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PERCEIVED SPACE & CONCEIVED SPACE Selected work of

Rongqing Liu


PERCEIVED SPACE & CONCEIVED SPACE

CONTENTS

Looking back at the value of landscape design between the

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Ⅰ. SIZE: S

13

Ⅱ. SIZE: M

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Ⅲ. SIZE: XXL

“perceived space” and the “conceived space” in the field of vision, urbanism and the environment, i think it is a situation is a "post-

THE OVERLAPPED COMMUNITY --Transformation of contemporary community in China

modernism" value that is divorced from the practical mentality of functionalism. Therefore, landscape design is no longer just an avant-garde gesture of "combating against tradition", but dialing back and forth between various values and types, trying to define the uncertainty of these migrations from this complex phenomenon.

BROWNFIELD REGENERATION --Waterfront post-industrial landscape

From this perspective, the professionalism of the landscape profession in the development of more than 150 years has been trying to define (or deny) the professional connotation: "Landscape" does not equal to "Landscape Architecture". The former is a makeup artist who smears in order to consolidate and strengthen the power structure (reflected in the space structure), while the latter is a matter of human dwelling in a society in the environment, Economic, aesthetic, ecological and other aspects of the overall consideration. People extract materials from natural environment for their own needs, changing and defining the surrounding territory.

ODE TO THE FRONTIER --Resilient landscape in response to desert climate


THE OVERLAPPED COMMUNITY

“Today, the gridded and idealised urban space of the 19th century exists only on paper, superseded long ago by the autual dynamics of urban transformations.” James Corner PROFILE: Since China’s reform and opening up, a large number of collective housing has been built. Such homes have homogenized features, the same floor plan, the basement for bicycles and people with similar jobs. As social needs changed, young people began to seek better job opportunities, so they moved from Wuxi to Shanghai or Beijing. Such residential areas are only inhabited by the elderly and children of young people, and the community is aging. At the same time, many migrant workers came to Wuxi. Not only have some of the community's public spaces been abandoned, but also they are incompatible with the people who are currently living. This is not an example. Many communities of the same type have such problems. CONCEPT: The abandoned basement is a public space that can be reused. Transform the negative basement into a common space and integrate the entire community with landscape terrain.

LOCATION: WUXI, CHINA TIME: 2018.10-2018.12 Individual Work

BEFORE

1

AFTER

2


SITE OVERVIEW

80-TYPE APARTMENT

1100M

1000M

Th eo nly en tra nc e to

Typical Chinese residential community 900M

800M

the ba sem en t

Rive

r

700M

600M

Da rk a nd da mp un de rgr ou nd sp ac e

Prototype

SITE

500M

M

500

400M 0M

100

School

300M

Ab

an

do

ne

dg

200M

Ba

sem

100M

ree

ns

pa

ce

en

t

N

100M

200M

300M

400M

500M

600M

100M

700M

800M

900M

1000M

1100M

1200M

1300M

Lac

The Sukangri community is an 80-type apartment built in the 1980s. The first floor is the public bicycle parking lot. Because the transportation modes such as cars and shared bicycles are more convenient, few people ride bicycles, so the basement is abandoned. The people who live there are mostly retired old people and migrant workers.

ko

f pu

blic

spa

ce

TIMELINE Homogeneous population

Long live chairman Mao

Diverse community

Time is money, efficiency is life

Market economy

1966

Construction stagnation

Cultural Revolution

1978

1.Housing demand 2.Public ownership enterprises allocated housing 3.A large quantity of public house had been built

Economic Reform and open up

Command economy

1998

1.Community heterogeneity 2.Migration

Housing system reform

2018

Low public housing usage rate

0

Quadrangle

3

Collective dormitory

Collective housing

Commercial residential building

G B ra R uil ssla Co iver ding nd mm un ity circ 200 ula M tion

Modern residence

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the lighting and ventilation of the space

Digging

2. No

contact inside or outside

2. Increase

The walls changed into column grid

independent of each other

3. Increase

Transition room

space accessibility

Permeation and adjust the path 3. Space

A' 1. Increase

entrance

A

1. Single

TOPOGRAPHY

B

SOLUTION

'B

STATUS QUO

Zigzag

Step

the penetration between spaces or integrate space

Break through the wall

Lower the height to form a ridge

Integrate space with terrain

FORM GENERATION

+

1.Landscape introduced into the basement

+

2.Connect

=

3.Terrain shaping space

4.Synthesize

SECTION A-A'

A

SECTION B-B'

A'

B'

B 10M

5

0M

6


12

11 5

13

Performance

6 Basketball 7

Parking

14

10 2 3

Outdoor activities 9 4

Communication

1

Roller skating

8

Rest space

MASTER PLAN

Main circulation Minor circulation

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1.Library

2.Outdoor platform

3.Mirror edge pool

4.Activity platform

5.Plaza

6.Stair platform

7.Lawn

8.Parking

9.Basketball court

10.Outdoor theater

11.Waterfront space 12.Waterfront platform

13.Elevator

14.Tree array 200M

100M

0M

N

8


A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

C B

E

A

F

H

D

I

G

9

10


Integrating indoor and outdoor with landscape In order to improve the problem of insufficient light under the building, a reflective metal material and a mirrored pool are added.

