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ROMA NUMISMATICS LIMITED

Auction XVI 26 September 2018

please note our new auction venue Roma Numismatics Limited 20 Fitzroy Square Fitzrovia London W1T 6EJ United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)20 7121 6518 www.romanumismatics.com email: info@romanumismatics.com

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Auction XVI

26 Sept.

10:00

Celtic, Etruscan, Greek and Judaean Coins

13:30 Roman Provincial, Republican, Imperatorial and Imperial Coins, Byzantine, Islamic and World Coins

Location

The King Harald V Room The Naval and Military Club No. 4 St. James’s Square London, SW1Y 4JU United Kingdom

Dress code - Abito consono - Kleiderordnung:

Jacket and tie, smart shoes / elegant dress or business attire. Giacca e cravatta con scarpe eleganti / abito elegante o abbigliamento business. Jacke und Krawatte mit eleganten Schuhen / elegante Kleidung oder Business-Kleidung. No jeans or sports shoes - jeans e scarpe sportive non ammessi - jeans und sportschuhe nicht erlaubt ii


Viewing At the office of Roma Numismatics: 20 Fitzroy Square Fitzrovia London, W1T 6EJ United Kingdom From August 20th - September 25th Monday – Friday, 09:30 – 17:30

lots will not be available for viewing during the sale.

Lot pickup will be available from 13:00 on Thursday 31st September

Roma Numismatics Limited Richard Beale – Director Alexander Morley-Smith Simon Parkin Clementine Bowring Sally Oliver

Special Thanks to Italo Vecchi Salem Alshdaifat Deniz Grotjohann UNUS PRO OMNIBUS, OMNES PRO UNO

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ABSENTEE BIDDING If you are unable to attend the auction in person, you may submit an absentee bid that will be executed on your behalf by Roma Numismatics. Roma Numismatics will attempt to obtain the lot for you at the lowest possible price, and will not purchase the lot for you at a price higher than the maximum you specify. This service is free and confidential. Absentee bids must be sent and received in good time. To place absentee bids please submit your list of lots, together with your maximum bids, either by email or post using the form provided, or online at www.RomaNumismatics.com. You may also participate live online during the sale at www. RomaNumismatics.com/live-bidding

email or postal bids The customer is responsible for submitting these in good time and confirming that the bids have been received. Please note we no longer accept bids by fax.

Telephone bids Bids may be placed by telephone as the auction is in progress, but are accepted only at the discretion of Roma Numismatics and at the risk of the customer. Roma Numismatics will not be held responsible for any failure to execute bids by telephone during the auction resulting from technical issues, miscommunication or any other reason. Any client wishing to bid by telephone should inform Roma Numismatics no later than 72 hours before the auction, and should have a prepared list of all the lots they wish to bid on.

Internet Bidding

BID ONLINE PRIOR TO THE AUCTION, SEE BIDS UPDATED IN REAL-TIME ON THE ROMA SITE. Internet bids may be submitted prior to the auction at www.RomaNumismatics.com - these bids will be automatically executed on the website. These bids will then be carried over into the live auction and executed by the auctioneer on the day. BID ONLINE DURING THE AUCTION, HEAR THE AUCTION LIVE ON YOUR COMPUTER. Real-time bids may be placed at www.the-saleroom.com on the day of the sale. These bids will be executed live on the floor. A 3% surcharge will apply to lots won through www.the-saleroom.com. This charge is made through the-saleroom. com and is not connected with Roma Numismatics. Roma Numismatics is not responsible for any missed lots or bids due to network speed or down-time. It is advisable to register as early as possible for this service, since all internet bidders must be manually approved by the auctioneer.

Successful Bids Successful bidders will be notified and invoiced within a few days of the auction. Prices realised will be published around the same time.

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ROMA NUMISMATICS AUCTION XVI MAIL BID FORM First Name:

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Conditions of Sale The following terms and conditions will apply to this auction: I.

All estimates are in POUNDS STERLING. The opening bids will be 80% of the estimate unless there are existing higher bids. A 23.5% Buyer’s Fee will be added to the hammer price. The buyer’s fee on invoices paid by bank transfer, UK cheque or cash will be discounted to 20%. II. VAT at 20% (applicable to customers within the UK and EU) is due on the Buyer’s Fee only, not the hammer price. III. The auctioneer guarantees the absolute authenticity of any and all coins sold. There is no expiration to this guarantee. Any coins subsequently found to be not authentic will be exchanged for a full refund of the purchase price. IV. Absentee bids must be submitted and received by 20:00 on the day before the auction at the latest. It is the bidder’s responsibility to ensure that bids have been received by Roma Numismatics. V. All grades and descriptions are the opinion of the cataloguer. Conditions of all lots are as per the photographs displayed on the Roma Numismatics website; condition reports are available upon request. It is not possible to note all marks or defects, and thus customers are encouraged to carefully examine in person all lots that they are interested in bidding on. Bids, once placed, are final and will not be rescinded. If, however, the description is found to be incorrect, the item is returnable within 21 days after the sale. No other returns will be accepted except on the grounds of non-authenticity. All prospective bidders who exercise the opportunity to examine lots in hand shall assume all responsibility for any damage they cause in so doing. The auctioneer shall have sole discretion in determining the value of the damage caused, which shall be promptly paid by the prospective bidder. VI. The auctioneer will have absolute discretion to accept or decline any bid, withdraw lots from sale at any time until such point as the purchaser takes physical possession, re-open any lot, even after the hammer has fallen, in which a bidding error has occurred, and to determine in the event of a dispute, the final winner of a lot or to rescind the sale and put the lot up for sale again. VII. For the protection of mail or absentee bidders, no ‘unlimited’ or ‘buy’ bids will be accepted. When identical bids are received for the same lot, preference will be given to the bid received first. A mail bid will take preference over a floor bid. VIII. Some lots may carry a reserve. The auctioneer reserves the right not to sell an item below the confidential price, or will repurchase the item on behalf of the consignor or for the account of Roma Numismatics Ltd. If a reserve exists the auctioneer reserves the right to bid on any lot on behalf of the consignor up to the amount of the reserve against any floor or mail bidders. The auctioneer also reserves the right to bid on any lot on behalf of Roma Numismatics Ltd. IX. Title remains with the owner until such time as the customer has paid in full. X. Invoices are due immediately upon receipt. Roma Numismatics Ltd. reserves the right to charge interest on unpaid invoices at the rate of 2% per calendar month, except where prior agreement has been made with regards to payment arrangements. XI. A £10 surcharge will be applied to payments made by bank transfer from outside of the UK. The customer is responsible for paying all bank charges and shipping and insurance costs. XII. A 3% surcharge will be applied to lots won through www.the-saleroom.com. Roma Numismatics is not responsible for any missed lots or bids due to network speed or down-time. XIII. By making a bid the customer agrees to the above terms and conditions and accepts to be bound by them. These conditions shall take effect and be construed in accordance with the provisions of English Law.

Restrictions on import to the United States and Germany All coins in this sale that are subject to US or German import restrictions may be legally imported into the US or Germany (unless otherwise explicitly stated in the lot description), and are accompanied by documentation proving that they were outside of the source country prior to the effective date, or a valid export certificate issued by the country of origin. Any coins subject to US or German import restrictions that may not lawfully be imported into these countries will be clearly indicated as such with the note: ‘not suitable for US/German market’. Our commitment to ethical and responsible provenance ensures that the consignor affirms each auction lot is their lawful property to sell, and where cultural property restrictions may exist, that it meets the requirements to be legally imported into the United States and/or Germany. Roma Numismatics will make every effort to ensure that import restrictions affect our clients as little as possible, and will carry out all necessary importations and procedures as required on behalf of the client.

PAYMENT METHODS: Invoices to be settled in POUNDS STERLING immediately upon receipt unless previously agreed otherwise. Bank Transfer: Barclays Bank, 22 The Borough, Farnham, GU9 7NH, UK | Account Name: Roma Numismatics IBAN: GB90 BUKB 2031 0663 0101 39 | BIC: BUKB GB22 | SORT CODE: 20-31-06 | ACC #: 63010139 Cheque (GBP only): Please make payable to Roma Numismatics Limited PayPal: sales@romanumismatics.com Credit/Debit Card: contact us directly on +44 (0)20 7121 6518

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New Auction Venue Auction XVI will be held at:

The King Harald V Room The Naval and Military Club No. 4 St. James’s Square London SW1Y 4JU United Kingdom Dress code:

Please note that all guests are required to adhere to the Club’s dress code: jacket and tie with smart shoes for men, elegant dress or business attire for women. Jeans and sports shoes are not permitted.

Abito consono:

Siete pregati di notare che tutti gli ospiti sono tenuti ad aderire al abito consono del Club: giacca e cravatta con scarpe eleganti per gli uomini, abito elegante o abbigliamento business per le donne. Non sono ammessi jeans e scarpe sportive.

Kleiderordnung:

Bitte beachten Sie, dass alle Gäste die kleiderordnung des Clubs befolgen müssen: Jacke und Krawatte mit eleganten Schuhen für Männer, elegante Kleidung oder Business-Kleidung für Frauen. Jeans und sportschuhe sind nicht erlaubt.

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COINS OF THE CELTS EASTERN EUROPE

1. Celts in Eastern Europe AV Stater. Imitating types of Alexander and Lysimachos. Late 2nd - mid 1st century BC. Celticised head of Herakles right, small figure on nose; pellet within annulet before / Celticised figure seated to left, holding small figure in extended hand; legends degraded to dashes at left and right; trident to left below. Cf. Castelin 1210ff. 3.88g, 22mm, 4h. Extremely Fine; wavy flan. Very Rare.

1,500

Sold with export licence issued by The Israel Antiquities Authority. Such imitations are found throughout the entire Black Sea area and as far north as the Baltic; their origin may be in the vicinity of Colchis-Iberia, in present day Georgia.

GAUL

COINS OF THE GREEKS A Superb Drachm of Massalia

2. Gaul, Massalia AR Drachm. Circa 150-130 BC. Draped bust of Artemis right, wearing stephane, bow and quiver over shoulder; ligate HE to right / Lion standing right; MAΣΣAΛIHTΩN above and below, ligate HE to right. Depeyrot, Marseille 38/3; SNG Milano 19. 2.48g, 16mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Exceptionally good style and condition for a coin of Massalia, and one of the finest surviving coins of that city.

4,000

Ex private Californian collection; Ex Triton XV, 3 January 2012, lot 1020; Ex Parsy, 15 April 2008, lot 191. Founded in around 600 BC by Greek colonists from Phokaia, Massalia was one of the first Greek ports in Western Europe. Thucydides notes that the Phokaian colonisation project was opposed by the Carthaginians, whose fleet was defeated (Peloponnesian War 1.13.6). A second wave of colonists arrived in about 540, when the mother city of Phokaia was destroyed by the Persians. At its height, in the 4th century BC, Massalia had a population of about 6000 inhabitants on around fifty hectares surrounded by a wall, and the city boasted a large temple of the cult of Apollo of Delphi on a hilltop overlooking the port and a temple of the cult of Artemis of Ephesus at the other end of the city, hence the latter’s prominence on the city’s coinage. The drachms minted in Massalia are found in all parts of Ligurian-Celtic Gaul; the city’s traders ventured into France on the rivers Durance and Rhône, and established overland trade routes to Switzerland and Burgundy, reaching as far north as the Baltic Sea. Between 330 and 320 BC, while Alexander was conquering vast swathes of the known world and expanding the Greeks’ knowledge of the fabled lands to the east, the mathematician and navigator Pytheas set out on an expedition by ship into the Atlantic visiting England, Shetland, and Norway, where he was the first scientist to describe drift ice and the midnight sun. The city prospered greatly on account of its favourable position between Gaul and the Roman Republic; as an important trading link between the two, the city maintained its independence until shortly after the date at which this issue is believed to have been produced, when Massalia was faced with an invasion by the Allobroges and Arverni tribes, prompting the inhabitants to enter into an alliance with Rome. Legions under Q. Fabius Maximus and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus defeated the Gauls at Vindalium in 121, and in return Rome received a strip of land through Massalian territority upon which was built the Via Domitia, a road to the Roman possessions in Spain. Massalia continued to flourish under Roman protection until 49 BC when it joined the losing side in the war between Caesar and Pompey. While all the coins of Massalia show a distinct Celtic flavour in the style of their engraving, and consequently vary in aesthetic merit from crude to the sublime, the present specimen represents a perfect blend of Celtic and Hellenistic influences that has resulted in dies of truly remarkable beauty. More impressive still is the condition in which this piece has survived, having been nearly perfectly preserved - despite the scale of production of the coins of Massalia, they are seldom found in such high grade.

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ETRURIA

The Collection of a Swiss Etruscologist Following on from the highly successful sale of the VCV Collection in Auction X, Roma Numismatics Ltd. is proud to present herein the Collection of a Swiss Etruscologist. Formed slowly over the past three decades, like the VCV Collection many of the constituent coins were purchased privately necessarily so, since few Etruscan coins have traditionally been offered at auction. Some of the coins have been purchased from the ADM collection (sold in Numismatica Ars Classica sales 7 in 1994 and 13 in 1998), and the aforementioned VCV collection, which it joins along with ‘An Important Etruscan Collection’ sold in Spink sale 81, 27 March 1991, as an important reference for Etruscan coinage. In terms of its size and scope it is comparable not only to these collections, but also those of major museums. Indeed few collections (public or private) can boast a single running-Metus didrachm of Vulci, let alone two. Of course, what is most exciting about cataloguing such a collection in a field that is still relatively not well understood and of which many if not most types remain very rare is not limited to the chance to hold and appreciate certain classic rarities, such as the iconic octopus-amphora 20 units and boar tridrachm of Populonia and the running-Metus didrachm of Vulci. It is also the number of previously unrecorded examples of very scarce types, previously unrecorded dies, and even entirely unrecorded types that come to light, having never been included in a scholarly census but which may now be rightly added to the corpus of Etruscan numismatics to enhance our understanding and that of collectors, scholars and art historians yet to come. Among these significant nova are two unique and unpublished coins worthy of note: an amphora silver ‘unit’ of Populonia (lot 9) and a diobol bearing a facing Silenus (lot 19); the addition of new specimens of known types to the existing corpus is no less important, particularly when considering such an extreme raritiy as the aforementioned Vulci didrachm (lot 87), or the lion-scalp diobol (lot 13). Despite the great age and grandeur of Etruscan civilisation, its coinage is mainly late and has been thoroughly reappraised by Italo Vecchi in Italian Cast Coinage, A descriptive catalogue of the cast coinage of Rome and Italy, 2013, and in his monumental study: Etruscan Coinage Part 1, A corpus of the struck coinage of the Rasna, 2012, in which a good many of these coins are published. We gratefully thank Italo Vecchi for his invaluable assistance in cataloguing this collection and presenting it herein for sale. It is the hope of the collector, whose patience over long years of careful collecting has yielded such an important assemblage, that by the publication and dispersal of these coins into the numismatic collecting community some new sparks may be struck that will continue in years to come the appreciation of these fragments of an ancient culture of whom so much has been irretrievably lost, and of whom despite the ongoing hard work of dedicated Etruscologists we still know so little.

The Sixth Known, From a Previously Unrecorded Die

3. Etruria, Lucca(?) AR 5 Units. Circa 325-300 BC. Bearded and laureate head left, [Λ behind] / Blank. Cf. EC I, 3; HN Italy 96; SNG France 84 (Ateliers incertains). 9.80g, 21mm. Very Fine. Extremely Rare, from a previously unrecorded die.

4,500

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992. This issue conforms stylistically with EC I, 3 which is attributed to Lucca on the basis of 2.1 and 3.3-4 having been found ‘sopra i monti lucchesi’ as reported by Ciampi in 1813. Though by weight it would be the lightest of the six known examples at 9.8g (as compared to a range of 10.96-11.37g, averaging at 11.19g), the condition of the metal is such that a higher original weight seems probable. Given that only five other specimens of EC I, 3 are known (of which four are in Museum collections - London [2], Milan and Paris) an unrecorded die is unsurprising.

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The Octopus and The Amphora

4. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Units. Early-mid 5th century BC. Amphora with blunt base set in elaborate stand, from the top of which emerges an octopus, tentacles spread to either side; XX below / Blank. EC I, 1.1-5 (O1, misattributed to Pisae); HN Italy 104 (Pisae); SNG ANS 16 (Uncertain mints). 22.59g. 33mm. Good Very Fine. One of six recorded examples, of which only two are in private hands, the others being in Basel’s Antikenmuseum, Lisbon’s Gulbenkian Collection, the BM in London, and the ANS collection in New York. 45,000 From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist; Ex Dr. Edward Salkin Collection (Newport Beach, CA); Privately purchased from Seaby’s, 1982. The previous attribution to Pisae of the octopus/amphora series was originally based on Garrucci’s statement (Le monete dell’Italia antica 1885, p. 49, 18) that two examples, first published by Bompois 1879, pl. 18, come from Pisa and that the name teuthìs or teuthòs, Greek for octopus, is similar to the ethnic Teuta-Teutones recorded by Pliny and Cato as the name of the first inhabitants of Italian Pisa. However, there is no verifiable evidence for a coin of this type ever having been found in or around Pisa. Authors including Toscanelli 1933 (p. 369 note 2 ), Neppi-Modona 1953 (p. 30h and p. 42 k), Bruni 1993 (pp. 81-82), ASAT (p. 63), Tesei 1992 (p. 196), BTCGI XIII (pp. 597-598) and HN Italy (p. 30) all perpetuated Pisan provenance for the series, without actually attesting to specific finds in Pisa or in the vicinity. Pisa in the 19th and early 20th centuries was then the principal commercial centre of Tuscany to where such collectors’ coins would gravitate, which likely caused this confusion. The amphora 20, 10 and 5 unit issues fit metrologically between the Populonia undenominated Chalkidian weight standard silver animal and monster series, EC I, 1-6, and the first Metus X, 5 and 2.5 denominated series EC I, 7-10. The octopus fractional issues EC I, 7-5 also belong to Populonia in the 3rd century BC. The design on this coin is impressive for its boldness and novelty, and at the same time highly enigmatic. Depicting an amphora on an elaborate (and probably weighted) stand intended to keep it upright when dropped from a boat into the sea, along with the top of the head of an octopus emerging from the opening with its tentacles splayed outwards on all sides, a quotidian fishing tool is transformed into a powerful sigil for the issuing authority. Along with the ubiquitous Gorgoneion, this type is emblematic of the Etruscan coinage series, though because of its extreme rarity few have ever seen one in hand and so it has for the most part been considered unobtainable by collectors and institutions alike. The elusive nature of the coin is matched by the obscurity of its significance; why the octopus motif occurs repeatedly on the coinage of Populonia is not known. It seems unlikely to be apotropaic in nature despite the qualities (some real, some imagined) attributed to octopodes by the ancients, since though it was known to be a dangerous, crafty and venomous animal, it was evidently also prized as a food source by the coastal Etruscans. The portrayal of the octopus in an amphora therefore suggests a usage similar to that of the crab of Akragas or the barley grain of Metapontion, which represented a prime local produce. As a powerful marine predator it is tempting to visualise a connection between the recurrent octopus theme and Etruscan naval prowess. Aside from their extensive maritime trade connections, the Etruscans were also renowned for possessing a formidable navy - something which only the richest states could afford to construct, equip and maintain. Indeed, Herodotus credits the Etruscans with the invention of the rostrum - the bronze beak affixed to the prow of warships to ram enemy vessels. Until the 5th century BC the Etruscans had effectively dominated the Tyrrhenian Sea, and at the Battle of Alalia were strong enough to form a combined fleet of 120 warships with the Carthaginians to resist Greek encroachment and piracy. The other principal types of the period - the Chimaera, the lion, the boar, and a marine lion-serpent monster - are clearly carefully chosen for their connotations of strength and intimidatory qualities. A simply mundane significance to this particular issue would therefore seem particularly incongruous. It thus seems highly likely that the ancient observer was intended to infer some deeper level of meaning from this motif, perhaps related to guile and ferocity in a marine context.

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An Extremely Rare Tridrachm

5. Etruria, Populonia AR Tridrachm. 5th century BC. Boar stepping to right on rocky ground; dotted border around / Blank. EC I, 2.8 (this coin): HN Italy 112; Sambon 19. 16.56g, 28mm. Good Very Fine; minor porosity on edge. Extremely Rare; one of only eight known specimens, of which all but two are in Museum collections (London, New York [2], Florence, Paris, Vatican), and one of the finest of all. 25,000 From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist; This coin published in I. Vecchi, Etruscan Coinage, 2012; Ex VCV Collection, Roma Numismatics X, 27 September 2015, lot 10. The earliest struck silver Etruscan tridrachms (as well as didrachms and drachms) seem to be those of Populonia and Vulci, and are attributed to the 5th century BC. They seem to be struck on the ‘Chalkidian’ silver drachm standard of nominally about 5.8g, a model provided by Etruria’s nearest Greek neighbour, Cumae in circa 475-470 BC. This weight standard is also found at other Greek cities important to Etruscan seaborne commerce in the early 5th century such as Himera, Naxos and Zankle-Messana. The coins, of which this type is certainly no exception, are of Greek style with an Etruscan flavour and display a predilection for apotropaic (demon-dispelling) images of exotic animals and monsters.

The First Metus Group

6. Etruria, Populonia AR 10 Units. Circa 425-400 BC. Head of Metus facing, hair bound in diadem; below, X / Blank. EC I, 8.37-45 (O6). 7.75g, 23mm. Good Very Fine. Very Rare; only 10 examples of this die recorded in EC.

3,500

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992. The first silver Metus group with marks of value of 10, 5, and 2.5 is on a standard which is (on average) close to the Attic didrachm or Corinthian stater of about 8.6g, divided by single units weighing 0.86g, and possibly linked to the Sicilian silver litra-unit, theoretically exactly of this weight. A ‘heavy standard’ (EC series 7) of didrachms weighing 8.17g on average was apparently short-lived, and is today extremely rare. This was followed by EC Series 8, of which the current coin is an excellent example, struck to an average weight of 7.72g. Of this latter series comparatively greater numbers of surviving specimens exist, but a significant proportion of these are in Museum collections.

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One of Only Two in Private Hands

7. Etruria, Populonia AR Didrachm. 4th century BC. Head of Turms left, wearing winged petasos, Etruscan legend ‘poepl’ around; all within dotted border / Blank. EC I, 11 (O1); SNG Firenze 70; I. Vecchi, ‘A new Etruscan toponym for Populonia: poepl’ in Schweizer Münzblätter 268, 2017, pp. 91-2 (this coin); I. Vecchi, ‘Un nuovo toponimo per Populonia: poe-p-l’ in Monete Antiche 97, 2018, pp. 3-4 (this coin); I. Vecchi, ‘A New Ancient Discovery’, Coin News January 2018, p. 39 (this coin). 8.32g, 22mm. Good Extremely Fine. In incredible state of preservation, and one of the very finest of all surviving Etruscan coins. Of the greatest rarity - one of only four known examples, and together with the following lot, the only two in private hands. 45,000 From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist; This coin published in Coin News January 2018; This coin published in Monete Antiche 97, 2018; This coin published in Schweizer Münzblätter 268, 2017; Ex VCV Collection, Roma Numismatics X, 27 September 2015, lot 23. Populonia was defined as a polis by Ptolemy (Geography 3.1.4), who used the Greek term Ποπλωνιον, while the Latin authors used various toponyms including: Populonium, Populonia and the ethnic Populonenses, cf. BTCGI XIV, Populonia pp. 199-202. However, this word is not attested in Indo-European languages outside of Italy and the populus family of words may have been borrowed from Etruscan in the first place, cf. Rix 1995. The etymology of Populonia is very complicated and has been much discussed by Latin and Etruscan etymologists. The presence of the above new word poepl is earlier than the previously recorded toponyms for Populonia and puts in doubt whether the deity Fufluns is connected with Populonia, as is commonly presumed, at least in the 4th century BC before the thorough Romanisation of Etruria and the subsequent assimilation of toponyms. It is much more likely that poepl is a contraction connected to the Proto-Italic *poplos and obviously related to the Umbrian publu/poplum (‘group of brandishers’, i.e. soldiers) and Latin populus, populum, populi (‘a people, as forming a political community, the public, a district or nation’). It is also related to the Oscan puplunai, a title of Juno meaning: ‘she who increases the number of the people’ possibly in the sense of the iuvenes, i.e. ‘the army’, (cf. ImIt I, pp. 535-7, Teanum Sicicium 4-6). Livy states in book 5 of Ab Urbe Condita that Juno/Uni was originally an Etruscan goddess of the Veientes, who was ceremonially adopted into the Roman pantheon after Veii was sacked in 396 BC. There is a general consensus that the Etruscan deities were not originally envisioned in human form, but instead as generalised, aniconic and fairly mysterious forces which manifested themselves through their effects. Several observations support this hypothesis, such as the lack of clarity regarding the sexes of the deities, some of whom are variously portrayed as both male and female. It is also apparent that the depiction of the Etruscan gods broadly follows those of Greek deities, but only in so far as a comparable Greek god could be found for an Etruscan one. Gods for whom a Greek counterpart could not so easily be found were thus not assimilated with Greek mythology. The Etruscan god Turms generally fulfilled the same functions as his Greek and Roman counterparts Hermes and Mercury, being the god of commerce and the messenger between mortals and the immortal gods. In a uniquely odd way however, the Etruscans divided the Greek Hermes into two gods - Turms, who was associated with Tinia (Zeus), and Turms Aitas, associated with Aita (Hades). The latter appears to fulfil the role of a psychopomp, (from the Greek word psychopompos, literally meaning the ‘guide of souls’), thus indicating at least a partial syncretism of the Greek Charon and Hermes. Meanwhile the Etruscan Charun, confusingly, is perhaps best seen as a death daimon and a guardian of the dead and of the underworld. Turms therefore cannot be understood to be simply a local form of Hermes as he is in the Roman pantheon; while he inarguably retains all of the visual attributes of the Greek source of his depiction like the winged cap, Turms (like the other Etruscan gods) more importantly represents specific functions or myths from archaic Etruscan belief which are still poorly understood.

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The Other One

8. Etruria, Populonia AR Didrachm. 4th century BC. Head of Turms left, wearing winged petasos, Etruscan legend ‘poepl’ around; all within dotted border / Blank. EC I, 11 (O1); SNG Firenze 70; I. Vecchi, ‘A new Etruscan toponym for Populonia: poepl’ in SNR SM 268, 217, pp. 91-2; I. Vecchi, ‘Un nuovo toponimo per Populonia: poe-p-l’ in Monete Antiche 97, 2018, pp. 3-4; I. Vecchi, ‘A New Ancient Discovery’, Coin News January 2018, p. 39. 6.59, 23mm. Extremely Fine; dark tone. Of the Highest Rarity - one of only four examples recorded, of which only two are in private hands (the other two both in Florence, and of very poor quality, though 11.1 is fortunately sufficiently well preserved to definitively determine that the dies used to strike it, and the two coins presented here are are indeed the same. 22,500 From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist; Ex Erik Schonholz Collection (USA); Privately purchased from The Fountainhead of Fine Coins (New York), 1976.

A Unique Silver Fraction

2x 9. Etruria, Populonia AR Unit. 4th century BC. Amphora / Large I. Unpublished and unique, for obverse type cf. EC I, 129. 0.66g, 9mm. Good Very Fine. Unique.

2,000

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992. This newly discovered series with a clear mark of value seems to be on a similar silver unit weight standard to series EC I, 12-16 and 17-19. The use of an amphora as the principal design should of course not surprise us conisdering its appearance on EC I, 129 and of course (albeit in more elaborate form) on EC I, series 1-3 formerly attributed to Pisae.

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2x 10. Etruria, Populonia AR Unit. Late 4th century BC. Wheel with long crossbar, central pin supported by two struts / Blank. EC I, 19.2 (O1); HN Italy 126; SNG Firenze 79-80. 0.75g, 11mm. Very Fine. Extremely Rare; one of fewer than ten known examples.

2,250

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992. The cartwheel is of archaic style and is found supporting two-seated bigas in sarcophagus reliefs from Bologna and Vulci. The same wheel is also employed on the reverses of the didrachms of Vulci (see lots 86-7) and on some of the cast coinage of the Chiana Valley, but as they are on different weight standards and come from other find areas they are probably not directly connected.

2x 11. Etruria, Populonia AR Unit. Late 4th century BC. Wheel with long crossbar, central pin supported by two struts / Blank. EC I, 19.1-5 (O1); HN Italy 126; SNG Firenze 79-80. 0.61g, 11mm. Very Fine. Extremely Rare; one of fewer than ten known examples.

2,250

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

Extremely Rare Hare Type

12. Etruria, Populonia AR Drachm. Late 4th - 3rd century BC. Hare leaping right / Blank. EC I, 116.3-6 (O2); HN Italy 223; SNG ANS 22. 3.96g, 16mm. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare; one of only ten known examples of this type (of which five are in Museum collections) and one of just five examples from this die. 4,000 From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992. The hare was a popular motif in Etruscan art, particularly on surviving pottery and bronze ware. A bronze statuette sold by Royal Athena Galleries (New York) portrays a standing figure of Turms holding a sacrificial hare and the remains of a knife. The possibility therefore of the hare shown here representing a sacrificial animal or a symbolic attribute of swift-footed Turms (perhaps as the lion-skin diobol [see following lot] relates to Hercle?) should not be ignored, though the depiction of other animals including dolphins and octopodes (see following lots) also cannot yet be satisfactorily explained.

The Fifth and Finest Known

2x 13. Etruria, Populonia AR Diobol. Late 4th - 3rd century BC. Lion’s scalp facing / Blank. EC I, 119.1-4 (O1); SNG Firenze 1163-4. 1.05g, 12mm. Extremely Fine. The fifth, and finest, example extant, and one of only two in private hands - the others in Florence (2) and Rome.

5,000

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992. It seems plausible that the lion-skin type of this diobol may relate to Hercle, given that he and/or his club attribute appear on the Metus and Hercle series of 20 asses.

8


2x 14. Etruria, Populonia AR Diobol (?). Late 4th - 3rd century BC. Two dolphins, belly to belly, swimming in a circle / Blank. EC I, 122.2 (O2); HN Italy 223; SNG ANS 33. 0.69g, 11mm. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare, the second recorded example from this die.

1,500

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

2x 15. Etruria, Populonia AR Diobol (?). Late 4th - 3rd century BC. Two dolphins, belly to belly, swimming in a circle / Blank. EC I, 122.4 (O4); HN Italy 223; SNG ANS 33. 0.78g, 12mm. Very Fine; broken and repaired. Extremely Rare; one of only three recorded examples from this die.

450

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

2x 16. Etruria, Populonia AR Unit (?). 4th - 3rd century. Octopus / Blank. EC I, 5.22-29 (O3, misattributed to Pisae); HN Italy 227. 1.28g. 11mm. Very Fine.

650

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

2x 17. Etruria, Populonia AR Unit (?). 4th - 3rd century. Octopus / Blank. EC I, 5.22-29 (O3, misattributed to Pisae); HN Italy 227. 1.19g. 11mm. Very Fine.

650

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

2x 18. Etruria, Populonia AR Unit (?). 4th - 3rd century. Octopus / Blank. EC I, Pisae 5.27 (O3, misattributed to Pisae, this coin); HN Italy 227. 1.07g, 10mm. Good Very Fine. Very Rare. From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist; This coin published in I. Vecchi, Etruscan Coinage, 2012; Ex VCV Collection, Roma Numismatics X, 27 September 2015, lot 15.

9

500


Unique and Unpublished

2x 19. Etruria, Populonia AR Diobol (?). Late 4th - 3rd century BC. Head of Silenus facing / Blank. Cf. EC I, 123.1-3; HN Italy 232; SNG ANS 23. 0.64g, 10mm. Extremely Fine. Unique and unpublished.

2,500

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992. An important addition to the corpus of Etruscan numismatics, the die for this previously unknown silver fraction was engraved in an elegant style, evidently by an artist who was no stranger to facing portrait design - as well we might expect of Populonia.

20. Etruria, uncertain mint Æ 25 Units (Centesimae). Late 4th century BC. Helmeted head of Menvra right, ΛXX behind; all within laurel wreath / Incuse cock standing left within laurel wreath. EC I, 6 (O1/R3?); HN Italy 81. 8.17g, 22mm, 9h. Very Fine. Very Rare, the eleventh recorded example.

1,000

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist; Ex VCV Collection, Roma Numismatics X, 27 September 2015, lot 95. The carefully engraved bronze series characterised by wreath-bordered obverses and incuse reverses clearly belongs to a single mint, but the widely dispersed provenances (Acanaro, Cecina, Cetona, Gravisca, Populonia, Valle d’Orcia, Valle Fuino di Cascia and Vetulonia) are of little help in identifying it. However, bronze cast and struck issues did predominate in central Etruria where 4 of the finds were made. The denominations are tariffed in centesimal marks of value from 1 to 100 Units, with the basic bronze unit on a standard somewhere between 0.6g and 1g. This may have been an attempt to divide a nominal as by centesimae rather than onciae as seen on the double denominated Populonia bronze series 139 with /X (11 Units equated to a triens) and Populonia series EC I, 140 with X (= 10 Units equated to a triens of lower weight) and the > or (5 Units) denominated bronzes from the Val di Chiana - cf. HN Italy 72, 74 and 75.

21. Etruria, Populonia Æ 5 Units. Late 4th - 3rd century BC. Head right, wearing Phrygian helmet; V behind / Incuse cross shape, within linear border. EC I, 13.6 (O1/R1, Uncertain Central Etruria); HN Italy 87 (Uncertain Central Etruria). 2.80g, 17mm. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

1,750

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

22. Etruria, Populonia Æ 2.5 Units. Late 4th - 3rd century BC. Head right, wearing Phrygian helmet; VII in front / Incuse spiral, within linear border. EC I, 16.3 (O2/R?, this coin, Uncertain Central Etruria); HN Italy 90 (Uncertain Central Etruria). 2.12g, 17mm. Good Very Fine. Very Rare. This coin published in I. Vecchi, Etruscan Coinage, 2012; From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

10

850


A Very Rare Gold Fraction of Populonia

3x 23. Etruria, Populonia AV 10 Units. Early 3rd century BC. Male head right, X before chin / Blank. EC I, 29.23 (this coin); HN Italy 135; Sambon 7. 0.55g, 9mm. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

2,000

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist; This coin published in I. Vecchi, Etruscan Coinage, 2012; Ex VCV Collection, Roma Numismatics X, 27 September 2015, lot 26. The third and most extensive coin phase of Populonia consists of gold coins with marks of value of 50, 25, 12.5 and 10 (series 20-36) on a weight standard of a single gold unit of about 0.06g, very close to the standards of the gold litra of Sicily at the time of Agathokles from 304-289 BC, and the Roman gold Mars/eagle issues of c. 211 (Crawford 44/2-4) of 0.056g, one series of which is attributed to a mint in Etruria (Crawford 106/2).

24. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. Circa 300-250 BC. Facing head of Metus, hair bound with diadem; X:X below / ‘poplv’. EC I, 37 (O1); HN Italy 142. 8.26g, 21mm. Extremely Fine.

