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HKU SPACE Community College Associate Degree Programme Second Semester 2012 – 2013

English for Academic And Professional Purposes (Part II)

Assignment II: Research Report

“The Perception of Gender Stereotypes In Modern Society.”

To: KIN WAI, LAU

From: CHAN CHUNG MAN, RICKY (10518408) LAM KA MAN, PHOEBE .(10518581) LEE KUM KAI, RONALD (10489223) LEUNG NGA YAN, SARAH (10519306) 1


LI HIU WING, JOYCE

(10519970)

Class: 88-363-02-01 Submission Date: 15 April, 2013

Table of Contents

6.

Appendix Questionnaire Sample

2


List of Figures Figure

1.1

Gender

of

Respondents

................................................................................................................................... 9 Figure

1.2

Age

Group

of

Respondents

................................................................................................................................... 9 Figure

2.1

Qualities

of

Ideal

Men

from

Female’s

view

................................................................................................................................... 12 Figure 2.2 Personalities of Ideal Men from Female’s view............................................. 13 Figure 2.3 Images of Ideal Men from Female’s view...................................................... 13 Figure 2.4 Qualities of Ideal Men from Male’s view....................................................... 14 Figure 2.5 Personalities of Ideal Men from Male’s view................................................. 15 Figure

2.6

Images

of

Ideal

Men

from

Male’s

view 3


................................................................................................................................... 15 Figure

2.7

Qualities

of

Ideal

Women

from

Male’s

view

................................................................................................................................... 16 Figure

2.8

Personalities

of

Ideal

Women

from

Male’s

view

................................................................................................................................... 17 Figure 2.9 Images of Ideal Women from Male’s view..................................................... 17 Figure 2.10 Qualities of Ideal Women from Female’s view............................................ 18 Figure 2.11 Personalities of Ideal Women from Female’s view....................................... 19 Figure

2.12

Images

of

Ideal

Women

from

Female’s

view

................................................................................................................................... 20 Figure 2.12a Qualities of the Conventional Leading Actress in Our Perception ................................................................................................................................... 21 4


Figure 2.12b Qualities of the Conventional Leading Actor in Our Perception................ 21 Figure 2.13 Breadwinner in the Family............................................................................ 23 Figure 2.14 Person Responsible for Family Housekeeping Works.................................. 24 Figure 2.15 Factor(s) Essential to Determine the Allocation of Housework................... 24 Figure 2.16 Occupation(s) for Men Only......................................................................... 25 Figure 2.17 Acceptance of Pornography.......................................................................... 26 Figure 2.18 Reason(s) for Acceptance of Pornography................................................... 27 Figure 2.19 Reason(s) for Objection of Pornography...................................................... 28 Figure 2.20 Bearing Child as an Obligation of Women................................................... 29 Figure 2.21 If yes, Why? (Bearing Child as an Obligation of Women)........................... 30

5


Figure 2.22 If No, Why? (Bearing Child as an Obligation of Women)........................... 31

6


Abstract

A research, concerning “perception of gender stereotyping�, has probed into among HKUSPACE Community College students living in modern technological era. The qualities and social roles of people being expected to possess with because of their gender would be evidently a kind of gender stereotyping. Thus, gender stereotyping is the major parameter for these studies. A set of questionnaires was tailor-made and distributed to 50 volunteers (HKU SPACE students).

The research is started by studying how people's perceptions are influenced under large exposure to 21st century mass media. The findings reveal that the Internet, television programmes and newspapers are the top three most frequently used mass media. People usually are not quite aware of themselves being affected by those mass media. However, it is found that there are similar expectations of ideal man/female between the screen and reality.

The next section is about how the social roles (i.e. family responsibilities and occupations) are shaped according to their real life experience. It is intriguing to discover that there is a shift of roles distribution among female and male. The breadwinners of families are no long merely placed on fathers, but mothers (or other family members) are also taken part in that. It is no longer a must for women to reproduce because teens now agree that they have a greater degree of freedom in this civilized world. Most people enjoy and benefit from this "evolution".

