Issue 18, December 2012 - www.romeinternationalschool.it
Celebrating the Winter Season!
We take a look at Winter Festivities around the world
Grade 11始s eventful GCSE history trip to London
A grade 12 student gets ready to usher in the new year
Rome International School
The future starts in the early years The aim of educators should be to help children be who they want to be, without forcing them to adopt one way of life over another. This is the conclusion we can reach from a very interes:ng ar:cle by James J. Heckman, a Nobel laureate and Professor of Economics at the University of Chicago, published in the Boston Review (September/October 2012). Success in life depends both on cogni:ve skills and non-‐cogni:ve characteris:cs (including mo:va:on, self-‐conﬁdence and other socio-‐emo:onal quali:es), as Heckman states in his paper on “Schools, skills and synapses”. There is strong evidence that the development of both cogni:ve and socio-‐emo:onal skills is at its highest in early childhood and that the main growing factor is the family environment, with its s:muli, care, nurture, and dedica:on to spending :me together, which interact with the gene:c a s p e c t s o f h u m a n d e v e l o p m e n t (according to the most recent acquisi:ons in epigene:cs which studies how environmental factors aﬀect gene expression in ways that are inheritable). And here we get to the point. Heckman’s research shows that there is a strict link between the parents’ level of educa:on and their children’s life chances (something that also common sense s u g g e s t s ) . T h e m o s t r e l e v a n t environmental factors for children are the family and the school, which cooperate in their educa:on. So, again, we ﬁnd that educa:on is a key factor in building and modeling the future, for individuals as well for society. What we can now add to our awareness is the relevance of age: if early childhood is crucial for the best development of cogni:ve and socio-‐ emo:onal skills, the beginning of the schooling process and the choice of school are crucial too. We are lucky enough to be able to oﬀer, in our school, the possibility of a very early start (we accept children as young as two!) oﬀering a ﬁrst class educa:onal programme, to maximise the beneﬁcial eﬀects as a result of the family’s environment. Thus, we help in building, as soon as it can be built, the basis for each individual child’s personal life project. Ivano Boragine Head of School
A special day for children
In 1954, the United Nations (UN) recommended that “Every country should introduce a Children’s Day which will be devoted to fraternity and to comprehension among children of the world, and which will stand out by activities encouraging Children’s well-being throughout the world.”(1) BY ENRICO DAL CIN
n the 20th of November 1959, the UN General Assembly adopted the Declaration of the Rights of the Child. Thirty years later, on the same day in 1989, almost all UN member states ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Thus, the convention is a legally binding treaty and children have rights that have to be respected worldwide.
organisations involved in children’s welfare like Fondazione Francesca Rava’s project in Haiti to re-build schools destroyed during the 2011 earthquake in Port-au-Prince. This year the school will begin to collaborate with SOS Villaggi dei Bambini: an international charity committed to creating a ‘loving home for every child’. This is a practical answer to the fundamental need of belonging to a family and to feeling loved, supported and secure in a safe and loving home.
This convention has inspired each country to create laws to promote children’s well-being as well as international treaties to protect them in situations of conflict, a milestone for It’s natural to think that this subject is ensuring the best-interest of future related to ‘far away lands’, however generations. it’s surprising to learn that SOS Villaggi th This year on the 20 of November 2012, d e i B a m b i n i i s v e r y a c t i v e i n the mainstream media’s attention has d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s . G r o w i n g been on the economic downturn of numbers of poor and broken families the Euro-zone, accompanied by a lot a r e i n c r e a s i n g t h e n u m b e r o f of speculation on the future policies of abandoned and abused children. This the re-elected US President Obama. organisation, in addition to looking The celebrations for the International after children from broken homes, is Day for Children has not been also trying to prevent more families covered by most of the major media from becoming separated. outlets. Thankfully, whilst we are all th and concerned about the present and its D a y s l i k e N o v e m b e r 2 0 inevitable problems, there are some organisations such as SOS Villaggi dei organisations which concentrate on Bambini serve to remind us of the the fundamental rights of future importance of taking an active role generations. Our school has worked to and participating in every way we can raise the awareness of such rights, for in defending children’s rights. e x a m p l e c o l l a b o r a t i n g w i t h (1) http://childrensrightsportal.org/childrens-day/
Grade 11 head to London! BY CHARLOTTE ROUGH
s part of Year 11 students’ History GCSE they headed to London on Tuesday the 9th of October to carry out research for their coursework assignment. Their investigations centered on the Tower of London. Ms Rough and Dr Orbison accompanied the Grade 11s as they wrapped up warm and headed to London’s famous landmark to take part in a tower workshop. Students played the part of history detectives as they photographed and examined the castle and its history, gathering crucial information for their assignments which count towards 25% of their final grade.
