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Contents PART A Introduction 6-7 A.1 Design Futuring 9 Loop 10-11 Pizoelectric Generator 12-13 A.2 Design Computation 14 Spanish Pavilion 15-17 Research Pavilion 2012 18-21 A.3 Composition/Generation 22 Shellstar Pavillion 23-25 Guangzhou Opera House 26-27 A.4 Conclusion 28 A.5 Learning Outcomes 29 A.6 Appendix 30 References 31


PART B B.1 Introduction 32




My name is Rong Chen (Renee), a third-year architecture student at the University of Melbourne. I come from China, and have been in Australia for six years. I am interested in architecture as it is a course that involves comprehensions of various fields, such as arts and technologies, enables me to develop holistic design skills. My first experience with digital design tool was Rhino in the Virtual Environment. The lantern model is the realisation of the abstractive idea of expressing the natural process of mimosa pudica. From ideation to fabrication, the process was challenging for me, but it was surprized to see my concept transformed into a real product. However, I have limited skills on CAD and Sketch Up. It was difficult for me to learn the computer software as I never ever used design software before I studied in Uni. I think the air studio provides a great opportunity for learning the software and innovation designs, and it will be useful for my design career path.


Part A Conceptualisation


“It is not just that many contemporary practices harm the world of our dependence but also that so few of them deliver the means to actually know the consequences of their activities beyond a horizon of immediate concern�1 1. Fry, Tony, Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg, 2008), p. 25 9


This project proposal is designed for the Fresh-

the site, rather than a single landmark. Further-

kills Park, which aims to dissolve the traditional

more, as every built construction has impacts

boundaries between landscape, architecture,

on environment, Loop uniquely designed the

public art and renewable energy infrastruc-

circular planters that are able to collect the rain


water which filtered and returned to the creek, significantly mitigate the effects of water runoff.

This building can be treated as a design for the future, as it generates renewable energy by

Loop is an excellent example of design which

mounting a system of flexible solar panels on

integrate sustainability, nature, and design

construction. In fact, this installation can gen-

into a whole one. Visitors not only enjoy the

erate around 1.20 MW of power which can

leisure time in the park, but also inspired af-

provide electricity to more than 1,200 homes

ter discovering the installation and engag-

annually. Aesthetically and functionally de-

ing with the amazing views, the journey be-

sign a sustainable architecture where installa-

comes a transformative experience for visitors.


tion corresponds to the unique topography of 10

Figure 1 Loop ELevation

Moreover, this proposal established as a learning facility which provides visitors great opportunities to interact with state of the art technology and renewable energy while discovering a new built environment.3 They can be educated about the process of clean energy, and be conscious of benefits of sustainability. Overall, the Loop is a unique sustainable, athletic, functional and educational design, engaging the public in the reinvented FreshKills Park in an unprecedented way. Figure 2 Analysis of Loop 2.”Loop,” Land Art Generator Initiative, Last Modified 2012, 3. ”Loop,” Land Art Generator Initiative, Last Modified 2012,



Figure 3 Havested Energy


mechanical strain

into electrical energy. They can be inserted into shoes or in walkway pavers to harvest the energy of walking or jumping


Piezoelectric generator is one of the kinetic energy harvesting. The mechanical strain harvested by this technology, which comes from human motion, low-frequency seismic vibrations, and acoustic noise, can be converted into electric current or voltage. However, the amount of produced power is small, ideally supply for low-energy electronics, such as pedestrian lighting, way-finding solutions and advertising signage or be stored in a battery.4


As an emerging technology, the use of piezoelectric materials to harvest power has already become popular. Piezo elements are being embedded in walkways to recover the “people energy” of footsteps, and one of the great examples is the Pavegen systems paved in a London sidewalk.5 The energy harvested by the Pavegen tile can immediately power off-grid applications, and have ability to send wireless data using the energy from footsteps and can be interred with API as a key technology for smart cities.

Figure 4 Pavegen Tile

Recyclable materials are used for majority of the flooring unit, 100% recycled rubber utilized for the top layer, and slab base is constructed from over 80% recycled materials.6 It has ability to withstand harsh outdoor locations with high footfall, and waterproof to efficiently operate in both interior and exterior. The technology is interactive as it offers the tangible way for people to engage with renewable energy generation and to provide live data on footfall wherever tiles are. Even piezoelectric generator has limitations on energy production, and requires certain amount of movement, it greater benefits for the nature as environmental friendly technology, and sustainable for future generations.

