paper. 4. Wait for the juice to dry so it becomes completely invisible. 5. When you are ready to read your secret message or show it to someone else, heat the paper by holding it close to a light bulb.

Invisible Ink with Lemon Juice What's happening? Lemon juice is an organic substance that oxidizes and turns brown when heated. Diluting the lemon juice in water makes it very hard to notice when you apply it the paper, no one will be aware of its presence until it is heated and the secret message is revealed. Other substances which work in the same way include orange juice, honey, milk, onion juice, vinegar and wine. Invisible ink can also be made using chemical reactions or by viewing certain liquids under ultraviolet (UV) light.


Energy Transfer through Balls Energy is constantly changing forms and transferring between objects, try seeing for yourself how this works. Use two balls to transfer kinetic energy from the the big ball to the smaller one and see what happens

What you'll need:  

A large, heavy ball such as a basketball or soccer ball A smaller, light ball such as a tennis ball or inflatable rubber ball

Instructions: 1. Make sure you're outside with plenty of room. 2. Carefully put the tennis ball on top of the basketball, holding one hand under the basketball and the other on top of the tennis ball. 3. Let go of both the balls at exactly the same time and observe what happens.

Energy Transfer through Balls What's happening? If you dropped the balls at the same time, the tennis ball should bounce off the basketball and fly high into the air. The two balls hit each other just after they hit the ground, a lot of the kinetic energy in the larger basketball is transferred through to the smaller tennis ball, sending it high into the air. While you held the balls in the air before dropping them they had another type of energy called 'potential energy', the balls gained this through the effort it took you to lift the balls up, it is interesting to note that energy is never lost, only transferred into other kinds of energy.


Bucket Spinning You might think that an upside down bucket of water above your head would end up with you getting very wet but what if the bucket is spinning quickly in a circular motion? Give this fun science experiment for kids a try and see what happens while learning a thing or two about centripetal force. What you'll need:   

A reliable bucket with a strong handle Water An open area outside where spilling some water is ok

Instructions: 1. Fill the bucket until it is around half full with water. 2. Stand well clear of other people or anything else that could get in the way. 3. Hold the bucket by its handle with your arm extended and start spinning it by your side towards the sky and back to the ground in a circular motion, make sure to spin it fast enough to keep the water inside the bucket. Be prepared to get a little wet as your technique improves. 4. Stop spinning before your arm gets tired, watching out for splashes as you carefully bring the bucket back to rest on the ground.

Bucket Spinning What's happening? There's half a bucket of water spinning upside down above your head and yet it's not falling out and getting you wet, what's going on? This experiment makes use of something called 'centripetal force', which is a force acting on an object moving in a circular path, directed towards the center around which it is moving. This type of force can also be seen on roller coasters or by satellites in orbit around a planet. As you spin the bucket you might feel that it wants to fly off in a straight line away from you (you might even accidentally let go of it), this is a demonstration of Newton's first law of motion, that an object will continue in a straight line unless an outside force (in this case your arm) acts upon it.


Make Your Own Rainbow Learn how to make a rainbow with this fun science experiment for kids. Using just a few simple everyday items you can find out how rainbows work while enjoying an interactive, hands on activity that’s perfect for kids. What you'll need:   

A glass of water (about three quarters full) White paper A sunny day

Instructions: 1. Take the glass of water and paper to a part of the room with sunlight (near a window is good). 2. Hold the glass of water (being careful not to spill it) above the paper and watch as sunlight passes through the glass of water, refracts (bends) and forms a rainbow of colors on your sheet of paper. 3. Try holding the glass of water at different heights and angles to see if it has a different effect.

Make Your Own Rainbow What's happening? While you normally see a rainbow as an arc of color in the sky, they can also form in other situations. You may have seen a rainbow in a water fountain or in the mist of a waterfall and you can even make your own such as you did in this experiment. Rainbows form in the sky when sunlight refracts (bends) as it passes through raindrops, it acts in the same way when it passes through your glass of water. The sunlight refracts, separating it into the colors red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet.


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