1,750

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992. The second silver Metus group is the most extensive of all Etruscan groups and consists of denominations similar to the first Metus group, but with value marks of exactly the double: 20, 10, 5, 2.5, 1 and possibly a half unit (series 37-111). The average weight of the 20 unit pieces clusters around 8.4 g, but enough examples weigh over 8.5 g to indicate that their theoretical intended weight may have been a stater of 8.6 grams, close to that of the Corinthian type staters current in southern Italy and Sicily in the early 3rd century. This denomination is divided by 20 units, presumably Roman libral cast asses, dominant throughout central Italy from the 280s BC, rendering a silver unit of about 0.43g, close to the standard of Rome’s earliest 10-as denarii. Although similar in weight standard, they seem only to anticipate the Roman denarius of c. 211 BC, since the chronological evidence from both the Populonia (1939) and Ponte Gini (1986) finds point to a burial date of the first half of the 3rd century BC.

25. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. Circa 300-250 BC. Facing head of Metus, hair bound with diadem; X:X below / ‘poplv’. EC I, 37 (O1); HN Italy 142. 8.65g, 22mm. Extremely Fine. From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

11

1,750


26. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. Circa 300-250 BC. Facing head of Metus, hair bound with diadem; XX below / Octopus. EC I, 41.15 (O10/R12); HN Italy 146. 7.01g, 21mm. Very Fine; rough surfaces. Extremely Rare; the second recorded example.

450

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

27. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. Circa 300-250 BC. Facing head of Metus, hair bound with diadem; X:X below / Club. EC I, 46.1-17 (O12/R16); HN Italy 149. 8.12g, 25mm. Very Fine. Very Rare.

1,750

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

28. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. Circa 300-250 BC. Facing head of Metus, hair bound with diadem; X:X below / Club. EC I, 46.1-17 (O12/R16); HN Italy 149. 8.50g, 24mm. Very Fine. Very Rare.

625

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

29. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. Circa 300-250 BC. Facing head of Metus, hair bound with diadem; X.:.X below / Uncertain round protuberance. EC I, 47.120-155 (O13/R17); HN Italy 146. 8.49g, 23mm. Good Very Fine. From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

12

1,750


30. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. Circa 300-250 BC. Facing head of Metus, hair bound with diadem; X X below / Two caducei. EC I, 48.1-91 (O14/ R18); HN Italy 150. 8.22g, 23mm. Good Very Fine.

1,250

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

31. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. Circa 300-250 BC. Facing head of Metus, hair bound with diadem; X X below / Two caducei. EC I, 48.1-91 (O14/ R18); HN Italy 150. 8.53g, 22mm. Good Very Fine.

1,500

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

32. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. Circa 300-250 BC. Facing head of Metus, hair bound with diadem; X X below / Two caducei. EC I, 48.1-91 (O14/ R18); HN Italy 150. 8.26g, 21mm. Good Very Fine.

1,250

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

33. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. Circa 300-250 BC. Facing head of Metus, hair bound with diadem; X X below / Two caducei. EC I, 48.1-91 (O14/ R18); HN Italy 150. 8.57g, 21mm. Good Very Fine. From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

13

1,250


34. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. Circa 300-250 BC. Facing head of Metus, hair bound with diadem; X:X below / Blank. EC I, 52.1-233 (O20); HN Italy 152. 8.22g, 22mm. Extremely Fine; the usual die-break of this issue.

1,250

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

35. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. Circa 300-250 BC. Facing head of Metus, hair bound with diadem; X:X below / Blank. EC I, 52.1-233 (O20); HN Italy 152. 8.21g, 20mm. Extremely Fine; the usual die-break of this issue.

1,000

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

36. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. Circa 300-250 BC. Facing head of Metus, hair bound with diadem; X:X below / Blank. EC I, 52.1-233 (O20); HN Italy 152. 8.30g, 21mm. Extremely Fine; the usual die-break of this issue.

1,000

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

37. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. Circa 300-250 BC. Facing head of Metus, hair bound with diadem; OX.:.XO below / Blank. EC I, 54.19-43 (O24); HN Italy 152. 8.48 g, 22mm. Very Fine. Rare. From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

14

1,500


Ex Hess-Leu 1960

38. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. Circa 300-250 BC. Facing head of Metus, hair bound with diadem; X:X below / Blank. EC I, 58.93 (O33, this coin); HN Italy 152. 8.45g, 25mm. Extremely Fine.

3,500

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist; This coin published in I. Vecchi, Etruscan Coinage, 2012; Ex Astarte 7, 10 October 2001, lot 4; Ex Athos D. Moretti Collection, Numismatica Ars Classica 7, 1 March 1994, lot 67; Ex Hess-Leu 15, 7 April 1960, lot 24.

39. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. Circa 300-250 BC. Facing head of Metus, hair bound with diadem; X X below / Blank. EC I, 59.12-53 (O36); HN Italy 152. 8.35g, 25mm. Extremely Fine; small die-break.

1,250

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

40. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. Circa 300-250 BC. Facing head of Metus, hair bound with diadem; X X below / Blank. EC I, 60.11-102 (O38); HN Italy 152. 8.54g, 25mm. Good Very Fine.

1,750

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

41. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. Circa 300-250 BC. Facing head of Metus, hair bound with diadem; X X below / Blank. EC I, 60.104 (O39, this coin); HN Italy 152. 7.39g, 21mm. Extremely Fine; of very unusual style. Very Rare. From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist; This coin published in I. Vecchi, Etruscan Coinage, 2012; Ex Astarte 7, 10 October 2001, lot 12.

15

1,500


A Beautiful and Mysterious Issue

42. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. Circa 300-250 BC. Facing head of Metus with curly ‘hair’ and torque-like diadem over head, wings on either side; X. .X below / Blank. EC I, 62.20 (O49, this coin); HN Italy 152. 7.63g, 22mm. Extremely Fine. Very Rare; one of only ten examples from this die.

6,500

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist; This coin published in I. Vecchi, Etruscan Coinage, 2012; Ex Astarte 7, 10 October 2001, lot 11. While at first glance this issue appears to follow on from the previous series (EC I, 61) given the curved diadem above the head, closer inspection reveals some important discrepancies. Firstly, the ‘hair’ bears little resemblance to any of the preceding Metus issues, with semicircular ringlets enclosing pellet ornaments. More important is the placement of two wings to either side of the uppermost part of head, just above the ‘diadem’. While the winged head of Medusa is a common convention in later Greek art, it is quite unusual in this context. Stylistically and iconographically this series stands well apart from the rest of the Second Metus Group (series 37-64). In terms of the artistry employed, the semi-circular pellet-in-ringlets and curved, pelleted diadem above the head lend an almost Celtic quality to the style of the work; the addition of the small wings above the head represent an abrupt departure from the more archaizing heads that preceded this issue. It is difficult to tell, on account of the poor condition of the surviving examples, if the wings were present on the other die (O48) used to strike this issue, but it seems likely that they were not. This issue should certainly be considered to be in the first rank of surviving Etruscan coinage; it is a bold and fresh take on an extensive series, and of great aesthetic quality.

43. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. Circa 300-250 BC. Facing head of Hercle, wearing lion’s skin knotted at neck; X X below / Blank. EC I, 65.1-107 (O1); HN Italy 155. 8.55g, 20mm. Extremely Fine. From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

16

2,500


44. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. Circa 300-250 BC. Facing head of Hercle, wearing lion’s skin knotted at neck; X X below / Blank. EC I, 65.1-107 (O1); HN Italy 155. 8.40g, 20mm. Very Fine.

850

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

45. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. Circa 300-250 BC. Facing head of Hercle, wearing lion’s skin knotted at neck; X X below / Club. EC I, 66.1-41 (O2/R1); HN Italy 156. 8.27g, 24mm. Extremely Fine.

2,500

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

46. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. Circa 300-250 BC. Facing head of Hercle, wearing lion’s skin knotted at neck; X X below / Club. EC I, 66.1-41 (O2/R1); HN Italy 156. 8.32g, 24mm. Extremely Fine.

2,000

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

47. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. Circa 300-250 BC. Facing head of Hercle, wearing lion’s skin knotted at neck; X X below / Club. EC I, 66.1-41 (O2/R1); HN Italy 156. 8.44g, 24mm. Good Very Fine. From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

17

1,250


48. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. Circa 300-250 BC. Facing head of Hercle, wearing lion’s skin knotted at neck; X X below / Club. EC I, 66.1-41 (O2/R1); HN Italy 156. 8.33g, 19mm. Very Fine.

1,500

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

49. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. Circa 300-250 BC. Facing head of Hercle, wearing lion’s skin knotted at neck; X X below / Club. EC I, 66.1-41 (O2/R1); HN Italy 156. 8.29g, 22mm. Very Fine.

1,000

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

50. Etruria, Populonia AR 10 Asses. Circa 300-250 BC. Laureate male head left, slightly bearded; + behind / Blank. EC I, 70, 1-141 (O1); HN Italy 168. 3.17g, 18mm. Good Very Fine.

850

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

51. Etruria, Populonia AR 10 Asses. Circa 300-250 BC. Laureate male head left, slightly bearded; + behind / Blank. EC I, 70, 1-141 (O1); HN Italy 168. 3.81g, 18mm. Good Very Fine.

850

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

52. Etruria, Populonia AR 10 Asses. Circa 300-250 BC. Laureate male head left, slightly bearded; + behind / Blank. EC I, 70, 1-141 (O1); HN Italy 168. 3.81g, 18mm. Good Very Fine. From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

18

850


53. Etruria, Populonia AR 10 Asses. Circa 300-250 BC. Laureate male head left, slightly bearded; + behind / Blank. EC I, 70, 159-264 (O3); HN Italy 168. 4.19g, 18mm. Very Fine. With the usual die-break of this issue.

450

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

The Third and Finest Recorded Example

2x 54. Etruria, Populonia AR 10 Asses. Circa 300-250 BC. Laureate male head right, with sideburn; + behind / Blank. EC I, 74, 1-2 (O14) HN Italy 169. 4.12g, 20mm. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; the finest of three recorded examples from this die (two of which are in private hands including this example, one in Berlin), and one of only five examples from this issue, of which two are in Museums (Berlin, Florence). 3,500 From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992. The quality of die engraving employed in the production of this issue is considerably superior to that of the preceding and following series, which all display a more angular technique, resulting in a much less individualistic and instead more stylised portrait. The laureate male head on this issue is by contrast far more refined, and would have been out of place in Sicily or mainland Greece; indeed, the style is somewhat reminiscent of some of the finer Apollo portraits struck on coins at late fourth century Katane and early third century Olynthos, as well as generic statuary depictions of classical Greek athletes.

55. Etruria, Populonia AR 10 Asses. Circa 300-250 BC. Female head right, wearing broad hair band and triple-pendant earring; + behind / Blank. EC I, 75, 41-63 (O12) HN Italy 165. 3.99g, 18mm. Very Fine.

1,250

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

56. Etruria, Populonia AR 10 Asses. Circa 300-250 BC. Female head right, wearing broad hair band and triple-pendant earring; + behind / Blank. EC I, 75, 41-63 (O12) HN Italy 165. 4.21g, 20mm. Very Fine. From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

19

1,250


The Only Example in Private Hands

2x 57. Etruria, Populonia AR 10 Asses. Circa 300-250 BC. Head of Persipina right, wearing barley wreath; + behind / Blank. EC I, 78, 2 (this coin); HN Italy 165 (part); McClean collection 136 = Grose 136. 3.67g, 19mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; one of only two examples recorded and the only one in private hands (the other in the Fitzwilliam, Cambridge). 7,000 From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist; This coin published in I. Vecchi, Etruscan Coinage, 2012; Ex Astarte 7, 10 October 2001, lot 9.

58. Etruria, Populonia AR 10 Asses. Circa 300-250 BC. Wreathed female head right; + behind / Blank. EC I, 79, 2-7 (O2); HN Italy 169 (part); SNG Firenze 474. 2.62g, 19mm. Very Fine. Extremely Rare; only seven examples recorded.

1,500

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

59. Etruria, Populonia AR 5 Asses. 3rd century BC. Head of Turms right, wearing winged petasos; V behind / Blank. EC I, 81 (O1); HN Italy 161. 1.70g, 16mm. Good Very Fine. Very Rare, and in exceptional condition for the type.

1,750

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992. 1.5x

1.5x

60

61

60. Etruria, Populonia AR 5 Asses. 3rd century BC. Head of Turms right, wearing winged petasos; V behind / Blank. EC I, 81 (O1); HN Italy 161. 1.38g, 14mm. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

750

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992. 61. Etruria, Populonia AR 5 Asses. 3rd century BC. Head of Turms right, wearing winged petasos; V behind / Blank. EC I, 84, 1-11 (O4); HN Italy 161. 1.09g, 14mm. Very Fine. Rare. From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

20

450


2x 62. Etruria, Populonia AR 5 Asses. 3rd century BC. Head of Turms right, wearing winged petasos; V behind / Blank. EC I, 84.27 (O17); HN Italy 161. 0.82g, 14mm. Very Fine. Extremely Rare; the second recorded example.

500

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

2x 63. Etruria, Populonia AR 5 Asses. 3rd century BC. Head of Turms left, wearing winged petasos; traces of Etruscan legend ‘pvplvna’ above helmet, V behind / Blank. EC I, 85, 1 (O1, this coin); HN Italy -. 1.47g, 15mm. Very Fine. Unique.

1,250

This coin published in I. Vecchi, Etruscan Coinage, 2012; From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

2x 64. Etruria, Populonia AR 5 Asses. 3rd century BC. Diademed and bearded head right; [V behind] / Blank. EC I, 89 (O1); HN Italy 174. 1.21g, 14mm. Extremely Fine.

1,500

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

2x 65. Etruria, Populonia AR 5 Asses. 3rd century BC. Diademed and bearded head right; V behind / Blank. EC I, 89 (O1); HN Italy 174. 1.97g, 14mm. Very Fine.

850

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

2x 66. Etruria, Populonia AR 5 Asses. 3rd century BC. Male head right, V behind / Blank. EC I, 90.23 (O6); HN Italy 170; Sambon 81. 1.81g, 13mm. Very Fine. Very Rare; only two other examples on CoinArchives. From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist; Ex VCV Collection, Roma Numismatics X, 27 September 2015, lot 59.

21

500


2x 67. Etruria, Populonia AR 5 Asses. 3rd century BC. Young male head with curly hair left; V behind / Blank. EC I, 91 (O1); HN Italy 173. 1.48g, 13mm. Very Fine. Extremely Rare; one of only seven known examples, four of which are in Museum collections.

1,750

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992. 2x

2x

68

69

68. Etruria, Populonia AR 2.5 Asses. 3rd century BC. Young male head right; VII behind / Blank. EC I, 95 (O1); HN Italy 175. 1.01g, 11mm. Extremely Fine. From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

1,750

69. Etruria, Populonia AR 2.5 Asses. 3rd century BC. Young male head right; VII behind / Blank. EC I, 95 (O1); HN Italy 175. 0.81g, 10mm. Good Very Fine. From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

1,000

2x 70. Etruria, Populonia AR 2.5 Asses. 3rd century BC. Male head right; CII behind / Blank. EC I, 96.21-3 (O19); HN Italy 175. 0.95g, 10mm. Extremely Fine. Very Rare; one of only four known examples from this die.

750

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist; Ex VCV Collection, Roma Numismatics X, 27 September 2015, lot 72. 2x

2x

71

72

71. Etruria, Populonia AR 2.5 Asses. 3rd century BC. Female head right, hair caught up with band; CII behind / Blank. EC I, 102, 1-6 (O1); HN Italy 178. 0.75g, 11mm. Good Very Fine. 1,250 From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992. 72. Etruria, Populonia AR As (Libella). 3rd century BC. Young male head left / Blank. EC I, 107.4, (O3); HN Italy 175. 0.94g, 12mm. Extremely Fine. Only three recorded examples. From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992. 2x

2x

73

74

73. Etruria, Populonia AR As (Libella). 3rd century BC. Young male head left / Blank. EC I, 107.4, (O3); HN Italy 175. 0.53g, 11mm. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare - only three recorded examples. From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

1,000

700

74. Etruria, Populonia AR As. 3rd century BC. Male head right / Blank. EC I, 109.3 (O3, this coin); HN Italy 182; Sambon -; Vicari -. 0.60g, 9mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, one of less than a dozen known examples. 500 From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist; This coin published in I. Vecchi, Etruscan Coinage, 2012; Ex VCV Collection, Roma Numismatics X, 27 September 2015, lot 74.

22


Unique and Unpublished

2x 75. Etruria, Populonia AR As(?). 3rd century BC. Young male head right / Crescent. Unpublished in the standard references, for type cf. EC I, 110. 0.31g, 8mm. Very Fine. Unique and unpublished.

700

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

76. Etruria, Populonia Æ Uncia. Late 3rd century BC. Female head right, hair caught up with band / Sunburst. EC I, 131.1-2 (O1/R1); HN Italy 116. 6.36g, 23mm. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare; only the fourth example recorded.

1,500

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

77. Etruria, Populonia Æ Uncia. Late 3rd century BC. Head of Sethluns right; two pellets behind / Etruscan legend ‘vetalv pvflvna’, hammer and tongs, two pellets between. EC I, 132.13 (01/R2, this coin); HN Italy 188; SNG Copenhagen 8. 10.64g, 26mm, 3h. Very Fine.

850

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist; This coin published in I. Vecchi, Etruscan Coinage, 2012; Ex Astarte 1, 11 May 1998, lot 3.

78. Etruria, Populonia Æ Triens. Late 3rd century BC. Head of Menvra right, wearing Corinthian helmet; four pellets below / Etruscan legend ‘pvplvna’, owl facing with wings spread; four pellets above; stars flanking. EC I, 133.5 (O1/R1, this coin); HN Italy 184; Sambon 114. 24.58g, 30mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist; This coin published in I. Vecchi, Etruscan Coinage, 2012; Ex Dix Noonan & Webb 75, 26 September 2007, lot 2032; Ex Tony Hardy Collection, Classical Numismatic Group 67, 22 September 2004, lot 50; Ex Athos D. Moretti Collection, Numismatica Ars Classica 7, 1 March 1994, lot 18; Ex Spink 82, 27 March 1991, lot 409.

23

1,750


79. Etruria, Populonia Æ Sextans. Late 3rd century BC. Head of Menvra right, wearing Corinthian helmet; two pellets above / Etruscan legend ‘pvplvna’, owl standing to right on two pellets, head facing; crescent above. EC I, 135.56-80 (O5/R17); HN Italy 186; SNG Copenhagen 4. 7.38g, 24mm, 6h. Very Fine; attractive dark green patina.

450

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

80. Etruria, Populonia Æ 11 Units. Late 3rd century BC. Bust of Turms right, wearing winged petasos; crescent to left / Etruscan legend ‘pvplvna’ between two caducei; X/ between. EC I, 139.1-7 (O1/R1); HN Italy 190; SNG ANS 96. 11.51g, 27mm, 1h. Good Very Fine; light sage-green patina and uncommonly attractive for this issue.

850

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

81. Etruria, Populonia Æ Triens of 10 Units. Late 3rd century BC. Bust of Sethlans right, wearing pileus decorated with laurel-wreath; X behind / Etruscan legend ‘pvplvna’ below hammer and tongs; four pellets between. ECI, 140.81 (O2/R6); HN Italy 195; SNG Copenhagen 7. 7.72g, 26mm, 6h. Very Fine.

850

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

82. Etruria, Vetulonia Æ Uncia. 3rd century BC. Female head right / Blank. EC I, 1 (O1); HN Italy 198; SNG ANS 98. 8.29g, 20mm. Fair. Very Rare. From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

24

225


One of Only Three in Private Hands

83. Etruria, Vetulonia Æ Semuncia. 3rd century BC. Male head right, wearing pileus / Steering oar. EC I, 5 (O1/R1); HN Italy 199; SNG Firenze 66370. 4.22g, 16mm, 9h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare; only three recorded in commerce and eight in the Florence Archaeological Museum.

2,250

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992. Vetulonia was one of the most ancient cities of the Etruscan League, established on the heights of Poggio Colonna dominating a navigable bay, with access to the Tyrrhenian Sea, that by Roman times was a lake (Lacus Prilius), later a marsh and is now the Grosseto plain. The city is mentioned by Dionysios of Halikarnassos (Arch., 3.51), Pliny (NH, 3.51), Ptolemy (Geographia, 3.1.49) and Silius Italicus (Punica, 8.484-5) who inform us that in Roman tradition Vetulonia was famous as a city from whence Rome adopted the fasces, the sella curulis, the purple toga and the trumpet - a tradition in part confirmed by the iron fasces found in the ‘Tomba del Littore’ at Vetulonia and dated to c. 600 BC. The discovery at Cerveteri (Caere) in 1840 of the so-called ‘throne of Claudius’ (now in the Musei Vaticani) upon which is depicted in bas-relief the figure of a young man standing on a pedestal inscribed VETVLONENSIS and holding a steering oar excited great interest. This unusual image encouraged vigorous speculation concerning the whereabouts of ancient Vetulonia, whose precise location was not then known. Thanks to the identification of numerous coins with the legend ‘Vatl’ by Isidoro Falchi at Colonna di Buriano, the now-inland site of Vetulonia was identified and the town was restored to its old name of Vetulonia by royal decree in 1887.

84. Etruria, Vetulonia Æ Sextans. 3rd century BC. Head of Nethuns right, wearing ketos headdress; two pellets below, Etruscan legend ‘vatl’ behind / Ornamental trident between two dolphins; two pellets flanking. EC I, 11.1–25 (O2/R2); HN Italy 203. 7.11g, 21mm, 7h. Good Very Fine.

625

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992. The coinage of Vetulonia, with its overwhelmingly maritime themes, attests to the importance of maritime trade and the sea in general to the Etruscans. This is moreover confirmed by the depiction of ships on frescoes, the presence of model ships in Etruscan tombs, and the enormous quantity of foreign goods that found their way to Etruria, significant quantities of which (Greek vases in particular) have been found in the aforementioned tombs. That the Etruscans themselves were skilled sailors and navigators is grudgingly corroborated by Greek and Roman writers who pay them the backhanded compliment of referring to them collectively as Tyrrhenian pirates (such was their domination of the waters off the coast of western Italy). Within their sphere of influence could be counted Sardinia, Corsica, southern France and even parts of Spain and Sicily. An alliance with Carthage prevented any significant Greek colonisation or incursion into their dominions; in 540 a combined Etruscan and Carthaginian taskforce of 120 warships descended on the Phokaian refugees who had settled at Alalia in Corsica, and having inflicted considerable losses, forced them to abandon the island. Etruscan mastery of the western coast of Italy would however be challenged by the rise of Syracuse, who followed the Athenian example of constructing a standing fleet of triremes – an expensive undertaking the Etruscans were unwilling or unable to match – and at the Battle of Cumae in 475 BC an Etruscan fleet was decisively defeated, considerably weakening their influence in Italy and costing them their valuable mastery of the sea.

85. Etruria, Volaterrae Cast Æ Quadrans. 3rd century BC. Janiform young male head, wearing pointed cap / Club, three pellets in field, Etruscan legend ‘velθri’ around. ICC 139; HN Italy 109c; Haeberlin pp. 247-8, 1-75, pl. 84, 84, 6-7. 40.63g, 38mm, 6h. Near Very Fine. From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

25

175


26


A Classic Rarity

86.

Etruria, Vulci AR Didrachm. 5th - 4th century BC. Winged Metus running to left, head facing, holding serpent in each hand / Cartwheel with long crossbar supported by two struts; Etruscan legend ‘θe-zi’ above and below strut. EC I, 1.8 (O1/R4, this coin); HN Italy 206 (Volci?); SNG ANS 12 (Uncertain mints); BMC Italy = PCG pl. 13, 1 (Uncertain mint of Etruria). 10.90g, 28mm, 8h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; a superb example of a classic rarity of high late archaic artistic merit that has only ever been in a public sale twice, but with different die combinations: Leu Numismatik 77 (2000), lot 26, and Numismatic Ars Classica 18 (2000), lot 1. 50,000 From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist; This coin published in I. Vecchi, Etruscan Coinage, 2012; Privately purchased from Freeman & Sear (Los Angeles), 3 May 2002. The identification of Vulci as the mint is based on single spot finds in the general vicinity of that city. The coins are of a late archaic style of high artistic merit, some with legends ‘θezi’ and ‘θezle’ (TLE 785-786), which have been much discussed. The most recent interpretation suggests a connection with the concept of ‘la sfera del sacro’ (cf. Bruni 1986, pp. 83-103; see also Pallotino 1975 p. 367), a sacred area, possibly within a temple compound responsible for the coinage, similar to that at the temple of Juno Moneta in Rome. The coins have no marks of value and are on a weight standard of about 5.8g, similar to the early issues of Populonia (EC I, Series 1-6) and Luca (?) (EC I, Series 11-6). The ruins of the city of Vulci (Etr. Velx-; Latin Volci) in southwest Etruria (now Lazio) lie close to the right bank of the river Armenta (Fiora), on a plateau with a commanding view of Monte Argentario and Cosa. The city grew to become an important member of the twelve populi of Etruria and flourished from the late 8th to 4th centuries BC, largely through the extraction of minerals from nearby Monte Amiata and international trade of highly developed arts and crafts, including painted vases, encouraged by the presence of Greek artists. Official and clandestine excavations at Vulci from the time of Luciano Bonaparte (1st Prince of Canino and Napoleon’s brother) have unearthed the largest group of Attic black-figure and red-figure vases extant and are today present in museums worldwide. In the second half of the 4th century BC, Vulci began to feel the pressure of Roman expansionism. The struggle to remain independent came to an end in 280 BC when, defeated, it had to relinquish a large part of its territory, including the coast, to Rome. Once it had lost its independence, the city declined and rapidly fell into obscurity.

27


28


The Only Example in Private Hands

87.

Etruria, Vulci AR Didrachm. 5th - 4th century BC. Winged Metus running to left, head facing, holding serpent in each hand / Cartwheel with long crossbar supported by two struts. EC I, 2.4 (O3/R2); HN Italy 207 (Volci?); Fiorelli collection, Naples 1866, p. 15 (= Sambon 12.2) 11.48g, 26mm, 1 or 7h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; one of five examples known, of which this is the only example in private hands, and the second example recorded of this particular die combination which has never appeared in a public sale, otherwise known only from the Naples example. 50,000 From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist; Ex Italo Vecchi Collection; Privately purchased from a European collector. The only source of information we have for Metus (literally ‘guardian or protectress’), the Etruscan name for the Greek Medusa, is derived from a famous mirror in Chiusi (see illustration below) which depicts her as an attractive winged woman in Hellenistic style, bare to the waist and seated in a posture of lament and apprehension. Other than in her bearing, the depction of Metus is iconographically no different to that of Nike, and indeed the significance of the scene and the mirror itself might be overlooked, but for the fact that Metus is specifically named by an inscription. That Metus is equated with the Greek Medusa is also certain, since she appears on the mirror alongside the other two figures who are also explicitly named: Menvra (Minerva) and Pherse (Perseus), who holds a curved blade and is apparently being instructed to cut off the head of Metus (cf. G. & L. Bonfante, The Etruscan Language, Manchester 2002 p. 159). The name Metus passed into Latin as a noun meaning fear, apprehension or dread - and we may certainly understand why. The depiction of a horrific divine being, rendered as a late archaic style running Gorgon is obviously apotropaic, as we should understand many of the Etruscan types to be. It is furthermore very rare in numismatic iconography. While the head of the gorgon Medusa is a frequently encountered numismatic type, utilised on the coinage of a great many Greek cities for similarly apotropaic reasons, the only other such similar portrayal as employed here in complete form with both wings and body seems to be from an uncertain mint in Caria in the 5th century BC (cf. Traité II 1606, pl. 145, 1 = de Luynes 275) which places the gorgon’s head on a swastika of wings, thus implying a kneeling-running connotation without actually showing one.

29


2x 88. Etruria, Vulci AR Diobol. 5th - 4th century BC. Head of Metus facing, open mouth with fangs / Scarab. EC I, 7 (O1/-); HN Italy 238. 1.53g, 11mm, 11h. Extremely Fine, superb late archaic style. Extremely Rare; one of only six known examples.

4,500

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

2x 89. Etruria, Vulci AR Diobol. 5th - 4th century BC. Head of Metus facing, open mouth with fangs / Scarab. EC I, 7 (O1/-); HN Italy 238. 1.13g, 10mm, 1h. Extremely Fine, superb late archaic style. Extremely Rare; one of only six known examples.

4,500

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

The Second Recorded Example

90. Etruria, uncertain mint AR 3 Units (?). 3rd century BC. Bust of Turms right wearing petasus, countermark with three pellets on neck / Blank. EC I, p. 388, 8.1 = SNG Firenze 75 = Strozzi Collection, Sangiorgi Rome, sale 15 April 1907, 615 (O1). 2.84g, 17mm. Very Fine. Extremely Rare; only the second example recorded and the only one in private hands (the other in Florence).

2,000

From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist, and outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

An Etruscan Silver Scarab

2x 91. Etruscan Silver Scarab. Circa 5th century BC. Inlaid gold eyes; base engraved with leaping antelope design. 18.77g, 19mm x 14mm x 12mm. From the collection of a Swiss Etruscologist; Ex Bertolami Fine Arts 25, 24 June 2016, lot 93; Ex English private collection.

1,000

The scarab gem, carved in the shape of a beetle with the underside flat and engraved with various subject matters, originated in Egypt and was subsequently brought to Italy in the 5th century BC by Greeks and Phoenicians. There it became extremely popular and was produced in large quantities by Etruscan craftsmen, who typical of their love for detail, carved scarabs more elaborate and accurate in the representation of the beetle than their Greek and Phoenician counterparts. Beside the latter’s, the Etruscans’ scarabs are the last major production of such seals in antiquity.

30


UMBRIA

92. Umbria, Tuder Cast Æ Uncia. Circa 220-200 BC. Squat kantharos; pellet (mark of value) above / Spear-head; pellet (mark of value) to left, VT to right. ICC 221; Haeberlin pl. 81; HN Italy 45. 22.05g, 28mm, 12h. Very Fine. Rare.

650

From a private Swiss collection, outside of Italy prior to January 2011.

LUCANIA Ex Ars Classica 1926

93. Lucania, Herakleia AR Stater. Circa 330-280 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with Skylla hurling a stone; [|-HRAKLHIWN above], small K behind / Herakles standing facing, holding club, bow, and arrow, lion’s skin draped over arm; AQA to left of club, |-HRAKLHIWN to right; aryballos above. HN Italy 1384; van Keuren 84f; Work 66 (this coin). 7.92g, 20mm, 2h. Near Extremely Fine; pleasant old cabinet tone.

2,000

This coin published in E. Work, The Earlier Staters of Heraclea Lucaniae (ANSNNM 91, 1940); Ex Fritz Rudolf Künker 262, 13 March 2015, lot 7032; Ex Ars Classica XII, 18 October 1926, lot 369.

94. Lucania, Metapontion AR Stater. Circa 540-510 BC. Ear of barley with eight grains; MET downwards to left / Incuse ear of barley with eight grains. Noe 14 (same dies); SNG ANS 166 (same dies); HN Italy 1459. 8.13g, 29mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; lustrous metal. From a private European collection, outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

31

1,000


95. Lucania, Metapontion AR Stater. Circa 540-510 BC. Barley ear of eight grains; ME-TA around / Incuse barley ear of six grains. Noe 86 (same dies); SNG ANS 212; HN Italy 1470. 7.89g, 31mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; old cabinet tone.

1,000

From a private European collection, outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

96. Lucania, Metapontion AR Stater. Circa 540-510 BC. Barley ear of eight grains; ME-TA around / Incuse barley ear of six grains. Noe 89 (same dies); SNG ANS 195 (same obv. die); SNG Copenhagen 1160 (same obv. die); HN Italy 1470. 7.67g, 30mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

750

From a private European collection, outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

The Intervention of Apollo

97. Lucania, Metapontion AR Drachm. Circa 540-510 BC. Barley ear of seven grains; META to right, grasshopper upwards to left / Incuse barley ear of six grains. Noe 106 (same dies); HN Italy 1473. 2.65g, 18mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare. An issue of great fascination.

2,000

From a private European collection, outside of Italy prior to December 1992. The most desirable of all the incuse types of Metapontion, this remarkable and brief series comprising only four known obverse dies for the staters and one for a third stater marks the first usage of adjunct symbols on the coinage of Metapontion. A series of great fascination, the meaning of the grasshopper and the dolphin (which is present on the staters) has been a subject of debate for many years. Noe advocated the symbols as representing the badges of the moneyers’ houses, an argument not dissimilar to that which led the early archaic Athenian coins to be called ‘wappenmünzen’. Lenormant’s view that the insect has a propitiatory significance is rejected with the derisory rhetorical question ‘there may have been a plague of locusts but could there have been a plague of dolphins?’, while avoiding trying to explain its significance. Babelon (Traité, 1395-1396) proposed a punning reference to the hero Alybas, father of Metabos, and legendary founder of the city, however the Greek word he proposes to mean locust is incorrect, and the argument founders, still failing to explain the dolphin. It is most logical to follow Lenormant and view the appearance of the grasshopper-locust on the coins as being a propitiatory emblem or commemorating the deliverance of the city from a plague of locusts through the intervention of Apollo. Indeed, the god is closely associated with afflictions (and the relief of), and had as one of his epithets ‘Parnopios’, from πάρνοψ, “locust” – the expeller of locusts. Given that the dolphin was both a form he had taken and one of his sacred animals, as well as being a punning allusion to him as Apollo Delphinios, it seems eminently reasonable to determine the link between the two symbols as being in reference to a plague of locusts whose abatement was attributed to the intervention of Apollo. That the grasshopper-locust symbol recurs several times more throughout the extensive coinage of Metapontion and at appreciable intervals is hardly suggestive of descendants of a particular family holding office, as Noe suggested, but rather more likely indicative of recurrent swarms threatening the principle source of the city’s wealth and food.

32


Athena Tharragoras

98. Lucania, Metapontion AR Stater. Circa 340-330 BC. Head of Athena Tharragoras right, wearing Corinthian helmet; Σ behind / Ear of barley with stalk and leaf to right upon which, trophy; Π below, META to left. Johnston A 7.13 (obverse) – A 7.15 (reverse); HN Italy 1567. 7.85g, 22mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare (only one example recorded by Johnston), particularly so in this condition, and an apparently unrecorded die coupling. 5,000 Classical Numismatic Group 81, 20 May 2009, lot 106; Ex Dr. Roland Maly Collection, LHS 100, 23 April 2007, lot 115. The obverse portrait of this coin is traditionally identified as the unknown hero Tharragoras, following the attribution by Imhoof-Blumer. In studying the available specimens of the type (of which there were then five), he noted two with visible legends, one reading ‘ΘAPPAΓOPAΣ’, which he illustrated in his ‘Monnaies grecques’ (pl. A,2). Noting also that the portrait on this coin was ‘slightly bearded’, Imhoof-Blumer concluded that it therefore was not Athena, but rather an unknown hero whose name was given on the coin, and who must have been a companion or relation of Leukippos, given the contemporary nature of the two issues and the importance of the Leukippos type. That the name Tharragoras is nowhere else attested, either in literature, sculpture or on other coins, makes Imhoof-Blumer’s identification of this portrait as an unknown hero by that name very difficult to support indeed. Strabo, who does acknowledge Leukippos (6.1), makes no mention of a Tharragoras; the ‘slight beard’ seen by Imhoof-Blumer is almost certainly in fact locks of hair that fall from beneath the helmet. No trace of a beard can be discerned meanwhile around the chin or jaw. Where Imhoof-Blumer inferred a connection with Ἄρρα, or Ares, we should perhaps more properly see a connection with a ‘dialectic form of Θάρσω, a more ancient name for the goddess Athena (schol.IL.5.2).’ ‘Θάρρά’ itself has connotations of ‘courage’, ‘boldness’ or ‘confidence’ - the intended meaning here must have been clear to the people of Metapontion and fitting for the circumstances of its issue. The companion issue (Johnston A6.11 = HN Italy 1561) allows us to positively identify the portrait as that of Athena, on account of the long feminine eyelashes that would certainly be out of place on a male hero.