Figure 5 London Sidewalk 4. “Pavegen system” Pavegen system, Last Modified 2014, 5.“Pavegen system” Pavegen system, Last Modified 2014, 6. “Pavegen system” Pavegen system, Last Modified 2014,


A.2 DESIGN Computation

With the evolution of the digital technologies

In the use for the design process, computa-

in architecture, computation as a computer

tional techniques help represent the design

based design tool has changed the design

graphically and numerically, fabricate and

methods in an efficient way, and the compu-

construct the resulting, and capable to mod-

tational design as a process supports design

el the structure of material system, provid-

exploration rather than design confirmation.

ing powerful paradigm for material design.7 These breakthroughs provide architects the knowledge and expertise to discover differentiating potential of topological and parametric algorithmic thinking and the tectonic creativity innovation of digital materiality. Furthermore, it allowed more people to become involved in the design process, integrate process in a holistic manner to the realisation of the design. 8

7. Oxman, Rivka and Oxman, Robert. Theories of the Digital in Architecture, (London; New York: Routledge,2014), 5. 8. Yehuda E, Kaylay, Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge,

14 MA: MIT Press, 2004), 17.

A.2 DESIGN Computation Spanish Pavilion

The Spanish Pavilion was constructed in 2010

was solved by experimentation of structures

for the World Expo in Shanghai, and demol-

to find a metal system that meet the complex

ished after the event. The abstract idea of

geometry. Furthermore, the ability to model

this pavilion is an expression of the climate of

the materials system provides architects op-

Spain on architecture. It is characterised by

portunities to determine various materials

the highly complex curvature form, and the

densities and orientations of the panel along

utilization of the wicker materials.

the surface, experiencing the performance in simulations method.10

Digital in architecture support the emergence of certain distinctive geometric preferences

The 3D models were also used as a system of


and aesthetic effects. The unique complex

communication between the architecture,

geometry of the pavilion was manipulated

engineer and the manufactures in the work-

using the Rhino software, but computational

shop. It enables the explorations of the struc-

techniques not only create the desired ge-

tural expression, by this process, the archi-

ometry surface, also help in finding solutions

tects and engineer simplified the structure by

for design where the challenge of structure

adapting variable curve that was produced to a limited number of different curves, which reducing the complexity of fabricating the elements. 3D model graphically presents the design idea and efficiently formulates a specific solution through manipulating the preset parametric, allows the complex form to be achieved with readily available materials and a streamlined assembly process at minimal cost, instead of the traditional trail-anderror methods.11

Figure 6 Exploration of Structure and Material 9. Oxman, Rivka and Oxman, Robert. Theories of the Digital in Architecture, (London; New York: Routledge,2014), 6 10. “Spanish Pavilion for Shanghai World Expo 2010,� World Buildings Directory Online Database, Last Modified 2010, http:// 11. Rivka and Robert, Theories of the Digital in Architecture, 6


Figure 7 Spanish Pavilion


Figure 8 Research Pavilion


Research Pavilion 2012 by ICD/ITKE The Institute for Computation Design (ICD) and the Institute of Building Structures and Structural Design (ITKE) at the University of Stuttgart have completed the pavilion that is entirely robotically fabricated from carbon and glass fibre composites in November 2012.12 The inspiration of the project comes from the exoskeleton of the lobster, as a source been analysed in greater detail for differentiation of local materials in order to explore a new composite construction paradigm in architecture by simulate method. By utilizing the computational techniques, architects are capable to transfer the biomimetic design principles to the design of a robotically fabricated shell structure based on a fibre composite system.13

12. “ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2012,” Archimmenges. Net, Last Modified 2012, http://www.achimmenges. net/?p=5561 13. “Research Pavilion 2012 By ICD/ITKE,” A As Architecture, Last Modified 2013, html



Figure 9 Model of Researcj Pavilion in Matrix Principle

Figure 10 Fibre Orientation

Architects directly coupling of geometry

In this way, architects are able to explore

and finite element simulations into compu-

possibilities of using the shell structure as

tational models allowed the generation and

computation conceptualises how the struc-

comparative analysis of numerous variations.

ture will work, and preciously analysis mate-

The ability to model the structure of mate-

rial properties through parametric values, as

rial system as tectonic systems in computing

a way in achieving the spatial arrangement

enables the determination of fibre orienta-

of the carbon and glass fibres, as well as as-

tion, fibre arrangement, stiffness and layer

sisting in realization and assurance structure

arrangement, integrating the material and

functionality in a productive 3D simulation.

structure design in the process, thus complexity of interaction of form, material, structure

The computational design process optimized

and fabrication could be distinctively com-

the material and form generation regarding

municated to the architects and engineers.

to the biomimetic principle, and ensures architect’s creation met the desired


Figure 11 Fibre Orientation

geometry through evaluating process in

Computational techniques enable the cre-

computations, reduces the likelihood errors.

ation and modulation of differentiation of

If the project communicates in traditional

the element of a design, it advanced envi-

pen-and-paper ways, the complexity of ge-

ronment for interactive digital generation

ometry is less efficient to present, as there are

and performance simulation. It is beneficial

concerns with time consumption, difficulties

for designers to acquire new knowledge of

of obtaining accurate measurements of ma-

computational techniques which neces-

terial hence lack of performance preview,

sitates a design strategy to be developed

which results in reducing the variability of

at the initial phase of the design process. In

design options. Thus the synergy of modes of

the LAGI project, by utilizing of computation,

computational and material design, digital

performance of energy installation will be

simulation, and robotic fabrication provides

obtained which helps evaluating the sustain-

opportunity for exploration of the completely

ability of the design project.

new architectural possibilities, and lead to development of highly efficient structure with minimal use of materials.1

14. “Research Pavilion 2012 By ICD/ITKE,� A As Architecture, Last Modified 2013, http://www.aasarchitecture. com/2013/05/Research-Pavilion-2012-ICD-ITKE.html


