Pantawid pamilyang pilipino program (4 pâ€™s) CONDITIONAL CASH TRANSFER (CCT)
Ronald T. Ramao DPA Student
CCT programs are presently being implemented in several Latin American countries including Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Jamaica, Mexico, and several more. Indonesia and Pakistan are only some of the Asian countries which employ the CCT programs as a major tool of their social policy. In general, these programs provide money and financial assistance to poor families under the condition that those transfers are used as an investment on their childrenâ€™sâ€™ human capital, such as regular school attendance and basic preventive health care.
The main mission of most CCT programs is to prevent inter-generational transference of poverty, that is to say, investing in young children and providing them with the provisions necessary for better opportunities in the future .
By estimates, about 45 percent of Filipinos are vulnerable to falling into poverty if confronted by shocks such as health problems and deaths, loss of employment, natural disasters and increasing food prices. (Manasan, 2009; Balisacan, 2010).
The 4Psâ€?CCT, patterned after the generally successful CCT programs in Latin American countries.
Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) of the previous administration by expanding household coverage by 1.3 million and doubling the programâ€™s budget Supplemental Feeding Program; Food for Work Program for internally displaced persons; Rice Subsidy Program; and Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) Program.
CCT program gets the bulk of the 4Ps budget. The said program is seen as a social protection instrument and a tool to empower people to rise above poverty by increasing household income and improving human capital
4Ps‐ CCT coverage, 2007‐ 2011 2007 2008 2009
Budget (in PhP)
Number of Target Beneficiaries/ Households
6,000 20,000 321,000 1M 2.3M Source: DSWD Presentation to the Senate Committee on Finance (2010)
Beneficiary households with PhP500 subsidy a month for health and nutrition expenses and PhP300 a month per child for educational expenses. A maximum of three children per household is allowed. These grants will be given upon the satisfaction of all conditions stipulated in the program.
Positive impact in Education
“Philippines Conditional Cash Transfer Program, Impact Evaluation 2012” the report confirms that children of Pantawid Pamilya beneficiaries are enrolling and attending schools (DSWD Secretary Corazon Juliano-Soliman) In Pantawid barangays, 76 percent of preschoolers are enrolled in daycare, compared to 65 percent in non-Pantawid barangays Among school children at age 6-11, 98 percent of children in Pantawid barangays are enrolled in school Children in Pantawid barangays from age 6-14 also have higher school attendance (95-96 percent) as compared to children in non-Pantawid barangays (91 percent).
Positive impact in Health
ďƒź Pantawid Pamilya provides cash grants to poor households to encourage them to keep their children of age 0-14 in school and have regular health checks. Also, pregnant mothers are required to avail of proper medical care and their deliveries attended to by health professionals. Mothers are also required to attend family development sessions where they discuss topics on parenting and accessing social services in the community. ďƒź 64 percent of pregnant mothers in Pantawid barangays had antenatal care as against 54 percent in non-Pantawid barangays
Positive impact in Health
ďƒź 85 percent of children in Pantawid barangays age 6-14 have undergone deworming as against 80 percent in non-Pantawid barangays; ďƒź 81 percent of children in Pantawid barangays at age 0-5 have taken Vitamin A supplements as against 75 percent in nonPantawid barangays
Political theorist Utilitarian Political Concept of Government John Stuart Mill The government ought to do that which creates the most happiness. This is the utilitarian notion of government. It is an intuitively pleasing concept, and many people probably think they agree with it A utilitarian government advances the well-being of all its citizens, not a select few 4Ps and CCT is a program of the government which is for the promotion of well-being of the all citizens most especially those living below poverty line
ď‚§ The vision of the ideal state is illustrate in the concept of justice, understood traditionally as virtue and related to goodness, is the foundation of a good political order. Justice is primarily concerned with the common good of the whole political community. It provides the city with a sense of unity, and thus, is a basic condition for its health. ď‚§ CCT is a program aiming for the common good. The task of the government is to facilitate in providing the basic needs of beneficiaries in health and education. For plato, an ideal leader should be equipped with the knowledge and skills. 4Ps through CCT is a system that will provide an open door for education to our young countrymen. And soon it will provide the country and skilled and knowledgeable leader in the future.
Political theorist Political Theory of the Welfare State John Myles
“The welfare of the people is the welfare of the state” The state comprises people and governs by people itself. Without manpower the state will fall. The primary tasks to govern it take the welfare of the people which is the purpose of the why the state was created. As the stated grows, people are aging, new generations will come and new responsibilities will arise. Meeting the need of the individuals is an imperative task to maintain the good condition of the state.