They got to explore the Tower and investigate its changing functions and features over its incredible 1,000 year history.
Ripper murders. With our experienced ‘ripperologist’ guide we trawled the East End at night as we tried to trace the steps of the infamous Jack. We then headed to an East End restaurant for dinner!
Learning by looking During our recent teacher inset in October, one topic discussed was the importance of having good display work around the school. We were encouraged to really think about what we put up on our classroom walls, to make sure it was relevant, s:mula:ng, connected to the curriculum and of course interes:ng for students. The best displays make us stop and look, because our a[en:on has been arrested, our minds cap:vated. Maybe it is something we recognise and sympathise with or perhaps even something we strongly dislike or disagree with. But that is the power of the visual image. It focuses our a[en:on for a very important moment before we have an opportunity to ‘reject’. We are all inﬂuenced by visual images. Adver:sing companies would obviously not spend millions of euros each year on poster and magazine campaigns if this was not the case. This inﬂuence is not just true for those with visual spa:al intelligence. Visual media can communicate a message or make an appeal to a mass audience.
Students also went to the Imperial War Museum where pupils and teachers visited the moving Holocaust exhibition in preparation for Grade 11’s examination topic on Nazi Germany. We visited the National Gallery and looked at some of the art depicting the Tower of London. Students also had time to shop on Oxford Street and at Spitalfields Market and walk though the historic city taking in the Houses of Parliament, Buckingham Palace, Big Ben and Trafalgar Square. It was an enjoyable trip and the students worked hard in preparation for their coursework which they will begin writing up in the next few weeks.
This is a very powerful tool which some schools do not fully exploit. Many educa:onal experts believe that a signiﬁcant amount of learning is done subconsciously. ‘When key informa:on is displayed around the room, the brain will absorb it without the student even realising....Any change in the classroom – the layout, the orienta:on, the wall displays – will be s:mula:ng and bring about a posi:ve reac:on in students’(1). Around our school we now have various images such as pain:ngs, essays, posters from campaigns, fact sheets and pieces from magazines. The quality and diversity is growing all the :me. One recent visitor to the school commended us for the sense of ‘interac:on’ created by our displays. So next term we will con:nue to encourage staﬀ and students to use our walls and display areas as an ac:ve part of the learning environment. By doing so we help create, ‘...feelings of ownership and i n v o l v e m e n t , l e a d i n g t o i m p r o v e d mo:va:on’ (2) in all sec:ons of the community, a highly suitable target for us to con:nue to pursue. (1) Mike Hughes,
Strategies for Closing the Learning Gap, Network Educa@onal Press, p.93
It wasn’t all work though, and with the information gathered ready for the write up back in Italy, it was time to explore the city. Ms Rough and Dr Orbison took the students to the East End to explore the area of London’s famous unsolved crime…the Jack the
(2) The Impact
of School Environments: A literature Review, The Centre for Learning and Teaching, University of Newcastle, 2005 hQp://www.ncl.ac.uk/cﬂat/news/DCReport.pdf
William Ireland Principal, Middle and High School
The Silent Killer “Ignorance and prejudice are fuelling the spread of a preventable disease” which must be suppressed and tackled at once. BY CLAUDIA ZACCARI
IV or Human Immunodeﬁciency Virus is one of the most deadly diseases in human history. It a[acks the immune system resul:ng in the progressive destruc:on of the body’s defence cells. This process ul:mately causes a disease known as Acquired Immunodeﬁciency Syndrome, which we commonly recognise as AIDS. Thousands of young adults worldwide, especially between the ages of 15 to 28, are infected with the HIV virus each year. It can be transmi[ed from an infected person through what doctors call "high-‐risk behaviours” including blood transfusions, sharing needles or syringes for drug injec:ons, steroids or ta[ooing and unprotected sexual intercourse.