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The analysis of the whole survey is carefully done by our own knowledge, by taking reference from reliable electronic sources (online news, journals and books) and printed books. Some recommendations on this phenomenon are also given such as the integration of school and family education, as well as government policies.

1.1 Introduction Although technological advancement and economic prosperity help people to improve their living standard, they might not be able to eradicate the problem of gender stereotyping in modern society. Gender stereotypes refer to the society’s expectations for both male and female to fulfil certain gender traits and roles under the process of socialization throughout their lifetime. Once the person is “born into” the category of “male” and “female”, he or she is “obligated” to perform the assigned male or female role. In a traditional patriarchal society, the ideal masculinity (masculine traits) and femininity (feminine traits) are observed to be in binary opposition, for instance men are believed to be associated with aggressiveness while women are associated with submissiveness. Besides, they are valued very differently as the former has a privileged position of power and authority over the latter. Male domination and female marginalization are usually found in patriarchy. However, such an ideology works to the degree that people take this socio-culturally-caused gender inequality for granted as it seems “natural” to them. They tend to voluntarily conform to their society’s prescriptions of their gender roles since the norms and expectations get built into their sense of identity as a certain kind of human being. As a result, the 8


inequality induced by gender stereotyping appears to reflect rather than to structure the world. It is believed that gender is a product of culture and time, therefore the meanings of masculinity and femininity are not constant but subjected to changes. In our report, we will be investigating people’s perception of gender stereotyping in modern society under the influence of different socialization institutions like media, family and education etc over time. Both the observed changes and constancies will be discussed and analyzed to provide a clear picture for the audience.

1.2 Methodology The aim of this research report is to investigate the perception of gender stereotype among HKU SPACE Community College students. The survey was conducted at KEC campus. 50 copies were distributed in March and the response rate is 100%. The questionnaire sample can be referred to the appendix I.

The proportion of respondents is quiet balanced which 21are males and 29 are females. The data collected mainly reveals the perception of stereotype of qualities and social status of both genders among students aged 20-23 since over 80%respondents fell on this age group.

9


The questionnaire is composed of two main parts with 19 questions in total. 8 questions have been included in the expectation of on ideal man and woman on the screen and in reality and 11 questions in the distribution of social roles including family roles, occupations, bearing child and pornography. Encountering such a controversial topic, this questionnaire could help us to understand gender stereotype in a rather through manner. The supporting data are collected from reliable electronic

10


resources (online news, journals and books), printed books and HKSAR government statistics.

11


2. Discussion

2.1 Stereotyping on qualities of Women/Men nowadays

How much we enjoy a movie/TV drama would be grounded on the common values we share but hardly in contrast---how we expect the leading roles should be like or what the most ideal personalities have they possessed. On the other hand, if we agreed or contented with how the characters are portrayed, our values and perceptions have already been shaped by the mass media unconsciously. Worse still, we would gradually find it difficult to deviate from what could only happen in stories and what would be rarely found in reality. We tend to project the qualities of “ideal” characters on the screen to reality, which is the reason why we have the so called “ideal men/women” in our mind. To ensure our hypothesis is correct, here are some proofs below.

As we can see from our survey, it is observed that the qualities of ideal women from the view of female and male are different. With the data collected, we categorized the ideal qualities into two types: images and personalities.

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2.1.1 Qualities of an Ideal Man

•

From the points of view of FEMALE

In Figure2.1, it points out female is rather stressed on the personalities of men rather than their images.