99. Lucania, Metapontion AR Stater. Circa 340-330 BC. Head of Leukippos right, wearing Corinthian helmet; seated dog behind / Barley ear of eight grains with leaf to right, upon which a bird; META to left. Johnston B.3; HN Italy 1576. 7.76g, 22mm, 12h. Good Very Fine; attractive old cabinet tone.

1,000

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 78, 26 May 2014, lot 1350.

100. Lucania, Poseidonia AR Stater. Circa 530-500 BC. Bearded Poseidon, diademed and wearing chlamys over shoulders, advancing right, wielding trident in upraised right hand and extending left hand before him; ΠΟΣ behind / Incuse of obverse, but with no trident, ΠΟΣ in relief. SNG ANS 612 (same obv. die); HN Italy 1107. 7.53g, 30mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Excellent metal quality, and lightly toned. Ex Roma Numismatics XII, 29 September 2016, lot 28; Ex private German collection, outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

33

5,000


101. Lucania, Sybaris AR Stater. Circa 530-510 BC. Bull standing left, head right; VM in exergue / Incuse bull standing right, head left. HN Italy 1729; SNG ANS 828-44. 8.24g, 28mm, 12h. Fleur De Coin; light cabinet tone. In remarkable state of preservation - very rare thus.

2,000

From a private European collection, outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

102. Lucania, Sybaris AR Stater. Circa 530-510 BC. Bull standing left, head right; VM in exergue / Incuse bull standing right, head left. HN Italy 1729; SNG ANS 828-44. 8.18g, 28mm, 11h. Mint State; lustrous metal with a light cabinet tone.

1,500

From a private European collection, outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

103. Lucania, Sybaris AR Stater. Circa 530-510 BC. Bull standing left, head right; VM in exergue / Incuse bull standing right, head left. HN Italy 1729; SNG ANS 828-44. 8.18g, 29mm, 12h. Near Mint State; lustrous metal.

1,000

From a private European collection, outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

104. Lucania, Sybaris AR Stater. Circa 530-510 BC. Bull standing left, head right; VM in exergue / Incuse bull standing right, head left. HN Italy 1729; SNG ANS 828-44. 8.59g, 30mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. From a private European collection, outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

34

1,000


105. Lucania, Sybaris AR Drachm. Circa 530-510 BC. Bull standing left, head right; VM in exergue / Incuse bull standing right, head left. SNG ANS 847-53; HN Italy 1736. 2.77g, 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

750

From a private European collection, outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

106. Lucania, Sybaris AR Drachm. Circa 530-510 BC. Bull standing left, head right; VM in exergue / Incuse bull standing right, head left. SNG ANS 847-53; HN Italy 1736. 2.84g, 21mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine.

750

From a private European collection, outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

107. Lucania, Sybaris AR Drachm. Circa 530-510 BC. Bull standing left, head right; VM in exergue / Incuse bull standing right, head left. SNG ANS 847-53; HN Italy 1736. 2.51g, 19mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine.

500

From a private European collection, outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

108. Lucania, Thourioi AR Stater. Circa 300-280 BC. Head of Athena left, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with Scylla pointing right hand and holding rudder with left; TIMO behind / Bull butting right, crowned by Nike flying above to left; ΘΟΥΡΙΩΝ in exergue. Unpublished in the standard references; Hunterian pg. 106, 29 var. (same obverse die, star on reverse); Leu 83, 28 (same dies); NAC 59, 505 (same dies); HN Italy -. 7.90g, 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; beautiful cabinet tone with golden iridescence. Extremely Rare. Ex M.L. Collection of Coins of Magna Graecia and Sicily; Numismatica Ars Classica 82, 20 May 2015, lot 24; Privately purchased from NAC in 1993.

35

2,000


APULIA

109. Apulia, Luceria Cast Æ Nummus. Circa 217-212 BC. Head of young Hercules right, wearing lion’s skin headdress / Horse prancing right; star above. ICC 344; Haeberlin p. 187, 1-34 pl. 71, 9-13; HN Italy 676. 94.35g, 48mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

1,250

From a private Swiss collection, outside of Italy prior to January 2011.

110. Apulia, Venusia Æ Uncia. Circa 210-200 BC. Half length bust of Herakles right, wearing lion’s skin headdress and holding club over shoulder; pellet before / Lion seated left, breaking spear held in its jaw; VE monogram left. SNG ANS 757; BMC Italy pg. 151, 14; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG Munich 549; SNG Morcom 234; Laffaille, Choix de Monnaies Grecques en Bronze, pl. 5 = Weber 482. 5.92g, 19mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare, and in outstanding condition for the type.

500

Sold with export licence issued by The Israel Antiquities Authority.

CALABRIA Ex Comte Chandon De Briailles Collection

111. Calabria, Tarentum AR Nomos. Circa 390-385 BC. Nude warrior on horseback left, holding reins in right hand, small round shield on left arm; A below / Taras astride dolphin left; P and ΤΑΡΑΣ below. Vlasto 379; SNG ANS 900 (but with A on obv. and P on rev. intact). 7.84g, 21mm, 10h. Near Extremely Fine. A stunning and statuesque obverse from one of the briefest but most beautiful series in Tarentine coinage. Deep, attractive old cabinet tone. Extremely Rare. 7,500 Ex Ambrose Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics III, 31 March 2012, lot 23; Privately purchased from Numismatica Ars Classica, 2011 for £8,500; Ex Comte Chandon De Briailles Collection; Bourgey, 17 June 1959, lot 15. Tarentum, the only Spartan colony ever to be established, was founded in 706 BC by the Partheniae - Spartan children born to unmarried women as a product of Spartan desperation to ensure the survival and continuation of their demographic during the bloody Messenian wars, who were later disowned and expelled by the state - and Perioeci (subjects, but not citizens of Sparta), under the leadership of the Parthenian Phalanthos. According to legend, Phalanthos consulted the oracle at Delphi, and was told that he should found his new city ‘where rain fell from a clear sky’. After much searching, and despairing of finding a suitable location for a city, Phalanthos was consoled by his wife Aethra who laid his head in her lap, and as her tears splashed upon his forehead he understood the oracle’s words for his wife’s name itself meant ‘clear sky’, and thus he determined to make the nearby harbour the site of their new home, which they named after Taras, the son of Poseidon and the nymph Satyrion.

36


Ex Haeberlin Collection

112. Calabria, Tarentum AR Nomos. Circa 330-325 BC. Nude youth on horse prancing to right, holding rein and crowning horse with wreath; above, Nike flying to right, crowning youth with open wreath; ΣIM below / Taras astride dolphin to left, holding kantharos and cradling trident with left arm; |-HP and waves below, [TAPAΣ] behind. Fischer-Bossert Group 62, 785-8 var. (V308/R- [unlisted rev. die]); Vlasto 503; HN Italy 886; SNG Lockett 174 (same obv. die). 7.87g, 22mm, 9h. Extremely Fine.

1,000

Ex Dorotheum, 16 November 2016, lot 29; Ex Ernst Justus Haeberlin Collection.

113. Calabria, Tarentum AR Nomos. Circa 333-330 BC. Nude warrior, shield on left arm, holding two spears in left hand, preparing to cast a third held aloft in his right hand, on horse rearing right; |- to left, Λ to right, KAΛ above A below / Taras, nude, holding crested helmet with both hands, astride dolphin to right; TAPAΣ behind, stars flanking, API below. Vlasto 543 (this obverse die); SNG Lloyd 1787 (these dies); SNG France 1770 (this obverse die); Kraay-Hirmer pl. 107, 311; Fischer-Bossert 771; HN Italy 896. 7.81g, 21mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; pleasant old cabinet tone.

1,000

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 52, 7 October 2009, lot 11.

114. Calabria, Tarentum AR Nomos. Circa 332-302 BC. Herakl..., magistrate. Nude warrior on horseback right, preparing to cast spear downward with right hand, holding shield and two spears in left hand; HPAKΛ below / Taras astride dolphin left, holding shield and spears in left hand and extending right hand upon which Nike flies right to crown him; ΦΙ below, ΤΑΡΑΣ behind. HN Italy 936; Vlasto 599 (these dies); SNG ANS 994 (these dies). 7.87g, 22mm, 2h. Extremely Fine.

750

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 59, 4 April 2011, lot 490 (then noted as sold with official documentation from the United Kingdom proving that it was outside Italy prior to 19th January 2011).

115. Calabria, Tarentum AR Drachm. Circa 302-280 BC. Zor..., magistrate. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet ornamented with Skylla hurling a stone / TAP, owl with folded wings standing right, head facing; in right field, ZOP downwards and olive branch. Vlasto 1047; SNG ANS 1303. 3.30g, 16mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Beautifully toned and excellent condition for the type. Ex Roma Numismatics II, 2 October 2011, lot 9; Ex BVH Collection, Heritage 3012, 2 January 2011, lot 24377.

37

750


BRUTTIUM A Beautiful Stater of Kaulonia

116.

Bruttium, Kaulonia AR Stater. Circa 525-500 BC. Nude Apollo walking right, holding laurel branch in upright right hand, small daimon running to right on Apollo’s extended left arm, wearing chlamys and winged sandals, holding sword in right and and small branch in left; to right, stag standing right with head reverted, KAVL to left; all within dot and cable border / Incuse of obverse, but no ethnic and daimon without sword and branch; stag horns and laurel in relief. Noe, Caulonia, Group A, 14 (same dies); McClean pl. 50, 4 (same dies); SNG ANS 147 (same obv. die); HN Italy 2035. 7.70g, 30mm, 12h. Near Mint State.

10,000

From the Jerome Sobieski Collection (Montreal, Canada); Privately purchased from Numismatic Fine Arts at the Chicago International Coin Fair (CICF), 1988. Though there is no literary record of the foundation of Kaulonia, archaeological evidence shows that it was established early in the second half of the seventh century BC. Both Strabo and Pausanias mention that it was founded by Achaean Greek colonists, and Pausanias additionally gives the name of the oikist as Typhon of Aegium. Others sources such as Pseudo-Scymnos claim that it was founded by Kroton but it could well be that Typhon and his settlers came at the request of Kroton. The design of the incuse staters of Kaulonia has elicited various interpretations over the years; those that were current at the time of writing Historia Numorum in 1911 were reviewed by Barclay Head. Head interpreted the figure as being a representation of the oikist Typhon, who holds in his hand a plant (καυλος) stalk, alike to that of the parsnip plant, which he takes to be a punning allusion to the city. Modern scholarship however tends to identify the figure as Apollo, as the symbolism is more easily associated with this deity – a laurel branch, for instance, being more easily recognisable and sacred to Apollo. The small running figure most likely represents a daimon, a divinity of a lower order, who serves as a messenger of the gods. It may be, given his occasionally winged feet, that this daimon should be seen to be a wind god such as Zephyros. The stag is the only element which has consistently defied explanation (even by Head); its meaning was clearly sufficiently explicit and important for it to have eventually served as a the principle reverse type of Kaulonia. It may be a reference to Artemis, who at Aegium was worshipped jointly with Apollo in a temple the two gods shared.

38


117. Bruttium, Kroton AR Stater. Circa 530-500 BC. Tripod, legs terminating in lion’s paws, with ornaments on and serpents rising from the bowl; QPO to left / Incuse tripod, legs terminating in lion’s paws, ornaments and serpents in relief. SNG ANS 227-234; SNG Lockett 597; HN Italy 2075. 8.66g, 28mm, 12h. Mint State; wonderfully sharp details.

2,000

From a private European collection, outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

118. Bruttium, Kroton AR Stater. Circa 530-500 BC. Tripod, legs terminating in lion’s paws, with ornaments on and serpents rising from the bowl; QPO to left / Incuse tripod, legs terminating in lion’s paws, ornaments and serpents in relief. SNG ANS 227-234; SNG Lockett 597; HN Italy 2075. 8.74g, 29mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

1,000

From a private European collection, outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

119. Bruttium, Kroton AR Stater. Circa 530-500 BC. Tripod, legs terminating in lion’s paws, with ornaments on and serpents rising from the bowl; QPO to left / Incuse tripod, legs terminating in lion’s paws, ornaments and serpents in relief. SNG ANS 227-234; SNG Lockett 597; HN Italy 2075. 8.24g, 30mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; lustrous metal. From a private European collection, outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

39

1,000


120. Bruttium, Kroton AR Stater. Circa 530-500 BC. Tripod, legs terminating in lion’s paws, with ornaments on and serpents rising from the bowl; QPO to left / Incuse tripod, legs terminating in lion’s feet, with ornaments on and serpents rising from the bowl. SNG Ashmolean 1463; SNG ANS 230; HN Italy 2075. 9.24g, 28mm, 12h. Mint State.

2,000

From a private European collection, outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

121. Bruttium, Kroton AR Stater. Circa 530-500 BC. Tripod, legs terminating in lion’s paws, two serpents at base; QPO to left / Incuse tripod. Attianese 4; SNG ANS 239-241; HN Italy 2075. 8.15g, 29mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine.

2,000

From a private European collection, outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

122. Bruttium, Kroton AR Stater. Circa 530-500 BC. Tripod, legs terminating in lion’s paws, two serpents at base; QPO to left / Incuse tripod. Attianese 4; SNG ANS 239-241; HN Italy 2075. 7.78g, 29mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. From a private European collection, outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

40

2,000


An Outstanding Third Stater - Drachm of Kroton

123. Bruttium, Kroton AR Third Stater - Drachm. Circa 530-500 BC. Tripod, with legs terminating in lion’s paws, with ornaments on and serpents rising from the bowl; QPO to left / Incuse tripod, legs terminating in lion’s paws. HN Italy 2076; SNG ANS 298. 2.93g, 20mm, 12h. Near Mint State. Very Rare - the early fractions of Kroton are difficult to obtain, and seldom seen in such high grade.

2,000

From a private European collection, outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

124. Bruttium, Terina AR Stater. Circa 445-425 BC. Head of the nymph Terina left, wearing ampyx and earring, her hair tied up; all within olive wreath / Nike seated to left, holding wreath in outstretched right hand and resting left on stool; [TEPI]NAIΩN above. McClean pl. 62, 3 (same dies); Holloway-Jenkins 18; HN Italy 2576; Regling 18. 7.74g, 22mm, 3h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

3,000

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica Auction Q, 6 April 2006, lot 1149. Little is known of the history of Terina. The city was probably founded by Kroton around the time of the Krotoniate defeat of Sybaris circa 510 BC. A war with Thourioi is attested a few years after 444/3 BC. In 356 the city was besieged and taken by the Brettians, and it became a Brettian community, surviving the conquest of Alexander the Molossian in 325. Ultimately, Terina was razed by Hannibal in 203 and never rebuilt.

MAURETANIA

125. Kingdom of Mauretania, Juba II AR Denarius. Caesarea, dated year 42 = 17/18 AD. REX IVBA, head of Juba II in the guise of Hercules, wearing lion skin headdress; club behind / Club draped with lion’s skin, bow to right; arrow and RXXXXII to left. SNG Copenhagen 585 var. (Year 41); Mazard 182 var. (same). 2.96g, 18mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare. 500 From a private British collection.

126. Kingdom of Mauretania, Juba II AR Denarius. Caesarea, dated year 42 = 17/18 AD. REX IVBA, head of Juba II in the guise of Hercules, wearing lion skin headdress; club behind / Capricorn to right with globe, cornucopiae and rudder; RXXXXII below. SNG Copenhagen 587; Mazard 211. 2.85g, 19mm, 8h. Good Extremely Fine; deep old cabinet tone. From a private British collection.

41

750


CARTHAGE

127. North Africa, Carthage EL Stater. Circa 310-290 BC. Wreathed head of Tanit left, wearing necklace with eleven pendants; pellet before neck / Horse standing right; three pellets in exergue. Jenkins & Lewis group V, 293/295; MAA 12. 7.35g, 17mm, 12h. Very Fine.

1,250

From the collection of Patrick Mulcahy; Ex Roma Numismatics IX, 22 March 2015, lot 61.

128. North Africa, Carthage EL Stater. Circa 310-270 BC. Wreathed head of Tanit left, wearing triple-pendant earring and necklace; pellet in field before neck / Horse standing right on single ground line; two pellets below. Jenkins & Lewis Group V, 259–79; MAA 10; SNG Copenhagen 975. 7.54g, 18mm, 12h. Very Fine.

1,200

From the collection of C.S., Germany; purchased before 1991.

129. North Africa, Carthage EL Stater. Circa 310-270 BC. Wreathed head of Tanit left, wearing triple-pendant earring and necklace; pellet in field before neck / Horse standing right on single ground line; three pellets below. Jenkins & Lewis Group V, 280-97; MAA 10; SNG Copenhagen 975. 7.48g, 19mm, 12h. Very Fine.

1,200

From the collection of C.S., Germany; purchased before 1991.

130. North Africa, Carthage EL Stater. Circa 310-270 BC. Wreathed head of Tanit left, wearing triple-pendant earring and necklace; pellet in field before neck / Horse standing right on single ground line with no pellets. Jenkins & Lewis Group IVb. 7.46g, 20mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine; beautiful dark red tone.

42

1,000


A Stunning Carthaginian Shekel

2x

2x

131. North Africa, Carthage AR Shekel. Circa 300-260 BC. Head of Tanit-Persephone left, wearing wreath of barley ears, pendant earring and necklace / Horse standing to right, head left, palm tree in background; eight-pointed star to right. SNG Copenhagen 141; Alexandropoulos 371, 36; JenkinsLewis pl. 26, 16. 7.67g, 20mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine; wonderful old cabinet tone. Rare, and of exceptional quality for the issue.

4,000

Ex Hess-Divo 329, 17 November 2015, lot 123 (hammer: 9,000 CHF); Ex Maison Palombo 13, 13 December 2014, lot 42; Ex Sternberg XI, 20 November 1981, lot 65. This beautiful issue of shekels is rather rare, and like the ubiquitous electrum staters that are roughly contemporaneous, it is very difficult to find in a high state of preservation. Traditionally dated to a fairly broad date range of 300-260 BC, this issue was probably produced in response to one of the two major conflicts faced by Carthage in the first half of the 3rd century. In 278-275 Pyrrhos of Epeiros’ waged a campaign against the Carthaginian territories in western Sicily, having received envoys from the Greek cities of the island, requesting his assistance. This campaign was initially successful; with a professional army of 20,000 infantry, 3,000 cavalry and 20 war elephants, supported by some 200 ships he pushed back the Carthaginian forces and captured the city-fortress of Eryx. Carthage sued for peace, but though this was rejected by Pyrrhos, his ruthless treatment of the Sicilians had created such animosity that he was forced to withdraw back to Italy. The other great emergency that could have warranted the striking of such this issue was the outbreak of what would come to be known as the First Punic War in 264, which prompted Carthage to assemble a vast mercenary army to meet the Roman threat in Sicily - according to Philinos of Agrigentum this army comprised 50,000 infantry, 6,000 cavalry, and 60 elephants including Ligurians, Celts and Iberians (see Polybius, The Histories, 1:17.4). Such a large mercenary army would entail a considerable outlay of money, and of the two possible circumstances for the striking of this issue, this latter war would seem the more logical.

An Exceptional Libyan Revolt Shekel

2x

2x

132. North Africa, Carthage BI Shekel. Libyan Revolt, circa 241-238 BC. Head of Herakles left, wearing lion’s skin headdress / Lion prowling right; Punic ‘M’ above, ΛIBYΩN in exergue. Carradice & La Niece 1; MAA 53; SNG Copenhagen 239. 7.95g, 22mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare, and among the finest known specimens of this usually poorly-struck issue.

2,000

Ex Monsieur Note (1910-1982) Collection, France. This type is normally found struck on heavily debased silver flans, and often overstruck, but this coin appears to be struck on much higher quality metal. The issue itself (and the normally poor metal quality) is indicative of the dire straits which the Carthaginian state was reduced to following the conclusion of the First Punic War in 241; as part of the peace settlement Carthage was required to give up “all islands lying between Sicily and Italy”, immediately pay Rome a sum of 1,000 talents of gold, and pay a further 2,000 talents over a period of 10 years. After meeting the Roman demands, a destitute Carthage now found itself having to find additional funds to pay the wages of its defeated but still enormous mercenary army. Negotiations between the mercenaries and the Carthaginian state quickly broke down, and despite the Carthaginian officials capitulating to the mercenary demands, open rebellion ensued based on speculation that Carthage would be unable to pay. The Libyan population, discontent under Carthaginian rule (and perhaps justifiably so, for their soldiers were conscripted and not paid as mercenaries) joined the rebels. E.S.G. Robinson, in “A Hoard of Coins of the Libyans” in NC 1953, confirms the attribution of these coins to the Libyan revolt (also known as the Mercenary War or the Truceless War, on account of it exceeding all other conflicts in cruelty, ending only with the total annihilation of one of the opponents), and supports the appearance of the Punic ‘M’ appearing on these (and regular Carthaginian coins) as being an abbreviation of ‘machanat’ - camp. The appearance of a Greek alpha on some of the issues, the use of Greek types (heads of Zeus and Herakles), and of course a Greek legend on the reverse furthermore confirm that these issues were struck by the rebels, rather than for them. We may reasonably assume that all of the coins produced by the rebels were overstruck on the state issues of Carthage; in the increasing debasement seen throughout the series we are offered a glimpse of the desperate position of the Carthaginian finances. Although ultimately the rebellion was put down by Hamilcar Barca with a combined army of existing loyal mercenaries and newly hired ones together with citizen soldiers, culminating at the Battle of ‘The Saw’ with some 50,000 rebels killed or executed, Carthage was left effectively penniless, internally weakened and externally virtually defenceless against a still belligerent Roman Republic.

43


The Barcid Dominion in Spain

133. North Africa, Carthage AR 1½ Shekel. Akra Leuka, circa 229/228 BC. Laureate head left (Melqart or Hasdrubal), with club over right shoulder / Elephant to right. MHC, Class III, 44 (same obverse die); ACIP 554; AB 486. 11.12g, 24mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

12,000

From a private European collection. The city of Qart Hadasht (or Carthago Nova, as it was known to the Romans), literally meaning ‘new city’ and identical in name to Carthage itself, had been re-founded by the Carthaginian general Hasdrubal the Fair in 228 BC on the site of a town named Mastia. The site was chosen as it possessed one of the best harbours in the western Mediterranean, thus enabling it to serve as the primary port and capital city of the Barcid dominion in Spain. This new ‘empire’ had been carved out by Hasdrubal’s predecessor and father-in-law Hamilcar Barca, who had sought to replace the possessions in Sicily and Sardinia lost to Rome in the First Punic War, and to serve as a means of enriching and strengthening Carthage for any future war with Rome, a conflict he saw as inevitable. Hasdrubal ably succeeded his father-in-law in expanding the family’s territory in Spain and power over the local tribes, but was assassinated in 221. He was succeeded by Hamilcar’s son, Hannibal Barca, who was now of sufficient age to command the Carthaginian military forces, and who wasted little time in aggressively expanding Carthaginian influence over the surrounding regions. Barely two years later, Hannibal’s army would besiege Saguntum and massacre the population, leading to renewed war with Rome. This bold type has been dated to the early period of Hasdrubal’s command in Spain; in contrast to the coinage attributed to Hamilcar, this type makes no reference to the traditional naval power of Carthage, instead adopting the African elephant as the reverse type. Evidently not a warelephant (note the absence of either a mahout or a fighting tower) it is perhaps best interpreted as a symbol of Carthage or Barcid power in general. Indeed it is known that Hasdrubal favoured diplomacy and the demanding of hostages to further expand his influence in Spain; the club-wielding Herakles-Melqart implies the threat of force rather than its open display. Though Robinson (Essays Mattingly) interpreted the beardless head of Melqart on this coin as bearing the features of Hannibal Barca, the dating of the issue (as per Villaronga, MHC) suggests it is more likely to be Hasdrubal, if indeed an individual commander’s likeness is shown.

2x

2x

134. North Africa, Carthage AR Quarter-Shekel. Carthago Nova, circa 237-209 BC. Beardless and laureate head of Melkart left, club over shoulder / Elephant standing right. MHC 57; CNH pg. 65, 15; Robinson, Punic 6(d); SNG BM Spain 99; SNG Copenhagen 293. 1.71g, 14mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare. From a private European collection.

44

1,500


135. North Africa, Carthage AR Shekel. Time of Hannibal. Carthago Nova, circa 218-206 BC. Bare male head (Hannibal?) left / Horse right, palm tree behind. MHC 142; ACIP 603; SNG BM Spain 104-5. 7.33g, 22mm, 12h. Good Very Fine; light scuff on edge. Very Rare.

1,500

This coin is conventionally believed to carry the portrait of Hannibal on the obverse. In 237 BC Hamilcar Barca, after having lost the First Punic War against Rome, but having won the Mercenary War against the Libyans, disembarked at Gadir with a Carthaginian expedition with the purpose of “re-establishing Carthaginian authority in Iberia” (Polybios, Histories, 2.1.6), and within 9 years he had expanded the territory of Carthage well into the Iberian peninsula, securing control of the southern mining district of Baetica and Sierra Morena, before dying in battle in 228. Hamilcar was succeeded by his son-in-law Hasdrubal the Fair who expanded the new province by skilful diplomacy and consolidated it with the foundation of Akra Leuka, Mahon and finally in 227, Qart Hadasht (Latin: Carthago Nova) as his capital. After his untimely death in 221 he was succeeded by Hannibal (247-182), oldest son of Hamilcar Barca, and Hamilcar’s second son Hasdrubal (245-207 BC). The Barcids now wielded control over much of the mineral rich Mediterranean side of the peninsula until 219 when Hannibal made the fateful move of taking and sacking Saguntum, a well established Roman ally. The wholesale slaughter of this Roman ally’s population, and the arrogance with which the Roman ambassadors sent to Carthage to seek redress were met, led directly to the Second Punic War: the great statesman Quintus Fabius, speaking to the Carthaginian senate, gathered a fold of his toga to his chest and held it out, saying “Here, we bring you peace and war. Take which you will.” The Carthaginians replied “Whichever you please - we do not care.” Fabius let the fold drop and proclaimed “We give you war.”

136. North Africa, Carthage AR Shekel. Time of Hannibal. Carthago Nova, circa 218-206 BC. Bare male head left / Horse right, palm tree behind. MHC 256; CNH 85; ACIP 625; BM Spain 121. 6.99g, 21mm, 12h. Very Fine. Rare.

750

SICILY

137. Sicily, Siculo-Punic AR Tetradrachm. Circa 320-300 BC. Head of Arethusa left, wearing wreath of grain ears, triple-pendant earring and necklace; four dolphins around / Horse’s head left, palm tree with date clusters behind, ‘MMHNT’ in Punic script below. Jenkins, Punic 183 (O53/R161); SNG Lloyd 1633 (same dies); Hunterian 7 (same dies). 17.11g, 26mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Attractive old cabinet tone. Ex Numismatik Lanz 163, 7 December 2016, lot 148.

45

4,500


An Emergency Issue of Akragas

3x

3x

138. Sicily, Akragas AV 2 Litrai - Diobol. Emergency issue, circa 406 BC. Eagle with closed wings perching on rock to right, tearing at serpent; AKPA above, two pellets (mark of value) on rock / Crab, ΣΙΛΑ-ΝΟΣ below. Dewing 569; Rizzo pl. III, 8; SNG ANS 998; SNG München 88; Gulbenkian 171; HGC 2, 75. 1.36g, 11mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

3,000

Ex collection of “eines Geschichtsfreundes”. On the reverse of this coin we see the magistrate’s signature, Silanos, which is also found on contemporary tetradrachms (SNG ANS 1000). Gold coinage in Sicily, as in Italy and Greece down to the time of Philip II of Macedon, was usually issued only as an emergency measure due to its extreme scarcity and its status as a sacred metal. We can therefore tie this, the last issue of any relevance struck by Akragas, to the period shortly before the capture and sack of the city by the Carthaginians in 406 BC. Like the contemporary issues at Gela, Stiela, Akragas and Kamarina, this coin was struck to finance a desperate defence against the Carthaginian expedition, which after the destruction of Akragas, would go on to ravage Gela and Kamarina. The exodus of refugees from these cities fled toward Syracuse, chased by the fear of the Carthaginians, though not by the Carthaginians themselves; the rumour among the Greeks was that Dionysios had betrayed their cause and made a deal with the enemy to cement his power over Syracuse. Akragas never recovered its former status as one of the great cities of Sicily. Though it was revived to some extent under Timoleon in the latter part of the 4th century, it suffered greatly in the First and Second Punic Wars, and took little further part in any historical events of significance.

A Beautiful Archaic Drachm of Himera

139. Sicily, Himera AR Chalkidian Drachm. Circa 530-520 BC. Cockerel standing left / Mill sail pattern incuse design. SNG Lockett 779; Kraay, The archaic Coinage of Himera, 103 (D74/R61). 5.46g, 20mm. Extremely Fine. Beautifully toned and superb for the type. Very Rare.

3,000

Ex Fritz Rudolf Künker 216, 8 October 2012, lot 126 (hammer: EUR 7,500); Ex Roma Numismatics III, 31 March 2012, lot 48. Himera was one of the first cities to begin coining in Sicily, following the Chalkidian monetary standard of its parent city Zankle. Though it never struck staters, it coined drachms such as the present piece. Colonists from Zankle were joined by exiles from Syracuse, resulting in a city with Chalkidian (i.e. Ionian) institutions but a mixed Doric and Chalkidian dialect. The year of foundation, 648, is inferred from the notice that the city was inhabited for 240 years before its destruction in 409. The city was initially very prosperous and wielded considerable power; its territory stretched over a vast area, estimated at c.700 square kilometers, encompassing numerous rural and indigenous settlements. Its territory was divided to the south from that of Gela and Akragas by the Monte Cassero hills, and in the west at the river Thermos from the territory of the Phoenician city of Soloi. Ruled from very early on by tyrants, the city’s shining moment in history came in 480 BC when it became famous across the Greek world as the site of the great Battle of Himera, supposedly fought on the same day as the Battle of Salamis (according to Herodotus) or at the same time as the Battle of Thermopylae (Diodorus Siculus), which saw the Greek forces of Theron, tyrant of Himera and Akragas, along with Gelon of Syracuse defeat the Carthaginian force of Hamilcar Mago, despite great inferiority in numbers (55,000 Greeks to 300,000 Carthaginians). Diodorus Siculus (XI.1) saw in this victory (combined with the defeat of the Persians at the same time) the derailment of a Punic-Persian conspiracy to destroy Greek civilisation, though this notion has been largely rejected by modern scholars. The city’s end would come seventy one years later at the hands of Hamilcar’s grandson, Hannibal Mago. Hannibal sacrificed 3,000 Greek prisoners at the place where Hamilcar, his grandfather and leader of the 480 expedition, had fallen. The city of Himera was utterly destroyed, even all the temples were flattened to the ground, and the women and children were enslaved.

46


An Extremely Rare Type

140.

Sicily, Katane AR Tetradrachm. Circa 465-450 BC. The river god Amenanos as a bearded, man-headed bull kneeling to right, fish below; above, a heron standing upon his back and walking left / Nike, wearing long chiton, advancing left, holding taenia in her outstretched right hand; KATANE around. Rizzo pl. IX, 2 (same dies); Randazzo pl. 3, 48-53 (same rev. die); Kraay-Hirmer 31 (same obv. die); Randazzo -; SNG ANS -; Boehringer Ognina 74 (same obv. die); Ognina Hoard AttiMem pl. 1, 3 (same obv. die). 17.31g, 29mm, 3h. Obverse die heavily used; Extremely Fine, light grey tone. Extremely Rare.

7,500

Ex private American collection; Ex Roma Numismatics VII, 22 March 2014, lot 108 (hammer: £16,000). The city of Katane, founded around 729 BC by Chalkidic colonists from Naxos, was established on the site of the archaic village of the same name that was then peopled by the indigenous Sikels, who had named their village after the rugged black lava landscape (katane, meaning sharp stones). The native Sikels were rapidly hellenised, but the Naxian founders kept the autochthonal name for their new home on the banks of the river Amenanos. This outstanding coin was struck within a few years of the refoundation of the city, issued in celebration of the return of the Chalkidic inhabitants of Katane to their homeland following the Aitna episode. Hieron, tyrant of Syracuse, had forcibly transferred the populations of Katane and Naxos, Katane’s parent city, to Leontinoi, renamed Katane as Aitna and settled it with 5000 colonists from Syracuse and 5000 Dorians from the Peloponnesos. However, after the death of Hieron in 466 and the overthrow of his brother Thrasybulos less than a year later, relations between the newly democratic Syracuse and its former colony soured, leading to war in 461. Allied with the Sikels under Douketios, Syracuse through several battles compelled the newly settled inhabitants to retire to the fortress of Inessa (to which they gave the name of Aitna), while the old Chalkidic citizens were reinstated in the possession of the city. The obverse depicts clear civic types referencing both the life-giving river by which Katane was sited, and other types reference the wine-grapes that must have been key to the city’s prosperity through use of the type of Silenos. The taenia borne by Nike on the reverse here almost certainly alludes to the fall of the Deinomenid tyranny that, with the aid of Syracuse and the native Sikels, allowed the displaced people to return to their ancestral home.

47


Dies by the ‘Maestro Della Foglia’

141. Sicily, Katane AR Tetradrachm. Circa 420 BC. Reverse die signed by the ‘Maestro della foglia’. Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving galloping quadriga to right; above, Nike flying right to crown the horses / Laureate head of Apollo to right; plane leaf (signature) behind head, ΚΑΤΑΝΑΙΟΝ before. Gulbenkian 185 (same dies); Rizzo pl. xi, 16 (same dies); SNG ANS 1256 (same dies); SNG Lloyd 898 (same dies). 17.08g, 28mm, 11h. Very Fine; attractive light cabinet tone. Struck from dies of magnificent style. Very Rare.

5,000

From the collection of Patrick Mulcahy; Ex Harlan J. Berk 191, 30 July 2014, lot 24; Ex John F. Sullivan Collection, Triton IX, 10 January 2006, lot 691; Ex William N. Rudman Collection, Triton V, 15 January 2002, lot 1180.

2x 142. Sicily, Katane AR Litra. Circa 410-405 BC. Head of Silenos left / KATANAIΩN, upright winged thunderbolt flanked by shields at both sides. C. Boehringer, ‘Katanishe Probleme: Silberne Kleinstmünzen’, in T. Hackens and W. Raymond (ed.), Proceedings of the 9th International Congress of numismatics, Luxembourg 1979, Bern 1982, pp. 71-83, 6; SNG Copenhagen 182. 0.77g, 12mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

300

Ex Roma Numismatics X, 27 September 2015, lot 173.

Ex Dr. Muray Gell-Mann Collection

143. Sicily, Messana AR Tetradrachm. 478-476 BC. Seated charioteer, holding reins with both hands, driving mule biga right; bay leaf in exergue / Hare springing to right, MESSENION around. Caltabiano 98 (D53/R51); SNG ANS 315-7; SNG Lloyd 1084; Randazzo 109 (same rev. die); Basel 361. 17.35g, 27mm, 1h. Near Extremely Fine. From the collection of Patrick Mulcahy; Ex Dr. Murray Gell-Mann Collection, Roma Numismatics XI, 7 April 2016, lot 97; Ex Triton X, 9 January 2007, lot 77.