In the year 2000, all the UN member states, signed up to the Millennium Declara:on, commifng themselves to achieving eight ambi:ous goals by 2015. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) focus on social issues which aﬀect billions of people. The sixth MDG aims to have halted and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS. There are goals and targets set by the UN to further raise the awareness of AIDS in all corners of the world. Sta:s:cs conﬁrm that the number of new HIV infec:ons fell steadily from a peak of 3.5 million in 1996 to 2.7 million in 2008 and deaths dropped from 2.2 million to 2 million in a :me span of two years. The epidemic appears to have stabilized in most regions.*
AIDS is at ﬁrst a very dormant disease and for some the symptoms do not appear for 10 years following the ini:al infec:on. Worryingly there is s:ll no cure for HIV and AIDS today, therefore preven:on is cri:cal. It is also essen:al that we con:nue to educate the world’s popula:on against AIDS in order to try to eradicate it from society. It must not all be “doom and gloom”, in fact we must remain posi:ve and this must be done through educa:on and publicity.
Since 1988, World AIDS day is observed every year on the 1st of December. It is a day dedicated to raising the awareness of the AIDS disease caused by the spread of the HIV infec:on. This day gives the opportunity to deepen knowledge about the facts and preven:ons. There are many campaigns which ﬁght against this disease however it is important that we as a global community take ac:on and do our very best to par:cipate and support campaigns such as the Italian ANLAIDS
(Associazione Nazionale per la Lo[a contro AIDS). According to UNAids’ annual report: “gefng to zero new HIV infec:ons will require substan:al r e d u c : o n s e a c h y e a r i n s e x u a l H I V transmission, which accounts for the overwhelming majority of the people who are newly infected.” Mitchell Warren, director of AVAC, Global Advocacy for HIV Preven:on, said: "If we're serious about ending Aids we must move faster. If ending Aids were a marathon, we'd already be behind pace at the ﬁrst mile marker. In 2013, we must aggressively expand HIV preven:on to stay on track to bring new infec:ons to zero”. If we can achieve our goal of sharing the message of the dangers of drugs and promiscuity then we can win the ba[le against AIDS. In the mean:me medicine must con:nue to advance in order to discover a cure for those who been infected in order for them to live life to the full without prejudice or fear. *http://www.guardian.co.uk/global-‐development/2012/nov/20/ risky-‐sexual-‐behaviour-‐aids-‐un
Mental + Athletics = Mathletics! BY ELENA VITTORI
he European Maths Challenge took place on the 6th and the
7th of November 2012. Mathle:cs is a website that lets students prac:ce Maths online. It is a really spectacular website that inspires students from all over the world to prac:ce Maths. Every year Mathle:cs has an interna:onal compe::on online. At Rome Interna:onal School students from Grades 1 to 9 par:cipated and worked extremely hard for two days in the European Maths Challenge. Everyone did their best and Rome Interna:onal has a champion: Ki Ha K! He is our fabulous champion because he was one of the top students in Europe. CONGRATULATIONS to this outstanding ‘mathlete’. All mathletes should con:nue working hard so that YOU can be the next champion!
Winter festivities around the world
Have you ever wondered, when some of us are celebrating Christmas, what other winter festivals people have? Well, in our school there are lots of different ones. I interviewed some students to find out about their celebrations and also researched others.