A.3 Composition/Generation

Composition is defined as the rules or process

The emerging computational techniques in

of the architecture. It is the organization of the

nowadays has shifted the architecture from the

whole out of its parts, by this process, an ordered

composition to generation. Computation has

expression is created by architects. Throughout

brought along a new process to architecture,

the history, the perfect composition architec-

as it augments the intellect of the designer and

ture is characterised by the idea of “balance

increases capability to solve complex problems

and contrast” with establishments of primary

through the ‘sketching by algorithm’.16 In the

and secondary focal points and arrangement

generation process, the understanding results

of climax. However, the composition only forms

of generating codes and scripting enabling ar-

a traditional architecture that designed based

chitect to write and modify of algorithms that

on the order rules, without any design innova-

relate to element placement and configura-

tions in geometries, presentation, and architec-

tion, which generating the exploration of archi-

tural elements.

tectural spaces and concepts.

Parametric modelling software like Rhino and Grasshopper, develop the computational simulation method that generates the performance of feedback, offers architects an analysed performance regarding to the material, tectonics and parameters of production machinery in their design drawings, hence providing new design options for architectural decision during the design process. Nevertheless, the generation approach has shortcomings in problem of overly complex forms, which is doubted with its practicality regarding to the limitation of current construction technology.15


15. Peters, Brady, Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Though,(Architectural Design,2013), 12. 16. Brady, Computation Works, 10.

Figure 12 Shellstar Pavillion


A.3 Composition/Generation Shellstar Pavilion Location: Hong Kong

Shellstar pavilion is designed as a social hub

The design process was completed in six

and centre for the art and design festival held

weeks and fully working within a paramet-

by Detour in Hong Kong in December 2012.

ric modelling environment that provides the

The design goal of the project is to achieve

quick development for design. Three parts of

the maximized spatial performance while

design process can be divided by advanced

minimizing structure and material in a tempo-

digital modelling techniques:

rary, inexpensive, and efficient method.

surface optimization and fabrication plan-





Figure 13 Shellstar Pavillion Realisation

Form-Finding By utilizing parametric programs, Grasshopper and the physics, the self-organized form is emerged based on the creation of thrust surfaces that are aligned with the structural vectors, it allow for minimal structure depths. The generation approach in this stage allows designer to quickly explore different variables of structure design in a holistic comprehensive representations, and investigate the results efficiently to single out the applicable scheme. Surface optimization

Figure 14 Design Process in Computation

The structure is composed of 1500 individual cells, in order to achieve the complex geometry, the custom Python script is used to optimize each cell as planar as possible, which greatly simplifying fabrication. Even though the generation approach limited in directly generating the buildable non-planar cells, the parametric modelling adapted as problem solving tool to deal with material property, enable the feasibility of the design

Fabrication Planning The orientation of shell was analysed, and then unfolded flat and prepared for fabrication with labels on each individual material pieces. The generative approach enables the design outcome successfully constructed. 18

before realization. 17. “Shellstar,” MATSYS, Last Modified 28 April,2011, 18. “Shellstar,” MATSYS, Last Modified 28 April,2011,


Guangzhou Opera House By : Zaha Hadid Location: Guangzhou, China

The Opera House is located in Guangzhou, China. The design evolved from the concepts of a natural landscape and the fascinating interplay between architecture and nature, engaging with the principle of erosion, geology and topography. The utilizing of Rhino program generates the outer crystalline, and inner complex and fluid surfaces inside the auditorium generated in Maya. The organic forms are achieved through logarithm, splines, blobs, NURBs, and particles on organized by scripts of the dynamic systems of parametric design, which implies that parametric tool gives the possibilities of curves. 19


Figure 15 Guangzhou Operation House

Furthermore, development in Maya as NURB

Overall, in the generation process, param-

surfaces of the auditorium geometry repre-

eters are interconnected as a system. The

sents the different mathematical species,

parametric design creates systematic, adap-

the parametric tool allows final material be

tive variation, continuous differentiation, and

cast precisely based on its unique paramet-

dynamic figuration from different scales that

ric data. In this way, the parametric design

from urbanism to the furniture.

makes the fabrication easier as all material prefabricated in factory and construction on site. Moreover, the generative approach leads to the formation of the continuous, seamless surfaces due to the parametrical design in early stage.20

19. “Guangzhou Opera House,” Architect Magazine, Last Modified 28 April,2011, cultural-projects/guangzhou-opera-house.aspx 20.”Guangzhou Opera House,” Architect Magazine, Last Modified 28 April,2011, cultural-projects/guangzhou-opera-house.aspx


A.4 Conclusion

Nowadays, architecture is not only defined

Regarding to the proposal for the LAGI (Land

as a building or form, it also expresses the re-

Art Generator Initiative) Competition, the

sponses to the environment regarding to the

computation is useful in determining the

current facing issues, and the design goal

performance of energy generating strategy

of architecture puts more emphasis on the

through algorithmic exploration of param-

long-term development and the sustainable

eters, as well as tests the feasibility of the


fabrication. Furthermore, utilization of Rhino and Grasshopper in the design process helps

With the advanced development of com-

in optimizing the structure and material, thus

putations, architects and designers gained

make the sustainable proposal of an land-

new design approach to find a suitable and

mark for energy-saving achievable.

efficient outcome, as the computer lets architects predict, model and simulate the encounter between architecture and the environment. The generative approach expands possibilities for architect to explore complex geometry in a productive way that traditional pen-and –paper method cannot apply, hence encourages innovations in architecture.