48

1,750


A Superb Tetradrachm of Messana

144. Sicily, Messana AR Tetradrachm. Circa 420-413 BC. The nymph Messana, holding kentron in left hand and reins in both, driving slow biga of mules right; MEΣΣANA above, two dolphins confronted in exergue / Hare springing to right; MEΣΣANION around; dolphin to right below. Caltabiano Series XIV, 526.6 (D208/R223) = Basel 363 (same dies); SNG ANS –; SNG Lloyd 1097; BMC 39 (same dies); Dewing 649 (same obv. die); Rizzo pl. XXVI, 3. 17.33g, 26mm, 12h. Near Mint State. Highly lustrous metal, lightly toned.

10,000

From the collection of Patrick Mulcahy; Ex Roma Numismatics XII, 29 September 2016, lot 89; Ex B.R.H. Collection, privately purchased c.1980s in Munich. Founded by Greek colonists in the 8th century BC, Messana was originally called Zankle, meaning ‘scythe’ because of the shape of its natural harbour (though a legend attributes the name to King Zanklos). Herodotus and Thucydides relate that in the early 5th century BC, Anaxilas of Rhegion encouraged the Samians and other Ionian refugees to seize Zankle, which was then under the rule of the tyrant Skythes, who had been appointed to that post in 494 BC by Hippokrates of Gela. Shortly afterwards Anaxilas himself besieged the city, drove out the Samians, peopled it with fresh inhabitants and renamed it Messana in honour of his native city of Messene, which had itself been founded by Epaminondas after the battle of Leuktra. While the earlier issues of Messana already featured artistry of solid competence, the present coin embodies a refinement of technique and elegance that breathed new life into the coinage of Messana; die engraving at this city would reach its zenith in the coming decade, not long before it was sacked by the Carthaginians under Himilco in 397.

A Beautiful Hexas of the Mamertinoi

145. Sicily, The Mamertinoi Æ Hexas. Messana, circa 264-241 BC. Laureate head of youthful Ares to right; two pellets behind head, ΑΡΕΟΣ before / Athena Promachos advancing to right, holding transverse spear in her right hand and resting her left on shield set on the ground before her; MAMEPTINΩN behind. CNS I 21; SNG ANS 420-422; Särström Series X, 155; SNG Morcom 631. 8.60g, 23mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare. An excellent specimen of this rare type with a wonderful, intact patina.

2,000

Ex Roma Numismatics VII, 22 March 2014, lot 128 (hammer: £2,800); Ex private German collection. In 270 BC mercenaries of Italian origin who had originally been hired by Agathokles of Syracuse, seized the city of Messana by treachery. Having been offered shelter by the inhabitants of the city, they butchered their hosts as they slept and took the womenfolk for themselves. Renaming themselves the Mamertines after the Oscan god of war Mamers, the mercenaries held the town for twenty years, during which time they became pirates on land and sea, raiding and pillaging nearby settlements, and preying on unwary trade ships. Eventually Hieron II, tyrant of Syracuse, resolved to deal with the threat by force; the Mamertines however invoked the protection of a nearby Carthaginian fleet, and later (uncomfortable under the Carthaginian protection) formally requested to be allowed under the protection of Rome. Though initially unwilling to come to the aid of such despicable fellows, the Romans did not wish to see Carthaginian influence come so close to Italy, and so consented. Syracuse in response allied itself with Carthage, and the series of events that would lead to the First Punic War were thus set in motion.

49


50


A Masterpiece of 5th Century Art

146.

Sicily, Naxos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 460 BC. Bearded head of Dionysos right, wearing ivy wreath, his hair tied in a krobylos behind / Nude, bearded and ithyphallic Silenos squatting facing, head left, holding kantharos in right hand, leaning on left; NAXION around. Cahn 54 (same dies); SNG ANS 515 (same dies); SNG Lloyd 1150 (same dies); SNG Lockett 840 (same dies); Gulbenkian 230-231 (same dies); Rizzo pl. XXVIII, 2 (same dies); Jenkins 673 (same dies); SNG Fitzwilliam 1108 (same dies); Kunstfreund 95 (same dies); Kraay-Hirmer 6 (same dies); Randazzo 227-231 (all from same dies). 17.22g, 30mm, 3h. Extremely Fine, with a deep, beautiful old cabinet tone. Very Rare.

80,000

Ex Hess-Divo 329, 17 November 2015, lot 20; Ex Roma Numismatics VII, 20 March 2014, lot 131; Ex James Howard (1937-2009) Collection, purchased from Credit Suisse Bern in 1983, and probably from the Randazzo Hoard of 1980. One of the great masterpieces of fifth century Greek numismatic art, and one of the most famous of all Greek coins. Produced from a single set of dies, this tetradrachm was struck in commemoration of the refoundation of the city of Naxos following the return of its citizens from their forced relocation to Leontinoi by the tyrant Hieron of Syracuse. Undoubtedly the most accomplished engraver of his time, this artist is also believed to have been responsible for the unique Brussels Aetna tetradrachm - in both cases his work is a tour de force that showcases his singular ability. On the present piece, the obverse presents us with a refined portrait of Dionysos, which though bearing distinctly archaised features such as the arrangement of the god’s hair, wreath and beard, shows his eye in profile. This, combined with the god’s merry expression and the deliberate extension of the design through the dotted border indicate clear progression of style away from the more formal and rigid types of previous decades. The result is, of course, the most iconic and artistically meritorious portrait of Dionysos in all of ancient coinage. Yet it is upon the reverse that the artist has worked a wonder that has earned this type such a lofty reputation as one of the most desired of all ancient Greek coins, and the most costly of all the tetradrachms. Here, the artist’s composition combines handsome naturalistic musculature with a unique and inspired design of Silenos drunkenly gazing into his wine cup as he supports himself with his other hand. In choosing to depict Silenos facing the viewer, the artist not only proves his ability to render the design in adept relief and detail, he also effortlessly demonstrates an advanced understanding and application of the principle of foreshortening in Silenos’ right leg and foot. It is this combination of a striking, masterful image of Dionysos with such a remarkable reverse scene that was so far ahead of its time that has led so many to acclaim it a triumph of late archaic art.

51


147. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Deinomenid Tyranny. Time of Hieron I, circa 475-470 BC. Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving slow quadriga to right; above, Nike flying to right, crowning horses with wreath / Head of Arethusa right, hair in pearl band, wearing loop earring with single pendant and pearl necklace; ΣVRAKOΣION and four dolphins around. Boehringer 307; SNG ANS 96-113. 17.26g, 24mm, 8h. Very Fine. Pleasant cabinet tone.

1,250

Ex Stack’s Bowers and Ponterio 164, 6 January 2012, lot 101.

148. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Deinomenid Tyranny. Time of Hieron I, circa 470-466 BC. Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving slow quadriga to right; above, Nike flying to right, crowning horses with open wreath held in both hands; ketos swimming to right in exergue / Head of Arethusa right, hair in pearl band, wearing loop earring with single pendant and pearl necklace; ΣVRAKOΣION and four dolphins around. Boehringer 408 (V211/R288); SNG ANS 128; Hunterian 20; Bement 1050 (all from the same dies). 17.36g, 27mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine. Superbly lustrous metal with gold and purple toning. Rare. Ex Ambrose Collection; Ex Triton XV, 3 January 2012, lot 1069.

10,000

149. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Second Democracy, circa 450-439 BC. Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving slow quadriga to right; above, Nike flying to right, crowning horses with open wreath held in both hands; ketos swimming to right in exergue / Diademed head of Arethusa right, wearing earring and pendant necklace; ΣYRAKOΣION and four dolphins around. Boehringer 579 (V289/R385); SNG ANS 181 (same reverse die); Rizzo pl. XXXVIII, 13. 17.05g, 24mm, 4h. About Extremely Fine. Ex Classical Numismatic Group 40, 4 December 1996, lot 855.

52

2,000


150. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Second Democracy, circa 460-450 BC. Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving slow quadriga to right; above, Nike flying to right, crowning horses with open wreath held in both hands; ketos swimming to right in exergue / Head of Arethusa right, wearing pearl diadem, earring and necklace, her hair rolled in a bun at the back, ΣYRAKOΣION and four dolphins around. Boehringer 509 (V268/ R365); SNG ANS 162 (same dies). 17.28g, 25mm, 3h. Extremely Fine. Pleasing old cabinet tone. Very Rare.

4,000

Privately purchased from Numismatica Ars Classica, January 2011.

151. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Second Democracy, circa 440-430 BC. Charioteer driving fast quadriga left; Nike above, flying right and crowning charioteer; ketos left in exergue / Head of Arethusa right, wearing earring and necklace, hair tied up with ribbon; ΣYRAKOΣION and four dolphins around. Boehringer 604 (V296/R410); SNG ANS 198-9; Jameson 775 (these dies). 17.02g, 25mm, 5h. Extremely Fine; attractively toned and engraved in wonderful style, the usual die break detracts nothing from the beauty of the artistry. Rare. 5,000 Ex David Freedman Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics III, 31 March 2012, lot 73; Privately purchased from Numismatica Ars Classica.

152. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Second Democracy, circa 430-420 BC. Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving slow quadriga right; above, Nike flying right, crowning horses with wreath, laurel branch in exergue / Head of Arethusa right, hair covered by sakkos drawn together at top and decorated with maeander pattern above chevrons, wearing earring and necklace; ΣYRAKOΣIΩN and four dolphins around. Boehringer 654 (V331/ R449); SNG Copenhagen 658; SNG ANS 215. 17.40g, 25mm, 6h. Very Fine. Rare. From the collection of Patrick Mulcahy; Ex Gorny & Mosch 199, 10 October 2011, lot 89; Ex Triton XIII, 5 January 2010, lot 1032.

53

2,500


2x 2x 153. Sicily, Syracuse AV Dekadrachm - 50 Litrai. Time of Agathokles, circa 317-311 BC. Laureate head of Apollo left / Charioteer driving fast biga right; triskeles below, ΣYPAKOΣIΩN around. Bérend, ‘De l’or d’Agothocle’ in Studies Price, pl. 9, 1; BAR issue 1; SNG ANS 552. 4.29g, 15mm, 10h. Traces of lustre, well centred, Near Extremely Fine.

4,000

Ex Roma Numismatics E-Sale 6, 22 February 2014, lot 65.

154. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Time of Agathokles, circa 310-306/5 BC. Head of Kore right, wearing earring, necklace and wreath of grain ears; KOPAΣ to left / Nike standing right, wearing drapery that falls to waist, erecting trophy to right; triskeles to right, AΓAΘOKΛEOΣ in exergue. Ierardi 129; Gulbenkian 336; SNG ANS 668; SNG Lloyd 1491. 16.35g, 27mm, 8h. Extremely Fine; very pleasing original ‘find’ patina.

7,500

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 106, 9 May 2018, lot 1178. With the usurpation of Agathokles in 317 BC, Syracuse once more monopolised the right of coinage for the whole of Sicily, even more distinctly than in the time of Dionysios. Yet the reign of Agathokles, as noted by Malcolm Bell (Morgantine Studies I, 1981) “was a watershed for the arts in Sicily, just as it was for politics. The change from a conservative late-classical style to the new modes of the early-Hellenistic period came very quickly, within the space of a decade, and it coincided with the replacement of democratic government by the new monarchy. It is clearly perceptible in the coins that... document the full acceptance of early-Hellenistic style.” Depicted often as a cruel and unscrupulous adventurer and tyrant, Agathokles achieved little of lasting historical importance; indeed after his death anarchy erupted both in Syracuse, where a damnatio memoriae was decreed, and in other places that had been under his rule (Diod. Sic. 21. 18). Nonetheless, his patronage of the arts left a legacy of beauty as embodied by a small number of surviving works of art from his reign, and smaller but no less wonderful objects such as this stunning coin.

2x 2x 155. Sicily, Syracuse AV Dekadrachm. Thoinon or Sosistratos, 278 BC. Head of Persephone to left, wearing wreath of grain leaves, pendant earring and pearl necklace; ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ before, bee behind / Nike driving galloping quadriga to right, holding reins and kentron; crescent moon above, Θ below, ΕΠΙ ΙΚΕΤΑ erased from the die in exergue. Buttrey, Morgantina, 5-R (same dies); SNG Munich 1292; Nomos 8, 22 October 2013, 58 (same dies). 4.27g, 16mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. Previously NGC graded ‘AU 4/5 - 4/5’ (#4161133-001). Very Rare.

7,500

From the collection of T.M., Germany; Ex Stack´s, Bowers & Ponterio 164, 6 January 2012, lot 122; Ex Giessener Münzhandlung 96, 07 June 1999, lot 61; Ex Leu 59, 17 May 1994, lot 74; Ex Hess-Leu 12, 12 April 1962, lot 117. After Agathokles’ assassination by Maenon, the latter put the former tyrant’s grandson to death and seized command of his army that was then besieging Aetna, directing it instead against Syracuse. Hiketas was entrusted with the command of a sizeable force by the Syracusans to defend the city. Despite later seizing supreme power, Hiketas apparently never styled himself as king. During his nine year reign he defeated Phintias of Akragas and took that city, then turned his attention to the Carthaginians. He was however dealt a severe defeat in battle against their forces at the river Terias and as a result was expelled from Syracuse by Thoinon, one of his officers. Thoinon however faced opposition from both Sosistratos, a fellow officer, and from the Carthaginian forces that had defeated Hiketas. In this desperate time of civil war and foreign invasion before Pyrrhos would arrive and be hailed saviour by the Syracusans, there was apparently no time to produce new dies at the mint, and thus the old dies of Hiketas were reused - with his name hastily obliterated.

54


156. Sicily, Syracuse AR 8 Litrai. Fifth Democracy, circa 214-212 BC. Head of Athena left, wearing crested Corinthian helmet / Winged thunderbolt, ΣYPAKOΣIΩN above, ΞA below. Burnett, Enna hoard in SNR 62, 1983, pl. 9, D 25; SNG ANS 1045. 6.83g, 23mm, 9h. Good Extremely Fine; beautiful cabinet tone with hints of iridescence.

1,500

Ex Gorny & Mosch 240, 10 October 2016, lot 53; Privately purchased from Roma Numismatics Ltd., 2011; Ex Gorny & Mosch 190, 11 October 2010, lot 79.

LOKRIS Ajax of Lokris

157. Lokris, Lokris Opuntii AR Stater. Circa 360-50 BC. Head of Persephone left, wearing grain wreath, triple-pendant earring, and necklace / Ajax advancing right over two spears, nude but for crested Corinthian helmet, holding short sword and shield adorned with palmette and griffin; sunburst below, ΟΠΟΝΤΙΩΝ to left. J. Morineau Humphris & D. Delbridge, The Coinage of the Opountian Lokrians, RNS SP 50, London 2014, 127c (O20A/R40); Gulbenkian 491 (this reverse die); BCD 58 (this reverse die); cf. Dewing 1477; BMC 27. 12.29g, 24mm, 3h. Extremely Fine. Beautifully toned.

6,000

Ex Ambrose Collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 55, 8 October 2010, lot 58. Ajax of Lokris (or Ajax ‘the Lesser’), who is depicted on the reverse of this attractive type, led a fleet of forty ships from Lokris Opuntii against Troy in the Greeks’ great war on that city. At Troy’s fall, he was alleged by Odysseus to have violated a sanctuary of Athena by ravishing Cassandra, who had sought refuge there. He thus brought down the wrath of Athena upon himself and his countrymen: Ajax himself was wrecked and killed in a storm as he made his way home from the war, and the rest of the Opuntians reached home only with great difficulty. Nevertheless, they annually honoured their former leader by launching a ship fitted with black sails and laden with gifts, which they then set alight, and whenever the Lokrian army drew up for battle, one place was always left open for Ajax, whose spirit they believed would stand and fight with them.

ARKADIA An Excessively Rare Coin of Kaphyai

3x

3x

158. Arkadia, Kaphyai AR Hemiobol. Circa 470-450 BC. Two grape bunches on vine / KA within shallow incuse. Unpublished; cf. LHS 96, 2006, 1378 and Münzen & Medaillen 76, 1991, 724. 0.37g, 9mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Excessively Rare. From a private German collection.

55

1,000


CORINTHIA

159. Corinthia, Corinth AR Stater. Circa 345-307 BC. Pegasos flying left; Q below / Laureate, helmeted head of Athena left; A-P below, aegis behind. Pegasi 427; Ravel 1009; SNG Copenhagen 71. 8.62g, 22mm, 3h. Extremely Fine; old cabinet tone with golden iridescence.

750

From a private British collection.

160. Corinthia, Corinth AR Stater. Circa 375-300 BC. Pegasos flying left; Q below / Helmeted head of Athena left, helmet decorated with laurel wreath; A-P below, pellet and Athena Promachos to right behind. Pegasi 432; Ravel 1014. 8.55g, 21mm, 8h. Good Very Fine.

350

From the R.C. Vermeer Collection; Ex Gorny & Mosch 107, 2 April 2001, lot 158.

A Fine Style Corinthian Drachm

2x

2x

161. Corinthia, Corinth AR Drachm. Circa 308-307 BC. Pegasos flying left; Q below / Head of Aphrodite left, wearing earring and necklace, hair tied with ribbon and bound at top, falling loose behind; Δ-O across fields. Ravel, Chiliomodi Hoard, pl. X, 15; BCD 150. 2.80g, 15mm, 4h. Good Extremely Fine. Attractive old toning.

2,000

Ex Ambrose Collection; Ex Numismatica Genevensis 7, 27 November 2012, lot 199. There was no other city in mainland Greece where the cult of Aphrodite flourished such as it did at Corinth. The goddess had her temple atop the monolithic rock known as the Acrocorinth, widely regarded as the most impressive acropolis in all of Greece. This mountain peak which towered over the city was assigned to Helios by Briareos when he acted as adjudicator between that god and Poseidon in their contest for the city, and was handed over, the Corinthians said, by Helios to Aphrodite. The temple of Aphrodite here was particularly wealthy, and according to Strabo it at one time possessed over a thousand temple slaves. A certain number of these appear to have performed a ritual courtesan function, such that Corinth became famed for its pleasures of the flesh, and rich because of it. As early as the fifth century BC we find reference to this in Pindar’s Eulogies (fragment 122): ‘Guest-loving girls! Servants of Peitho in wealthy Korinthos! Ye that burn the golden tears of fresh frankincense, full often soaring upward in your souls unto Aphrodite.’ It is fitting therefore that upon the drachms of Corinth we find a multitude of beautifully engraved images of the goddess Aphrodite. The present portrait certainly ranks among the most attractive of these.

PHLIASIA

3x 162. Phliasia, Phlious AR Obol. Late 6th - early 5th Century BC. Human leg bent to right, with prominent kneecap / Incuse square divided into six irregular compartments. BCD Peloponnesos 79; Cf. Nomos Auction 6, lot 68. 10.03g, 18mm. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare. Ex Gutekunst Collection, Roma Numismatics E-Sale 4, 28 December 2013, lot 110.

56

500


ATTICA A Beautiful and Very Rare Athenian Drachm

163.

Attica, Athens AR Drachm. Circa 510-490 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing earring and crested Attic helmet ornamented with beaded decorations on crest holder and spiral on bowl / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive branch behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Svoronos pl. 7, 20-23; cf. Seltman pl. XXII, υ (same rev. die); HGC 4, 1623 (same dies); Gorny & Mosch 232, 207 (same dies); Triton XX, 147 (same dies). 4.17g, 16mm, 4h. Good Extremely Fine; a marvellous example of this extremely desirable type - the earliest issue of Athena-Owl drachms at Athens. 20,000 Ex Triton XXI, 9 January 2018, lot 415. Athens was one of the few Greek cities with significant silver deposits in their immediate territory, a remarkable stroke of fortune upon which Xenophon reflected: ‘The Divine Bounty has bestowed upon us inexhaustible mines of silver, and advantages which we enjoy above all our neighbouring cities, who never yet could discover one vein of silver ore in all their dominions.’ The mines at Laurion had been worked since the bronze age, but it would be only later in 483 that a massive new vein of ore would be discovered that enabled Athens to finance grand new schemes such as the construction of a fleet of 200 triremes, a fleet that would later prove decisive in defending Greece at the Battle of Salamis. This coin was produced in the period before the discovery of the new deposits at Laurion, around the time of the Ionian Revolt and the subsequent first Persian invasion of Greece. Athens aided the Ionian Greeks in their rebellion against Persian tyranny with both coin and soldiers, participating in the 498 BC march on Sardes which resulted in the capture and sack of that city – the only significant offensive action taken by the Ionians, who were pushed back onto the defensive and eventually subjugated once more. Vowing to punish Athens for their support of the doomed rebellion, the Persian king Darius launched an invasion of Greece, landing at Marathon in 490 BC. Just twenty five miles from Athens, a vastly outnumbered Athenian hoplite army inflicted a crushing defeat on the Persians, who after suffering horrendous casualties turned to their ships and fled.

57


164. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 490-482 BC. Archaic head of Athena right wearing crested helmet decorated with chevron and dot pattern / Owl standing right, head facing, olive sprig behind, ΑΘΕ before. Cf. Svoronos Pl. 5; cf. Asyut pl. XVIII. 17.23g, 20mm, 5h. Extremely Fine, struck on a large flan and displaying a complete helmet crest.

8,000

From the collection of Patrick Mulcahy; Ex Roma Numismatics IX, 22 March 2015, lot 181.

An Extremely Rare Starr Group I Tetradrachm

165. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 475-470 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing earring and crested Attic helmet decorated with with pellet in chevron ornamentation and four olive leaves / Owl standing to right, head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, AΘE before; all within incuse square. Starr Group I, 8 and pl. 1, 8 (same dies); Seltman 413; Svoronos 8.4. 17.22g, 22mm, 4h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; Starr knew of only twelve coins in his Group I.

3,000

From the Dr. Albert Potts collection. The coinage of Starr Group I represents the first issue struck at Athens after the resounding victory over the second Persian invasion of Greece at the climactic twin battles of Plataea and Mykale in 479. The city of Athens had been razed to the ground by Persian troops in the course of this war, and the Athenians now faced the task of not only rebuilding their homes and temples, but also immediately went on the offensive against the Persian dominions in northern Greece, Cyprus and Byzantion. In 477 leadership of the free Greek city-states would pass to Athens with the formation of the Delian League with Kimon as their principal commander. When the Athenian mint resumed operations then, the coinage retained its familiar types, but with some alterations. The helmet of Athena now displayed four upright leaves of olive, and the olive sprig on the Group I coinage unusually hangs straight down, perhaps a symbolic change, as an army regiment might lower its colours in salute or a gesture of respect for the fallen. This is also the first issue to bear the crescent symbol, which more likely represents a transient stage of the moon than a fleet formation (as has been suggested), however despite a general consensus that it probably in some way relates to victory over the Persian invaders, its true significance remains uncertain.

Starr Group III

166. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 475-465 BC. Head of Athena right, in crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, wearing round earring with central boss / Owl standing to right, head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, AΘE before; all within incuse square. Starr Group III; HGC 4, 1594; Svoronos pl. IX. 17.08g, 24mm, 8h. Extremely Fine; minor test cut on rev. Rare, and in excellent condition for the issue.

58

3,000


Starr Group V.B

167. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 465-454 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing right with head facing, olive sprig with berry and crescent in upper left field, AΘE to right; all within incuse square. Starr Group V.B. 16.96g, 26mm, 4h. Near Extremely Fine. Obverse die a little worn, reverse struck in exceptional depth, well framed in a high-bordered flan.

3,000

Ex Roma Numismatics III, 31 March 2012, lot 126; Privately purchased from D. F. Grotjohann, Munich, 2011.

168. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 465-454 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing right with head facing, olive sprig with berry and crescent in upper left field, AΘE to right; all within incuse square. Starr Group V.B. 16.84g, 24mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. Full reverse incuse square.

1,500

169. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Late 450s-440s BC. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing right with head facing, olive sprig with berry and crescent in upper left field, AΘE to right; all within incuse square. Cf. Starr pl. 22; Svoronos pl. 12, 1-11 var. 16.87g, 23mm, 4h. Near Extremely Fine. Ex Roma Numismatics E-Sale 6, 22 February 2014, lot 81.

59

750


Athens Tetradrachms with Full Crests

170. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, in crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, wearing round earring with central boss / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31. 17.14g, 23mm, 9h. Good Extremely Fine.

5,000

A superb example with a perfectly struck head of Athena that shows the full crest of her helmet, a most uncommon feature. Rarely encountered this well struck, and truly exceptional. From the collection of Patrick Mulcahy; Ex Roma Numismatics VIII, 28 September 2014, lot 306; Ex Q. David Bowers Collection, Stacks 2011 International Sale, 10 January 2011, lot 71.

171. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, in crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, wearing round earring with central boss / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31. 17.18g, 26mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine. Exceptionally well centred on a broad flan, with a complete helmet crest.

5,000

From the Dr. Albert Potts collection.

172. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, in crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, wearing round earring with central boss / AΘE, owl standing three-quarters right, head facing, olive sprig and crescent moon behind; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; SNG Copenhagen 31; Dewing 1591-8. 17.18g, 27mm, 9h. Fleur De Coin; extremely rare with full helmet crest. Beautifully toned with hints of iridescence.

60

3,000


All images on this page are 1.5x enlargements

173

174

173. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, in crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, wearing round earring with central boss / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31. 17.20g, 25mm, 7h. Extremely Fine; highly lustrous, and displaying a complete helmet crest. 3,000 From the collection of P.R., United Kingdom. 174. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, in crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, wearing round earring with central boss / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31. 17.20g, 26mm, 7h. Near Mint State; stunning old cabinet tone. Virtually a full helmet crest; rare thus. 2,000

175

176

175. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, in crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, wearing round earring with central boss / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31. 17.23g, 25mm, 10h Good Extremely Fine. 1,500 176. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, in crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, wearing round earring with central boss / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31. 17.17g, 25mm, 12h. Near Mint State. Spectacular reverse with full incuse square. 1,500

177

178

177. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, in crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, wearing round earring with central boss / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31. 17.21g, 25mm, 10h. Near Mint State; beautiful old cabinet tone. Near full reverse incuse square. 1,500 178. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, in crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, wearing round earring with central boss / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31. 17.19g, 26mm, 7h. Near Mint State; wonderful dark old cabinet tone. 1,500

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All images on this page are 1.5x enlargements

179

180

179. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, in crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, wearing round earring with central boss / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31. 17.02g, 26mm, 10h. Extremely Fine. Attractively toned. Struck on a broad flan, and with a well centred reverse displaying a full incuse square. 1,250 Ex Roma Numismatics II, 2 October 2011, lot 190. 180. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, in crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, wearing round earring with central boss / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31. 17.23g, 25mm, 7h. Mint State; wonderful dark old cabinet tone. 1,250

181

182

181. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, in crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, wearing round earring with central boss / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31. 17.20g, 28mm, 1h. Mint State; beautiful old cabinet tone. Near full helmet crest. 1,250 182. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, in crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, wearing round earring with central boss / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31. 17.17g, 25mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine. 1,000

183

184

183. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, in crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, wearing round earring with central boss / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31. 17.25g, 24mm, 9h. Mint State; lustrous metal with beautiful old cabinet tone. 1,000 184. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, in crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, wearing round earring with central boss / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31. 17.21g, 24mm, 10h. Good Extremely Fine. 1,000

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All images on this page are 1.5x enlargements

185

186

185. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, in crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, wearing round earring with central boss / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31. 17.21g, 25mm, 2h. Near Mint State. 1,000 186. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, in crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, wearing round earring with central boss / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31. 17.23g, 25mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine; beautiful old cabinet tone. Full reverse incuse square. 1,000

187

188

187. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, in crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, wearing round earring with central boss / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31. 17.18g, 25mm, 3h. Good Extremely Fine. 1,000 188. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, in crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, wearing round earring with central boss / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31. 17.23g, 24mm, 10h. Mint State; lustrous metal. 1,000

189

190

189. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, in crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, wearing round earring with central boss / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31. 17.22g, 24mm, 10h. Mint State; lustrous metal. 1,000 190. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, in crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, wearing round earring with central boss / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31. 17.11g, 26mm, 9h. Extremely Fine; attractive old cabinet tone. 1,000

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All images on this page are 1.5x enlargements

191

192

191. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, in crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, wearing round earring with central boss / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31. 17.22g, 25mm, 3h. Near Mint State; lustrous metal. 1,000 192. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, in crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, wearing round earring with central boss / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31. 17.20g, 25mm, 1h. Near Mint State; beautiful old cabinet tone. Near full reverse incuse square. 1,000

193

194

193. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, in crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, wearing round earring with central boss / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31. 17.16g, 25mm, 4h. Extremely Fine. 750 194. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, in crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, wearing round earring with central boss / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31. 17.21g, 28mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine. Ex Roma Numismatics VIII, 28 September 2014, lot 310. 750

195

196

195. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, in crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, wearing round earring with central boss / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31. 17.22g, 25mm, 10h. Good Extremely Fine; lustrous metal. 750 196. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, in crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, wearing round earring with central boss / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31. 17.11g, 25mm, 7h. Extremely Fine; attractive old cabinet tone. 750

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An Actual Crescent

197. Attica, Athens AR Drachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Helmeted head of Athena right / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig and crescent behind; all within incuse square. Kroll 10 var.; SNG Copenhagen 41-3 var. 3.80g, 16mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

5,000

Sold with export licence issued by The Israel Antiquities Authority. Numismatists have long perpetuated a common error, in that a great many drachms of Athens are described as having an olive sprig and crescent behind the owl (merely assumed to be present perhaps on account of its appearance on the tetradrachm, or simply copied and pasted in error) though in fact the crescent is absent by design. The present example however, struck in good metal and in unambiguously Athenian style, remarkably does actually have a crescent behind the owl. 1.5x

1.5x

198

199

198. Islands off Attica, Aegina AR Stater. Circa 456/45-431 BC. Land tortoise with segmented shell / Large incuse square of heavy skew pattern. Milbank pl. 2, 12; Dewing 1683; BMC Attica p. 137, 146; SNG Copenhagen 516. 12.28g, 22mm. Good Very Fine. Ex private Swiss collection; Ex Credit Suisse FPL 61, Spring 1994, 52.

2,500

199. Islands off Attica, Aegina AR Stater. Circa 456/45-431 BC. Land tortoise with segmented shell / Large incuse square of heavy skew pattern. Milbank pl. 2, 12; Dewing 1683; BMC Attica p. 137, 146; SNG Copenhagen 516. 12.46g, 21mm. Near Extremely Fine. Struck on a very broad flan. From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-1990s.

2,500

CYCLADES

200. Cyclades, Paros AR Drachm. Circa 520-500 BC. Goat kneeling right, within border of dots / Incuse square. K. Sheedy, The Archaic and Early Classical Coinages of the Cyclades, RNS SP 40, London 2006, 9a; SNG Lockett 2619. 6.00g, 16mm. Very Fine. Rare.

1,000

Ex Frank James Collection; Ex A H Baldwin & Sons 44, 2 May 2006, lot 73.

MACEDON

201. Macedon, Akanthos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 480-470 BC. Lion right, attacking bull crouching left; Θ above, floral ornament in exergue / Quadripartite incuse square. Desneaux 59 var.; AMNG III/2, 4; SNG ANS 10. 17.55g, 31mm. Extremely Fine. From the Dr. Albert Potts collection.

65

5,000


Stunning Golden Iridescence

202.

Macedon, Akanthos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 470-430 BC. Lion to right, attacking bull crouching to left with head half-facing; in exergue, tunny fish to left / AKANΘION in shallow incuse around quadripartite square, the quarters raised and granulated. Cf. Desneux 95, 97-8, 102 (unlisted dies); AMNG III/2, 21; SNG ANS -. 17.14g, 30mm, 3h. Extremely Fine; lustrous metal. Very Rare; engraved in magnificent high classical style.

20,000

From the Maurice Lucas Collection; Acquired from Numismatic Fine Arts (Beverly Hills) via private treaty, 1989. The ubiquitous and persistent theme of the lion-bull combat can be traced back to the figurate art of the third millennium, where the geometrical motifs are replaced by narrative symbolic representations, and the scene is characteristic of Near Eastern art in its infancy. The earliest known depiction occurs on a ewer found at Uruk dated to the latter part of the Protoliterate period, circa 3300 BC. That ewer has a relief depiction of a lion attacking a bull from behind (see Henri Frankfort, Art and Architecture of the Ancient Orient, 1963). The scene became widely distributed by 500 BC, featuring prominently in the Achaemenid Empire, and in particular at the palace of Darios in Persepolis, where it occurs no fewer than twenty seven times, including on the main staircase leading to the imperial complex. Its frequent appearance in key locations strongly suggests an important symbolic significance, which unfortunately has not survived antiquity in any explicitly clear form. Explanations for the symbolism and its power over the ancient peoples who reproduced it with prodigious enthusiasm have ranged from it being an expression of royal power, to an astronomical allusion, as well as it being an embodiment of the constant struggle between civilisation (represented by the domesticated bull), and nature (represented by the untameable lion). This latter argument may well hold true for the Mesopotamians of Uruk, who it is known took a rather grim view of the world, seeing it as a battleground of opposing powers. One interpretation that has gained traction in recent years is that the motif is apotropaic in nature, serving to ward off evil in a similar function to the gorgoneion, which like the lion attack motif is very prevalent in ancient Greek coinage, though there is little evidence to support such a notion. G. E. Markoe (‘The Lion Attack in Archaic Greek Art’, Classical Antiquity Vol. 8, 1, 1989) convincingly suggests that a more likely explanation may be found in the examination of archaic Greek epic poetry, particularly in Homeric literature, wherein a lion attacking cattle or sheep is repeatedly employed as a simile for the aggression and valour of combatant heroes. In notable passages, Agamemnon’s victorious advance against the Trojans in the Iliad (11.113ff and 129) and Hektor’s successful pursuit of the Achaeans (15.630ff) are both likened to a lion triumphing over its hapless prey. In both of these cases the allusion is completed by the defeated being compared to fleeing prey animals. In all, there are twenty five examples present in the Iliad of heroic warriors being compared to leonine aggressors, with the victims variously compared to boars, sheep, goats, bulls or deer. The repetition of this literary device is clearly demonstrative of how deeply rooted the imagery was in the Greek (and perhaps more generally human) consciousness. Of further and great significance is the involvement of the gods as the primary instigators of heroic leonine aggression in almost every case, and as it is made clear that the lion itself is an animal that is divinely directed to its prey (11.480, by a daimon), so then is the lion attack a metaphor for divinely inspired heroic triumph.

66


Magnificent High Classical Style

203. Macedon, Akanthos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 470-430 BC. Lion to right, attacking bull crouching to left with head raised; in exergue, tunny fish to left / AKANΘION in shallow incuse around quadripartite square, the quarters raised and granulated. Cf. Desneux 96ff (unlisted obv. die); SNG ANS -. 17.25g, 30mm, 9h. Extremely Fine; wonderful old cabinet tone.

15,000

From the Mordecai Medvin Collection; Privately purchased from V. C. Vecchi & Sons, London, 1979. The lion and bull motif, discussed in detail on the previous lot, was apparently adopted early on by Akanthos (c. 530-500 BC), though the lion and the bull were in any case among the earliest figures to appear on coinage - the mid-6th century BC coinage of the Lydian kings Alyattes and Kroisos is the best example of this usage. Already by this time too, the lion attack motif was in popular usage in mainland Greece - see for example the near contemporary Attic black-figure tripod in the manner of the KY Painter (Athens 12688). Persian influence on the design of tetradrachms of Akanthos can perhaps be inferred from an orientalising of style (see for example 201) resulting in an appearance more similar to the reliefs at Persepolis; Herodotos (7.116) records the Akanthians officially welcomed the Persians and willingly helped Xerxes: “Xerxes... declared the Akanthians his guests and friends, and gave them Median clothing, praising them for the zeal with which he saw them furthering his campaign.” Having thus taken part in the Persian campaign against Greece of its own accord, when Xerxes was defeated Akanthos subsequently become a member of the Delian League. It is tempting to see in the re-westernisation of the style of their coinage a reflection of this political volte-face.