Hanukah One winter fes:val is called Hanukah. In the Hebrew calendar it is the 25th day of Kisley , but for us it falls between the end of November and December. It lasts for eight days; every day they light a candle in a candle holder called chanukiah but everybody calls it menorah. When they light the candle they receive a gir. They also have one extra special candle. For Hanukah they make a special dish made of pancakes and potato with a sauce called chanukah; the dish is called latkes. Another special food made of jelly doughnuts with chanukah is called savganiot. They have a tradi:onal game called sevivon where you have a top that you spin and if you win some:mes you’ll receive money or nuts.
pink or red. They also have ﬁreworks in honour of the na:onal ﬂag.
Snow and Festivals
In Japan there is one of the most famous snow fes:vals in the world at Sapporo. Every year two million people come to see the spectacular ice sculptures. It lasts for all the month of February. The reason for this fes:val is that in 1950 some high school students made six wonderful ice sculptures in Odori Park. People voted and decided to have this fes:val and now four hundred people make these wonderful sculptures in Odori Park. There are other snow and ice fes:vals in the world. Other well-‐ known fes:vals are in Alaska and China.
Novruz Bayram Some students in my class celebrate a winter fes:val called Novruz Bayram. It starts on the sixth of March and ﬁnishes on the sixteenth, so it lasts for ten days. The reason for this fes:val is that a long :me ago people decided to have a fes:val of peace and of wishes, where all the money that they got by selling things went to poor people. They also give them food. They eat tradi:onal biscuits which are diamond-‐shaped because that is the shape of a star. They also eat sun and moon shaped biscuits and have special grass which brings good luck. They also have tradi:onal games; one of them is connected with wishes because you go to a friend’s house with a hat, you leave the hat on the ﬂoor then you make a wish and knock at the door and hide. Your friend will put some candies in the hat. When he or she has gone you listen to what they are saying and if it’s a good thing your wish will come true, and if not, it doesn’t. The other one is really funny. In the arernoon you paint an egg and at twelve o’clock you play a match with a partner to see who has the strongest egg by tapping it with a spoon! Whoever wins gets a candy. Some countries celebrate this fes:val in a diﬀerent way. In Kazakhstan they put water out in the snow and the next day it becomes
Diwali Diwali is the fes:val of lights. It’s the most important fes:val for the people of India. E v e r y t h i n g i s l i t because then all the spiritual darkness will go away. It lasts for ﬁve d a y s i n O c t o b e r a n d November. In all of India there many reasons for celebra:ng this fes:val that are based on the Hindu religion. For the ﬁve days they do diﬀerent things like: the ﬁrst day they clean the house; the second day they decorate the house with lamps; and the third day is the most important one because they celebrate Diwali with their families. The fourth day is the ﬁrst day of the new year and on the last day, the brothers go to see their married sisters (if they have them) and the sisters oﬀer them lunch. Whichever fes:val you celebrate this winter, we wish you a happy one!
This week a rather bossy Red Robin took up residence in my pa:o area, cha[ering angrily and menacingly puﬃng up his red chest at the sight of his own reﬂec:on in the mirror. Red berries are appearing on my Holly bushes and the bright orange fruit on the bare branches of the Persimmon tree look like deliberately placed decora:ons. The logs in the ﬁreplace give oﬀ a warm glow and there’s no denying it, winter is arriving! Along with lights and candles, these are the sights and colours which will brighten up my long and damp winter in the Tiber Valley, where sleeping clouds oren forget to rise unless blown away by icy winds. It couldn’t be a further cry from my previous Decembers in Queensland, Australia where I would be strolling the beach, sipping cool drinks at beachside cafés and joining friends and family for picnics and barbecues. These thoughts brought to mind another expatriate who suﬀers the winter cold. I would like to share the following poem by Valerie Bloom, performance poet, born in Jamaica and now living in England. Her inspira:on came from the clever poem “No” by Thomas Hood. De De snow, de sleet, de lack o’ heat, De wishy-‐washy sunlight, De lip turn blue, de cold, “ACHOO!” De runny nose, de frostbite, De creakin’ knee, de misery, De joint dem all rheuma:c, De icy bed, (de blanket dead De burs’ pipe in de afc. De window a-‐shake, de glass near break, De wind dat cut like razor, De wonderin’ why you never buy De window from dat double-‐glazer. De thick new coat, zip to the throat, De nose an’ ears all pinky, De weepin’ sky, de clothes can’t dry, De days dem long an’ inky. De icy road, de heavy load De las’ minute Christus shoppin’ De cuss an’ fret ‘cause you feget De ribbon an’ de wrappin’. De mud, de grime, de slush, de slime, De place gloomy since November, De sinkin’ heart, is jus’ de start, o’ De winter:me, December.