In Figure2.2, being considerate is the most important factor of being an ideal man. It takes 27% among our interviewees; whereas being talented is as comparable as being considerate. Male is more appealing to girl with their intelligence than the other external factors. Being ambitious is another important concern with 17%. Though it is 13


not specified on which they wish men to be ambitious on, we can possibly assume that, it is talking about career or academic prospects when there are quite a number of them expected men to be rich.(To be talked about in Figure2.3)

Referring to the result shown in Figure2.3, it takes the largest portion of female interviewees request men to be muscular. It occupies 31%. Followed by “muscular�, making considerable income, or simply say, being wealthy takes up 27% is the second essential element put into concern. Apart from that, 27% and 19% called on men to be fashionable and handsome respectively.

14


From the points of view of MALE

Surprisingly, both personalities and images are both essential to their own. We can see from Figure2.4 that their proportion is quite even, although inner beauty such as “personalities”, is slightly more emphasized on than outer beauty.

15


Nevertheless, male expect men different from women. Being talented and confident is exactly of the same percentage, occupying 60% in total referred to Figure2.5. Being considerate, which is less important than that of girl by 3 times, is discovered (23% from men versus 66% from girls). On the contrary, rich is being the least important (will be talked about later). Being responsible is another concern.

As we have discussed above, how a “good man� should be like, his financial status is put into consideration in girls’ eyes. Contrastively, there are only 4% of men agree with this according to Figure2.6. They think being muscular is the most idea appearance even 3 times more preferable than being handsome. Unexpectedly, the colour of skin is also put into concern for an ideal man. Being tall with tanned skin are emphasized in same level.

16


2.1.2 Qualities of an ideal Woman •

From the point of views of MALE

According to our collected data (Figure2.7), in the eyes of male, requirements of being an ideal woman are concerned with qualities of images.

17


Very interesting on this research is that, male also requires female to be considerate. It takes up the largest portion with 32%. Followed by considerate is to be “supportive� which takes up 22%. It may be possible to assume the meaning of supportive include properties of submissive that male would not like to be objected in other words. Being nice is a big term, which can include kind, helpful, sociable so on and so forth. This is an unclear term but suggested by 18% of male interviewees. Lastly, politeness and cleverness are also mentioned for which weighing the same (14%).

18


In Figure2.9, Being pretty is the most important factor of being an ideal woman. 38% of those answers related to images are pretty which an ideal woman should and need to possess. In other words, being pretty is the dominant factor for male to determine whether a girl is the ideal one.

•

From the point of views of FEMALE

However, female think an ideal woman not only possesses those qualities in images, but also those qualities in personalities. In Figure2.10, those collected answers from interviewees are about personalities, 57%, which outweigh images.

19


In the Figure2.11, being considerate (40%) is the dominant factor to be ideal women in the eyes of female. With the femininity, the talent of women is more important, it can be proven by the figure where being talented constitute 31% which is the second place of being ideal women.

20


In term of images, a great number of respondents think being slim is the main factor to be ideal women according to the Figure2.12. This dominant factor account for 60% of the all data related to images, which is more by two times than the second place, being beautiful. Such outcome can explain that in the eyes of male, the images, especially being pretty and the bodies shape, of woman is key to being ideal women, the personalities are not much vital. Yet, female feel that personalities outweigh the images referred to our data. Moreover, they also think the concept of being slim, which prevails over Hong Kong, is the vital important in term of images from the view of female.

From the above research, it is intriguing to see that there are a quite number of similar characteristics between the ideal men/women and favourite actor/actress. In other words, what they see on the screen is homogenous and preferably to meet in reality as well. Most girls, for instance, would like to choose a muscular man for the role of good leading actors but not their performance. Meanwhile, it is discovered that being 21


muscular is one of the vital parameters to define, in female’s point of view, how ideal men are as well. Besides, for most of boys, they would like to choose a slim one for the role of good leading actress. Simultaneously, it also spot that being slim and sexy are crucial elements to be ideal women in the eyes of male. Moreover, Coverage page of magazines for men are supermodels or celebrities with good bodies shape appealing to men according to Nick and Kimmel (232). They not only put our attention to the breast of women, but also to focus on how many muscles men should have and how tall men should be. In short, the mass media nowadays are to invade our mind and to shape how images ideal men/women should be.