Multiple streamline enclosure spaces Different ramps and steps bring activities and landscape under the building, which creates different walking experiences and activities spaces.

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BROWNFIELD REGENERATION

"The permanent (re)invention of a new state of new forms adapted to a new economy of the location." Pierre Donadieu, "Spatial device"

PROFILE: Since ancient times, the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal has been an important transportation channel for China. With the increase in the use and transportation of fossil energy, this river has been greatly polluted. It is no longer the waterfront activity space of ancient people, but a modern cargo terminal. With the rise of faster modes of transportation such as high-speed rail and aircraft and the increased awareness of environmental protection, many terminals along the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal were abandoned. CONCEPT:As long as the ecological environment is restored, the abandoned dock is a good opportunity to transform into a waterfront space. Solving the problem of soil pollution and river pollution is the most important thing. Under the construction of a complete water circulation system, the use of trees and wetland plants has the effect of purifying water bodies and soils, and the use of water circulation to collect contaminated leaves and wetland plants, which saves manpower. Over time, the contaminated terminal eventually turned into a waterfront activity space. LOCATION: WUXI, CHINA TIME: 2018.8-2018.10 Individual Work

BEFORE

13

AFTER

14


CURRENT SECTION

Gantry Crane

Canal Train

Container Cargo Ship

SITE

CAUSE OF CONTAMINATION

Residential area

Wharf

Wharf

Lake Tai

Railroad

Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal

100M

Freighter

500M

Gantry Crane Railroad

Cargo Ship

The most serious pollution under the rails

Ship discharges pollutants along the route

1.Contaminants scattered by the train penetrate into the soil from the gaps in the rails. 2.Contaminants penetrate into the sides with rain. 3.The steam locomotive emits carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and coal dust due to incomplete combustion of coal.

1.Oil is the main pollutant in port waters. 2.Ship washing water for ships carrying toxic chemicals 3.Domestic sewage discharged from ships, such as toilet flushing, etc. 4.Dust spilled during loading and unloading can reduce water transparency

PROBLEM

Current Section Canal Docks Blocking

Canalization 581-907

Soil Contamination

Poisonous Gas

River Contamination

Toxic Chemicals

Developing 1850

N

200M

Boom 2000

100M

0M

Abandonment 2018

CANAL CITY The Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal has been an important transportation channel for China since ancient times and is also an important waterfront activity space for people. However, with the acceleration of industrialization, the waterfront space is no longer used by people, but is occupied by the docks, bringing huge pollution. The transportation efficiency of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal is far lower than that of automobiles and airplanes, and the government began to control pollution, resulting in many terminals being abandoned. Due to previous industrial pollution, the soil contains many toxic substances that can no longer be used by people.

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RAILROAD

WATERCOURSE

WHARF

RESIDENTIAL AREA

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RECOVER STRATEGY STEP1

STEP2

STEP3

FRAMEWORK Land

One site

Stage1

Phytoremediation

Stage2

Transfer Waterfront

Extraction Outside soil

Deposit

Intensive treatment Rainwater collection

Phytoremediation

Dilution Concrete capping

Phytoremediation

Stage2 Stage2

Phytoremediation Cleaning Diagram Stage1 Photosynthesis

Wetland Outflow

Stage2

Canal

Stage2 Stage1

Stage2

Infrastructure Root uptake and contaminant removal

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STEP4

Transpiration

Precipitation

Adsorption

Reap

Collection 18


MASTER PLAN N 0M

50M

100M

150M

200M

250M

FORM GENERATION Overall idea Overall idea

Extraction On site

The terrain constructs the entire site, forming a water circulation and repair strategy. After a period of repair, the pollution in the site will be reduced, and the terrain also provides a good waterfront space, and also provides an opportunity to deal with sewage or railway pollution in the city in the future.

Existing condition

Planting trees along the railway

Change the water cycle

Piled up in the channel

Forming new watercourse

Planting trees along the ridge

Rushing leaves to the collection

Circulation

Waterfront space

Extraction

Contaminated soil

On site

Pumping

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WETLAND TYPE

VEGETATION Wetland contaminant enrichment herb

Pteris vittata

Arternmisia Linn.

Iris tectorum Maxim.

Astilbe chinensis

Wetland contaminant enrichment tree species Subsurface Wetland

Surface Wetland

Panicum virgatum L.