Political theorist ď‚§ 4Ps through CCT is national program that promotes the welfare of the state. By estimates, about 45% of Filipinos are vulnerable to falling into poverty if confronted by shocks such as health problems and deaths, loss of employment, natural disasters and increasing food prices (Manasan, 2009; Balisacan, 2010). This is a condition that plague our state to fall unhealthy. ď‚§ The national government is aggressive in fighting against poverty. Welfare of its people is one of the urgent challenges arising in the current administration. CCT is a mainstream project that will alleviate people from poverty and hopefully we will be able to maintain stabilize condition of the state.
John Locke (1632–1704) Political Philosophy
Doctrine of Tacit Consent Person gives tacit consent to the government and agrees to obey all conditions provided by law while living in its territory Locke thinks a person becomes a full member of society, which implies that he must regard this as an act of express consent. CCT a program that imbibes conditions to all beneficiaries for them to become a full member and sustained its membership to the fullest.
Political theorist ď‚§ As citizens of the republic we elect our law makers to take responsible in formulating laws and programs for the nation and its people. We give them our consent to development and initiate activities that will also requires our full cooperation. 4Ps through CCT is a project done by our trusted officials.
Political theorist Liberal Political Theory ďƒ˜ Political Doctrine defines freedom as the master of problem in politics. This principle lies on the political theory of liberalism. ďƒ˜ Freedom is the condition in which a person is not under an alien will, or is only under the control of a will limited laws in whose making, according to those who are democrats as well as liberals, he must participate. A society of individuals who seek to achieve their particular objectives and to satisfy their needs for comfort and mutual dependence.
Political theorist 4Ps through CCT is a project whose influences are from liberalist thinkers who follow the democratic political system. Thus, freedom is universally observed as partly based on our constitutional right being a free man. Recipient of this program are bound to fulfill the conditions in order to continually receiving the financial grants of the government. It is expected that recipient should participate in any form of activities as mandated and required by the program. Sad to say, there are many who incorrectly apprehend the purpose of the program. Instead relies on the program as source for their living. Which in fact it is only a support for a specific need on the family but not a source of income. Some stop farming for they believe the government has already given them the compensation to sustain their necessity.
Political theorist ďƒ˜ On the other side, the program also abled to help those who exactly spend and follow the system of the program. As presented earlier there is a high percentage of increase in which this program uplifted the lifestyle of the beneficiaries.
Conquering poverty has been the fundamental development goal of every administration in the country. However, despite the government’s various poverty reduction programs, the increase in the number of poor remains unabated. For John Locke’s political theory viewed that residents should have to obey the laws of the state. What were the conditions given by the programs should be followed. Given the ineffective and wasteful subsidy programs in the past, the government’s preparedness to implement an intervention like the CCT, which requires large budgets and exceptional administrative capacity, is being met with doubts and cynicism. Massive education campaign is necessary for the implementing agency to the beneficiaries of the programs for them to be aware of their responsibility how to use property the assistance given by the government. The cognitivist political theory emphasizes that proper education to citizen must be initiated for them to contribute their responsibility to the state.
ď ś Nonetheless, the Aquino administration has requested Congress and the public to grant the CCT a chance to work, given its success in reducing poverty in Latin American countries and its huge potential to do the same in the Philippines. Given the challenge to alleviate our countrymen from poverty we also need the recipientsâ€™ participation in every government programs and activities as stated in the Liberal Political Theory. It is impossible to achieve development if only one side of the system is working. Both the implementer and the beneficiary will have to take full responsibility on this program.
Application to Phil. Administration/
Recommendation “The Philippines has been ineffective in preventing poverty increases during recessions or calamities primarily due to inadequate targeting, uncoordinated and fragmented provision of social protection services, and unsound policies.” “Various studies of social protection and social assistance programs show that simply handing over cash to poor families will not be sufficient to tackle poverty in the long run.” “Targeting is a daunting challenge for CCT programs, especially since targeting systems often require tremendous administrative capacity.”
Application to Phil. Administration/
Recommendation Trainings to all stakeholders involve in the program Trainings to all barangay officials in monitoring and classification/assessment of those who will become beneficiary of the program Continuous educational forum for the beneficiaries Strong support and coordination of all government agencies involve in implementing the program. (DSWD – focal agency, LCR, DILG, DOH, etc.)
Application to Phil. Administration/