204. Macedon, Akanthos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 430-390 BC. Phoenician standard. Lion to right, attacking bull crouching left; counter-clockwise swastika above / AKANΘION in shallow incuse around quadripartite square, the quarters raised and granulated. Desneux –; CNG 99, 63 (same dies); New York Sale XXX, lot 83 (same dies). 13.88g, 25mm, 5h. Good Very Fine. Attractive old tone with hints of iridescence. Very rare issue unknown to Desneux, only six in CoinArchives. From a private British collection; Ex Fritz Rudolf Künker 216, 8 October 2012, lot 242.

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2,500


Ex Leu 54, 1992

205. Macedon, Chalkidian League AR Tetradrachm. Olynthos, circa 382-379 BC. Laureate head of Apollo left / Kithara of seven strings, XAΛKIΔEΩN around; all within incuse square. Robinson & Clement Group H, 14 (same dies); cf. Traité IV pl. CCCXIII, 4; cf. BMFA Suppl. 43 and 43a. 14.30g, 25mm, 3h. Extremely Fine; beautiful old cabinet tone.

5,000

From a private British collection; Ex Leu Numismatik 54, 28 April 1992, lot 77. The extensive ‘Group H’ coinage appears to have been produced in order to finance the Olynthian war effort against a Spartan campaign to subdue the city and dissolve the Chalkidian League in 382-379 BC.

Unpublished Trihemiobol of Phagres(?)

206. Macedon, Phagres(?) AR Trihemiobol. Circa 450-400 BC. Lion seated to right on dotted ground line, head reverted / Quadripartite incuse square. Unpublished in the standard references. 1.27g, 12mm. Extremely Fine. Unpublished in the standard references, and apparently unique.

1,000

From a private German collection.

Superb Early Philip II Tetradrachm

207. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AR Tetradrachm. Lifetime issue. Pella, circa 356-348 BC. Laureate head of Zeus to right / The king, wearing kausia and chlamys, raising his right hand in salute and riding a horse walking to the left; ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ around, Δ under horse’s raised foreleg, star under belly. Le Rider 125 (D73/R99). 14.43g, 25mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine. An exceptional example of the early coinage of Philip.

7,500

Ex Ambrose Collection; Ex W.B. and R.E. Montgomery Collection; Ex Classical Numismatic Group 66, 19 May 2004, lot 176; Ex Numismatik Lanz 54, 12 November 1990, lot 121. Philip, despite Athenian opposition to his participation in the Olympics on the grounds that he was a non-Greek, went on to become an Olympic victor three times in 356, 352 and 348 BC. On the first occasion, Plutarch reports that upon having conquered Potidaia Philip was informed that his horse had won its race, and that this day he also learned of the victory of his general Parmenion against the Illyrians, and that his wife Myrtale had given birth to a son, Alexander. In commemoration of his Olympic victory, Philip decreed that his wife should henceforth be known as Olympias, and he caused these coins to be struck, proudly displaying both he and his horse in victorious stance upon the reverse.

68


208. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AV Stater. Pella, circa 340/36 - 328 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving racing biga to right; thunderbolt below horses, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ in exergue. Le Rider pl. 55, 89 (D42/R68). 8.61g, 18mm, 9h. Extremely Fine.

2,750

From the collection of Patrick Mulcahy.

209. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AV Stater. Pella, circa 340/36 - 328 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving racing biga to right; thunderbolt below horses, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ in exergue. Le Rider pl. 56, 96 (D45/R73). 8.64g, 20mm, 1h. Mint State.

3,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

210. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AV Stater. Pella, circa 340/36 - 328 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving racing biga to right; trident below horses, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ in exergue. Le Rider pl. 64, 350 (D109/R266). 8.59g, 20mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine.

3,000

From the Mordecai Medvin Collection.

211. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AV Stater. Pella, circa 340/36 - 328 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving racing biga to right; thunderbolt below horses, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ in exergue. Le Rider -, cf. pl. 65, 393-395. 8.54g, 18mm, 12h. Near Mint State. Extremely Rare symbol, possibly unique from these dies. From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

69

3,000


70


212. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AV Stater. Struck under Philip III. Pella, circa 323-315 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving racing biga to right; thunderbolt below horses, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ in exergue. Le Rider pl.66, 433 (D197/R321). 8.60g, 19mm, 9h. Extremely Fine.

2,000

213. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 323-317 BC. Laureate head of Zeus right / Nude youth on horseback right, holding reins and long palm branch; wreath below, Λ to right, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ around. Le Rider pl. 45, 22. 14.28g, 26mm, 8h. Near Extremely Fine. Superb style. Pleasant toning around the devices.

750

Ex Roma Numismatics VII, 22 March 2014, lot 391; Privately purchased from Freeman & Sear, Los Angeles, 2013.

Struck from Dies of Magnificent Style

2x

2x

214. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Stater. Amphipolis, circa 307-300 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing Corinthian helmet decorated with a serpent on the bowl / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; trident head pointing downwards in left field, AΛEΞANΔPOY to right. Price 172. 8.59g, 19mm, 2h. Mint State. Struck from dies of magnificent style, and certainly the most artistically accomplished obverse die used for this issue.

5,000

Many of the dies of this isse, attributed to Amphipolis, exhibit relatively poor style - the facial features of Athena can be disagreeably disproportionate or distorted; likewise the reverse figure of Nike can suffer from poor quality workmanship to the extent that she appears squat and graceless. The present coin by comparison employed dies of the finest style; both Athena and Nike are rendered elegantly and delicately. The resulting coin is one of the most desirable Alexander staters we have yet handled.

71


215. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Uncertain mint in Greece or Macedon, circa 310-275 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; aphlaston in left field, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right. Price 861a and pl. XLI, 861a (same obv. die); Roma XIII, 169 (same obv. die); SNG München -; SNG Alpha Bank -. 17.29g, 26mm, 1h. Extremely Fine; beautiful cabinet tone with blue iridescence. Very Rare.

1,500

Ex Collection of José Miguel Márquez del Prado; Ex Triton IX, 10 January 2006, lot 772.

216. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Stater. Abydos, circa 328-323 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with a coiled serpent / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, corn ear to left, monogram under left wing. Price 1518; Müller 573. 8.55g, 17mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Brilliant mint lustre.

3,000

Excessively Rare Issue from Ephesos

2x

2x

217. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III AV Stater. Ephesos, circa 300 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing earring and triple-crested Corinthian helmet decorated with serpent on bowl / Nike standing to left, holding wreath in right hand and long palm branch in right hand; AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, bee flanked by [E]-Φ to left. Price 1875 (these dies); Müller 506. 8.57g, 19mm, 1h. Near Mint State. Excessively rare issue - only this example on CoinArchives.

10,000

Ex Gorny & Mosch 224, 13 October 2014, lot 146. Price notes that “despite the flourishing mint at this city throughout the earlier fouth century BC, the Alexander issues attributed to Ephesos are meagre indeed... The minor change in the design of the stater, with the Nike carrying a palm rather than a stylis, is paralleled at Miletos at this time, and may well reflect the military rather than naval preoccupations of those responsible for the issue.”

72


218. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Civic issue of Magnesia ad Maeandrum, circa 200-196 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right, monogram above horse-head left in left field; maeander pattern in exergue. Price 2049 var. (control marks); Mektepini 382 var. (same); Roma V, 23 March 2013, 262 (same dies). 16.98g, 30mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

1,500

Ex Roma Numismatics VII, 22 March 2014, lot 425 (hammer: £3,000).

219. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Civic issue of Kaunos, circa 300-280 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, drapery about legs and waist, holding sceptre; double headed axe before, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ behind. Price 2074; Müller 1128. For the reattribution to Kaunos, see R.H.J. Ashton, “Kaunos, not Miletos or Mylasa,” NC 2004, pp. 33–46. 17.05g, 29mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Attractive iridescent tone.

5,000

Ex Ambrose Collection; Ex Prospero Collection, New York Sale XXVII, 4 January 2012, lot 311; Purchased from Spink & Son Ltd., London, February 1989. When one compares these dies to the contemporary issues of the type from this mint, which are uniformly of poor style and execution, it is not perhaps implausible to conceive of this having been a special issue intended for some specific purpose or occasion, such is its medallic quality.

220. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Civic issue of Miletos, circa 295-270 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, MI monogram in left field. Price 2150. 17.19g, 31mm, 1h. Fleur De Coin. Ex Ambrose Collection; Roma Numismatics XIII, 23 March 2017, lot 174; Ex Stack’s Bowers and Ponterio 164, 6 January 2012, lot 155.

73

5,000


74


The Dekadrachms of Alexander

221.

Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Dekadrachm. Babylon, circa 325-323 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros enthroned to left, holding sceptre; AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, monogram above M below throne. Price 3600 = Mitchiner, The Early Indo-Greeks and their Antecedents p.11, illustration 4 = NAC 72, 344 = Price, Mnemata, 6 = Coin Hoard 1975 fig. 6, 2; cf. Price 3618A (same obverse die); cf. cf. Prospero 307 (same obverse die); cf. Sotheby’s 19, June 1990, 102 (same obverse die). 41.62g, 35mm, 8h. Extremely Fine. One of the very finest of the exceedingly few surviving dekadrachms of Alexander, engraved in fine style and remarkably well preserved in good metal. 50,000 From a private European collection. In all of human history, there have been but very few individuals whose accomplishments are recounted again and again undimmed by time, whose legends have grown only brighter with the passing of the years, and whose names can stir fierce emotion and wonder at a distance of millennia. Alexander is perhaps the greatest of all such paragons of humanity, whose life and exploits are the near-incredible stuff of myth and fable. Silver dekadrachms, be they of Athens, Syracuse, Akragas or Carthage, have ever been amongst the most desired and sought-after of ancient coins by virtue of their impressive size and weight, and the large canvas they presented for the showcasing of the engraver’s art. Though considered ‘rare’, the surviving dekadrachms of Syracuse number in the high hundreds or low thousands, and those of Athens in the dozens. Fewer than twenty dekadrachms of Alexander are known to exist today - figurative grains of sand on a beach amidst the hundreds of thousands of surviving tetradrachms, drachms, staters and other fractions. The extreme rarity of Alexander’s dekadrachms has therefore contributed an aura of unobtainability to the mystery of this most iconic coinage. Missing from most of the world’s major institutional collections, the majority of the examples known today originated from the 1973 ‘Babylon’ Hoard (sometimes also referred to as the Mesopotamia Hoard), and a smaller 1989 find that Martin Price believed to be a part of the original 1973 deposit. The eight coins that are known to have come from these two groups form the backbone of the Dekadrachm corpus. Struck in three emissions from a mint generally considered to be at Babylon, but possibly Susa or Ekbatana, the dekadrachms formed part of a massive conversion of bullion seized from the Persian Royal treasuries at Susa and Persepolis - some 180,000 Attic talents (4,680 metric tons) were liberated from those vaults, converted by decree of the King into ready coinage to meet the expenses of his vast empire and to pay his beloved soldiers. That so few examples of this large denomination survive today is potentially indicative of a special significance or purpose for these coins. It is certainly tempting to think - as many often have - that they represent presentation pieces intended for certain men of rank, and that Alexander, who was well known for his love of giving gifts, may have distributed them personally. In reality though, their low survival rate is probably due to the impracticality of the denomination, since the ubiquitous tetradrachm was the more common and more convenient medium of payment. Regardless of its intended purpose, and though it represents only a small splinter that survives of Alexander’s great vision, today his dekadrachms are one of the most tangible artefacts of his reign, and amongst the greatest prizes of ancient Greek numismatics.

75


Tetradrachms from the Dekadrachm Series

222. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘The Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Babylon, circa 331-325 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right, bee in left field, monogram above M below throne. Price 3618. 17.16g, 28mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine; grafitto on obv. Very Rare; from the dekadrachm series.

500

Ex Collection of José Miguel Márquez del Prado.

223. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘The Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Babylon, circa 331-325 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right, sickle in left field, monogram above M below throne. Price 3622. 17.20g, 26mm, 2h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare; from the dekadrachm series.

500

Ex Collection of José Miguel Márquez del Prado.

224. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Babylon, circa 324/3 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; AΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right, kylix above M in left field, monogram below throne. Price 3652. 17.01g, 27mm, 8h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare issue from the dekadrachm series.

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500


1.5x

1.5x

225

226

225. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Babylon, circa 324/3 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; AΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right, Nike flying right and holding wreath above M in left field, monogram below throne. Price 3678. 16.46g, 26mm, 3h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare issue from the dekadrachm series. 750 226. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Susa, circa 324/3 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; AΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right, monograms in left field and below throne. Price 3829. 15.73g, 25mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; lustrous metal. Very Rare. 750 1.5x

1.5x

227

228

227. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Susa, circa 324/3-323 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; BAΣIΛEΩΣ below, AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, monograms in left field and below throne. Price 3832. 17.12g, 25mm, 11h. Extremely Fine; contact marks on rev. Very Rare, only two other examples in CoinArchives, none in the Pella database, two in ANS photofile, three cited by Price. 750 228. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Susa, circa 324/3 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; AΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right, monograms in left field and below throne. Price 3836. 17.21g, 25mm, 10h. Extremely Fine; lustrous metal. Extremely Rare - Price cites only an example in the ANS; no other examples on CoinArchives. 1,000

A Stunning Tetradrachm of Alexander

229. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Susa, circa 322-320 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; BAΣIΛEΩΣ below, AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, monogram to left, ΛA below throne. Price 3846. 17.07g, 26mm, 10h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare - only four examples on CoinArchives. Struck from dies of remarkably fine style.

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4,000


230. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Susa, circa 316-311 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; BAΣIΛEΩΣ below, AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, wreath in left field; PO above strut of throne, monogram below. Price 3855. 16.99g, 28mm, 4h. Extremely Fine. 1.5x

1.5x

231

232

750

231. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Susa, circa 316-311 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; BAΣIΛEΩΣ below, AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, wreath in left field; AI above strut of throne, monogram below. Price 3857; Sunrise 156. 17.12g, 25mm, 2h. Good Extremely Fine. 1,000 232. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Susa, circa 316-311 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; BAΣIΛEΩΣ below, AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, wreath in left field; AI above strut of throne, monogram below. Price 3857; Sunrise 156. 17.18g, 26mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. 500

A Vision of Understated Beauty

233. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘The Great’ AV Stater. Babylon, circa 315-311 BC. Struck under Peithon, for Antigonos I Monophthalmos. Head of Athena right, wearing triple-crested Corinthian helmet, loop earring and double-banded necklace / Nike standing left, wings spread, holding laurel wreath and stylis; monogram in wreath below left wing; BAΣIΛEΩΣ to left, AΛEΞANΔΡOΥ to right. Price -; Waggoner, Babylon 258a-b var. (helmet type); SNG Copenhagen 637 var. (same); Roma IV, 224 (same dies). 8.56g, 19mm, 3h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

5,000

This stater variety bearing the monogram within wreath and no secondary symbol is not included in Price’s vast work on the coinage of Alexander. Two similar coins were however noted by Waggoner, with one residing in the BM and the other in Copenhagen. However, including the present specimen only four examples with this very particular obverse portrait type are known. This issue is remarkable not only for its rarity, but also for the innovative and fresh nature of the obverse die, which presents us with an abstemious but elegant Athena. The goddess’ helmet, which usually displays a coiled serpent, flying griffin or seated sphinx is here completely unadorned. What was previously identified as a ‘pellet ornament’ on the bowl is in fact two loops - part of the metalwork that attaches the right hand crest to the outside of the helmet. Athena herself, who on these staters is almost exclusively depicted with an intricate drop-pendant earring and pearl necklace, now wears a simple loop earring and a plain double-banded necklace or torque. The engraver has combined these features with a skilled portrait of Athena in a high classical feminine style. The result is an intriguingly demure Olympian; a vision of understated beauty.

78


234. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip III Arrhidaios AV Stater. Lampsakos, circa 323-317 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with griffin / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; ΦΙΛΙΠΠOY to right, buckle above crescent-over-A in left field. Price P13A. 8.61g, 19mm, 5h. Fleur De Coin. Superb, sharp strike and brilliant mint lustre.

4,000

235. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip III Arrhidaios AV Stater. Abydos, circa 323-317 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing right, holding wreath and stylis; ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ to right, monogram in left field, coiled serpent at feet to left. Price P34; Müller P66. 8.61g, 17mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Brilliant mint lustre.

3,000

236. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip III Arrhidaios AV Stater. Arados, circa 323-316 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with griffin / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; ΦΙΛΙΠΠOY to right, monogram to left, Z to right. Price P145; Müller P110. 8.60g, 18mm, 2h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare; only 2 examples on CoinArchives.

3,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

237. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip III Arrhidaios AR Tetradrachm. Arados, circa 323-316 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; BAΣIΛEΩΣ below, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ to right, bunch of grapes and monogram in circle in field left, Z below throne. Price P155. 17.28g, 27mm, 2h. Near Extremely Fine.

79

500


238. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip III Arrhidaios AV Stater. Babylon, circa 323-318/7 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing triple-crested Corinthian helmet ornamented with coiled serpent / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis, BAΣIΛEΩΣ to left, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ to right; ΛY below left wing, M below right wing. Price P178. 8.59g, 18mm, 3h. Fleur De Coin.

4,000

The Celebrated Mintmaster Zoilos

239. Kingdom of Macedon, Perseus AR Tetradrachm. Pella or Amphipolis mint, circa 174-173 BC. Zoilos, mintmaster. Diademed head right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΠEPΣEΩΣ, eagle with wings spread standing to right on thunderbolt, ZΩ (mintmaster’s monogram) above, ME monogram to right, EY monogram between legs; all within oak wreath, [plough to right] in exergue. Mamroth, Perseus 4; HGC 3.1, 1091; SNG Alpha Bank -; SNG München -; SNG Saroglos -; SNG Copenhagen 1266; Bement 792; Boston MFA 720; Pozzi 982. 16.90g, 32mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; an attractive coin from the celebrated issue struck under the mintmaster Zoilos. Rare.

2,500

Ex Northern California Collection, acquired from Freeman & Sear, 2003.

240. Kingdom of Macedon, Perseus AR Tetradrachm. Pella or Amphipolis mint, circa 173-171 BC. Au-, mintmaster. Diademed head right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΠEPΣEΩΣ, eagle with wings spread standing to right on thunderbolt; Φ above, AY (mintmaster’s) monogram to right, AN monogram below; all within oak wreath; plough to right in exergue. Mamroth, Philip 24; SNG München -; SNG Alpha Bank -; SNG Saroglos -; Hunterian 1. 15.29g, 31mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

80

1,500


THRACE

241. Thrace, Ainos AR Drachm. Circa 357-342/1 BC. Head of Hermes facing slightly right, wearing petasos / Cult statue of Hermes Perpheraios on throne, AINION to right, goat’s head right in left field. May, Ainos 449; SNG Copenhagen -. 3.62g, 17mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

2,000

From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-90s.

242. Thrace, Apollonia Pontika AR Tetradrachm. Mid 4th century BC. Sokrates(?), magistrate. Laureate head of Apollo left / ΚΛΕOKPATHΣ, upright anchor; A and crayfish flanking, all within shallow incuse square. E. Paunov, ‘ The Tetradrachm Coinage of Apollonia Pontica’, in Ex nummis lux Studies in Ancient Numismatics in Honour of Dimitar Draganov, Sofia 2017, pp. 59-87, Issue 26, 76 (O11/ R37). 16.75g, 24mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine; light cabinet tone. Extremely Rare.

4,500

From a central European collection.

243. Thrace, Byzantion AV Stater. In the name and types of Lysimachos. Circa 215-205 BC. Diademed head of the deified Alexander right, with horn of Ammon / Athena Nikephoros seated left, left arm resting on shield; BAΣIΛEΩΣ to right, ΛYΣIMAXOY to left crowned by Nike; ΠA monogram to inner left, BY below throne, ornate trident in exergue. Unpublished in the standard references, but cf. Künker 226, 288 for similar monogram. 8.49g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

1,500

Wonderfully Toned Tetradrachm of Lysimachos

244. Kings of Thrace, Lysimachos AR Tetradrachm. Lysimacheia, circa 305-281 BC. Head of the deified Alexander the Great right, wearing diadem and horn of Ammon / Athena Nikephoros enthroned left, shield decorated with Medusa’s head resting against base of throne, on which monogram, spear resting behind; lion’s head below right hand, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΛΥΣΙMΑXOY to left. Thompson 16. 17.15g, 30mm, 2h. Good Extremely Fine. Old cabinet toning with iridescent highlights over incredibly lustrous metal. Ex Ambrose Collection; Ex Künker 193, 26 September 2011, lot 118.

81

3,500


A Lustrous, Fine Style Stater of Lysimachos

245. Kings of Thrace, Lysimachos AV Stater. Uncertain mint, circa 297-281 BC. Diademed head of the deified Alexander the Great right, wearing horn of Ammon / Athena Nikephoros seated left, resting left elbow on shield adorned with aegis, transverse spear behind; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΛYΣΙΜΑΧΟY to left crowned by Nike, monogram in inner left field. Müller 501; Thompson -. 8.42g, 20mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine; minor surface marks. Beautiful style. Extremely Rare.

7,500

246. Kings of Thrace, Lysimachos AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 288-281 BC. Head of the deified Alexander the Great right, wearing diadem and horn of Ammon / Athena Nikephoros enthroned left, shield decorated with Medusa’s head resting against base of throne, spear resting behind; monograms in inner left field and in exergue. Cf. Thompson 213 (different left monogram); Tkalec Auction May 2010, lot 32. 16.99g, 28mm, 12h. Very Fine. Attractively toned.

1,000

Ex Roma Numismatics VII, 22 March 2014, lot 493.

MOESIA Extremely Rare ‘Protection Money’ of Istros

247. Moesia, Istros AV Stater. Circa 250-225 BC. In the names and type of Alexander III of Macedon. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, monogram within wreath to left. Price 969; Hill, Greek Coins 1927, 8.18, pl. i.18. 8.46g, 18mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; one of very few known specimens, none in CoinArchives.

2,500

Price (cf. pp. 176-180) suggests that these late ‘Alexanders’ are likely to represent “protection money paid to the Gauls, similar to that paid by Byzantium.” Polybius (4.46.3) relates the context of this tribute: “These Gauls had left their country with Brennus, and having survived the battle at Delphi and made their way to the Hellespont, instead of crossing to Asia, were captivated by the beauty of the district round Byzantium, and settled there. Then, having conquered the Thracians and erected Tyle into a capital, they placed the Byzantines in extreme danger. In their earlier attacks, made under the command of Comontorius their first king, the Byzantines always bought them off by presents amounting to three, or five, or sometimes even ten thousand gold pieces, on condition of their not devastating their territory: and at last were compelled to agree to pay them a yearly tribute of eighty talents.”

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CRETE

Herakles Slays the Lernean Hydra

248. Crete, Phaistos AR Stater. Mid 4th century BC. Herakles standing in fighting attitude to right, wearing Nemean lion skin, seizing with his left hand one of the heads of the Lernean Hydra, and with his right hand preparing to strike with club; bow and bowcase in left field / Bull standing to left. Svoronos 66, pl. XXIV, 23 (these dies); Le Rider pl. XXIII, 11 (same dies); BMFA Suppl. 125 (same dies). 11.60g, 26mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, only two examples recorded by Le Rider. 10,000 Ex private American Collection, Roma Numismatics X, 27 September 2015, lot 380. The obverse of this coin depicts the second of Herakles’ Twelve Labours set by Eurystheos, the agent of Hera. He was tasked with slaying the ancient serpent-like monster that resided in the lake of Lerna in the Argolid, which guarded an underwater entrance to the underworld. Upon cutting off each of the Hydra’s heads however, Herakles found that two more would grow back in its place, an expression of the hopelessness of such a struggle for any but the hero. Realizing that he could not defeat the Hydra in this way, Herakles called on his nephew Iolaos for help. Iolaos then came upon the idea (possibly inspired by Athena) of using a firebrand to cauterize the stumps after each decapitation. When Hera saw that Herakles was gaining the upper hand she sent a large crab to distract the hero, but Herakles crushed it underfoot. He cut off the last and strongest of the Hydra’s heads with a golden sword given to him by Athena, and so completed his task. Hera, upset that Herakles had slain the beast she raised to kill him, placed it in the vault of the heavens as the constellation Hydra, and she turned the crab into the constellation Cancer. The encounter with the Lernean Hydra is not only well attested in epic, but is also the subject of some of the earliest securely identifiable Herakles scenes in Greek art. On two Boiotian fibulae of c. 750-700 BC (BM 3025, Philadelphia 75-35-1), the hydra is attacked by Herakles, at whose feet is the crab sent by Hera. This particular form of the scene would later be replicated on the coins of Phaistos (cf. Svoronos 60, pl. XXIV, 20), even including the crab. The present example is the earliest in the Herakles-Hydra series at Phaistos, and consequently is more archaistic in style. It has been extensively argued that the later designs of Phaistos copy a now lost masterpiece of sculpture or painting, perhaps even a statue group by the great sculptor Lysippos (see Lehmann, ‘Statues on Coins’, New York 1946; see also Lacroix, ‘Les Reproductions de Statues sur les Monnaies Grecques’, Liege 1949; see also Lattimore, ‘Lysippian Sculpture on Greek Coins’, California Studies in Classical Antiquity Vol. 5 1972). The present type however most likely draws its inspiration from a locally significant vase or wall painting, given that the composition is pictorial in nature, showing Herakles’ bow and quiver behind him in the field. Though the particular source of inspiration for this type is not known, clear parallels can be seen in surviving Greek art of the late Archaic and early Classical periods, notably on an Attic black figure Lekythos now in the Louvre (CA598) which depicts Herakles and the Hydra in a similar combat pose.

Among the Finest Known

249. Crete, Polyrhenion AR Stater. 4th century BC. Magistrate Charisthe. Laureate head of Zeus to right / Head of sacrificial bull facing, with pendant fillets hanging from horns; ΧΑΡΙΣΘΕ above, ΠΟΛΥΡΗΝΙΟΝ around. Svoronos (1972) 6, pl. XXV, 29 (same dies); Le Rider (1966) pl. XXXIII, 19 (same dies). 11.43g, 25mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, and among the finest known examples. 5,000 Ex private American Collection, Roma Numismatics X, 27 September 2015, lot 383. Polyrhenion was one the oldest Dorian settlements of Crete, whose etymology is ‘rich in lambs’. According to Strabo it was settled in archaic times by Achaian and Lakonian immigrants who gathered into one city the existing population, who had lived in villages, some 7 km inland from the Bay of Kissamos. Excavations from 1938 have exposed several building foundations which defy identification, but it may safely be presumed that one of these was a temple dedicated to Zeus. The bull sacrifice was a universal and key element of Greek religion, and it held particular significance in Crete which was rich in mythological traditions relating to the bull as a divine animal, being either divinely directed or indeed itself a theriomorphic god in bull form. Indeed, the central importance of the bull in Cretan culture was an ancient one predating even the arrival of the Mycenaean Greeks in the fourteenth century BC; twentieth century archaeological excavations begun by Arthur Evans in 1900 dramatically ‘resurrected’ the lost Minoan civilisation and uncovered a wealth of artefacts which, among other things, portray the bull as a major religious symbol. The mythical origin of the idea of bull or ox sacrifice was believed to be from the story of Prometheos in Hesiod’s Theogamy (521-616). At Mekone, in a sacrificial meal marking the ‘settling of accounts’ between mortals and immortals, Prometheos purposely deceives Zeus by assigning to him a good-looking portion ‘wrapped in glistening fat’ that consists of nothing but bones, thus ensuring humans would keep the meat for themselves and burn the bones wrapped in fat as an offering to the gods.

83


The First True Coin

250.

Ionia, uncertain mint EL Stater. Circa 650-600 BC. Milesian standard. Striated type. Flattened, irregularly striated surface / Triple incuse punch, with narrow rectangular punch arranged vertically between two roughly square ones. Cf. Weidauer 5 (trite); TraitĂŠ pl. I, 12 = BMC Ionia pg. 183, 1; for similar irregularly striated stater, cf. Triton VIII, 431. 14.29g, 21mm. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare, one of very few known irregularly striated staters.

10,000

From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-90s. According to Herodotus, the Lydians were the first to coin and use gold and silver as currency (Histories 1.94). This statement is supported by archaeological evidence as the earliest coins have been found in Asia Minor, in particular in Ionia and Lydia and are dated to circa 650 BC. The material of this early coinage reinforces this geographical origin; electrum, an alloy of gold and silver, naturally occurred in rivers in the region such as the Paktolos and therefore lends credence to this tradition. The earliest electrum coins were blank globules, standardised in weight to indicate value. Later, designs were added such as the striated pattern we see on this coin, in addition to punches of squares, rectangles and swastikas. The denominations of these issues, struck on the Lydo-Milesian standard which was used by most major city-states (except Phokaia and Samos who had their own weight standards), were divisions of a stater weighing about 14.15g on average, going down to a 1/96th stater (about 0.15g). The purpose of this early coinage was probably to transfer large sums of value, such as for the payment of mercenaries or land and property, as even the smallest fraction was of too great a value for everyday commerce. The striated stater is of particular importance for numismatists as it marks the birth of the obverse design. Explanations for the introduction of this type are varied: one theory is that the lines were functional as they stopped the coin from slipping in production. Joseph Linzalone (Electrum and the Invention of Coinage, 2011) somewhat fancifully suggested that the type emulates the effect of rippling water in the rivers of Lydia where electrum was found, while also highlighting that the design must be considered more than merely a result of mechanical efficiency since its use continued even after alternative elements started appearing. It seems likely though that the continued usage of such a simple type could stem from a combination of its aesthetic quality and the ease of producing its dies. Today the striated stater is extremely rare with not very many more than a dozen or so in existence. It is considered by many to be the first true coin.

84


The Mythical Sirens

2x

2x

251. Ionia, uncertain mint EL 1/12 Stater. Circa 5th Century BC. Siren standing right, holding tympanon (tambourine) / Bukranion with fillets hanging from each horn. Rosen 369. 0.98g, 8mm, 4h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, only the seventh recorded specimen.

10,000

From the collection of P.R., United Kingdom This type, which is known from just seven examples including the current piece, was encountered for the first time in only 1957 when a specimen appeared for sale at the Hess-Leu auction in Lucerne on April 16 of that year. That piece, lot 271, now resides in Oxford. Two further examples were sold by Münzen & Medaillen, one on 6 October 1987 (lot 131), which was the Rosen specimen, and another on 22 March 2002 (lot 72). Jeffrey Spier wrote (Numismatic Chronicle 1988, p.221) that the first of these examples was ‘gold rather than electrum’, though it is clearly not. The fourth specimen was sold at The New York Sale 25 on 5 January 2011 (lot 97), whilst the fifth was sold in Roma Numismatics Auction III, 31 March 2012 (lot 197). A further example was sold in Roma Numismatics Auction XII, 7 April 2016, lot 297. The mythical Sirens are best known to us from two ancient epics: the ‘Argonautica’ by Apollonios, in which Jason and the Argonauts have to travel past them on their quest for the Golden Fleece, and Homer’s ‘Odyssey’, where they are portrayed as a pair of dangerous creatures that lure passing sailors to their deaths with their sweet music (Odyssey XII, 40). They are supposed to have inhabited an island with a particularly rocky shoreline onto which sailors would be drawn by their desire to hear the Sirens sing, leading to shipwreck. Speaking to Odysseus and warning him of the dangers he would encounter further into his journey, Queen Circe describes the Sirens as sitting in a meadow, with around them a great heap of bones of mouldering men” (XII, 45). Although later depicted as women with wings, feathery tails and scaly bird-like feet, and eventually as mermaids, whose bodies were as seductive as their voices, depictions of the Sirens in early Greek art were as they appear on this coin, combining the body of a bird with the head of a woman, as can be seen on the ‘Siren Vase’, now in the British Museum, decorated in c. 480-470 BC and roughly contemporaneous with this coin.

2x

2x

252. Ionia, Ephesos EL 1/24 Stater. Phanes, circa 625-600 BC. Forepart of stag right, head left / Incuse square punch with raised lines within. Cf. Weidauer 36-37 (1/12 stater); Traité -; BMC Ionia -; Boston MFA -; SNG von Aulock 7773; Zhuyuetang 9; Rosen -. 0.58g, 7mm. Extremely Fine. Rare.

500

Artemis of Ephesos

253. Ionia, Ephesos AV Stater. Circa 155-140 BC. Draped bust of Artemis right, wearing stephane, and with bow and quiver over shoulder / Cult statue of the Artemis of Ephesos facing, a fillet hanging from each hand; thymiaterion in inner right field, Ε-Φ across fields. G. K. Jenkins, Hellenistic Gold Coins of Ephesos, in Festschrift Akurgal, Ankara, 1987, p. 134, pl. B, 6 (BM) = R Fleuscher I, Artemis von Ephesos und der erwandte Kultstatue von Anatolien und Syrien, EPRO 35, 1973, pl. 53b; LIMC II, pl. 565, 23. 8.43g, 21mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

7,500

From the A.F. Collection, Germany. The Hellenistic era gold coinage struck at Ephesos is extremely rare and rarely well preserved. Previously thought to have all been struck during the Mithradatic wars, this is now known not to be the case. Some seem to be dated by the era of the Province of Asia and the dates they bear are too early for them to be Mithradatic War issues. Certain other issues such as the present example appear to be part of an extraordinary issue of gold struck in conjunction with an extremely rare gold stater type of Magnesia in the mid-second century. The style and fabric of both issues seem consistent with an emergency issue struck to meet an immediate expense. The reverse of this coin depicts the famous cult statue of Ephesian Artemis, housed in the great temple of Artemis that is considered one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The original image of the goddess was a wooden xoanon that had represented a pre-Hellenic goddess who the Greeks later equated with Artemis. This first image, which was kept decorated with jewellery, was possibly lost in a flood in the 8th or 7th century which destroyed the temple; excavations have discovered the tear-shaped amber drops of elliptical cross-section which must have dressed it. In circa 550 BC, when reconstruction of the temple was begun (partly financed by Kroisos), it was undertaken in grand style and was supposedly the first Greek temple to be built of marble. The wooden xoanon was replaced by a new ebony or grapewood statue sculpted by Enoidos, which presumably survived until the temple was again destroyed, this time by an act of arson on the part of one Herostratos. The second destruction of the temple coincided with the birth of Alexander the Great; Plutarch later noted that Artemis was too preoccupied with Alexander’s delivery to save her burning temple. The form of the goddess is distinctly near-eastern in appearance; characteristics such as her legs being enclosed in a tapering pillar-like term are closely related to Egyptian and Hittite images, and the curious feature of the many protuberances on her chest (usually described as breasts or eggs) are decidedly non-Greek in origin, and indeed have defied explanation or identification for centuries, though an association with fertility seems implicit.