A.5 Learning Outcomes

Over the past few weeks, through the read-

Also, the weekly Grasshopper exercises al-

ings and research on precedents, it broad-

lowed me to gain the understanding of the

ens my new views in architectural design. At

parametric design, it not only a geometry

the very beginning, my thoughts were limited

design tool, it also benefits the architectural

by the traditional composition architecture

industry in design performance. I expect that

and thought that the design of architecture

use of this parametric modelling program will

only generates the interesting forms. By look-

significantly contribute to the proposal of the

ing at the precedents that involves the com-

LAGI project.

putational design, I realized the architectural design is currently shifted to a high level of approach with computation, and concerning more on the sustainable solution in regards to posted environmental challenges.


A.6 Appendix

Computational design is very important for designers, it help designer to generate ideas and develop models. When I doing the exercise, I realize that doing parametric design is not only a study for design but also a study for computer program. I get lots of surprise from the computer since it always provides amazing outcomes.


References Brady, Peter, Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought, Architectural Design, 2013. Rivaka, Oxman and Oxman, Robert. Theories of the Digital in Architecture, London: New York: Routledge, 2014 Kaylay, Yehuda E, Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004.

Image References Figure 1 AMIR KRIIPPER, Loop Elevation, 2012,, (accessed March 26, 2014) Figure 2 AMIR KRIIPPER, Loop Elevation, 2012,, (accessed March 26, 2014) Figure 3 “Pavegen system” Pavegen system, 2014,,(accessed March 26, 2014) Figure 4 “Pavegen system” Pavegen system, 2014,,(accessed March 26, 2014) Figure 5 “Pavegen system” Pavegen system, 2014,,(accessed March 26, 2014) Figure 6 “Spanish Pavilion for 2010 Expo Shanghai,” World Buildings Directory Online Database, 2009,, (accessed March 26, 2014) Figure 7 “Spanish Pavilion for 2010 Expo Shanghai,” World Buildings Directory Online Database, 2009,, (accessed March 26, 2014) Figure 8 “ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2012,” Archimmenges.Net, (accessed March 26, 2014) Figure 9 “ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2012,” Archimmenges.Net, (accessed March 26, 2014) Figure 10 “ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2012,” Archimmenges.Net, (accessed March 26, 2014) Figure 11 “ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2012,” Archimmenges.Net, (accessed March 26, 2014) Figure 12 Shellstar Pavillion, 2012, , (accessed March 26, 2014) Figure 13 Shellstar Pavillion, 2012, , (accessed March 26, 2014) Figure 14 Shellstar Pavillion, 2012, , (accessed March 26, 2014) Figure 15 “Guangzhou Opera House,” Architect Magazine, 2011, cultural-projects/guangzhou-opera-house.aspx



Part B Criteria Design



B.1 Research Field Material System - Biomimicry

Biomimicry is literally from the Greek ‘bios’

As a part of biomimicry study, biomimetic ar-

that meaning life, and mimesis, imitation, it is

chitecture design is seeking solutions for sus-

a new principle that offers design, science,

tainability in nature not only by replicating

and industry a new way of accessing na-

the natural forms, but also by understanding

ture’s intelligence in order to solve human

the rules governing those forms by looking at

challenges by taking imitation from nature.

nature as model, which means taking inspi-


ration from natural forms, process, systems, Biomimicry provide a wealth source of inspi-

and strategies, and then apply it to the man-

ration as well as unleashing a new breeding

made in order to optimise the design solu-

ground for sustainable research and devel-

tions; as measure, by utilizing an ecological

opment, as nature has refined itself over last

standard to assist development of human in-

millions of years, this process has demonstrat-

novations while judging the sustainability of

ed successful solutions to many of the prob-

the solution; as mentor, values nature that

lems that we are facing nowadays, as well

humans can learn from instead of extracting

as has revealed the survival strategy of the

from it.3

ecosystem which has singled out the fittest organisms.2 Therefore, it provides opportuni-

Furthermore, along with the arrival of acces-

ties that transferring natural theories to design

sible computer technologies, biomimetic ar-

innovations which lead to a more advanced

chitecture become popular. It facilitates the

technology for solutions, as well as offers

design and construction of complex forms

enormous potential to transform our build-

that were almost unachievable in the past

ings, products and system.

due to constrains of physical fabricating process. Integration of biologically inspired process in computational design opens opportunities of new ways of designing approach, utilize natural process as an algorithmic process. A wide variety of biomimetic projects are in development, in testing, or in use now.


Times Eureka Pavilion, 2011 Architect: Nex Architecture Location: London, UK

Figure 1


Times Eureka Pavilion is a typical example of

patterns of capillaries.5 Moreover, the pavil-

architecture imitating the patterns of biologi-

ion mimics water transfer found in plant bi-

cal structure in a scientific approach, dem-

ology, rain water literally runs off the glazed

onstrating humanities symbiotic relationship

roof cells into the main recessed capillaries

with natural ecosystems.

and down the walls to the ground.