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2.2 Stereotyping on Social Status of Female/Male Hong Kong is one of the most renowned cosmopolitans in Asian due to the cultural impact by the long period of British colonial. It seems that people here will embrace gender equality. However, Hong Kong is still a male-dominated society as on the other hand it is attached to Mainland China where the older generation is rooted with traditional norm of male identity. Both genders are holding traditional and transitional stereotype in terms of family roles, occupations, giving birth and pornography.

2.2.1 Family roles

Male 23


The old traditional gender stereotype of male is that men should focus on their work and financially support the whole family. Regarding the Figure2.13, 63% of respondents’ family breadwinner is their father just compared to just only 33% of that is their mother. This implies that the people in the contemporary society still adopt the traditional gender stereotype that “men as breadwinners and women as homemakers�. This is interesting as both genders receive higher and better education and their education level are similar comparing with the past in terms of statistics, with reference to the figure of Census and Statistics Department, 46.8% of male and 53.2% of female enrolled in University Grants Committee (UGC) funded programmes in 2011. They should have been taught about the issue of gender stereotype and know the importance of gender quality and but the male gender roles which men should financially support the family is still prevalent. This suggests that the socialization within family is powerful in forming the perspective of male gender role, it can affect how people perceived what a man is and boys would follow the behaviour of expected man. In this cycle, male stereotype is hard to be broken down.

Female 24


In the past, there is a rigid thinking circulated in the traditional male-dominated society that women should be submissive and domestic (which belong to the ideal feminine qualities), with reference to Figure2.14, 63% of the respondents state that their mother is responsible for the housekeeping works in the family, one of the possible reasons is that their mother has higher availability to do the domestic works (see Figure2.15) Moreover, almost one third of them claim that this belongs to the social role of mothers. Refer to Figure2.13, two-thirds of the surveyed students think that their father is the breadwinner in their families, reinforcing the idea that men are active, ambitious and success-oriented.

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2.2.2 Occupation

Male Gender is stereotypes for certain occupations. In Figure2.16, 43% and 21% of the respondents think fire fighter and engineer are male-only occupations respectively. Only a small number of respondents regard nurse and flight attendant as occupations for male. These figures indicates that gender is a factor being considered as an requirement for occupations, fire fighter and engineer are portrayed as male-identified occupations. On the other hand, the ratio of male kindergarten teacher is very low, this is demonstrated by the figure of Census and Statistics Department. In 2006-2007, only 0.86% of them are male kindergarten teachers, which means there were only 86 males within a total of 10000 of them. This shows that men are underrepresented in kindergarten education which requires caring (which is perceived as a personality of female).

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Female In Figure2.16 above, only a few respondents consider nurse and flight attendant maleonly occupations. It is very likely that they think nursing and serving industries are more suitable for female as most of them meet caring and patience essential requirements. On the other hand, the social status of female in the area business and politics is inferior to that of male in Hong Kong, as according to The New York Times, Wassener reported that nowadays “only 11 of the Hong Kong Legislative Council’s 60 members are women. She added that “The judiciary, too, is maledominated: All 21 judges of the Court of Final Appeal, for example, are men.” This suggests the stereotype that female has weaker ability than males in decision making and working and this stereotype forms a glass ceiling preventing them to move to higher position Moreover, female’s salary range is low that that of male even they are on the same positions. According to the figure attained from Census and Statistics Department, a higher proportion of male employed persons worked as managers, administrators,

27


professionals and associate professionals who had higher monthly employment earnings than other occupational groups, compared to their female counterparts.

2.2.3 Pornography

Male As shown in the Figure2.17, 96% of the male respondents accept pornography, which can be explained by the objectification of women caused by the prevalent patriarchal ideologies. Females are usually oppressed and suppressed in the male-dominated society due to their inferior social positions.