Sedum alfredii

Resilience: High

Oxygenation Pool Liriodendron chinensis

A

Resilience: Highest

B

C

Sarg Ficus benjamina

Delonix regia

Araucaria cunninghamnii

Wetland anti-pollution landscape tree

Metasequois glyptostroboides

Glyptostrobus pensilis

Ginkgo biloba L.

Platanus acerifolia

Populus tomentosa Carr

Xylosma G. Forst

Resilience: Middle

Broussonetia papyrifera

Resilience: Low

Wetland anti-pollution shrub

SECTION A-A Acorus calamus L.

Sedimentation Pool

Bioswale

D

Typha orientalis Presl

Phragmites australis

Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn

Scripus validus Vahl

Infiltration Pond

E

F

SECTION B-B

WATERFLOW SECTION C-C

F

A SECTION D-D

C

E

C

B

SECTION E-E

D B

B

SECTION F-F

21

22


WATER CYCLE Pump

B C

1

B

A

C

D

1' A D

2

2'

3

1

1'

2

2'

3

3'

3'

N 100M

23

75M

50M

25M

0M

24


LANDFORM

The accumulated rainwater penetrates through the gap and forms a wetland environment. Wetland plants can purify sewage and soil. Landform Prototype Model, Veneer

Landform Model(modified in urban scale). White Foam CNC Milling

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The pump draws water from the river into the reservoir, where the water gradually infiltrates into the ditch and is used to wash away the fallen contaminated leaves. The upper layer forms a green space and is integrated with the retained rail to form an active space.

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ODE TO THE FRONTIER

"A landscape is not a natural feature of the environment but a synthetic space, a man-made system of spaces superimposed on the face of the land" J. B. Jackson, "The Word Itself" PROFILE: Zhangye city , Gansu province, China is in the desert region of the northwestern China .Because of the climate of desert area , Zhangye city is in area with harsh natural environment.The oasis in the desert is the basis for people’s survival. However as people unreasonably reclaimed land andirrational methods of water use ,natural conditions became more and more harsh.It was threatened by desert migration and land salinization at any time. Eventually it led young laborers to leave here and go to urban city. Because of this ,Zhangye city faced the problem of aging. CONCEPT: “Resilient landscape” was applied to disaster preparedness, especially the urban facilities to respond and recover from dangerous conditions. What we should do is making measure to deal with extreme climates and resilience mechanism of recovery measure. Also we should take action to adjust the distribution of local water resource.Great natural environment will attract more local people and strangers come here and guard the desert oasis. LOCATION: GANSU, CHINA TIME: 2018.3-2018.5 Team Leader

BEFORE

27

AFTER

28


SITE

MECHANISM OF DESERT MOVEMENT

WIND

29

5KM

River

Desert

Wasteland

Saline land

Flood area

Village

N

10KM

Reservoir

1KM

Main wind direction

Main rainoff

AGRICULTURE AREA 1988

1998

2018

45%

65%

85%

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PROBLEM DESERTIFICATION Land type change of Zhangye city (%) change in the proportion of land used Desertification area

60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Wetland area Meadow area Forest area 1984

1987

1990

1993

1996

1999

2002

2005

2008

2011

2014

2017(year)

SALINIZATION Distribution of water resources in Heihe River Basin (%) change in the proportion of water use 95 90 85 10 5 0

Agricultural area Industrial area Domestic area Ecological area 2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

OVER FARMING cultivated area of Zhangye city (hm²) Changes in arable area 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18

2010

2011(year)

The total area of arable land 0.21 0.20 Per capita cultivated area

1984

1987

1990

1993

1996

1999

2002

2005

2008

2008

2011

0.19 0.18 0.17 0.16

0.15 0.14 2014(year)

It was proved that this area has been dominated by agriculture.The weather conditon was positive related to the condition of the dynasty.Ecology affects agriculture and agriculture affects economy.

N

0M

2009

100M

500M

1000M

CONCEPT

31

32


STRATEGY SCALE 100 X 100M

33

STRATEGY METHOD SCALE 800 X 800M

34


PRECISION & VARIABILITY Apply different strategies at different scales. It is strategy with a hierarchy that is the design.Under the precise design, although there will be different changes over time, such as the level will change, then the new strategy should be applied according to the new level.

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37

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Buffering measures made from deadman protect both the wetland and the animals’ habitat.Plants have a restoring effect on saline-alkali land.

When there is no dust storm, people can play in the sand dunes.

Wetlands provide water to farmland through closed conduit, reducing evaporation and reducing unnecessary irrigation.

Artificial and natural defensive measures protect animal habitats when dust storms strike.

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Profile for rongqingliu0304

HongKong University 2019Fall- Rongqing Liu  

2019Fall. SWU,China.

HongKong University 2019Fall- Rongqing Liu  

2019Fall. SWU,China.

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