Photo sources: Novruz Bayram: h[p://azerbaijan24.com/ Snow and ice fes:vals: h[p://www.gojapango.com/travel/ sapporo_snow_fes:val.htm
Patricia MarEn-‐Smith Principal, Early Years & Elementary
BY OLIMPIA JOSI TODINI
2013 here we come! BY VIRGINIA CABELLA
How time flies! Itʼs the end of the year and itʼs the perfect time to reflect on all thatʼs happened this year and see what to improve on in the coming year. o many things happened in 2012, it’s sometimes easy to forget how significant the year actually was. It was a year where we stepped back from the brink of disaster and chaos in some areas, and made genuine progress in others. Think about the elections held on the 6th of November in the U.S. where, after a very close battle between the two candidates, President Obama achieved a victory that many had said could not happen and showed how many people still had faith in him.
Several other noteworthy events took place. The Olympic games were held in London from 27 July to 12 August. People from all over the world came to see world class gymnasts, footballers, wrestlers, and cyclists to mention a few sports! Michael Phelps became the most decorated Olympic athlete of all time, winning his twenty-second medal. Saudi Arabia(1) , Qatar(2) and Brunei(3) entered female athletes for the first time, meaning that every currently eligible country has sent a female competitor to at least one of the Olympic Games. In addition,
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women's boxing was also included making the 2012 Olympics the first at which every sport had female competitors!(4) Unfortunately, with the good comes the bad. In late October, Hurricane Sandy devastated portions of the Caribbean and Northeastern United States, with lesser impacts in the Southeastern and Midwestern states and Eastern Canada. This makes it the second costliest Atlantic hurricane behind hurricane Katrina. At least 209 people were killed along the path of the storm in seven countries and it was estimated in early calculations to have caused damage of at least $20 billion(5). This event was useful for us to open our eyes to the immense privileges we enjoy, and to understand how fortunate we have been. Many times people appreciate things only when they lose them, let’s not make the same mistake! Personally my main progress was moving from grade 11 to grade 12, where I experienced a complete change in my academic environment. I am currently in
the first year of the IB Diploma Programme. Things have started to get difficult, more determination and strength is needed and I’m finally accepting the fact that time is moving incredibly fast and I have to keep up! Choices for the future have to be made, and for me and my classmates its very stressful because we’re noticing that we’re growing up quickly! This year has been like a roller-coaster. On the whole, I am satisfied with my year because I managed to cope with all sorts of situations. My objectives for next year are simple. To improve my work at school; my listening skills; to concentrate more, not only in school but in different occasions; and to gain more determination, which I think is the main ingredient to succeed in life. Without sacrifice and perseverance you will never obtain what you’re aiming for!
wikipedia.org/wiki/Qatar_at_the_Olympics wikipedia.org/wiki/Brunei_at_the_Olympics wikipedia.org/wiki/2012_Summer_Olympics www.csunas.org/studentgovernment/50-in-3-donation-drive/
(3) (4) (5)
This app is made for guitar players who need to have a tuner always ready to make sure their instrument is perfectly tuned. It has a simple interface that even a new user can understand and start using the app without problems.