Male gaze may be defined as the dominant viewpoint to which the narratives address themselves is masculine, and the film’s visual pleasures (including the spectacle of the

28


female body) are primarily for men as well. (Turner 155) Regard to Figure2.18, 40% of them accepts pornography due to curiosity, while almost one-third and one-fifth of them consider sexual necessity and knowledge acquiring as the incentives respectively. This indicates that pornography is essential for satisfying men's biological needs and women are still being put on display and objectified by male gaze, supported by Figure2.17 - only 4% of male respondents who do not accept pornography regard pornography as immoral and obscene. Very few males would take sex related moral issues into consideration or are aware of gender quality.

29


Female Under the influence of patriarchy, female sexuality is being “naturally” labelled as passive, submissive and controllable. In order to maintain their reputations, young women should not be too eager, too prepared or too knowledgeable about sex. In the past, women’s ignorance of sex and virginity were emphasized and celebrated. Yet, with women’s liberation and cross-cultural influence facilitated by the common use of Internet, females become more open-minded towards sex as indicated by Figure2.17 . Nearly half of the female respondents admit their acceptance towards pornography. 30% of them state that it is due to curiosity, sexual necessity and knowledge acquiring. This further explains the rise of male objectification in numerous women’s magazines like Cosmopolitan “by the same kind of language and imagery as men’s magazines”. (Gauntlett 187) In fact, there is an observed reverse gender gap that young single women are out-earning men, hence leading to the increase of female breadwinners over the past decade. According to Torregrosa, the male-female income gap is narrowing or even closed due to higher educational qualifications of female. This may lead to the problem that “the high- achieving women sometimes scare men

30


away as the latter feel stigmatized from social pressure.� (Mundy)

However, there are still a number of traditional women who consider pornography as obscene and disrespectful, as indicated by Figure2.17- nearly half of the surveyed female students cannot accept pornography. Therefore, it is proved that the patriarchal ideologies are still playing a certain role in the modern society despite its reduced significance.

2.2.4 Bearing Child

Male Bearing child has long been regarded as a natural obligation of women since centuries ago. In the past a majority of men expected their significant halves to give birth to babies, regardless of the pain and sufferings they had to endure during labour and delivery. In addition, staying at home and taking care of the babies were the social norms and considered as great virtues.

31


Nowadays a certain number of traditional males still think that women are responsible for this “duty� because it conforms to the laws of human nature as supported by 70% of the surveyed male students who think that giving birth to babies is an obligation of women (see Figure2.21). However, with the changing cultural perception of bearing child and the increasing degree of independence of the couple, men become more open minded about bearing child to babies. It can be seen from Figure2.20, almost 70% of the male respondent’s state that they do not conform to the tradition idea on this issue. Among them, 58% explains that the gradual change is due to the freedom of choice (as shown in Figure2.22). One fifth of them admit there is a change of gender perception on female who appear to be more independent.

32


Female According to Figure2.20, slightly more than half of the female respondents no longer think that bearing child is their obligation. 48% of them claim that such a decision 33


belongs to the freedom of choice; while 27% believe that female are becoming more competitive nowadays with the rising number of educated females who devote themselves in the modern society. This effectively reflects the changing perception of gender stereotyping and increasing degree of gender equality. In traditional patriarchies, “men exercise power and authority over all others. Women are prevented from exercising their rights to self-determination, often on the grounds that it is “unnatural” for them to do so.” (Pramaggiore and Wallis 328) This perfectly unveils the naturalization of hegemonic masculinity. However, there are still almost half of the female respondents who agree that it is their inborn duty and 30% argues that giving offspring for families is part of their responsibilities as a wife. This reveals that the male-domination ideology still exists due to the deep-rooted belief but with less significance.