85


254. Ionia, Herakleia ad Latmon AR Tetradrachm. Circa 165-140 BC. Head of Athena right, in crested Attic helmet decorated with a pegasos above the foreparts of five galloping horses / HPAKΛEΩTΩN above club, below, monograms to left and right of Nike walking left holding wreath; all within oak wreath. SNG Lockett 2823; SNG Kayhan 330; Pozzi 2452. 16.34g, 31mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; attractive old cabinet tone.

1,250

Ex Monsieur Note (1910-1982) Collection, France.

255. Ionia, Herakleia ad Latmon AR Tetradrachm. Circa 165-140 BC. Head of Athena right, in crested Attic helmet decorated with a pegasos above the foreparts of five galloping horses / HPAKΛEΩTΩN above club, below, monograms to left and right of Nike walking left holding wreath; all within oak wreath. SNG Lockett 2823; SNG Kayhan 330; Pozzi 2452. 16.95g, 34mm, 1h. Extremely Fine; lightly toned.

1,000

Ex Heidelberger Münzhandlung 50, 10 November 2008, lot 37; Ex Münzen und Medaillen FPL 491, August 1986, 13.

256. Ionia, Herakleia ad Latmon AR Tetradrachm. Circa 140-135 BC. Head of Athena right, in crested Attic helmet decorated with a pegasos above the foreparts of five galloping horses / HPAKΛEΩTΩN above club, below, monograms to left and right of owl; all within oak wreath. SNG Lockett 2824; SNG von Aulock 1977; Pozzi 2453. 16.94g, 31mm, 9h. Good Extremely Fine. Ex Phoibos Collection.

1,000

A Very Rare Drachm of Klazomenai

257. Ionia, Klazomenai AR Drachm. Circa 425-400 BC. Forepart of winged boar to right / Head of ram right within incuse square. SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Kayhan 1298; Jameson 2255; Traité II 1979; Winterthur 2999. 3.62g, 14mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare. From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-90s.

86

1,000


Themistokles - Statesman, General, Outcast and Hero

3x

3x

258. Ionia, Magnesia AR Trihemiobol. Themistokles, as governor of Magnesia, circa 465/4-460/59 BC. Bearded male head right wearing cap or helmet ornamented with four laurel leaves and spiral decoration; Θ-E flanking / ΘΕ monogram within dotted border inside incuse square. Cahn & Gerin, NC 1988, p. 15, 8, pl. 2, 8; J. Nollé - A. Wenninger, JNG XLVIII/XLIX (1998/99), Th.3c. 1.17g, 10mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare - one of only six specimens known, and of superior quality for the issue.

3,000

From the Mordecai Medvin Collection. Themistokles was one of the greatest statesmen and generals of the early Athenian democracy. It was his influence that led Athens to considerably increase its naval power, which would prove decisive in its conflicts with the Achaemenid Persian empire. He fought at the Battle of Marathon, and commanded the Greek allied navy at the battles of Artemision and Salamis. It was due in part to Themistokles’ cunning that the allies were able to lure the Persian fleet into the straights of Salamis, and in the cramped conditions the superior numbers of the Persians became a hindrance. Disorganised and unable to manoeuvre, the Greeks formed in line and won a decisive victory. The following year, the Persian army was soundly defeated at the Battle of Plataea, ending the Persian attempts to conquer the Greek mainland. These battles of Salamis and Plataea thus mark a turning point in the course of the Greco-Persian wars as a whole; from then on, the Greek citystates would take the offensive. A number of historians believe that a Persian victory would have hamstrung the development of Ancient Greece, and by extension western civilization, and this has led them to claim that Salamis is one of the most significant battles in human history. Despite this and other accomplishments, the perceived arrogance of Themistokles alienated him from his fellow citizens and in 472/1 he was ostracised, and went into exile. Having before aroused the hostility of Sparta by ordering the re-fortification of Athens, the Spartans now implicated him in the treason of Pausanias, forcing Themistokles to flee from Greece to Asia Minor. There, he offered his service to his former enemies, and entered the employ of the Persian Great King Artaxerxes. In recognition of his reputation and former glories, the Persian king made him governor of Magnesia, where he lived out the remainder of his life.

An Extremely Rare Magnesia Gold Stater

259. Ionia, Magnesia ad Maeandrum AV Stater. Circa 155-140 BC. Euphemos, son of Pausanias, magistrate. Draped bust of Artemis to right, wearing stephane, and with bow and quiver over shoulder / Nike, holding kentron and reins, driving fast biga to right; MAΓNHTΩN (of the Magnesians) above, EYΦHMOΣ ΠAYΣANIOY below. Heritage 3056, 30066 (same dies); unpublished in the standard references, but for the magistrate Euphemos son of Pausanias and dating of the stephanophoric tetradrachms of Magnesia, cf. N. F. Jones, The Autonomous Wreathed Tetradrachms of Magnesia-on-Maeander”, ANSMN 24, 1979, pp. 63-109, especially nos. 8-25; for the obverse Artemis bust type cf. B. Head, History of the Coinage of Ephesus, London 1880, p. 69, 1-7, pl. 5 and Mørkholm, Early Hellenistic Coinage, Cambridge 1991, 657 = Gulbenkian 985. 8.43g, 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. A coin of extreme rarity and great numismatic importance.

12,500

From the A.F. Collection, Germany. The discovery of this totally new reverse type for a gold stater on the Attic weight standard of about 8.5g, fortunately signed by a very well known Magnesian magistrate, solves two long standing numismatic problems. Firstly, it allows for the dating of the Ephesian gold staters with which it is associated, and it confirms the mid second century dating of the Ionian stephanophoric coinage. Euphemos, son of Pausanias, was one of the eight magistrates who were responsible for the substantial silver stephanophoric ‘wreath-bearer’ tetradrachm issues, beautifully engraved and struck on broad flans on the Attic silver standard of about 17.2 grams. It is notable that Magnesia had in the late 4th and early 3rd centuries produced very high quality Attic standard gold staters with polished dies in the names of Philip, Alexander and Lysimachos. The obverse bust of Artemis is of exactly the same style as the well known Ephesos gold staters which depict on their reverse the Ephesian cult figure of Artemis. Until now those Ephesian staters have defied proper dating, having been given a chronological range by various authors from 150 to 88 BC (cf. Gilbert K. Jenkins, ‘Hellenistic gold coins of Ephesus’, in Festschrift E. Akurgal, Anadolu-Anatolia 21, 1978/80, Ankara, 1987, pp. 183-8, pls. A-B). Though of course it does not preclude the possibility that they were struck over an extended period of time, we may now at least say with some certainty that they were already being struck by around 150-140 BC. The evidence from the seven extant stephanophoric tetradrachm hoards from the contemporary territory of the Seleukid Empire, found together with dated Seleukid coins, points to a secure narrow chronological range for all these issues of 150-138 BC. Significantly the Magnesian coinage has often been found in close association with similar wreathed issues from Aigai, Kyme, Myrina, Herakleia, Lebedos and Smyrna in what must have been an unattested ‘entente’ by cities that had been guaranteed their autonomy following the imposition by Rome of the Treaty of Apameia between the Republic and Antiochos III in 188 BC - an attempt to stop the constant quarrelling between the Greeks. For the numismatic history of the period cf. Jones 1979, pp. 90-100 and Ch. Boehringer, Zur Chronologie Mittelhellenistischer Münzserien 220-160 v. Chr., Berlin 1972, pp. 49f.”

87


An Extremely Rare 1/24 Stater

2x

2x

260. Ionia, Phokaia EL 1/24 Stater. Circa 560-545 BC. Head of roaring lion left; to right, small seal upwards / Incuse square punch. Bodenstedt 13; Boston MFA 1904; SNG von Aulock -. 0.64g, 7mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; only two examples recorded by Bodenstedt, both in public collections, a further six in CoinArchives.

2x

750

2x

261. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 478-387 BC. Head of Athena left, wearing earring, her crested Attic helmet adorned with a Pegasos on the bowl / Irregular quadripartite incuse square punch. Bodenstedt 91. 2.54g, 10mm. Good Very Fine. Highly lustrous.

750

Ex Roma Numismatics III, 31 March 2012, lot 215; Privately purchased from Harlan J. Berk, January 2012.

262. Ionia, Smyrna AR Tetradrachm. Circa 155-145 BC. Stephanophoric type. Menekrates(?), magistrate. Head of Tyche right, wearing turreted crown / ΣΜΥΡ-ΝΑΙΩΝ over monogram, all within laurel wreath. Milne, Autonomous 141; Milne, Silver obv. die A; SNG Copenhagen -; BMC 4 (same obv. die). 16.70g, 33mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

1,500

Ex J. Vinchon, 13-15 October 1980, lot 282.

263. Ionia, Smyrna AR Tetradrachm. Circa 155-145 BC. Head of Tyche right, wearing turreted crown / ΣΜΥΡ-ΝΑΙΩΝ over monogram, all within laurel wreath. Milne p. 274, 2; SNG von Aulock 2161; BMC 4 var. 16.74g, 36mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine; attractive old cabinet tone. Ex Triton VI, 14 January 2003, lot 370.

88

1,250


MYSIA

264. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Head of roaring lioness left, tunny fish upward behind / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 39; Greenwell 115; Boston MFA 1414 = Warren 1537; SNG France 178. 16.07g, 19mm. Very Fine. Very Rare.

2,500

From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-90s.

265. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Roaring lion standing to left; tunny fish to left below / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 42; Greenwell 104; Boston MFA –; SNG France 182. 16.11g, 21mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; only four other examples on CoinArchives.

3,000

From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-90s.

266. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Female boar (sow) standing to left; tunny fish to left below / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 45, pl. I, 46; Greenwell 136, pl. V, 30. 16.19g, 20mm. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

4,000

From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-90s.

267. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Head of a goat with long beard to left; tunny fish upward behind / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 48, pl. I, 49; Rosen pl. XI 184; SNG France 186; Boston MFA 1421 = Warren 1560. 16.09g, 20mm. Very Fine. Rare. From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-90s.

89

3,000


268. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Forepart of winged bull to left; tunny fish below / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 60; Greenwell 125; Boston MFA 1439 = Warren 1546; cf. SNG France 191 (hemihekte); BMC 51; Jameson 1409; Weber 5015. 16.09g, 19mm. Very Fine. Rare.

3,000

From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-90s.

269. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Head of Athena left, wearing Corinthian helmet; tunny fish downward behind / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 63; Boston 1432; Greenwell 26; SNG France -; Boston MFA 1432 = Warren 1445; Gillet 1058; Jameson 2168; Gulbenkian II, 608. 16.10g, 20mm. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

3,000

From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-90s.

270. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Head of Athena left, wearing crested Attic helmet, base of crest decorated with zig-zag and pellet pattern; tunny fish to left below / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 67, pl. I 20; Greenwell 25; SNG France -; SNG von Aulock -; Boston MFA 1446; Dewing -; Gillet 1053 = Kunstfreund 3 = Jameson 2171 = Weber 4971; Gulbenkian 609 (all from the same obv. die). 16.12g, 20mm. Very Fine. Very Rare.

2,500

From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-90s.

271. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Winged sphinx crouching to left; tunny fish to left below / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 72, pl. II, 25; Boston 1450; SNG France 200. 16.15g, 21mm. Good Very Fine. Very Rare. From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-90s.

90

5,000


272. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Winged siren standing to left, holding tunny fish by the tail / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 74, pl. II 29; cf. SNG France 203 (Hekte); Boston 1441. 16.01g, 20mm. Very Fine.

3,000

From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-90s.

273. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Half-length bust of Kore-Persephone to left, wearing kekryphalos headdress, round earring and longsleeved chiton, in her right hand holding a tunny fish by the tail, and raising a flower to her chin; bust truncation indicated by dotted line between parallel lines / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 75, pl. II, 30; SNG France 205; Boston MFA 1448 = Warren 1519. 16.22g, 19mm. Good Very Fine. Very Rare. 3,000 From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-90s.

Oldest, Wisest and Most Drunken of Dionysos’ Followers

274. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Head of Silenos facing; tunny fish upward to either side / Quadripartite incuse square. CNG 75, 23 May 2007, lot 336; cf. Von Fritze 77 (fractions only); SNG France -, cf. 208 (hekte); Hurter & Liewald I, 77; BMC -; Gillet -; Gulbenkian -; Jameson -; Weber -. 16.13g, 19mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; one of only a dozen or so known examples.

10,000

From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-90s. The teacher and faithful companion of the wine-god Dionysos, Silenos was described as the oldest, wisest and most drunken of the followers of Dionysos, and was said in Orphic hymns to be the young god’s tutor. Originally a folkloric man of the forest with the ears of a horse (and sometimes also the tail and legs of a horse), Silenos was often depicted with thick lips and a squat nose, as is the case here, fat, and most often bald – though our Silenos may consider himself fortunate in that he sports a full head of hair. Unusual consideration has been given to symmetry in the composition of this type: though symmetrical designs do occur, as in the case of two eagles perched on an omphalos (v. Fritze 220) or the double bodied sphinx (v. Fritze 138) to name but two, this is one of a tiny minority of designs that incorporates two tunny fish for balance. Interestingly, it has been suggested that the head of Silenos on this coin very possibly served as the model for a silver issue of the slightly later Lykian dynast Teththiveibi (see BMC 88 and SNG Berry 1164). One of the principal myths concerning Silenos has him lost and wandering in Phrygia, rescued by peasants and taken to the Phrygian King Midas, who treated him kindly. In return for Midas’ hospitality Silenos regaled him with tales and Midas, enchanted by Silenos’ fictions, entertained him for five days and nights. When the god Dionysos found his wayward friend, he offered Midas a reward for his kindness towards Silenos, a blessing which the avaricious Midas squandered by choosing the power of turning everything he touched into gold. How fitting then, that we should see in this beautiful coin a faint reflection of that classic myth of the drunken but sage Silenos looking out at us across the millennia through this window of golden metal.

91


275. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Dog standing left, fore-paw raised; tunny fish to left below / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 93, pl. III, 12; Boston 1469; SNG von Aulock 1192; SNG France 230. 16.30g, 21mm. Extremely Fine, lustrous metal. Rare.

5,000

Ex Roma Numismatics VII, 22 March 2014, lot 648 (sold for ÂŁ6,000).

276. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Roaring griffin standing to left, right foreleg raised and tongue protruding; tunny fish to left below / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 101; Greenwell 144; Boston MFA 1437 = Warren 1573; SNG France -; BMC -; Gillet -; Gulbenkian -; Jameson -; Weber -. 16.05g, 20mm. Very Fine. Very Rare.

2,000

From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-90s.

277. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Forepart of winged stag left; tunny fish to left below / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 102, pl. III, 21; Rosen Plate XII, 222; SNG von Aulock 7281; Greenwell -; SNG France -; BMC -. 15.94g, 23mm. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

4,000

From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-90s.

278. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Winged dog seated to left, head reverted to right; tunny fish to left below / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 104; BMFA 1433; SNG France 245. 16.12g, 20mm. Near Extremely Fine. From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-90s.

92

7,500


279. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Satyr in kneeling-running stance to left, holding in his extended right hand a tunny fish by the tail / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 122; Boston 1461; SNG France -. 16.08g, 19mm. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare. 3,000 From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-90s.

280. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Double-bodied winged sphinx standing with head facing atop tunny fish to left, wearing ouraios, hair falling in plaited locks behind / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze -, cf. 128 (hekte); Greenwell -, cf. 101 (hekte); SNG France -, cf. 280 (hekte); Roma VIII, 631; Roma X, 493; Roma XII, 299; Roma XIV, 221. 16.27g, 20mm About Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

3,000

From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-90s.

2x

2x

281. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hemihekte. Circa 450-400 BC. Head of Attis facing right, wearing ornamented Phrygian cap; [tunny fish below] / Quadripartite incuse square. Boston MFA 1523; W. Greenwell, ‘The Electrum Coinage of Kyzikos’, NC 1887, 56, pl. III, 5; cf. Von Fritze 142 (stater and hekte); SNG France 291 (stater and hekte). 1.32g, 9mm. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

3,000

Ex Ambrose Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics III, 31 March 2012, lot 271.

2x

2x

282. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hekte. Circa 450-400 BC. Two eagles standing facing each other on ornamented omphalos; below, tunny fish to right / Quadripartite incuse square. Hurter & Liewald II 220 = Münzen und Medaillen AG 54, lot 266; Von Fritze I 220 (only staters noted); cf. Boston MFA 1535 (stater); cf. SNG France 348 (stater). 2.70g, 11mm. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; only two other examples in CoinArchives.

10,000

From the collection of P.R., United Kingdom.

283. Mysia, Kyzikos AR Drachm. Circa 390-341/0 BC. Head of Kore Soteira to left, with hair in sphendone; ΣΩTEIPA above / Head of lion to left, tunny fish below; KYZI above, star to right. SNG Paris 408-10 var. (no star). Von Fritze II, 23. 3.09g, 15mm, 10h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

93

500


A Bold Portrait of Seleukos I

284. Kingdom of Pergamon, Philetairos I AR Tetradrachm. Circa 270-265 BC. Diademed head of the deified Seleukos I to right / Athena, helmeted and wearing long robes, seated to left on low throne with lion’s feet, resting her left elbow on support in the form of a sphinx, holding a transverse downward pointing spear in her left hand and resting her right on the edge of a round shield adorned with a gorgoneion standing before her; above, ivy leaf; to right, bow. BMC 28; De Hirsch 1459; Kraay/Hirmer 736; Newell 14, XVI-36a (same dies); SNG Lockett 2718 (same dies); SNG von Aulock 7451 (same dies). 17.03g, 28mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

10,000

Ex Roma Numismatics XI, 7 April 2016, lot 426. Philetairos began his career serving under Antigonos Monophthalmos, but after the Battle of Ipsos in 301 BC where Antigonos was killed, he shifted his allegiance to Lysimachos, who entrusted him with command of the fortress of Pergamon, and a treasury of nine thousand talents of silver (234 metric tonnes). Philetairos served Lysimachos until 282 BC, when perhaps because of conflicts involving the court intrigues of Arsinoe, Lysimachos’ third wife, Philetairos deserted Lysimachos, offering himself and the important fortress of Pergamon, along with its treasury to Seleukos, who subsequently defeated and killed Lysimachos at the Battle of Korupedion in 281 BC. Seleukos himself was murdered by Ptolemy Keraunos, a brother of Arsinoe, a few months later at Lysimacheia. After the death of Seleukos, though he and Pergamon remained nominally under Seleukid dominion, Philetairos had considerable autonomy and with the help of his considerable wealth was able to increase his power and influence beyond Pergamon. His first coinage was struck under the reign of Antiochos I, the son of Seleukos, and though it proclaims his loyalty to Seleukos, the presence of his name upon the reverse must have inevitably raised suspicions about his ambitions. Nevertheless, Philetairos never went so far as to proclaim himself king, and remained loyal to the Seleukids until his death in 263. Having no children of his own, Philetairos passed the rule of Pergamon to his nephew Eumenes, who almost immediately revolted against Antiochos, defeating the Seleukid king near Sardes in 261. Eumenes was thus able to free Pergamon, and greatly increased the territory under his control. In his new possessions, he established garrison posts in the north at the foot of Mount Ida called Philetaireia after his adoptive father, and in the east, north-east of Thyatira near the sources of the river Lykos, called Attaleia after his grandfather, and he extended his control south of the river Caïcus to the Gulf of Kyme as well. Demonstrating his independence, he began to strike coins as his predecessor had done, only now the obverse portrait was that of his uncle and adoptive father Philetairos.

285. Kingdom of Pergamon, Eumenes I AR Tetradrachm. Circa 263-241 BC. Laureate head of Philetairos right / Athena seated left, left elbow resting on shield, spear behind, crowning ΦIΛETAIΡOY with wreath held in her extended right hand; ivy leaf in outer left field, A in inner left field, bow in right field. SNG France 1612. 17.12g, 31mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. From a private German collection; Ex Roma Numismatics E-Sale 37, 24 June 2017, lot 202.

94

1,250


2x

2x

286. Islands off Mysia, Prokonnesos AR Hemidrachm. Circa 411-387 BC. Head of Aphrodite left, hair in sphendone, wearing earring and necklace / Oinochoë, ΠPO-KON around. SNG von Aulock 1437; Dewing 2215. 2.47g, 12mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

500

LYDIA

2x

2x

287. Kingdom of Lydia, Alyattes EL Trite - 1/3 Stater. Sardes, circa 610-546 BC. Head of roaring lion right, sunburst with multiple rays on forehead / Two incuse square punches. Traité II/1, 44, pl. II, 6; BMC Lydia 2, 7, pl. I, 6; SNG von Aulock 2869; SNG Copenhagen 449–451; SNG Lockett 2977; Weidauer 86; Boston MFA 1764. 4.71g, 13mm. Good Very Fine.

1,000

From the inventory of a North American dealer.

2x

2x

288. Kingdom of Lydia, Alyattes EL Trite - 1/3 Stater. Sardes, circa 610-546 BC. Head of roaring lion right, sunburst with multiple rays on forehead / Two incuse square punches. Traité II/1, 44, pl. II, 6; BMC Lydia 2, 7, pl. I, 6; SNG von Aulock 2869; SNG Copenhagen 449–451; SNG Lockett 2977; Weidauer 86; Boston MFA 1764. 4.69g, 14mm. Very Fine; countermark of five pellets (Miletos) on obv., additional X countermark on edge.

2x

1,000

2x

289. Kingdom of Lydia, Alyattes EL Trite - 1/3 Stater. Sardes, circa 610-546 BC. Head of roaring lion right, sunburst with multiple rays on forehead / Two incuse square punches. Traité II/1, 44, pl. II, 6; BMC Lydia 2, 7, pl. I, 6; SNG von Aulock 2869; SNG Copenhagen 449–451; SNG Lockett 2977; Weidauer 86; Boston MFA 1764. 4.71g, 12mm. Very Fine. 2x

2x

290

291

1,000

290. Kingdom of Lydia, EL Hemihekte - 1/12 Stater. Time of Alyattes – Kroisos. Sardes, circa 610-560 BC. Head of roaring lion left; WALW (in Lydian) to left (only traces visible) / Incuse square. Weidauer Group XVII, 113; Traité I 58. 1.16g, 7mm. Very Fine. Rare. 750 291. Kingdom of Lydia EL Hemihekte – 1/12 Stater. Time of Alyattes – Kroisos. Sardes, circa 610-546 BC. Head of roaring lion right, sun on forehead (later style) / Incuse square punch. Weidauer group XVI, 90; Traité I 47; SNG Kayhan 101; Rosen 654; Elektron I 72. 1.17g, 7mm. Very Fine. 500

95


KARIA

292. Satraps of Karia, Maussolos AR Tetradrachm. Halikarnassos, circa 370-360 BC. Head of Apollo facing slightly right, wearing laurel wreath, drapery around neck / Zeus Labraundos standing right, holding labrys and inverted spear; small B between left foot and spear, MAYΣΣΩΛΛO to right. Babelon, Perses 400; Traité II 94; SNG von Aulock 2359 var. (letter on rev.); SNG Kayhan 872 var. (same); SNG Copenhagen 590 var. (no letter on rev.). 15.18g, 23mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare with this control letter.

1,500

From the Mordecai Medvin collection.

Ex Nelson Bunker Hunt Collection

293. Satraps of Karia, Hidrieos AR Tetradrachm. Halikarnassos, circa 351/0-344/3 BC. Head of Apollo facing slightly right, wearing laurel wreath, drapery around neck / Zeus Labraundos standing right, holding long sceptre in left hand and labrys (double-axe) in right; ΙΔΡΙΕΩΣ to right, small E by foot. BMC 1; SNG Copenhagen Suppl. 340; SNG Kayhan 880; SNG von Aulock 8046. 15.03g, 25mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. Beautifully toned.

4,000

Ex Dr. Busso Peus Nachf. 384, 2 November 2005, lot 294; Ex Triton I, 2 December 1997, lot 538; Ex Nelson Bunker Hunt Collection, Sotheby’s, 21 June 1990, lot 526.

An Elegant and Refined Pixodaros Didrachm

294. Satraps of Karia, Pixodaros AR Didrachm. Halikarnassos, circa 340-334 BC. Laureate head of Apollo facing three-quarters right / Zeus Labraundos standing right, holding double-axe (labrys) over right shoulder and lotus-tipped sceptre in left hand; ΠIΞOΔAPOY to right. BMC 8; Pixodaros (these dies not listed); SNG von Aulock 2376; SNG München 15; SNG Copenhagen 597. 7.08g, 20mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. An obverse of uncommonly elegant and refined style.

2,000

From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-90s. Pixodaros was the youngest of the three sons of Hekatomnos, all of whom successively held the satrapy of Karia. Pixodaros obtained possession of the throne by the expulsion of his sister Ada, the widow and successor of her brother Idrieos, and held it without opposition for a period of five years, from 340 to 335 BC. He cultivated the friendship of Persia, giving his daughter in marriage to a Persian named Orontobates, whom he even seems to have admitted to some share in the sovereign power during his own lifetime. He also did not neglect to court the friendship of other kings, and endeavoured to secure an alliance with Philip II, king of Macedon, by offering the hand of his eldest daughter in marriage to Arrhidaios, the illegitimate son of the Macedonian monarch. The discontent of the young Alexander at this period led him to offer himself as a suitor for the Karian princess instead of his brother - an overture which was eagerly embraced by Pixodaros, but the indignant interference of Philip put an end to the whole scheme. Pixodaros died a natural death some time before the landing of Alexander in Asia in 334 BC, and was succeeded by his son-in-law Orontobates.

96


295. Karia, Alabanda AR Tetradrachm. Circa 167/6 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / ΑΛΑΒΑΝΔΕΩΝ, Pegasos springing right; A below. Waggoner Series 4; Boehringer, Chron., p. 189, 9; SNG Keckman 5; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock 8050. 16.87g, 34mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

2,000

Ex Monsieur Note (1910-1982) Collection, France.

An Excessively Rare Tetradrachm of Antioch ad Maeandrum

296. Karia, Antioch ad Maeandrum AR Tetradrachm. Circa 165-145 BC. Stephanophoric type. Eunikos, magistrate. Bearded head of Zeus right, wearing laurel wreath / Zebu bull standing to left, head facing, before small female figure standing right, wearing long chiton; ANTIOXEΩN TΩN ΠPOΣ TΩ in two lines above, MAIANΔPΩΣ to right, EVNIKOΣ in exergue, all within laurel wreath. BMC -; Leschhorn, Lexicon of Greek Coin Inscriptions -; McClean -; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG Lockett -; SNG von Aulock -; Weber -; CNG 108, 230. 16.00g, 27mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Of the highest rarity - the finest of two known examples.

5,000

The city of Antioch ad Maeandrum is not to be confused with the more famous Antioch ad Orontes, capital of the western Seleukid Empire, and indeed the legend of this coin makes this abundantly clear: “Of the people of Antioch by the Maeander”. The city was located on high ground overlooking the plain of the Maeander at its confluence with the Morsynus, near the eastern end of the Maeander valley. Founded on the south bank of the river, by the time of Strabo it had grown across both banks, and controlled a strategically important crossing (cf. Strabo 13.4.15). Probably founded by AntIochos I, little to nothing of importance occurred at this city of which records have survived, however the bridge is explicitly depicted on the city’s Roman-era coinage. While no Seleukid issues are currently attributed to this Antioch, there are many unattributed western issues from the reigns of Antiochos I through Antiochos III, so the possibility that it may have struck coinage during this period cannot be excluded. The present series probably commenced after the Third Macedonian War, when large parts of the Rhodian Peraia in Karia were separated from the territory of Rhodes and given liberty by the Roman Senate (168/7 BC) as punishment to the city-state of Rhodes, which in Rome’s view had been a little too friendly with the defeated Macedonian king. Because subsequent issues bear an abbreviated legend (“of the people of Antioch”), and due to the Stephanophoric type of the reverse (a common feature of mid-2nd century Hellenistic coinage in Asia Minor), this issue has been hypothesised to be the earliest of Antioch’s civic silver coinage.

297. Karia, Kaunos AR Stater. Circa 430-410 BC. Iris running to left, head turned back to right, holding a kerykeion in right hand and a wreath in left / Triangular baetyl with handle on either side of the apex, granulated patterns in the form of stylized birds to left and right; all within incuse square. Konuk 93 (same dies); SNG Keckman 823. 11.51g, 21mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare. From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

97

5,000


298. Karia, Knidos AR Didrachm. Kleomedes, magistrate. Circa 395-380 BC. Head of Aphrodite to left, hair in sphendone, wearing triple pendant earring and pearl necklace; bunch of grapes behind, Κ-ΝΙ across fields / Forepart of lion to left, with open jaws and forepaw extended beneath; ΚΛΕΟΜΗΔ below. SNG von Aulock 8107; M&M 66, 261 = Nomos 16, 126. 6.85g, 21mm, 5h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

1,000

From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-90s.

299. Islands off Karia, Karpathos AR Stater. ‘Poseidion’ mint, circa 500-490 BC. Two dolphins, the upper leaping to left and the lower leaping to right, a third small dolphin to right below; floral symbols in the corners, all within a dotted square border / Two parallel rectangular incuses with irregular striations. Cahn, Poseidion, pp. 11–2; HGC 6, 1350; SNG von Aulock 2743 var. (orientation of dolphins); SNG Keckman 283 var. (legend on obv.); Asyut 689–91; Boston MFA 2010 = Warren 1181; Jameson 1542. 13.89g, 20mm. Very Fine. Very Rare.

3,000

From the Mordecai Medvin collection. The dating of the issue is confirmed to be no earlier than 500-480 by the presence of four clearly unworn dolphin types in the Asyut find, 689-692. In a well considered article, ‘Poseidion on Karpathos’ NC 1957 pp. 11-12, H. Cahn put seriously in doubt the traditional attribution of these coins by Imhoof-Blumer (ZfN I, pl 3, 20) to Poseidion on the island of Karpathos that was based on the presence of the Ionic legend ΠΟΣ on some of the coins. Karpathos was of Dorian foundation from Argos, and the well attested name for the town was Potidaion, which would have been abbreviated as ΠΟΤ. Potidaion only later came to be known as Poseidion under Roman rule. Thus, this ‘Pos’ legend is irreconcilable with the city’s ethnikon. Since the legend ‘Pos’ is a later addition engraved on earlier anepigraphic dies there is no reason to suppose that it must be the ethnic of a polis, and it may simply be that of an issuing authority. The ‘Poseidion’ coins, struck to a Milesian weight standard, were suggested by Cahn to be from an unidentified mint on the Karian coast, or on an island somewhere between Rhodos and Samos. However, the significant similarities in both design elements and fabric to the early coinage of the Rhodian cities Lindos and Kamiros cannot be ignored, and indeed Karparthos’ proximity to the island of Rhodos means that it cannot be dismissed as the production site for these coins.

LYCIA

An Apparently Unique Stater of Khinakha(?)

300. Dynasts of Lycia, Khinakha(?) AR Stater. Kandyba, circa 470-440 BC. Forepart of winged stag left / Triskeles with arms ending in swan heads, legend traces around, all within dotted border within incuse circle. Unpublished in the standard references, for type cf. Vismara, Glaux 6, 14-15 (1/3 and 1/24 Staters), for mint attribution, cf. Müseler, Beyond the Xanthos Valley: Rulers and mints in Eastern and Central Lycia at the time of the “dynasty of Xanthos”, Gephyra 15, 2018, 11-28. 8.48g, 20mm. Good Very Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished.

1,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

301. Dynasts of Lycia, Kuprilli AR Stater. Circa 480-440 BC. Forepart of griffin to right, head left / Triskeles, KOΠPΛΛE around; all within dotted border within incuse square. Mørkolm-Zahle 103 var. (legend arrangement); Traité II, 255 var. (same); Savoca Numismatik 13, 270 (same dies). 8.79g, 19mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare. From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

98

2,000


302. Dynasts of Lycia, Kuprilli AR Stater. Circa 480-440 BC. Forepart of griffin to right, head left / Triskeles, KOΠPΛΛE around; all within dotted border within incuse square. Mørkolm-Zahle 103; Traité II, 255. 8.79g, 19mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; apparently the second known example from these dies.

2,500

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

303. Dynasts of Lycia, Kuprilli AR Stater. Telmessos, circa 480-440 BC. Winged male figure, nude, with winged heels, in kneeling stance to right, holding long kerykeion; three pellets to upper right / Triskeles, K[O]ΠPΛΛE around. Vismara, Falghera 130; Traité II, 303; Mørkholm-Zahle 130. 8.55g, 14mm. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; one of the finest known examples. From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

1,000

304. Dynasts of Lycia, Kuprilli AR Stater. Telmessos, circa 480-440 BC. Lion standing left, head turned / Tetraskeles, [K]OΠPΛΛ[E] around, [ivy leaf] above, all within dotted border within incuse square. Mørkolm-Zahle 153; SNG von Aulock 4140. 8.49g, 18mm. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; apparently the second known example.

1,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

305. Dynasts of Lycia, Kuprilli AR Stater. Circa 480-440 BC. Dolphin leaping to left over decorative line; symbol above / Triskeles, K-O around, floral ornament in corner. cf. for type Mørkholm-Zahle 5; BMC 53; Traité II, 247; Müseler IV, 6-8 (all dolphin to right); cf. Müseler IV, 1 (same reverse die). 9.81g, 20mm. Very Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished.

1,000

From the Mordecai Medvin collection.

306. Dynasts of Lycia, Kuprilli(?) AR Stater. Circa 460-425 BC. Forepart of boar to left / Bull’s head to left within dotted border within within incuse square. Müseler IV, 57-8; Vismara, Falghera -; SNG von Aulock 4070; SNG Copenhagen 8; Rosen 695. 9.28g, 20mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare. From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

99

1,000


307. Dynasts of Lycia, Teththiveibi AR Stater. Circa 460-425 BC. Two cockerels facing one another on round shield; monogram between / Tetraskeles, T↑XXEF↑EBE around; all within dotted border within incuse square. Müseler V, 37; SNG Cop. Suppl. -; cf. Traité II, 328 (tetrobol); SNG von Aulock 4158 var. (legend arrangement). 8.46g, 20mm. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

1,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

308. Dynasts of Lycia, Teththiveibi AR Stater. Circa 460-425 BC. Two cockerels facing one another on round shield; monogram between / Tetraskeles, T↑XXEF↑E around; all within dotted border within incuse square. Müseler V -, cf. 36-7 (rev. legend var.); SNG Cop. Suppl. -; cf. Traité II, 328 (tetrobol); SNG von Aulock 4158 var. (legend arrangement); Gorny & Mosch 195, 267 (same dies). 8.41g, 20mm. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

2,500

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

309. Dynasts of Lycia, Teththiveibi AR Stater. Circa 460-425 BC. Two cockerels facing one another on a round shield / Tetraskeles, T↑XXEF↑EBE around, within dotted square. Müseler V, 38. 8.49g, 19mm. Extremely Fine; worn obv. die. Extremely Rare.

750

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

310. Dynasts of Lycia, Teththiveibi AR Stater. Circa 460-425 BC. Forepart of boar to left / Tetraskeles, T↑XXEF↑EB around; all within dotted border within incuse square. Vismara, Falghera 138; SNG von Aulock 4160; Künker 67, 423 (same dies). 8.50g, 19mm. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

1,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

311. Dynasts of Lycia, Teththiveibi AR Stater. Circa 460-425 BC. Forepart of boar on round shield / Tetraskeles, T↑XXEF↑EBE around, within dotted border within incuse square. Müseler V, 41; Traité II, 322. 8.58g, 19mm. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare. From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

100

1,500


312. Dynasts of Lycia, Teththiveibi AR Stater. Circa 460-425 BC. Winged lion walking to left on round shield / Tetraskeles within square incuse; Lycian script around. Müseler V, 42; Vismara, Falghera 137; SNG Copenhagen Supp. 426. 8.51g, 19mm. Good Very Fine. Very Rare; in excellent condition for the type.