The Tone Generator, instead, allows you to pick a note and click play. Once you have done that it will play the sound of that note and allow you to tighten or loosen the string until its sound matches that of the sound provided by the app.
It has two types of tuning: Chromatic Tuning and Tone Generator. The first allows you to play one of the strings of your guitar. It will then tell you if you need to tighten or loosen the string. To have a perfectly tuned guitar you have to repeat this step for each string.
I use this app regularly and would suggest this app to any guitar player who often needs to tune their guitar.
BY LIVIA ALEGI
OPINION OPINION OPINION
OPINION OPINION OPINION
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What do Montepulciano wine and the 2009 earthquake in Aquila have in common?
Sloppy seismology he earthquake of 6 April 2009 was a tragedy in Italy. Three hundred and nine people were killed at the :me, and nearly twenty thousand were ler homeless. However, the story has con:nued to develop since then, from the famous “sciacalli”, those who went around the ruins of the city stealing anything that had not been destroyed, to the G8 summit that was held in the city to a[ract interna:onal a[en:on to the disaster. The history of this earthquake reached a new turning point on 22 October 2012 when seven men were sentenced to six years in prison. What is the crime, associated to the ‘quake, that could result in a prison sentence? The answer is sloppy seismology.
On 31 March 2009, one week before the earthquake, three seismologists, two engineers, a volcanologist and a public oﬃcial had taken part in a mee:ng of the “Na:onal Commission for the Forecast and Preven:on of Major Risks”. The aim of the mee:ng was to assess the dangers that the city was facing, as small tremors had been felt over the last month. The outcome of this mee:ng was a reassurance to the city’s residents that the frequent ac:vity was nothing of concern, and the small tremors were
actually reducing the pressure between the two plates thus minimizing the risk of a major earthquake. The minor tremors were seen as something “normal” as Fabio Picu:, one of the prosecutors, underlined. However, it was later found that all of the evidence pointed in the other direc:on. The increase in the frequency and intensity of the tremors is normally the sign of a bigger earthquake in the future. The prosecutor also accused the seven men of having made contradictory and misleading statements. (1) Most of these statements were made by the public oﬃcial involved in the story, Bernardo De Bernardinis, who told residents to relax with a good glass of Montepulciano wine.(2) Other reassuring statements were made during the conference itself by De Bernardinis, and all of this became evidence against them. In fact, it was partly due to these statements that the city’s residents didn’t leave the city or sleep outside. This unfortunately resulted in hundreds of deaths, which could have been prevented. This is the reason why the judge sentence the men to prison.
Jason Reed/Getty Images
The analogy that has been made with this case is the one of a doctor who ignores standard prac:ces and causes the death of the pa:ent. The men are not being sentenced for not predic:ng the earthquake, as it is common knowledge that it is diﬃcult to predict earthquakes, but they were sentenced because of not being able to interpret simple clues, such as the tremors, which are normally regarded as a sign that an earthquake in the near future is possible. That said, there is no standard prac:ce in these cases; these men did not have guidelines to follow, like a doctor would. This sentence may result in future predic:ons to be too much on the side of cau:on for fear of prosecu:on. Could the last casualty of this earthquake be free speech? (1) h[p://www.thedailybeast.com/ar:cles/2012/10/22/scien:sts-‐
found-‐guilty-‐in-‐l-‐aquila-‐earthquake-‐trial.html (2) h[p://www.cosmosmagazine.com/features/print/5233/shaky-‐ ground
BY ALESSANDRO RUSSO PROFILI
Discovering the importance of food security In October we paid a visit to the FAO headquarters in Rome. I found the trip very interesting because I got to know the importance of FAO’s work. FAO stands for Food and Agriculture Organization and it is a specialised agency of the United Nations. We were guided through the FAO office by two officers who explained to us that the organisation’s efforts are primarily to ensure that people worldwide have proper access to food and health care. In addition to Rome, FAO is present in over 130 countries, and approximately 55% of the FAO staff members are based in Rome. There are seven departments
at FAO covering agriculture, fisheries, forestry, economic and social development, natural resources management and environment, technical cooperation, and human resources and corporate services. Our two guides told us that with the current world population at seven billion, one billion people are starving and another one billion are malnourished. FAO is is trying to provide assistance to countries that that need help improving agriculture and other sectors in order to ensure a better standard or life. I was interested to hear about the organisation’s work in India. One of the
projects is related to rural poverty, as roughly more than 300 million people live in poverty in India. We were told that the country has been successful in reducing the proportion of poor people from 55% to about 27%. A major cause of poverty in India is lack of health care and limited access to social services, and financial resources. Our visit to FAO was a useful reminder of the importance of food and agriculture to the economic and social development of a country and its inhabitants.