3. Conclusion

To recapitulate, the gender stereotyping in Hong Kong is not that grievous. Nowadays, enormous jobs we think no matter male or female can engage in were considered either female or male jobs in the past, except being fire fighters which set a high standard of physical requirements that female hardly meet. Although some respondents answer that the obligation of giving birth is female, the reason for that idea is they know that it is the law of human nature; it is not due to the gender stereotyping. Besides, the breadwinner of the families now can be female, whereas only male would be in the past days. We also accept both gender can watch pornographies which were labelled for men insomuch as we all have sexual necessity and need to acquire knowledge. However, as the influence of media, our perceptions

34


on women and men still focus on their bodies: female should be sexy and hot as well as male should be tall and muscular.

4. Recommendations

In spite of the increased female liberation, the deep-rooted patriarchal ideologies still impose certain degree of influence on modern society. To minimize the gender stereotyping problems which people in Hong Kong facing, we propose the following:

4.1 Recommendations for family education Claire Renzetti suggests that parents tend to respond differently to newborns on the basis of sex. For example, when asked to describe their infants shortly after birth, new parents frequently use gender stereotypes Ë—Ë—Ë—infant boys are described as strong ones while infant girls are described as pretty ones. Also, parents of girls are more sensitive

35


to the children and parents of boys are more restrictive to their children, these early children gender socialization may shape the value of them, causing strong strain if they cannot act in accordance with their roles. In order to minimize the gender stereotyping in society, the first step is to correct the “stereotyped” family education. The parent should treat their children equally; in other words, use the same attitude towards both boys and girls.

4.2 Recommendations for schools Biases of gender stereotype are still prevailing at schools nowadays. Ample schools may merely open special programmes and training courses for girls or boys, such as home economics, and design and technology. They may even encourage boys to study Science, presupposing girls are not good at mathematics. On the other hand, girls are encouraged to study Arts, presupposing boys are not good at memorizing. These may well reinforce the expected roles of men and women as well as gender stereotyping. Introduction of gender stereotyping, free school programmes, are suggested to reverse the sex-role stereotyping and let the students learn what they want but not what society expect how they act. Also, we suggest that schools establish “gender equity” in their curricula to help students explore how the traditional gender norms have imposed unnecessary restrictions and pressure on men and women. Elimination of the socially expected male and female roles depicted in textbooks can further reduce the reinforcement of gender stereotyping in the educational materials.

4.3 Recommendations for Government policies The government and the related organizations such as Equal Opportunities Commission could work more closely with schools to promote gender equality: for example, school should hold talks at schools. Media is another important socialization 36


agent of gender norms. Advertisement can impose a great influence on society. Introducing gender equity advertisements can change the gender expectancy of society such as the breakdown of gender stereotypes for certain occupations to create a fair society.

5. Works Cited Equal Opportunities Commission. “Exploratory Study on Gender Stereotyping and Its Impacts on Male Gender”. 23 May 2012. Web. 8 Apr. 2013 < http://www.eoc.org.hk/eoc/upload/201311512480856107.pdf>.

Fung H. W. “Women and Men in Hong Kong Key Statistics 2007 Edition.”Census and Statistics Department. July 2007. Web. 3 Apr. 2013. < http://www.statistics.gov.hk/pub/B11303032007AN07B0100.pdf>

Gauntlett, David. Media, Gender and Identity: An Introduction. New York: Routledge, 2002. Print. 37


Haller, Madeline. “11 Qualities of the Perfect Woman.” Men’s Health News. Men’s Health News, 9 Dec. 2012. Web. 10 April 2013.

Kimmel, Michael S. The Gendered Society. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. Print.

Nick. “Images of Hegemonic Masculinity Hegemonic Femininity and Sexuality on Magazine Covers.” Sex, Gender and U.S. Society. Sex, Gender and U.S. Society at the Continuing Education Division of Sociology at the University of Colorado at Boulder, 15 October 2009. Web. 5 March 2013.

Ou-Yang, Lily. “Women and Men in Hong Kong Key Statistics 2012 Edition.”Census and Statistics Department. July 2012. Web. 2 Apr. 2013 < http://www.statistics.gov.hk/pub/B11303032012AN12B0100.pdf>.