The design concept of Times Eureka Pavilion

Furthermore, the structure was generating

was inspired by looking closely at the cellular

by utilizing computer to algorithm plan of the

structure of plans and their process of growth

garden that was grown by capillary branch-

to inform the design’s development. It fo-

ing and subsequent cellular division. And the

cused on the ‘bio-mimicry’ of leaf capillaries

patterns of biological structure were con-

being embedded in the walls, the supporting

trolled by a Voronoi diagram in grasshop-

structure of pavilion was formed by the mod-

per. Level of satisfaction of architectural and

ular structural grid that imitates the growing

structural needs was estimated following

Figure 2

Figure 3

completion of the 3D modelling, as well as specialist timber fabricator undertook detailed analysis.


Airspace Tokyo Architect: Faulders Studio with Proces 2, Studio M Location: Ota-ku, Tokyo, Japan

Airspace Tokyo is a representative example

The facade contains four over laying layers

of biomimetic architecture that imitating na-

of the porous, open-celled meshwork that

ture to solve the problem through innovating

changes densities as it moves across the fa-

a new type of facade.

cade, responding to internal program and providing shading and reflection of excess

Inspiration of airspace facade solution was

light away from the building. Moreover, the

informed via old facade that was wrapped

different unique patterns of each layers skin

by dense vegetation. It artificially blends with

were generated with parametric software,

the nature as performing like artificial vege-

and fabrication consideration was integrat-

tation that has similar attributes to the green

ed in the process. In order to ensure the cellu-

strip. This project not only imitates the organic

lar mesh to visually float, the panels that using

pattern for aesthetic purpose, but also takes

composite metal panel material are affixed

inspirations via the nature process of the cap-

by a matrix of thin stainless steel rods which is

illaries actions in forming operations of the

threaded from top to bottom, assembled in

facade, including refracted sunlight along

an aesthetical way as the supporting struc-

its metallic surface; channel rainwater away

ture seems invisible.7

from exterior walkways.6 As a result, airspace Tokyo derived an architectural system from process of capillaries has shifted to a new atmospheric space of protection to building, as biomimicry provides opportunity for designer to innovate a creative structure with similar qualities as the previous facade, engage and with nature rather than beating the nature.


Figure 4 Airspace Tyoko

Figure 5 Exterior Skin 39

B.2 Case Study 1.0 Aranda Lasch - The Morning Line Architect: Matthew Ritchie with Aranda Lasch and Arup AGU

Figure 6 T The morning line is an experimental project

Based on a radical cosmological theory, the

that explores the interdisciplinary interplays

morning line takes the form of an open cel-

between arts, architecture, mathematics,

lular structure that simultaneously generating

cosmology, music.

itself and falling apart rather than an enclosure, and further utilizing the fractal cycles

The initial idea of collaborators team aims to

through computation to create a truncated

develop a semiasographic architecture that

tetrahedron module with fractals are fol-

refers to a non-linear architectural language

lowing a repetitive definition which can be

based on fractal geometry and parametric

scaled up and down.9 By harnessing the ad-

design, which directly expresses its content

vantages of the parametric design, collabo-

through its visual structure, and considered

rators team pushes the definition to its limits to

as challenges to architectural convention.

experiencing the multiple architectural forms


that resulted from changes of parameters, to test the boundary of definition.


The Morning Line However, there is no final form as there is no

The morning line project is used as a starting

single way in or out, an interactive film de-

point to explore the possibilities of biomim-

scribes the evolution of the universe as a

icry in computational design, through under-

story without beginning or end, only move-

standing of the algorithm process in grass-

ment around multiple centers. The outcome

hopper, it enables capability of exploration

is an impressive 8 metre high, 20 metre long

with variation of changes, the following pag-

black coated aluminium pavilion integrates

es demonstrate the matrix table of explora-

the music and sounds culture within it, recog-

tion of definition.

nized as a new type of instrument as well as an interactive performance space.10


Figure 7 The Morning Line


Figure 8 The Morning Line


B.2 Case Study 1.0 Matrix Table 1

Three Sides

Cluster 0.333

Cluster 0.1

Cluster 0.2

Cluster 0.4

Cluster 0.5

Cluster 0.6


Four Sides

Five Sides

Six Sides

Seven Sides

Eight Sides

Nine Sides

Ten Sides


B.2 Case Study 1.0 Iteration Table 2


Matrix table 1 explores the variations with different functions and cluster parameters. Based on the original functions that used in definition, the limitation of geometry outcome was pentagon, apply with different mathematical functions, numerous geometry form will be achieved. Also as number if sides increase, the height decreases. Maximum value of cluster is 0.6 for tetrahedron, as long as factor greater than 0.6, the geometry no longer exists, and greater the parameter, more complex the fractals appear. Matrix table 2 explores radius parameters and component options. There is no limitation of radius and height, thus the scale of polygons can be infinitely increased. The unexpected outcome was achieved by simplified and flatten the parameters, which alternates the points order resulted in new ways of connections. The selection criteria is based on consideration of interesting and aesthetic form that attracts visitors while relevant and connect to the site at Copenhagen, as well as take potentiality of structure to maximise the ability to harvest wind energy. The selected four iterations are considered the most successful than others, because they are all have interesting features and showed potentials of development in architectures or landscape installations.