BY SADIA JARAH
Presidency at any cost? BY ARIS SCHULER-SHAH
RIS report is a monthly publication by Rome International School. Registration Registrazione n. 476 del 31/12/10 Direttore Responsabile Maria Corbi Editor-in-Chief Tania Gobena firstname.lastname@example.org Graphic design Tania Gobena Photography Steve Orbison Tania Gobena Darren McDonald
Rome International School Via Panama 25 00198, Rome +39 06 84482650/1 email@example.com www.romeinternationalschool.it
oth Barack Obama and Mitt Romney have spent vast sums of money in the race to the White House. Many will suggest that both Obama and Romney have spent their money carelessly at a time of economic crisis to advertise and promote themselves anywhere they can, without regard.
Obama’s party, the Democrats, have spent over 540 million dollars in advertising and campaign spending over the 2012 elections. (1) Most of those advertisements have been screened in Florida, Ohio and Colorado, as they were the states which had been undecided and had the largest impact on the outcome of this years U.S e l e c t i o n . R o m n e y ’ s p a r t y , t h e Republicans, have spent a great deal less on campaigning and advertisements. The Republicans spent over 336 million dollars into advertisements.(2) Although spending less, like the Democrats most of that campaign spending was focused in Florida, Ohio and Colorado, the key deciding states. Many people might also ask where the money has come from for the parties’ spending is quite a large sum. All of the money has come from donations from their most loyal supporters. Different amounts were made by various parties/ candidates. Obama raised over 632
孔子学院 On Wednesday 28 November the High School Chinese class visited the Confucius Ins:tute in Rome, one of the 300 around the world. It is located in Via Principe Amedeo, inside "La Sapienza" University and has been open since 2006. At the Ins:tute, you can learn Chinese language and culture with na:ve teachers. The Ins:tute has a library where you can ﬁnd a range of books in all Middle East and Far East languages! We were warmly welcomed by the Director of the Ins:tute, Dr. Wén Zhēng (文铮), an old friend
of our teacher Ms. Parnanzone. BY GIANLUCA PARADISO
million dollars of which almost all was spent on advertising. Whereas Romney raised a bit more than half of what Obama raised, just over 390 million dollars.(3) It might seem that both parties had some cash to spare but in fact both parties are quite significantly in debt. However, this mass spending by parties for advertisements and campaigning gives the advertising industry a significant boost, often bringing in up to 900 million dollars in profit.(4) Although much money is spent and made in the process of making these advertisements, they are not always successful in convincing the undecided. Therefore, campaigning by giving speeches and conventions are often the most effective methods used. Not everyone may be happy with the result of this year’s election. It has put much financial strain on both the Democrats and the Republicans. It has, however, given many sectors of the economy a significant boost. But is it money well spent? http://www.cbc.ca/news/world/story/2012/11/05/ f-us-election-campaign-final-day.html (2) IBIID (3) http://elections.nytimes.com/2012/campaignfinance (4) http://www.npr.org/blogs/itsallpolitics/ 2012/12/07/166734266/most-expensive-presidentialcampaign-ended-in-sprint-to-spend (1)
The winter issue of our monthly school magazine features articles on: children's rights; highlights from Grade 11's History trip; a grade 5...