1,500

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

313. Dynasts of Lycia, Tnnemi AR Stater. Circa 460-450 BC. Griffin crouching to left, right forepaw raised, linear symbol above; all on round shield / Triskeles, TΞN↑ME around; all within dotted border within incuse square. Rosen Coll. 732; Traité II, 212; SNG Copenhagen Suppl. -; Müseler IV, 91 (same obverse die). 8.82g, 20mm. Good Extremely Fine; obv. die a little worn. Extremely Rare. From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

1,000

Unique Stater of Vekhssere

314. Dynasts of Lycia, Vekhssere I AR Stater. Circa 450-430 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet / Diskeles, F↑↓SS↑Ϥ↑ around, all within dotted square. Unpublished in the standard references, for obverse type cf. Vismara, Glaux 2, 48 (1/3 Stater: New York, ANS); cf. Müseler V, 12 (same obverse die). 8.54g, 21mm. Extremely Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished.

1,400

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

315. Dynasts of Lycia, Vekhssere I AR Stater. Circa 450-430 BC. Herakles, draped in lion’s skin, advancing left, head right, holding club over shoulder / Triskeles, small diskeles to lower right, Lycian script around; all in linear border within square incuse. Müseler V, 19 (same dies); Vismara, Falghera -; SNG Copenhagen Supp. 434. 8.49g, 19mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; only one other example in CoinArchives.

2,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

316. Dynasts of Lycia, Vekhssere I AR Stater. Circa 450-435 BC. Forepart of winged boar flying to left on round shield / Triskeles and small diskeles, F↑↓SS↑ around; all within dotted border within incuse square. Traité II, 422; Vismara I, 13. 8.39g, 18mm. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare. From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

101

2,000


102


PAMPHYLIA

A Magnificent Stater of Aspendos

317. Pamphylia, Aspendos AR Stater. Circa 460-420 BC. Helmeted, nude hoplite advancing right, holding spear in right hand and round shield in left / Triskeles of human legs, ΕΣ above; all within shallow incuse square. Hill & Ward, Greek Coins and Their Parent Cities, 730 (same dies); Bunbury 347 (same dies); SNG von Aulock 4483 var. 10.89g, 22mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; in incredible state of preservation for the type - one of the very finest known examples.

3,000

From a private English collection.

318. Pamphylia, Aspendos AR Stater. Circa 460-420 BC. Helmeted, nude hoplite advancing right, holding spear in right hand and round shield in left / Triskeles of human legs, ΕΣT above; all within shallow incuse square. SNG France 1; Traité -.10.85g, 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Uncommonly well struck and complete for the issue.

1,000

From a private North American collection.

319. Pamphylia, Side AR Stater. Circa 460-430 BC. Pomegranate within dot-and-cable border / Head of Athena right, wearing raised Corinthian helmet, earring and necklace; all within incuse square. Atlan 16 (O15/A14); SNG von Aulock 4762; Roma Numismatics E-Sale 13, 161 corr. (same dies, but not SNG France 627); SNG France -. 11.07g, 20mm, 11h. Near Mint State. Very Rare; among the earliest issues of Side.

1,000

From a private North American collection.

CILICIA

320. Cilicia, Kelenderis AR Stater. Circa 425-410 BC. Nude rider, holding whip in his left hand, jumping from horse galloping to left / Goat kneeling to left, head turned back to right; KEΛEN and ivy tendril with single leaf above. Kraay, The Celenderis Hoard, NC 1962, -; SNG Levante -; SNG France 55 (same dies). 10.73g, 21mm, 1h. Extremely Fine; lustrous metal. Extremely rare variety with single ivy leaf. From a private North American collection.

103

1,000


Second Known

321. Cilicia, Mallos AR Stater. Circa 440-400 BC. Bearded male deity with two pairs of wings in kneeling-running stance to left, holding solar disc with both hands / Swan standing to right, eagle upon its back; MAPΛO before, all within incuse circle. BMC -; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG France -, cf. 375-6 (same obverse die?); SNG Levante -; Traité 1394, pl. CXXXVII, 20; Casabonne -; MIMAA -. 11.18g, 20mm, 3h. Extremely Fine. Apparently the second known example.

7,500

From a private North American collection. Mallos (archaically known as Marlotas) issued a rich coinage between the early fifth century and 333 BC, when it came under Macedonian hegemony, featuring Greek deities including Herakles, Aphrodite, Athena, Hermes, Dionysos and Demeter, as well as securely identifiable oriental deities such as Baal and Ahuramazda. The solar deity present on the obverse of this coin is sometimes identified as Kronos (a Semitic god more properly known as ‘El’, and distinct from the Greek Titan and father of the Olympian gods, but with whom he was syncretised by Greeks). This seems eminently logical, since the spiral attribute, used on later issues - which Robert Graves called a ‘spiral of immortality’ (The White Goddess, 1948), a symbol of power most likely appropriated from the Red Crown of Lower Egypt - and solar disc attributes do not belong to any Olympian deity, but to one of near-Eastern origin. It has moreover been suggested that Mallos was originally of Phoenician foundation (see IACP, 1009) on the basis of its original ethnik, a suggestion supported by the presence of other Semitic deities portrayed on the city’s coinage, as well as the use of Aramaic legends. Curiously, the attribute of the solar disc is one with few parallels in the archaeological record. In a similar pose, a male solar deity is carrying a sun disc on a 6th century orientalising archaic Greek scarab from Cyprus, and an alabastron from the Isis tomb at Vulci, Etruria (suggested locations for its manufacture are Cyprus and Phoenicia) depicts a female carrying a winged sun disc. Possibly related also are Phoenician terracotta figurines from Punic sites holding a disc in front of them. In all cases a Semitic origin is apparent, further strengthening the likelihood that the deity of this coin should be the Semitic solar god ‘El’.

322. Cilicia, Mallos AR Stater. Circa 440-400 BC. Bearded male deity with two pairs of wings in kneeling-running stance to left, holding solar disc with both hands / Swan standing to left, eagle upon its back; MAP before, all within incuse circle. BMC -; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG France -, cf. 375-6 (same obverse die?); SNG Levante -; cf. Traité 1394, pl. CXXXVII, 20 (swan to right); Casabonne -; MIMAA -.11.08g, 20mm, 10h. Near Extremely Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished. From a private North American collection.

104

1,500


Unique Stater of Mallos

2x

2x

323. Cilicia, Mallos AR Stater. Circa 440-400 BC. Bearded and winged male deity in kneeling-running stance to right, holding solar disc with both hands / Swan standing to left, eagle upon its back; MAP above, ankh symbol before, all within incuse square. BMC -; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG France -; SNG Levante -; Traité -; Casabonne -; MIMAA -. 11.01g, 20mm, 9h. Near Extremely Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished.

5,000

From the collection of P.R., United Kingdom.

An Unpublished Stater of Holmoi

2x

2x

324. Cilicia, Homoi AR Stater. Persic standard. Circa 440-400 BC. Caped rider dismounting from horse to right / Stern of galley to left, OΛMI above. Unpublished in the standard references; Heritage 3067, 30186 (same dies); for similar types on a unique 1/3 stater cf. also Numismatik Naumann 39, lot 415. 10.66g, 18mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Unpublished in the standard references, and one of two known examples.

1,000

From the collection of P.R., United Kingdom. This remarkable coin, along with a unique 1/3 stater bearing similar types (horseman/stern of galley) undoubtedly represents the earliest coinage of the obscure city of Holmoi, located on the Cilician coast, whose recorded issues are otherwise limited to staters, obols and bronzes dating to after around 380 BC. Those later coins display a connection with the nearby city of Side, but the nature of this relationship is lost. The coins of Holmoi ceased when Seleukos transferred the population to the newly-founded Seleukeia (Pliny, Nat. 5.22, called Holmia). That the reverse type bears the stern of a galley does not necessarily imply that this virtually unheard-of city ever maintained any kind of fleet, despite its location on the Cilician coastline. The likely circumstances for the production of this extraordinary issue must be sought within the context of Cilicia’s subservience to the Achaemenid empire, to which the cities were required to pay tribute in coin, men and materiel. It has been convincingly argued that Cilician coinage, at least in part, fulfilled a military supply function (see Casabonne, 1996a : 116), since after all even in times of peace mercenary soldiers and guards needed paying, and fleets needed maintaining (see in particular Casabonne MIMAA, pp. 59). The reverse type may therefore not refer to any vessel built or operated by the striking authority, but may rather be an indication of the intended object it would go to finance. The earliest Cilician coinage is of extreme rarity, as we have well demonstrated in this catalogue. A novum such as this is therefore not out of character for the region, and this piece, along with the two other above referenced specimens, appears to be all that survives of the fifth century coinage of Holmoi, and of these it is in terms of quality and completeness certainly the finest, being both well struck and well preserved.

105


A Riddle, Wrapped in a Mystery, Inside an Enigma

325. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Circa 455-400 BC. Horseman (Syennesis?) riding to left, holding lotus flower in right hand and reins in left, bow in bowcase on saddle; Key symbol below horse / Persian soldier advancing to right, bow and quiver over shoulder, extending both hands with uncertain object in right, towards Greek soldier seated to left on quiver, wearing crested Attic helmet, supporting himself with his left hand, bow on the ground at his side; all within incuse square. Unpublished in the standard references including: BMC -; Traité -; Casabonne -; MIMAA -; SNG France -; SNG Levante -. 10.70g, 20mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished, and of very great numismatic and historical interest.

5,000

From the collection of P.R., United Kingdom. This remarkable coin defies explanation at the present state of knowledge. That it depicts an interaction between two soldiers, one a Persian and the other of Greek style, seems reasonable enough. The Persian, on the left, carries a slung bow and quiver denoting a military aspect; he is not crowned, thus we may assume he is not a king, nor does he seem to wear the kyrbasia that would indicate satrapal rank. The figure on the right wears a crested helmet apparently of Attic style; his attire is otherwise uncertain. He may wear a fitted cuirass and a tunic that reaches down over his upper legs, he could be bare to the waist and wearing a loincloth, or he may be simply dressed in a long, light, belted tunic only - the detail is too uncertain to make a definitive judgement. Beneath him are clearly visible a quiver with arrows within, and both ends of his bow, strung for action. The great question which prevents us from determining with any more precision what kind of interaction this scene could depict centres on what the Persian soldier is doing with his hands. He holds an object in his right hand; his fingers are oriented downwards in the manner that one would wield a sword or dagger; a line beyond the end of his hand could be the hilt of such a weapon. In this case we might suppose that with his left hand he is grasping the crest of the Greek’s helmet, while with his left foot he prepares to tread on his opponent. Yet if we are to see in this the act of stabbing a fallen enemy, the design could have been rendered in a more conspicuous manner - no blade is visible, and a blow to the upper arm as it appears would seem misplaced. What is the alternative? It is conceivable that the Persian proffers some object to the Greek - a message perhaps - but the positioning of his foot and placing his hand over the recipient’s head seems bizarre and more than a little unwelcome. Other explanations may present themselves to the imaginative observer (the defeat by Megabyzos of the Egyptian revolt led by Inaros II and supported by an Athenian task force in 455 BC?) or one with specialist knowledge perhaps. In the meantime we can only safely say that it is a numismatic scene with no existing parallel we are aware of, and is a highly important addition to the corpus of the early coinage of Tarsos.

326. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Circa 455-400 BC. The walls of Tarsos, with three turrets visible, each turret surmounted by three merlons / Forepart of bull to right, Key symbol to right; all within incuse square. BMC -; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG France -; SNG Levante -; Traité -; Casabonne -; MIMAA -; CNG 109, 190 corr. (Asia Minor, uncertain mint). 11.02g, 20mm, 3h. Very Fine. The second and finest known example.

2,000

From a private North American collection. The stylistically simple designs of both obverse and reverse of this rare type point to it being one of the very earliest issue of Tarsos. We may of course identify this as a coin of Tarsos based on the use of the ‘Key’ symbol, as Casabonne calls it, that he argues should be considered as the emblem of the local dynastic power, i.e. that of the syennesis (see Casabonne, Le syennésis cilicien et Cyrus : l’apport des sources numismatiques pp.164). This, together with a rendering of the walls of Tarsos which appear in a more complete form on the later satrapal coinage of Mazaios (the towers always with three merlons) makes the identification certain. That the bull type does not appear ever again at Tarsos is surprising, however we could possibly infer that this is a symbolic representation of wealth, and chosen as an appropriate motif for what was likely a tribute payment made to the city’s Achaemenid overlords.

106


327. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Circa 440-400 BC. Horseman (Syennesis?) riding to left, wearing kyrbasia, holding lotus flower in right hand and reins in left, bow in bowcase on saddle; Key symbol below horse, [Aramaic ‘TRZ’] in exergue / Archer in kneeling-running stance to right, quiver over shoulder, drawing bow; Key symbol behind, all within dotted border within incuse square. BMC -; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG Levante -; SNG France -; Casabonne -; MIMAA -; Traité II, 521, and pl. CVI, 1 = Hunterian, p. 546, 4 and pl. LX, 7. 10.64g, 24mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

3,000

From the collection of P.R., United Kingdom.

Unique and Unpublished

328. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Circa 440-400 BC. Horseman (Syennesis?) riding to left, wearing kyrbasia, holding lotus flower in right hand and reins in left, bow in bowcase on saddle; Key symbol below horse / Archer in kneeling-running stance to right, quiver over shoulder, drawing bow; Key symbol and Aramaic ‘TRZ’ behind, all within dotted border within incuse square. BMC -; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG Levante -; SNG France -, cf. 213 for types = Casabonne Type D2, pl. 2, 10 = MIMAA pl. V, 6 = Traité II, 523. 10.98g, 21mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished.

2,000

From the collection of P.R., United Kingdom.

329. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Circa 440-400 BC. Horseman (Syennesis?) riding to left, holding lotus flower in right hand and reins in left, bow in bowcase on saddle; Key symbol below horse / Two Persian soldiers, standing vis-a-vis, each holding spear, with bow in bowcase over shoulder; Aramaic legend ‘TRZ’ between, letters ‘L R’ before right hand figure. BMC -; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG France -; SNG Levante -; Traité II, 526, pl. CVI, 6 = Casabonne Type D1, pl. 2, 9 = Hunterian p. 546, 3 and pl. LX, 6; MIMAA -. 10.72g, 22mm, 9h. Extremely Fine. Of the greatest rarity, apparently only the second known example, and the only one in private hands.

3,000

From the collection of P.R., United Kingdom. Babelon considered the two figures on the reverse of this coin to be “deux rois de Perse”, noting that J. P. Six (NumChron 1884, p. 155) identified them as soldiers, but countering this description with the observation that they both wear ‘le costume royal’. In fact, as shown on the ‘Relief of the Immortals’ at the Apadana Palace, Persepolis, their attire may be considered to be generic, and not necessarily indicative of any special status. While probably not simply representing the frontier guards of Syria and Cilicia as suggested by Six, the type likely does hold some military significance. Certainly, the Syrian Gates (the Belen pass) were of great strategic importance, as attested first-hand by both Xenophon and Alexander the Great, however garrison of this natural choke-point would logically fall not to Cilicia whose territory one would have to pass through before reaching the gates, but to the forces of the satrapy beyond. Indeed Xenophon informs us that they were guarded by a garrison of the King’s troops. The Cilician Gates (a pass through the Taurus Mountains connecting the low plains of Cilicia to the Anatolian Plateau) which were of no less importance were guarded by the Cilician troops of the Syennesis, local ruler of Cilicia, and could well be represented here, but in this case it is quite an oblique reference. The paucity of surviving specimens suggests that this issue, along with the other related types of the period, was perhaps either a payment for the services of a small group of mercenary Greek soldiers (for the native Cilician troops would not themselves be paid by their overlords) or part of a tribute which was then melted down into bullion again almost in its entirety, leaving only a couple of surviving specimens.

107


Nergal of Tarsos

330. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Circa 440-400 BC. Horseman (Syennesis?) riding to left, wearing kyrbasia, holding lotus flower in right hand and reins in left, bow in bowcase on saddle; Key symbol below horse / Nergal of Tarsos standing to left, holding lotus flower in right hand and spear in left, bow in bowcase and lion skin over shoulder; Tree of Life behind, Aramaic legend ‘LNRGL’ (to/for Nergal) to left. BMC -; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG France -; SNG Levante -; Traité -; Casabonne -; MIMAA -; for obv. type cf. SNG France 213 = Casabonne pl. 2, 10; for rev. type cf. MIMAA type D4, pl. V, 7. 10.66g, 20mm, 10h. Extremely Fine. Unique and unpublished; of great numismatic interest.

10,000

From a private North American collection. ‘Syennesis’ was the title held by the local Tarsiote dynasts of Cilicia, at least three of whom figured prominently in Near-Eastern history. The first, an independent monarch in his own right, joined with Nebuchadnezzar in mediating between Cyaxares of Media and Alyattes of Lydia in circa 610 BC. The second appears as a vassal of the Achaemenid king Darius I, and whose daughter was married to Pixodaros, son of Maussolos. He was perhaps the same man whom Herodotos mentioned as one of the most distinguished of the subordinate commanders in the fleet of Xerxes I. The last recorded Syennesis participated in the rebellion of Cyrus the Younger against Artaxerxes II as described in detail in Xenophon’s Anabasis. The lack of any further mention of this dynasty following the events of Cyrus’ rebellion has long been taken as meaning that the syennesis was forcibly retired and a satrapy established in his place; the general and long-held acceptance by numismatists such as J. P. Six, E. Babelon and C. M Kraay of the obverse horseman portraying the Tarsiote syennesis has therefore complicated the dating of such issues (for an in-depth discussion see Casabonne, Le syennésis cilicien et Cyrus : l’apport des sources numismatiques, 1995). Casabonne does not refute the identification of the obverse figure as the syennesis, but he cautions against attempting to identify particular individuals within the series, rather suggesting the type should be considered in a less literal manner, and, viewed as evidence that the “Tarsiote monetary iconography attests to a certain continuity of relations between the central and local powers”, he accepts the type as being certainly “charged with political significance”. This being the case, and despite the fact that numismatists and historians alike have long seen the Tarsiote coinage as probably struck (at least in part) for the payment of such tribute to the Achaemenid king as is attested in several sources (see, for example Strabo XV.3.21), it should nonetheless be viewed primarily as a civic and not military coinage, regardless of what it may eventually have been used to finance. This is amply demonstrated by the reverse of this remarkable coin, which employs a highly intriguing design. The standing figure wearing a Persian kandys and carrying both bow and spear is named by the inscription as Nergal, the Babylonian-Assyrian god of the hunt, of war, pestilence and death. Cults at Hatra in Mesopotamia and much later, at Palmyra, have shown that Nergal was equated with the Hellenic Herakles, an assimilation probably begun by the Assyrians who seem to have equated Nergal to Melqart (see Jenkins, Two New Tarsos Coins 1973). Mary Boyce (A History of Zoroastrianism: Volume II: Under the Achaemenians pp. 272) notes that the cult of Nergal “appears to have been well established in Tarsus... there would appear to be a deliberate attempt here at religious syncretism of a sort, in the interests of secular power”; the unique addition of what appears to be a lion-skin hanging from behind Nergal would seem to support this notion. However, Seyrig (Cylinder Seals, 1939) in tracing the existence of the cult of Nergal also to Palestine, Syria and Cyprus, renders his appearance at Tarsos less surprising, and his depiction, while helping to bridge the gap between older periods and the Greco-Roman times, may not simply be a casual attempt at religious conflation but may reflect some deeper metaphor. Nergal, apart from being a god of war and death, was also a god of vegetation and rebirth, attributes that the Greeks associated with KorePersephone. The manner of Nergal’s depiction here - specifically, holding a lotus flower - together with the placement of a sacred tree or ‘tree of life’ (which had ancient, but now poorly understood significance in Assyrian religion) behind him, may be indicative of the reason for his appearance. While the tree may also potentially have roots in the Epic of Gilgamesh, wherein Etana searches for a ‘plant of birth’ to provide him with a son, its meaning is less clear than that of the the lotus flower. The lotus appears only sporadically in Greek and near-Eastern mythology, though it has a well attested use in Egyptian art and legend, where it was taken as a symbolic representation of the sun on account of its physical behaviour: it closes at night time and descends into the water, rising and flowering again at dawn, thus also becoming by extension a symbol of the eternal cycle of death and rebirth. A potential interpretation of Nergal in this context could therefore indicate his favour being sought for a transition of some sort, to preside over a death and a rebirth, an ending and a beginning, past and future.

108


Bellerophon and Pegasos

331. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Circa 425-400 BC. Bellerophon riding Pegasos to right, wielding spear overhead in right hand; trident-head before, key symbol below / Bellerophon riding Pegasos to left, wielding spear overhead in right hand; trident head before, ankh symbol below. Roma II, 344; cf. Baldwins 34, 214 (tetrobol); otherwise unpublished. 10.71g, 22mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Of the greatest rarity - the second known example, and the finest by far.

5,000

From a private English collection. The use of Bellerophon on this coin is a reflection of one of the city’s early foundation legends. The myths tell us that as Bellerophon’s fame grew, so did his hubris. He felt that because of his victory over the Chimaera, and because he thought he was a god he deserved to fly to Mount Olympus, the realm of the gods. This presumption angered Zeus and he sent a gadfly to sting Bellerophon’s mount, Pegasos, causing Pegasos to accidentally throw Bellerophon to the ground. The story as it pertains to Tarsos is that it was on the site of the future city that Bellerophon landed, hurting his foot, thus leading the city to be named tar-sos (the sole of the foot). In this region, on the Plain of Aleion (“Wandering”), Bellerophon lived out his life in misery as a blinded and crippled hermit, grieving and shunning the haunts of men until he died.

332. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Pharnabazos, Persian military commander. Circa 380-374/3 BC. Baaltars seated left, holding lotus tipped sceptre / Bearded male head (Ares?) left, wearing crested Attic helmet, Aramaic ‘Pharnabazos’ around. Casabonne series 4; Moysey Issue 2; SNG France 256 = de Luynes 2833; SNG Levante -. 10.56g, 24mm, 10h. Well struck on a broad flan, minor porosity. Extremely Fine.

1,000

Ex Roma Numismatics E-Sale 4, 28 December 2013, lot 301.

333. Cilicia, Satraps AR Stater. Mazaios, satrap of Cilicia and Cappadocia. Tarsos, circa 361-334 BC. Baaltars seated left, holding eagle, ear of corn and bunch of grapes in right hand, lotus-headed sceptre in left; Aramaic legend ‘BLTRZ’ = Baaltars, to right, Aramaic letters on left and below seat / Lion attacking a bull to left, Aramaic legend above ‘MZDI’ = Mazaios, monogram below. SNG France 335; SNG Levante 106 (same dies). 10.82g, 23mm, 2h. Good Extremely Fine. Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 84, 20 May 2015, lot 1556.

109

1,250


Herakles and Hippolyta?

334. Cilicia, uncertain mint AR Stater. Persic standard. Circa 450-400 BC. Herakles(?) standing to right, preparing to strike fallen Amazon(?) who he holds by the helmet crest; I (Aramaic ‘zayin’?) in left field / Bull standing to right, tail tied with ribbons(?); all within dotted border within incuse square. Unpublished in the standard references including: BMC -; Traité -; Casabonne -; MIMAA -; SNG France -; SNG Levante -; but cf. Roma Numismatics XIII, 371 for similar themes. 10.76g, 21mm, 9h. Very Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished, and of great fascination.

2,000

From the collection of P.R., United Kingdom. The stance of the standing figure on the obverse is greatly reminiscent of the attitude in which Herakles is depicted while fighting the Hydra on certain very rare coins of Crete (see Roma IX, 9 and Svoronos 66, pl. XXIV, 23), and to a lesser extent, staters of Kition. The fallen figure in comparison is considerably more slight in build, with slender legs and waist, and what look to be well defined breasts. As such this type immediately recalls the myth of Herakles’ ninth Labour and his battle with the Amazons after slaying their queen Hippolyta, with similar depictions preserved on surviving vases such as Tampa 82.11.1 and Met 61.11.16. This cataloguer thus favours a Cilician origin for this coin on account of the coin’s fabric, weight standard, the predominantly Cilician origin of the other coins with which it was reportedly originally found, and its obverse theme - since Amazons are represented at other Cilician mints including Soloi and on the three surviving coins of an uncertain mint (Roma XIII, 371; CNG 103, 344; CNG e386, 313). The latter issue depicts an Amazon on the obverse and the familiar Persian lion-bull combat motif on the reverse, together with the mysterious Aramaic legend ‘DRGL’ or ‘RRYL’, and may be related to the present issue. Herakles’ killing of the Amazon queen Hippolyta is one of the many tragic incidents that make Herakles such a flawed individual, driven by the whims of the gods, by misfortune and by his own violent nature to commit terrible crimes and acts of slaughter. Ordered by Eurystheos to bring him the Belt of Hippolyta as his ninth Labour, Herakles duly set out with his companions to retrieve this gift of Ares. When at last he reached the lands of the Amazons, Hippolyta herself came to meet the men, and impressed by Herakles and his exploits, agreed to give him the Belt. She would have done so had Hera not disguised herself and walked among the Amazons sowing seeds of distrust, claiming the strangers were plotting to carry off the Queen. Alarmed, the Amazons armed themselves and set off on horseback to confront the ‘invaders’. Herakles, seeing this armed host approaching, guessed that Hippolyta had been plotting treachery all along and had never meant to gift him the Belt, so he killed her, and in the ensuing battle between the Greeks and Amazons he took the Belt and returned to Eurystheos.

PHRYGIA Where Alexander Cut the Gordion Knot

2x

2x

335. Phrygia, Gordion AR Obol. Autonomous issue, circa 2nd-1st centuries BC. Jugate busts of Artemis and Apollo, both laureate, quiver over the shoulder of Artemis / Bow and quiver, ΓOΡΔI-ANΩN vertically across fields. Paris AA.GR.10254 = Borrell, Unedited Greek Coins, p. 27 in NC 1845-1846; Roma XV, 282; Nomos 16, 135; otherwise unpublished. 0.62g, 9mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Of the highest rarity, one of only four specimens known.

1,000

From a private English collection. The first discovered example of this excessively rare coinage, the only known issue of Gordion, was published in the Numismatic Chronicle in 1846 by H. P. Borrell. Not a single other specimen came to light for 172 years until a further example was published in Roma Numismatics XV. It must not be confused with Gordus, or Gordus-Julia, under which entry it is incorrectly listed by the Bibliothèque nationale, who hold the Borrell specimen. Gordion was the ancient capital of the Kingdom of Phrygia, of which the quasi-legendary Midas was the most famous king. The city was destroyed c. 800-700 BC, but according to ancient tradition the knot with which Midas had tied a wagon (associated with the prophetic rise to power of Midas’ father, Gordias) to a pole in dedication to the Phrygian god Sabazios still stood on the acropolis of the city when Alexander came upon the place in 333 BC, from which comes the legendary story of Alexander and the Gordion Knot. After the death of Alexander in 323 BC, Gordion was controlled by Antigonos, the Seleukids, Celts, Attalids and finally by the Romans from 189 BC. The timing of this coin’s issue is uncertain, but we may presume that it was struck during a brief period of autonomy, perhaps under Roman suzerainty.

110


BITHYNIA

336. Bithynia, Herakleia Pontika AR Drachm. 4th century BC. Head of Herakles left, wearing lion skin headdress; club below / Head of Hera left, wearing ornamented stephanos; trident above, HPAKΛΕΙΑ behind. SNG BM Black Sea -; SNG Copenhagen -; cf. Waddington, Rec. gen. 21 (this symbol not listed). 3.51g, 16mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

1,000

Ex collection of “eines Geschichtsfreundes”.

PONTOS

337. Kingdom of Pontos, Mithradates VI Eupator AR Tetradrachm. Bithyno Pontic year 208 = May 89 BC. Diademed head right / Pegasos on ground line to left, preparing to lie down, BAΣΙΛEΩΣ above, MIΘPAΔATOY EYΠATOPOΣ below; star within crescent to left, HΣ (year) and monogram to right, H (month) below; all within ivy wreath. De Callataÿ p. 12, D47/R-; Waddington, Receuil Géneral 15; SNG BM 1032; Gulbenkian 938 and Pl. LXXVI. 16.82g, 31mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Attractive old cabinet tone.

2,500

Ex J. Vinchon, 2-3 December 1975, lot 94.

ARMENIA The Twin Peaks of Mount Ararat

338. Kings of Armenia, Tigranes IV (Restored) and Erato Æ Dichalkon. 2 BC-AD 1. Jugate busts of Tigranes, wearing tiara and diadem, and Erato right / [ΦΙΛΟΚΑΙCΑΡ], the two peaks of Mount Ararat, as seen from the Armenian capital Artaxata; A in exergue. F. Kovacs, Tigranes IV, V, and VI: New Attributions, AJN 20, 5; CAA 128 (Tigranes II?); AC 122 (Tigranes II). 6.64g, 18mm, 12h. Near Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

500

Sold with export licence issued by The Israel Antiquities Authority. This remarkable type was only discovered in 1978, being first published by Bedoukian. Admitting that he could not arrive at a certain attribution, he placed it in his catalogue under Tigranes II, stating that ‘it may have been struck by Tigranes when he conquered Cappadocia in 93 BC, forcing the ruling king, Ariobarzanes I, to flee to Rome,’ and that the double-peaked mountain on the reverse resembled Mt. Argaios in Cappadocia (CAA pg. 24). It seems that Nercessian merely followed Bedoukian in his placing the coin under Tigranes II without further explanation, although he included a footnote telling the reader to see additional information in a subsequent chapter which he then neglected to provide. More recently Frank Kovacs convincingly argued for assigning the coin to Tigranes IV and his sister-queen Erato. He based his argument on four points: the reverse legend ΦΙΛΟΚΑΙCΑΡ (‘Friend of Caesar’), which was previously misread by Bedoukian as KAICAPEΩN; the regnal year A in the exergue, which ‘implies that Tigranes’ earlier reign under the Parthian aegis was illegitimate and that Rome alone had the right to crown the king of Armenia,’ and draws parallels to similar instances in the coinages issued by other client kingdoms of Rome; the extreme scarcity of the coins which of course better fit this king’s short reign than do the plethora of types and number of extant pieces assigned to him by both Bedoukian and Nercessian; and finally the beardless portrait better fits the youthful son of Tigranes III than do the previously assigned bearded types.

111


PHOENICIA

112


A Unique Tetradrachm of Arados

339. Phoenicia, Arados (Arwad) AR Tetradrachm. Attic standard. Circa 440-420 BC. Marine deity (Ba’al Arwad), comprised of male torso with archaicstyle hair and beard, and scaled ketos-like lower body with dorsal fin ending in forked tail, swimming to right while holding two dolphins by their tails; Phoenician ‘MA’ above; all within circular border / Elaborate galley to right; hippocamp below, swimming to right. Unpublished in the standard references, including Elayi & Elayi, Phoenician Coinages, supplement to Transeuphratène (2014); for type cf. Betlyon 6 (1/3 shekel or tetrobol), and also Elayi & Elayi, Phoenician Coinages, p. 597, I.2.1, PL. LXXXIV, C.108 = Münz Zentrum Rheinland 105, 284 (shekel, possibly of same types but uncertain due to poor centring); for the only other Attic standard tetradrachm of Arados, cf. Betlyon 14 = de Luynes 3054. 17.28g, 26mm, 2h. Extremely Fine. A unique and unpublished type of the greatest numismatic importance; only the second known coin of Arados struck on the Attic standard, and the only one in private hands. 20,000 From a private English collection; Ex Collection of a California Gentleman; acquired privately from Freeman & Sear (Los Angeles), 1999. This remarkable and highly important coin represents a significant addition to the corpus of the coinage of Arados. Betlyon’s ‘Third Aradian Series’, which he dated to c. 400-380 BC, comprised only fractional silver coinage - namely, tetrobols, diobols and obols. He noted that “It is surprising that no staters (shekels) are extant from this series... Aradus must not have been issuing coins which were intended for use in commerce outside the citystate at this time.” A shekel was however subsequently identified by Elayi & Elayi as maybe belonging to this series (Elayi and Elayi Group I, I.2.1, dated circa 440-420 BC), because it possibly bears a hippocamp below the galley, though this is uncertain due to the poor centring of the reverse strike. The only other Attic standard coin of Arados, also a tetradrachm, bears the head of Ba’al Arwad on the obverse and a galley over waves on the reverse, and is part of the de Luynes collection and was struck c. 352/1-351/0 in the context of the Tennes Rebellion of Phoenician and Cypriot cities. It has been suggested that coin was struck on the Attic standard, along with parallel issues at Sidon and Tyre, as a symbolic gesture of breaking from Persian authority. The surrender of Arados ended this ‘monetary coup’, and coinage reverted to the Persic standard, which was probably considered a necessary restriction by the city’s Persian overlords given its strong link with the overland trade route that led to the heart of the Persian empire. No such revolt can account for the present coin’s divergence from the Persic standard; the reason for its production most likely lies instead with the socio-economic situation prevalent at Arados at the close of c.5 and beginning of c.4. Vadim S. Jigoulov (The Social History of Achaemenid Phoenicia, Being a Phoenician, Negotiating Empires, 2016) notes that “Escalating internal problems in the Persian empire marked by wars for the throne left subject territories without strong Persian control in the first part of the fourth century BCE. In this political situation, the royalty of Arwad strove to foster closer relations and lively trade with the Greek West. Such development was not unknown among Phoenician city-states in the first half of the fourth century BCE, as Sidon had its representatives and envoys residing in Athens, according to the Athenian decree of Cephisodotus.” Indeed, Arados was situated in a prime location to act as a gateway for trade between Cyprus, the Greek cities of the west, Phoenicia, Egypt and the Persian heartlands. Betlyon (The Coinage and Mints of Phoenicia, p. 79) following Hill (BMC Phoenicia p. xix) suggests “it may be that the Athenian coinage was the parent coinage of that of Aradus”, having commenced producing their own coinage when the supply of Athenian tetradrachms began to ebb. While this is certainly possible, perhaps even likely, there is no simple exchange rate between the Attic standard and the Persic. Hill (BMC Phoenicia, p. xxiii) proposed that five Aradian tetrobols weighed nearly the same as the normal weight of an Athenian tetradrachm, though he incorrectly assumed an Attic standard of 17.44g, and tetrobols at a nominal weight of 3.55g (the Attic standard is correctly 17.2g, and the Aradian tetrobols were likely struck at an initial nominal weight of approximately 3.4g, as the best preserved examples seem to indicate). Thus, with the heaviest tetrobols an exchange would be feasible (slightly in favour of Arados), but these seem to have varied greatly in weight. We could therefore speculate that the present tetradrachm may have been a prototype or experiment in striking an Aradian civic issue of attic weight coinage for the purpose of local commerce, readily convertible with Athenian owls, which was abandoned in favour of enforced conversion of foreign money to Aradian local coinage on the Persic standard, which would have entailed an exchange rate profit for the treasury similar to that earned by the authorities at Olympia during the games. Equally, it could have been a similarly brief issue intended as a trade coinage struck with a specific payment in mind, as appears to have been the case at Seriphos, whose coinage standard varies, most likely according to whomsoever needed paying. Unfortunately, the paucity of historical sources that mention Arados combined with a dearth of information from archaeological excavation in the city do not at present allow us to form any more conclusive judgement concerning the motivation for the striking of this altogether extraordinary issue.