Pramaggiore, Maria, and Tom Wallis. Film: A Critical Introduction. 3rd ed. London: Laurence King Publishing Ltd. 2011. Print.

Renzetti, Claire M. Women, Men, and Society 5th ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2003. 86-9. Print.

Torregrosa, Luisita Lopez. “They Call It the Reverse Gender Gap” nytimes.com The New York Times, 13 Dec. 2011. Web. 2 Mar. 2013. <http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/14/us/14iht-letter14.html?_r=1&>.

Turner, Graeme. Film as Social Practice. 4th ed. London: Routledge, 2006. Print. 38


Wassener, Bettina. “Women Still Face Barriers in Hong Kong.” The New York Times 21 February 2011. Web. 7 Mar. 2013

Waters, Melanie. Women On Screen: Feminism And Femininity In Visual Culture. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011. Print.

Yeung, Ming. “Men Stressed out by Gender Stereotyping.” China Daily Clips, 11 May 2012. Web. 5 Mar. 2013

6. Appendix

The Perception of Gender Stereotypes in Modern Society We are doing a research in HKU SPACE Community College about the perception of gender stereotypes among society. Please take a moment to complete this questionnaire. Personal information will be kept strictly confidential. Thank you for your time!

You can √ more than one option for questions marked with * 1) Gender □ Female

□ Male

2) Age 39


□ 17-19 □ 24-26

□ 20-23 □ 27 or above

3) Which media do you use most often? On a scale of 6 where "1" means the most and "6" means the least. □ books □ movies

□ Internet □ newspaper

□ magazine □ television

4) Please specify how much time you spend on using the top THREE media in Q3? □ less than 1hour/day □ 4-6hours/day

□ 1-3hours/day □ more than 6 hours/day

*5) Which quality (ies)/personality (ies) do you think the conventional leading actor in movies or TV dramas should have? □ active □ ambitious □ considerate □ dark skin .□muscular □ passive □ slim .. □ submissive .. .. □ whitish □ others: ( please specify: ) *6) Which quality(ies)/personality(ies) do you think the conventional leading actress in movies or TV dramas should have? □ active □ ambitious □ dark skin .□muscular □ slim .. □ submissive □ others: ( please specify:

□ considerate □ passive .. .. □ whitish )

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7) What qualities do you think an ideal man should have?

8) What qualities do you think an ideal woman should have?

*9) Which occupation(s) do you think is/are only for men? □ engineers □ fire fighters □ flight attendants □ nurses □ police officers □ the president □ none of the above □ others: ( please specify:

)

10) Do you think your perception of gender is influenced by social values? □ Yes □ No

11) Is Bearing Child an obligation of women? □ Yes (Proceed to Q12) □ No (Proceed to Q13) 41


*12) If yes, why? □ giving offspring for families □ laws of human nature (Only female has the ability to give birth) □ social pressure □ others: ( please specify: )

*13) If no, why not? □ change in gender perception on female □ female becomes competitive □ freedom of choice □ others: ( please specify:

)

14) Would you accept pornography? (If no, please proceed to Q16) □Yes □ No please specify the category(ies) □ porn for male □ porn for female □ both

15) Why do you accept pornography? □ acquiring knowledge □ curiosity □ peer pressure □ sexual necessity □other: ( please specify:

)

16) Why don’t you accept pornography? □ disgusting 42


□ disrespectful to a certain sex □ immoral □ obscene □ others: ( please specify:

)

*17) Who is/are responsible for the housekeeping works in your family? □ mother □ father □ maid □ others ( please specify: )

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*18) Which factor(s) do you think are essential to determine the allocation of housework? □ ability □ age □ availability(in terms if time) □ family role □ others: ( please specify:

*19) Who is the breadwinner in your family? □ father □ mother □ others: ( please specify:

)

)

Thank you very much!

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EAPP report