B.2 Case Study 1.0 Successful Outcomes

Selection A

Selection B

Fractals formed a symmetrical pattern while

The form of this iteration shows the possibility

remain the overall shape of a pyramid, it fea-

of side numbers of geometry. It is no longer

tures the 3D patterning effect rather than flat

definable from the original tetrahedron as no

2D pattern that usually applied on wall or floor.

sharp corners on the bottom, demonstrate

It demonstrates the potentiality of fractals ap-

possibility of curvy form rather than linear-line

plication in other objects, pavilion or architec-

shape. High density of fractals not only results

ture for aesthetic effect.

in an interesting fragmentation pattern, but also further expresses the biomimicry system of natural process through the structure itself.


Selection C

Selection D

This Is an abstract concept rather than an

Demonstrate an indefinable form that looks

intact geometry, as it basically a series of

like imitation of the universe, the ends of the

fragmented pieces organised in a pentagon

protruding suggest a sense of deterioration

form. The floating sense of fractals is opposite

of natural process. Demonstrate potential

to the original static feeling of selection A and

adoptability for generating basic pavilion

B, if integrate it to the site environment, it will

form or sculpture.

blind into the nature, and offers a different experiences of free structure of the project.


B.3 Case Study 2.0 CLJ02 - ZA11 Pavilion Designers: Dimitrie Stefanescu, Patrick Bedarf, Bogdan Hambasan, 2011 Location: Cluj, Romania

The ZA11 pavilion is designed for the 2011

efficient in according to each line length in

ZA11 Speaking Architecture event in Cluj, Ro-

a hexagonal grid as short as it can possibly

mania. This design boats strong representa-

be, which means a large area to be filled

tional power in order to fulfil the main goal

with fewest number of hexagons. This struc-

- attracting passers-by to the event, and al-

ture provide possibility for design team to

lowing for the sheltering of the different

construct a particular geometrical configu-

planned events.

ration that requires less materials while gain adequate strength under compression. 11

Creative exploration was constrained due to the harsh requirements of short time period,

In addition, the realization of this unusual

limited budget, specified materials and tools,

spectacular form was realized possible by

which resulted in limited approaches. Deep

parametric design techniques, from geom-

hexagonal structure is adopted in the final

etry generation to piece labelling, assembly

design to solve the problem by mimic natural

and actual fabrication, process was con-

structure. As the hexagonal structure is

trolled in computational design tools, which



reduces time consumes in comparison to traditional design way, hence meet the harsh time requirement. As a result, a free-form ring is formed based on hexagonal structure. Design team combines the biomimicry principle into the computational design process enables themselves to achieve the goal with limit material and time, thus the project is successful in meeting design intent.


B.3 Case Study 2.0 Reverse-Engineering




Set one base curve and one ref-

Loft the curves to get the base

erence point in rhino.

surface. Commit closed loft

Scale and move the curve to

option to ensure the surface is

create multiple curves.




Apply the hexagon cells to the

Utilizing reference point as centre to


scale the surface that achieved in II Form an inner surface


B.3 Case Study 2.0 Reverse-Engineering



Set both surface to graft option

Debrep the loft surface to obtain

Loft the corresponding lines of

individual surfaces

hexagon on the inner and outer

Apply the pattern to the surfaces


Delete the duplicate surfaces Refine the Model



B.3 Case Study 2.0 Algorithim Diagram



Move/Scale Curve Curve


Hexagonal Cells


Hexagonal Cells

Curve Point



Scale Area Explode

Joint Line

List Item


Line Line Line





Solid Difference


B.3 Case Study 2.0

The combined outcome of different process

However, the ZA11 pavilion design process

for each parts in grasshopper has enabled

achieved it by using a referencing point to

a final definition, creating a successful out-

extrude line from surface to a certain length

come in reverse-engineering project of the

rather than using the inner surface, the origi-

ZA11 pavilion.

nal design process is much complicated than definition that we created.

The outcome reproduces the overall ring form with deep hexagonal structure that em-

The next step would be to incorporate differ-

ployed by the ZA11 pavilion, and both has

ent forms, patterns to the definition, as well

the similar triangular pattern that is hollow on

as changing the different inputs to test the

each individual pieces of the surface. Even

capability of definition. The existing alforithm

though the appearances are similar, the de-

could be developed further to achieve a

sign process was obviously different. In the

more creative definition.

process of our outcome, in order to achieve the horizontal surfaces between edges of hexagon, an scaled inner surface is used to line the corresponding

points of hexagon

corners, then loft the surface.


B.4 Technique Development

Using the reversed engineering project as the

Matrix table 2 – Six basic shapes are selected

starting point, in this section, the definition is

from matrix table 1, then recreate the defini-

further developed with variations of basic

tion of pattern section in grasshopper to ex-

shape, the patterns attach to the surface,

plore the options of patterning, for instance

and the lofting panels options to extend and

line different point on two curves by using

alter its functionality.

divide curve command, to produce more outcomes.

Matrix table 1 – the basic shapes that created in matrix table 1 are inspired by the form and

Matrix table 3 – based on table 2, six hybrids

structure of a specific animal or insect, such

iterations are selected based on its potenti-

as caterpillar, peacock, tree trunk, beehive.

ality for further development, and they are

The rest two shapes are generated through

most varying from the original. Through alter-

analysing the wind direction at site, pull and

ing the parameters, it freely changing the

push the curve to generate the shape that

geometry, and shift it to a more dynamic

resulted by effects of wind pressure. By using

form rather than just utilizing one script.

the Lunchbox plug-in, loft panel is tested with options of hexagon, triangle, rectangle, diamond and stegger shapes.


Matrix Table 1



Matrix Table 2



Matrix Table 3



B.4 Technique: Development

I. This iteration generates the most interesting dynamic form that based on wind direction of the LAGI site. The wind mainly comes from the south-west direction, the windward side of the shape is curvier than the leeward side, the whole shape is shifted toward to the leeward direction by pressure. Imitating the wind movement and express it through the structure, has patentability to be developed with tensile materials, and suitable for installation of wind energy installation.

II. The basic form of this iteration is also inspired by wind, compared to selection I, it is more static, but the hollow core under the structure skin will direct the wind passage rather than let wind pass over the structure skin. This idea has possibility to offer people with an interesting experience while the structure likely to be a pavilion. It has high potentiality to harvest the wind energy.


III. This iteration takes the shape that is inspired by the height of the surrounding buildings as well as wind movement. The scatter locations of posts would create an interesting circulation for visitors. Feasibility of simple structure, and able to harvest the piezoelectricity from visitors’s engagement with site.

IV. The simple form of iteration looks like imitating the bamboo growing process which is in sections. The outcome is interesting as it has least members in comparison to other iterations. Its surfaces potential for harvesting solar energy.


B.5 Technique: Prototype Prototype 1

The digital model in rhino was unrolled and labelled in order for fabrication process, which significantly reduce time consumes in comparing to the hand-craft. Then it can be print out in multiple options of materials.


For prototype 1, the selected successful out-

As shown in the picture above, plywood has

come II in B.4, plywood, an eco-friendly ma-

possibility to achieve the curve structure and

terial was utilized to explore the stability of

offers not only elegant but also organic feel-

structure and appearance of the design. As

ings about the design. However, the thick-

plywood is light in weight but has high uniform

ness of the material is a serious concerns in

strength and freedom from shrinking, swelling

fabrication process, unlike paperwork, as

and warping, it is beneficial for outdoor instal-

differs the thickness, the structure is altered,

lation. Moreover, it has capability for fabrica-

which may lead to a collapse outcome.

tion of curved surfaces which provide opportunities for more creative form generation.

“Advantages of Plywood�, accessed on 2 April 2014, http://fennerschool-associated.


B.5 Technique: Prototype Prototype 1 - Connector


Based on previous research on ZA11 pavilion, a common connector type for assembling wood construction in small scale architecture is wood panel connector. It fixed multiple panels together and provides strength to the overall structure in conventional way, as it is easy for remove in the future. As testing outcome of prototype one, it could be seen that the connector provides rigidity to structure as it hold each individual pieces right at their position.


B.5 Technique: Prototype Prototype 2


Prototype 2, the selected successful outcome III, is aiming to gain the understanding of overall form of the design. The balsa wood was utilized, it was lighter and much softer than the plywood, easy to cut and shape, idealised for small scale projects. It is conceived as sustainable material as its carbon neutral qualities ensure an environmentally friendly solution that can help promote Copenhagen as a “Green City”. This prototype demonstrates an interesting ground area that zoned by the density of the posts, but the design concept is too simply to be recognised as solution for the brief, it still has large potentiality to be developed further.

“Balsa Wood Advantages”, Steve Johnson, accessed on 24 April 2014


B.5 Technique: Prototype Prototype 3


The purpose of prototype 3, the selected successful outcome I, is to test the material performance with the structure. It utilises the Perspex material, an acrylic plastic material, which has similar qualities to glass with regards to transparency, but it’s twice as durable and more lightweight than glass with similar thickness. It is conceived as eco-friendly material as Perspex is reusable. This prototype demonstrate that Perspex form the hexagonal structure of design, the transparent feature of material results in a beauty of cleanness. The connector between individual pieces of Perspex is an important consideration. As in proto- “Perspex glassware: its advantages type, in order to form hexagonal cell, steel wires was utilized to and disadvantages”, accessed on 29 fix the position of pieces of Perspex, but it failed to make stable April, 2014. structure, instead, resulted in a loose and flexible structure. 75



B.6 Technique: Proposal

Based on the LAGI brief, it is not only impor-

electricity resulting from pressure, as certain

tant to create an attractive energy saving

materials have ability to generate current

design, but also necessary to invite users to

when subjected to mechanical stress or vi-

the design and interact and engage with

bration. Therefore, when wind moving across

in the design by themselves, through expe-

the piezoelectricity materials that installed

riencing the energy regeneration to raise the

on the structure skin, wind pressure resulting

awareness. The team attempts to design an

electricity through the material.

aesthetic pavilion which will attract and provide them with an opportunity to get to know

Furthermore, as the basic shape of design

the sustainable energy.

is generated by wind direction, combine the system into the design will maximise the

Regarding to the Copenhagen site, its windy

performance of the energy regenerating

weather suggests a good condition for the

whereby the designed structure is respond-

Pizoelectricity system. Piezoelectricity is the

ing to the wind movement, piezoelectric ma-

electric charge that accumulated in certain

terial will vibrate frequently. Moreover, the

solid materials in response to applied me-

harvested electricity could be used for light-

chanical strees. . It literally means

ing, visitors can see the lights up when there is wind crossing, which will interest visitors to


know the system behind it.

Moreover, the piezoelectric generators is easily obtainable and economic to construct and maintain, there is no require of battery power, the installation is small and can be designed in an invisible way in structure which aesthetically installed and effective in generating electricity, this proposed system is feasible and efficient, providing a sustainable solution to Copenhagen. The combination of irregular form and innovative technology will form a more sustainable architecture design for Copenhagen and promote it to a “Green City”

“Piezoelecticity“, accessed on 3 May 2014, definition/piezoelectricity. 79

B.6 Technique: Proposal



B.7 Learning Outcomes And Objective

Through the last few weeks, based on re-

Moreover, case study 2.0 pushes me to a

searches into precedents, biomimicry tech-

higher level in understanding the logic algo-

nology is now combined into computational

rithm behind the definition through reversing

design techniques to achieve design intents.

the project. Parametric design depends on

It is clear that by understanding the nature

defining relationship, focus more on the logic

process in the ecosystem will generate a new

behind the design. It is a complex thinking

way of thinking in architecture, as well as

process, nonetheless, we developed a defi-

gain the sustainable solution from the nature.

nition which we could use as foundation for the development of LAGI project.


In addition to the research, the case study 1.0

Based on the feedbacks from Part B interim

provides the introduction to the algorithmic

presentation, we unify the energy generating

Grasshopper definition. By experiment with al-

system to the piezoelectricity that can gen-

ternating parameters and changing options

erate electricity once wind move acrossing

to push the definition to its limits, I understand

the structure, rather than previous unclear

that parametric design has high flexibility of

proposal with two different energy generat-

alternating changes to the digital model in a

ing system. Furthermore, the idea of energy

conventional way, and it offers architects nu-

technology should become the main focus

merous design options in generating design

of our design intent when moving towards

concept as it enable a new set of controls to

part C, as well as develop the definition fur-

overlay the basic controls.

ther as there are still potentials.

B.8 Appendix

Based on learning grasshopper from the online tutorials for laster few weeks, I become more familiar with the computational technique. It developed both my thinking and skills, the most successful outcome was the reverse engineering, but outcomes from weekly practices were the basic skills that we fundamentally begin with. Those patterns generated in grasshopper and as well as the seroussi pavilion reverse project are considered as best outcomes as they are helpful in tracing the natural forms and process.


Reference 1. “What do you mean by the term biomimicry”, BIomimicry Institue, accessed on 17 April 2014, 2. “Biomimicry”, Designboom, accessed on 24 April, 2014, 3. “What is Biomimicry”, accessed on 25 April, 2014 4. “Time Eureka Pavilion –Cellular Structure Insipired By Plants”, Lidija Grozdanic, accessed on 28 April 2014, 5.“Time Eureka Pavilion//Nex Archiecture, Marcus Barneett”, AFFLANTE, accessed on 30 April 2014 6. “Airspace Tokyo”, Wallpaper, accessed on 28 April 2014 7.“Airspace Tokyo”, accessed on 29April 2014 8.“The Morning Line Launches in Istanbul” Accessed 28 March 2014,

9. “The Morning Line, Vienna 2012” TBA21. Accessed 27

March 27 2014. 10.“Aranda / Lasch” Nick Clarke, Accessed 28 March 2014. 10. “ZA11 Pavilion/Dimitrie Stefanescu, Patrick Bedarf, Bogdan Hambasan,”Megan Jell. Last modified 5 July 2011. http:// 11. “ZA11 Pavilion/Dimitrie Stefanescu, Patrick Bedarf, Bogdan Hambasan,” Accessed on 29 March 2014, http://www.


Image Reference

Figure 1 “Time Eureka Pavilion//Nex Archiecture, Marcus Barneett”, AFFLANTE, accessed on 30 April 2014, Figure 2 “Time Eureka Pavilion//Nex Archiecture, Marcus Barneett”, AFFLANTE, accessed on 30 April 2014, Figure 3 “Time Eureka Pavilion//Nex Archiecture, Marcus Barneett”, AFFLANTE, accessed on 30 April 2014, Figure 4 “Airspace Tokyo”, Wallpaper, accessed on 28 April 2014 Figure 5 “Airspace Tokyo”, Wallpaper, accessed on 28 April 2014 Figure 6 “The Morning Line, Vienna 2012” TBA21. Accessed 27 March 27 2014. Figure 7“The Morning Line, Vienna 2012” TBA21. Accessed 27 March 27 2014. Figure 8“The Morning Line, Vienna 2012” TBA21. Accessed 27 March 27 2014. Figure 9“ZA11 Pavilion/Dimitrie Stefanescu, Patrick Bedarf, Bogdan Hambasan,”Megan Jell. Last modified 5 July 2011. FIgure 10“ZA11 Pavilion/Dimitrie Stefanescu, Patrick Bedarf, Bogdan Hambasan,”Megan Jell. Last modified 5 July 2011.


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