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340

341

340. Phoenicia, Arados AR Stater. Uncertain king, circa 380-351/0 BC. Head of marine deity right, wearing laurel wreath / Galley right; ‘m a’ in Phoenician script above, waves below; all within dotted border within incuse square. Betlyon 10; Rouvier 2; HGC 10, 29 corr. (see below); SNG Copenhagen 10; BMC 18; Hunt IV 471; Pozzi 3041–5. 10.64g, 20mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. 750 Ex Roma Numismatics XIII, 23 March 2017, lot 394; Ex collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-1990s. 341. Phoenicia, Tyre AR Shekel. Circa 450-400 BC. Dolphin leaping to right over triple line of waves, murex below; ŠLŠN (one thirtieth [of a mina]) in Phoenician script above / Owl of Egyptian type standing to right, crowned with crescent, carrying crook and flail; all within incuse outline. BMC 227, 1 and pl. XXVIII, 9; Traité, pl. CXXII, 1; Kraay-Hirmer 681; Kraay, ACGC 1048; Rouvier 1775. 11.97g, 22mm, 8h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare. 1,000 Sold with export licence issued by The Israel Antiquities Authority. This is one of the very earliest coins to bear an inscription that explicitly states its value.

342. Phoenicia, Tyre AR Quarter Shekel. Circa 450-400 BC. Dolphin leaping to right over waves, murex shell below; ‘MḤṢ GR’ in Phoenician script above] / Owl of Egyptian type standing to right, crowned with crescent, carrying crook and flail; all within incuse outline. BMC -; Rouvier 1776; HGC 10, 323; Betlyon 4 corr. (denomination). 3.29g, 15mm, 7h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare, and in exceptional condition for the type.

1,500

Sold with export licence issued by The Israel Antiquities Authority.

CYPRUS

343. Cyprus, Kition AR Stater. Azbaal, circa 449-425 BC. Herakles in fighting stance to right, wearing lion skin upon his back and tied around neck, holding club overhead in right hand and bow extended before him in left hand; monogram or ankh to right / Lion attacking stag crouching right; L’Z’B’L (in Aramaic) above; all inside dotted border within incuse square. Zapiti & Michaelidou 5-6; Tziambazis 17; BMC 16-8. 10.79g, 30mm, 4h. Very Fine.

750

From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-1990s.

344. Cyprus, Kition AR Stater. Azbaal, circa 449-425 BC. Herakles in fighting stance to right, wearing lion skin upon his back and tied around neck, holding club overhead in right hand and bow extended before him in left hand; monogram or ankh to right / Lion attacking stag crouching right; L’Z’B’L (in Aramaic) above; all inside dotted border within incuse square. Zapiti & Michaelidou 5-6; Tziambazis 17; BMC 16-8. 11.04g, 22mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-1990s.

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500


115


345. Cyprus, Kition AR Tetradrachm. In the name and types of Alexander III of Macedon. Struck under King Pumiathon, circa 325-320 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; TK monogram in left field. Zapiti & Michaelidou 18; Price 3110; Newell, Some 12. 17.20g, 26mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; lustrous metal.

750

Sidqmelek, King of Lapethos

346. Cyprus, Lapethos AR Stater. Sidqmelek, circa 435 BC. Head of Athena left, wearing crested Corinthian helmet; Phoenician inscription ‘King of Lapethos’ before / Head of Athena facing, wearing necklace and helmet decorated with bulls horns, each with crest attached, and bull’s ears; Phoenician inscription ‘of Sidqmelek’ around. Bank of Cyprus 1984-01-26 (same dies); BMC 7-9, pl. VI, 6-8 (same dies); Tziambazis 48 (same dies); Traité II, 1361-3 and pl. CXXXVI, 12-14 (same dies). 10.88g, 23mm, 11h. Extremely Fine; obv. die worn as usual. Extremely Rare; only two other examples on CoinArchives.

5,000

From a private North American collection, outside of Cyprus before December 1992. Lapethos, one of the ancient kingdoms of Cyprus, was, according to tradition, founded by Praxandros from Lakonia in the Peloponnese. However, the city figures little in recorded history; its earliest kings that we know of were Demonikos and Sidqmelek, who reigned in that order, though not necessarily in direct succession. A change from Greek rulers to Phoenician ones occurred at Salamis around this time, which consequently has seen Sidqmelek characterised as a Phoenician interloper, though Christopher Tuplin (Achaemenid Studies, 1996, pp. 46) observes that all of the coins of Lapethos are inscribed in Phoenician down to the time of Alexander, and fathers with Greek names gave their sons Phoenician names, and vice versa, at both at Marion and Salamis. That being said, Kagan (1994) notes that the “changes in type... first to that used by Sidqmelek and then to the coins of Andr- and Demonicus II is quite extraordinary from a numismatic perspective and indicative of some sort of change”. Indeed, the depiction of what we assume to be Athena on the reverse of this and other coins of Sidqmelek is decidedly un-hellenic. It is certainly possible, given the nature of the ongoing series of revolts and Athenian interventions in Cyprus in the first half of the 5th century which ended in the sudden withdrawal of the Athenians in 449 BC, that a change of government did occur, with an Achaemenid-backed dynasty taking power, before eventually being overthrown or usurped.

Second and Finest Known

347. Cyprus, Lapethos AR Stater. Circa 435 BC. Head of Athena left, wearing crested Corinthian helmet / Head of Athena facing, wearing open-faced helmet with transverse crest, and necklace; decorative elements in upper corners, all within dotted border within incuse square. Unpublished in the standard references, but cf. BMC 7-9, pl. VI, 6-8; cf. Tziambazis cf. 48; NAC 52, 791 (same dies). 11.08g, 24mm, 11h. Good Very Fine. Of the greatest rarity - the second known example, and by far the finest. From a private North American collection, outside of Cyprus before December 1992.

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5,000


An Extremely Rare Stater of Lapethos

348. Cyprus, Lapethos AR Stater. Uncertain king, circa 425 BC. Head of Athena left, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with a floral motif on the bowl / Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress, within incuse square. Tziambazis –; Traité –; BMC –; ACGC 1094 = Boston MFA Supp. 253 = Celenderis 8a (same dies); CNG 72, lot 852 (same rev. die); Münzen und Medaillen AG XIX (5 June 1959), lot 514 (same rev. die). 11.04g, 23mm, 4h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

3,000

Ex Roma Numismatics XIII, 23 March 2017, lot 403; Ex collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-1990s.

An Extremely Rare Stater of Onasioikos

349. Cyprus, Paphos AR Stater. Onasioikos, circa 450-440 BC. Bull standing left on beaded line, winged solar disk above, ankh to left; Cypriot characters ‘pa-o’ below bull / Eagle flying to left, uncertain Cypriot characters above to left, astragalos below. McClean 9157 = BMC pl. XXII, 2 (same rev. die); cf. BMC pl. XXII, 1 for obverse type with same characters. 11.04g, 21mm, 7h. Good Very Fine; test cut. Extremely Rare.

1,000

From a private English collection, outside of Cyprus before December 1992. In a thorough analysis of this mint and inscriptions, A. Destrooper-Georgiades (Le monnaies frappées à Paphos (Chypre) durant la deuxième moitié du Ve siècle et leur apport à l’histoire de l’île” in Proceedings of the 12th International Numismatic Congress, Berlin 2000, pp. 194-8), proposes a sequence of kings based on the available numismatic evidence which securely places Onasioikos prior to the reign of Stasandros, who is in turn succeeded by at least two other kings, Mineos and Zoalios, who are known to history only from their inscriptions on re-engraved coins of Stasandros. The evidence presented by Destrooper-Georgiades demonstrates with a high degree of probability that the issues attributed to Onasioikos bearing the flying eagle reverse (generally dated to 400 BC without supporting evidence) should be redated to before the reign of Stasandros. DestrooperGeorgiades proposes a revised dating of circa 450 BC for the flying-eagle type of Onasioikos, and a period from the mid-fifth century to the first decades of the fourth century for the standing-eagle coinage of Onasioikos, Stasandros, Mineos and Zoalios.

350. Cyprus, Paphos AR Stater. Onasioikos, circa 450-440 BC. Bull standing to left, Cypriot character ‘pa’ on its flank, winged solar disk above, ankh to left; below, Cypriot script ‘pa-si-le’ / Eagle flying to left, Cypriot characters ‘pa’ and ‘o’ behind, astragalos below to left; all within incuse square. BMC -, cf. pl. XXII, 2 (Fitzwilliam) var. (characters); Traité II -; Tziambazis -. 11.02g, 20mm, 8h. Good Very Fine. Struck from a heavily used obv. die, as usual. Extremely Rare, possibly a unique and unpublished variety. From a private North American collection, outside of Cyprus before December 1992.

117

1,000


351. Cyprus, Paphos AR Stater. Onasioikos, circa 450-440 BC. Bull standing to left, Cypriot character ‘pa’ on its flank, [winged solar disk above, ankh to left; below, Cypriot script ‘pa-si-le’] / Eagle flying to left, ankh symbol below to left; all within incuse square. BMC -, pl. XXII, 3 (Glasgow, Hunter); Traité II -; Tziambazis -. 11.02g, 20mm, 8h. Good Very Fine. Struck from a heavily used obv. die, as usual. Very Rare.

1,000

From a private North American collection, outside of Cyprus before December 1992.

352. Cyprus, Paphos AR Stater. Onasioikos, circa 450-440 BC. Bull standing to left, Cypriot character ‘pa’ on its flank, winged solar disk above, ankh to left; below, Cypriot script ‘pa-si-le’ / Eagle flying to left, Cypriot characters ‘pa’ behind, ‘o’ before, ankh symbol below to left; all within incuse square. BMC -; Traité II -; Tziambazis -; Leu 81, 320 (same dies); Lanz 154, 210 (same dies) Gorny & Mosch 207, 396 (same dies). 11.04g, 21mm, 8h. Extremely Fine. Struck from a heavily used obv. die, as usual. Very Rare.

1,000

From a private North American collection, outside of Cyprus before December 1992.

Fourth Known

353. Cyprus, Paphos AR Stater. Onasioikos, circa 450-440 BC. Bull standing left on beaded double line; [winged solar disk above, ankh to left]; all within dotted circular border / Eagle standing left; ankh to left, ‘pa-si o-na’ in Cypriot script around; all within dotted square border in incuse square. Tziambazis -; BMC -; Destrooper-Georgiades, p. 196, 13 = Gulbenkian 809 = NFA II, 1976, 275; Roma XIII, 405. 11.10g, 22mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. The fourth known example, and exceptionally complete for the issue. Of great numismatic and historical importance.

3,000

From the collection of P.R., United Kingdom, outside of Cyprus before December 1992. The existence of this issue in name of ‘Ona’ in the style of the coinage struck in the name of Stasandros illustrates the many problems of attribution in early Cypriot numismatics. We know of coins attributed to a king ‘Onasioikos’ which utilise the same obverse type of a bull with ankh and solar disk, but with a flying eagle as the reverse design (BMC pl. XXI, 14 = Traité II 1306). This in itself is not unusual, since Cypriot cities often continued the same obverse type under different rulers much as other Greek city-states did. The present coin however, which bears the name of ‘Ona’(sioikos), but utilises the same reverse type as the staters of King Stasandros with the only difference being the legend, suggests a more direct link between the two rulers than has hitherto been widely assumed. Indeed, the style of the reverse is so similar to archaic style issues of Stasandros (see following lot, certainly the work of the same hand), that it appears to conclusively demonstrate that this king Onasioikos was the immediate predecessor of Stasandros, since the latter retained the same types as seen on this issue for his first coinage. This theory is supported by the difference in style between the issues of Stasandros - the following lot, the ‘earlier’ issue, being distinctly archaic in appearance, while the ‘later’ issue is more classical in style. In a thorough analysis of this mint and inscriptions, A. Destrooper-Georgiades (Le monnaies frappées à Paphos (Chypre) durant la deuxième moitié du Ve siècle et leur apport à l’histoire de l’île” in Proceedings of the 12th International Numismatic Congress, Berlin 2000, pp. 194-8), proposes a sequence of kings based on the available numismatic evidence which securely places Onasioikos prior to the reign of Stasandros, who is in turn succeeded by at least two other kings, Mineos and Zoalios, who are known to history only from their inscriptions on re-engraved coins of Stasandros. The evidence presented by Destrooper-Georgiades demonstrates with a high degree of probability that the issues attributed to Onasioikos bearing the flying eagle reverse (generally dated to 400 BC without supporting evidence) are in fact an earlier issue of the same king named on the present type, and that his flying-eagle coinage should clearly be redated to before the reign of Stasandros. The archaistic appearance of the flying-eagle type weighs heavily in favour of this, since a backwards step from classical style to archaic is counter-intuitive. Destrooper-Georgiades proposes a revised dating of circa 450 BC for the flying-eagle type of Onasioikos, and a period from the mid-fifth century to the first decades of the fourth century for the standing-eagle coinage of Onasioikos, Stasandros, Mineos and Zoalios.

118


354. Cyprus, Paphos AR Stater. Stasandros, circa 440-425 BC. Bull standing left on beaded double line; winged solar disk above, [ankh to left]; all within dotted circular border / Eagle standing left, ankh to left, ‘pa-si sa-ta-sa-to’ in Cypriot script around; all within dotted square border in incuse square. Babelon, Perses 749a; BMC pl. XXI, 9; Tziambazis -; Roma XIII, 406. 10.91g, 27mm, 11h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

1,000

From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-1990s.

Among the Finest Known

355. Cyprus, Paphos AR Stater. Stasandros, circa 425 BC or later. Bull standing left; winged solar disk above, ankh to left, palmette ornament in exergue / Eagle standing left; one-handled vase to left, ‘pa-si sa-ta-sa’ in Cypriot script around; all within dotted square in incuse square. DestrooperGeorgiades 15; Tziambazis 7; Traité II 1291 = BMC 17; SNG Copenhagen 26; ACGC 1089. 11.06g, 24mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare, and among the finest known examples.

7,500

From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-1990s.

356. Cyprus, Paphos AR Stater. Stasandros, circa 425 BC or later. Bull standing left; winged solar disk above, ankh to left, palmette ornament in exergue / Eagle standing left; one-handled vase to left, ‘pa-si sa-ta-sa’ in Cypriot script around; all within dotted square in incuse square. DestrooperGeorgiades 15; Tziambazis 7; Traité II 1291 = BMC 17; SNG Copenhagen 26; ACGC 1089. 11.01g, 26mm, 9h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

3,000

From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-1990s.

357. Cyprus, Paphos AR Stater. Stasandros, circa 425 BC or later. Bull standing left; winged solar disk above, ankh to left, two-leafed shoot in exergue / Eagle standing left; one-handled vase to left, ‘pa-si sa-ta-sa’ in Cypriot script around; all within dotted square in incuse square. BMC pl. XXI, 11; Roma XIII, 408 (same dies). 11.01g, 24mm, 4h Extremely Fine; overstruck on a stater of Aegina. Very rare variety of a very rare type. From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-1990s.

119

1,000


A Unique Stater of Nikodamos

358.

Cyprus, Salamis AR Stater. Nikodamos, circa 460-450. Recumbent ram to right, oinochoe above; Cypriot script ‘pa-si-le-wo-se ni-ko-ta-mo’ around / Head of ram to left, olive branch and elaborate ankh symbol below; Cypriot script ‘pa-si ni-ko-ta’ around. Bank of Cyprus -; BMC -; Traité II -; Tziambazis -; cf. Masson & Amandry, Notes de numismatique chypriote, VI-VIII in RN 1988, p. 33 and pl. II, 4-5 = Kunstfreund 169 (same obverse die). 11.19g, 23mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished; of great numismatic interest.

10,000

From the Dr. Albert Potts collection, outside of Cyprus before December 1992. The Greek dynasty of Salamis traced its ancestry back to the legendary hero Teukros (Teucer), son of Telamon, king of the Greek island of Salamis in the Saronic Gulf. The first king and founder of the dynasty of Cypriot Salamis whose name appears on the Persian standard double sigloi and fractions is that of Evelthon (560-525 BC). It has long been recognised and confirmed by the Celenderis, Asyut, Lanarca, Zagazig and Jordan hoards, that many if not all of these issues were minted by his successors from c. 515 until the mid 5th century; Herodotus (5.104) lists four successors to Evelthon: Siromos, Chersis, Gorgos and Onesilos, none of whom are confirmed by the numismatic record. Thus it appears that the royal numismatic custom at Salamis was to continue using the types of one’s predecessor, with the name of the reigning king of secondary importance to the primary message - that he was of the dynasty of Evelthon. The only other names recorded on coins before the well attested Evagoras I are: Phausis (cf. J. Kagan and K. McGregor 1995: “The Coinage of king Phausis of Salamis”, CCEC 23, 3-9, 1995); Nikotamos (cf. BMC 31-32 (Nikodamos) and Evanthes (BMC 38-9) dated to the period 480-450 BC. The recumbent ram type of the obverse ultimately derives from the type instituted by Evelthon, so continuing the theme which appears to have been retained for dynastic purposes. Significantly, a coin discovered with the name of Nikodamos on the reverse also bears the name of Evelthon on the obverse (Troxell-Spengler 1969, 17). The use of the latter’s name in the middle of the fifth century is significant, as it apparently confirms that Nikodamos was descended (or at least claimed descent) from Evelthon. The reverse type of a ram’s head may have been an innovation introduced by Nikodamos, which appears to have been retained by his successor Evanthes, and most surprisingly, by the uncertain and possibly Phoenician king ‘Maxakosa’ who coined an issue survived by a single example (Roma Numismatics XIII, lot 411) circa 450-430 BC. Nikodamos himself appears to be unknown to history other than from his coins, but he must have reigned at Salamis in the years immediately preceding the expedition of the Athenian fleet under the general Kimon against the Persians on Cyprus in 450 BC.

120


KYRENAIKA An Extremely Rare Tetradrachm of Barke

359.

Kyrenaika, Barke AR Tetradrachm. Circa 450-420 BC. Silphium plant with leaves and flowers / Bearded head of Zeus Ammon to right, BAP before; elaborate border around, all within incuse circle. BMC 93, 7 (same dies); Münzen & Medaillen 38, 118 (same dies); Traité III, 1949 and pl. CCLXIX, 8. 17.27g, 27mm, 10h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

10,000

From the Mordecai Medvin Collection; Privately purchased from Numismatic Fine Arts (Beverly Hills, CA), 1993. Herodotos (4.160.1) informs us that the city of Barke was founded in the mid-sixth century BC by brothers of Arkesilaos II of Kyrene, who were in conflict with him, and that therefore from the very start it frequently followed an independent and occasionally opposing political line, though its coinage developed in parallel with that of its parent city. In 525 BC, the Achaemenid King Cambyses II effected a swift and bloody conquest of the Pharaonic Kingdom of Egypt, following which both “Kyrene and Barke, being struck with terror” (Herodotos 3.13) delivered themselves up without resistance, and send tribute and gifts to Cambyses. Though both nominally independent still at this time, subsequent civil strife would result in Kyrenaika falling under the hegemony of the Persians. In c. 518, King Arkesilaos III of Kyrene demanded the return of the monarchical powers his ancestors had possessed before his father’s reform of the city’s constitution. An internal struggle ensued, in which Arkesilaos was defeated and exiled, being forced to leave Kyrenaika with his mother Pheretima. He himself went to Samos, while his mother went to the court of King Evelthon in Salamis. Arkesilaos succeeded in recruiting an army on Samos, with which he retook Kyrenaika, murdering or exiling his opponents, contrary to advice he had received from an oracle. Wary of reprisals and apparently fearing for his life Arkesilaos fled Kyrene and made for Barke which was then under the government of his father-in-law, while Pheretima took over the reins of power at Kyrene. Recognised in the Barkaean marketplace by exiled Kyrenaeans however, both Arkesilaos and his father-in-law were set upon and murdered. When news reached Pheretima, she went directly to the Persian satrap of Egypt, Arysandes, and pitifully implored his assistance to avenge her son’s murder. Thus in 515 a Persian army duly set out against Barke, and laid siege to the city for nine months, before finally luring the people out under a false offer of armistice. The women were mutilated at Pheretima’s order and all were enslaved, being then resettled in far away Baktria. Those exiles who survived the journey named their settlement Barke, after their lost home. Pheretima herself died later in the same year; her grandson Battos IV succeeded her, supported by Persian troops, and thus as a vassal of the Achaemenid empire. Kyrenaika thereupon became an extension of the satrapy of Egypt. Battos IV reigned peacefully, and passed the throne to his son Arkesilaos IV in 465, whose victory in the chariot race at the Pythian Games of Delphi was celebrated by the Greek poet Pindar in the Fourth and Fifth Pythian Odes. Pindar stressed the legitimacy of his rule - his family, the Battiatid dynasty having ruled for eight generations - and urged him to reconcile with his enemies. However his reign grew progressively more tyrannical as time went on, and Arkesilaos exiled many Kyrenaean nobles, bringing in mercenaries to support his rule. Despite, or perhaps because of this in 440 the populace rebelled and killed Arkesilaos along with his son Battos V, proclaiming Kyrenaika a republic under Persian suzerainty. The present coin most probably dates to the late rule of Arkesilaos IV, or the period after the overthrow of the monarchy and re-establishment of autonomous internal governance by the cities of Kyrenaika. Considering the fine classical style and prominent use of the city ethnik, the latter seems more likely.

121


122


A Spectacular Tetradrachm of Kyrene

360.

Kyrenaika, Kyrene AR Tetradrachm. Circa 450-420 BC. Silphium plant with two pairs of leaves and five umbels; at base of stem, two tiny leave to [left] and right / Head of Zeus Ammon to right, hair secured in a plait, with dotted neck truncation; KYP before, all within circular torque-like border. BMC -, cf. 42-43, pl. V, 16-17; TraitĂŠ III -; SNG Copenhagen -; Delepierre -; McClean -; Boston MFA -; Jameson -. 17.40g, 26mm, 4h. Extremely Fine; wonderful, lustrous metal. Extremely Rare.

30,000

From the Dr. Albert Potts collection; Acquired privately in Paris, 1967. Kyrene was founded in 631 BC by Dorian settlers from Thera and their leader Battos, as instructed by the Delphic oracle. Around a hundred years later as the city grew in prosperity to rival even Carthage, Kyrene began issuing silver coins of archaic style on small, thick modules. Virtually all of the coins of Kyrene display the badge of the city and the principal source of its wealth - the silphium plant. It was described as having a thick root, a stalk like fennel, large alternating leaves with leaflets like celery, spherical clusters of small yellow flowers at the top and broad leaf-like, heart-shaped fruit called phyllon. The plant was valued in ancient times because of its many uses as a food source, seasoning for food, and, most importantly, as a medication. Perfumes were made from the flowers, the stalk was used for food or fodder while the juice and root were used to make a variety of medical potions. Aside from its uses in Greco-Roman cooking (as in recipes by Apicius), the many medical applications of the plant included use to treat cough, sore throat, fever, indigestion, aches and pains, warts, and it has even been speculated that the plant may also have functioned as a contraceptive, based partly on testimony from Pliny. The plant only grew along a narrow coastal area, about 125 by 35 miles. Much of the speculation about the cause of its extinction rests on a sudden demand for animals that grazed on the plant, for some supposed effect on the quality of the meat. Overgrazing combined with over harvesting and climate change led to its extinction. Pliny reported that the last known stalk of silphium found in Kyrenaika was given to the Emperor Nero as a curiosity. The city never recovered from the extinction of its principal export, and economic decline combined with a series of devastating earthquakes led to the abandonment of the city in the 4th Century AD. The syncretic god Zeus Ammon, depicted on the obverse of this coin, combines the Greek Zeus with the Egyptian king of gods, Amun-Ra, who was often shown in Egyptian art with a ram’s head. Zeus Ammon was also especially worshipped in Sparta and Thebes, both of which are recorded by Pausanias as having temples to the god (see his Description of Greece 3.18.3 and 9.16.1). The oracle was famed in later times for being visited by Alexander the Great in 331 BC and later Hannibal.

123


EGYPT

Egypt under Achaemenid Occupation

361. Egypt under Achaemenid occupation AR Tetradrachm. Sabakes, satrap of Memphis, circa 335-333 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing round earring with central boss and crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl / Owl standing to right, head facing; olive sprig and crescent behind, crescent over thunderbolt and ‘SWIK’ in Aramaic script before. Nicolet-Pierre, Essays Thompson, 1 (D1/ R1); Price, ‘More from Memphis’ in Essays to Carson and Jenkins 1989, 157 (same obverse die). 17.09g, 25mm, 9h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

1,500

From the inventory of a North American dealer.

362. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy I, as satrap, AR Tetradrachm. Memphis, circa 323 BC. In the name and types of Alexander III of Macedon. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, rose before, moneyer’s signature ΔI-O beneath. Price 3971. 17.23g, 28mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine.

4,000

Ex European collection, formed prior to 2005. Alexander tetradrachms marked with the rose symbol and the letters ΔIO have long been admired as one of the most beautiful issues of his coinage. They were struck in Egypt, probably not long after Alexander’s death on 10 June 323 BC. Without Alexander’s leadership, and with no clear or legitimate heir to the vast empire he had created, Alexander’s generals fought amongst themselves and fractured the empire, dividing it into satrapies which they nominally managed on behalf of Alexander’s successors, his feeble-minded half-brother Philip Arrhidaios and his unborn son. Ptolemy took Egypt, recognising its great potential. He initially retained Kleomenes, the caretaker Alexander had left in place in Egypt, as his deputy, though subsequently removed him on account of his many excesses and mismanagements, and appropriated the 8,000 talents Kleomenes had accumulated in his treasury. A part of this treasure was turned into new coin, like the present piece, and used to fund Ptolemy’s military ambitions.

363. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy II Philadelphos, with Arsinöe II, Ptolemy I, and Berenike I AV Oktadrachm (Mnaieon). Alexandria, circa 270-260 BC. Conjoined busts of Ptolemy II and Arsinöe II right; Ptolemy is diademed and draped, Arsinöe is diademed and veiled; AΔEΛΦΩN above, shield to left / Conjoined busts of Ptolemy I and Berenike I; Ptolemy is diademed and draped, Berenike is diademed and veiled; ΘEΩN above. Svoronos 603; SNG Copenhagen 132; Boston MFA 2274; Dewing 2752. 27.61g, 25mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. From a private British collection, outside of Egypt prior to April 2007.

124

7,500


125


364. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy II Philadelphos, with Arsinöe II AV Half Mnaïeion (Tetradrachm). Alexandria, circa 270-260 BC. Conjoined busts of diademed and draped Ptolemy II, and diademed and veiled Arsinöe II right; AΔEΛΦΩN above, Gallic shield behind / Conjoined busts of diademed and draped Ptolemy I, and diademed and veiled Berenike I; ΘEΩN above. Svoronos 604; SNG Copenhagen 133; Noeske 38; Boston MFA 2275; Dewing 2753-4. 13.88g, 20mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Minor marks.

3,000

From a private German collection; Ex Roma Numismatics IX, 22 March 2015, lot 417.

365. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Arsinoe II Philadelphos AV Mnaieon (Oktadrachm). Alexandria, circa 253-246 BC. Head right with ram’s horn, veiled and wearing stephanos; lotus-tipped sceptre in background; I behind / APΣINOHΣ ΦIΛAΔEΛΦOY, double cornucopiae, grape bunches hanging at sides, bound with fillet. Svoronos 471; Olivier & Lorber dies 2/2; Troxell, Arsinoe, Group 3, p. 44 and pl. 7, 2 (same obv. die); Boston MFA Supp. 320; de Luynes 3562 (same obv. die). 27.78g, 29mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

10,000

From a private German collection; Privately purchased from Gorny & Mosch, June 2015.

366. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Arsinoe II Philadelphos AV Mnaieon - Oktadrachm. Alexandria, circa 253-246 BC. Head right, veiled and wearing stephane; lotus-tipped sceptre in background; K to left / Double cornucopiae, grape bunches hanging at sides, bound with fillet; APΣINOHΣ ΦIΛAΔEΛΦOY around. Svoronos 1498-9; Troxell p. 67, 8; SNG Copenhagen 321-2. 27.81g, 29mm, 11h. Good Very Fine.

6,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany, outside of Egypt prior to April 2007.

367. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Arsinoe II Philadelphos AV Mnaieon - Oktadrachm. Alexandria, circa 253-246 BC. Head right, veiled and wearing stephane; lotus-tipped sceptre in background; K to left / Double cornucopiae, grape bunches hanging at sides, bound with fillet; APΣINOHΣ ΦIΛAΔEΛΦOY around. Svoronos 1498-9; Troxell p. 67, 8; SNG Copenhagen 321-2. 27.75g, 28mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine. From the A.F. Collection, Germany, outside of Egypt prior to April 2007.

126

6,000


A Very Rare Gold Oktadrachm of Arsinoe II

368. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Arsinoe II, wife of Ptolemy II AV Mnaieon (Oktadrachm). Struck under Ptolemy V. Alexandria, circa 204-180 BC. Veiled head right wearing ram’s horn and stephane; lotus-tipped sceptre in background, Λ to left / APΣINOHΣ ΦIΛAΔEΛΦOY, double cornucopiae bound with fillet, grape bunches hanging at sides. Svoronos 1165 (Ptolemy IV); SNG Copenhagen -; Noeske -; Athena Fund I 83 (Ptolemy IV); Boston MFA 2285-6 (Ptolemy IV); BMC 35; Consul Weber 4498; Hunterian 24. 27.79g, 28mm, 11h. Near Mint State; wonderful lustre. Very Rare.

15,000

From a private North American collection; Privately purchased from Freeman & Sear, 2009; Sold privately by Numismatic Fine Arts (Beverly Hills, CA), 1990.

Celebrating Victory at the Battle of Raphia

369. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy IV Philopator AR Tetradrachm. Alexandria, circa 217-215/0 BC. Jugate draped busts right of Serapis and Isis / BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΠTOΛEMAIOY, eagle standing left on thunderbolt, head right; filleted double cornucopiae over shoulder, ΔI between legs. Svoronos 1124; SNG Copenhagen 197-8; Noeske 139; Boston MFA 2284; SNG Berry 1488; Dewing 2760. 14.17g, 26mm, 1h. Near Extremely Fine; old cabinet tone.

4,000

Ex Bernard Poindessault (1935-2014) legacy. This type is thought to have been issued in celebration of the Ptolemaic victory over the Seleukids at the battle of Raphia during the Fourth Syrian War.

127


An Outstanding Portrait of Cleopatra

370. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Cleopatra VII Thea Neotera Æ Obol - 40 Drachmai. Alexandria, circa 51-30 BC. Diademed and draped bust right / KΛEOΠATPAC BACIΛICCHC, Eagle standing left on thunderbolt; cornucopia to left, M to right. Svoronos 1872; Weiser 184-5; SNG Copenhagen 422-4; Noeske 383. 8.77g, 22mm, 11h. Extremely Fine; in outstanding condition for the type, with a high-relief portrait of fine style.

7,500

Sold with export licence issued by The Israel Antiquities Authority. Much has been written concerning the differences in appearance of the queen on her various coinage issues, and the apparent inconsistency in depicting both her age and beauty. Collectors often wonder at her plain appearance on the surviving coins both in her sole name and those issued jointly with Marc Antony, an appearance which seems at odds with her famous seduction of two of the most powerful men in history – first, Julius Caesar in 48/47 BC when she was twenty-one, then Marc Antony in 41/40 BC, the year this coin was struck. Surviving busts of Cleopatra certainly are more flattering than her coinage; the exaggeration of certain features on the coinage can often be explained by deliberate emphasis on attributes associated with strength and power, notably the angular jaw and chin, and distinctive Ptolemaic nose.

371. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Cleopatra VII Thea Neotera Æ Obol - 40 Drachmai. Alexandria, circa 51-30 BC. Diademed and draped bust right / KΛEOΠATPAC BACIΛICCHC, Eagle standing left on thunderbolt; cornucopia to left, M to right. Svoronos 1872; Weiser 184-5; SNG Copenhagen 422-4; Noeske 383. 10.12g, 21mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine; excellent state of preservation for the type.

5,000

Sold with export licence issued by The Israel Antiquities Authority.

372. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Cleopatra VII Æ Diobol of Alexandria, Egypt. 51-30 BC. Diademed and draped bust right / KΛEOΠATPAΣ BAΣIΛIΣΣHΣ, eagle standing left on thunderbolt; cornucopiae to left, Π to right. Svoronos 1871; Weiser 183; SNG Copenhagen 419-21; Noeske 380-2. 22.58g, 26mm, 12h. Very Fine. Sold with export licence issued by The Israel Antiquities Authority.

128

2,000


373. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Cleopatra VII Thea Neotera Æ20. Orthoseia, dated Phoenician RY 2 = 36/5 BC. Diademed and draped bust right / Ba’al of Orthoseia driving biga drawn by griffins to right; OPΘΩCIEΩN below, LB (date) to left. RPC I 4501; HGC 10, 210; DCA 600. 5.88g, 20mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Rare, and superb for the type.

1,500

Sold with export licence issued by The Israel Antiquities Authority.

374. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Cleopatra VII Thea Neotera Æ20. Damaskos, dated SE 280 = 33/2 BC. Diademed and draped bust of Cleopatra right / Tyche seated left on rock outcropping, extending hand and cradling cornucopiae; LΠΣ (date) to left; below, river-god Chrysorrhoas swimming to right; all within laurel wreath. Svoronos 1893; SNG Copenhagen (Syria) 419; RPC I 4783; HGC 9, 1462; DCA 497. 5.30g, 20mm, 12h. Good Very Fine; earthen repatination, some strengthening of details. Very Rare; in exceptional condition for the issue.

2,000

Ex Classical Numismatic Group 108, 16 May 2018, lot 394.

375. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Cleopatra VII Thea Neotera Æ24. Damaskos, dated SE 280 = 33/2 BC. Diademed and draped bust of Cleopatra right / Tyche seated left on rock outcropping, extending hand and cradling cornucopiae; LΠΣ (date) to left; below, river-god Chrysorrhoas swimming to right; all within laurel wreath. Svoronos 1893; SNG Copenhagen (Syria) 419; RPC I 4783; HGC 9, 1462; DCA 497. 6.93g, 24mm, 11h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare. Sold with export licence issued by The Israel Antiquities Authority.

129

1,000


ARABIA

A Unique Southern Arabian Gold Stater

376. Southern Arabia (Arabia Felix), imitative Alexander type AV Stater. Late 3rd - 2nd centuries BC. Head of Athena right, wearing triple crested Corinthian helmet / Stylised figure of Nike standing to left, wearing helmet and long chiton, holding a serpent; Southern Arabian imitative characters around. Unpublished in the standard references; for the epigraphy cf. S. Munro-Hay, Coinage of Arabia Felix: The Pre-Islamic Coinage of the Yemen, Nomismata 5, Milan 2003, pp. 33 and passim. 5.49g, 23mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Unique, unpublished, and of great numismatic interest.

10,000

From a private British collection; Privately purchased from the collection of the late Manzoor Mirza. The convexity of the flan, artistic imitative style and Southern Arabian epigraphy all indicate a southern Arabian origin, the region known to the Romans as Arabia Felix and which now forms part of the territory of Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Oman. Most of the extensive coinage is made up of silver copying the old and new style issues of Athens, but there are also three rare issues imitating Alexander III tetradrachms (Munro-Hay p. 131, 1.10.4, pl. 11, 367-9). Curiously, the wreath and stylis normally carried by Nike are on this coin replaced by a serpent, which the standing figure (who is clearly helmeted here) grips with both hands. This departure from the prototype cannot be mere error; even on the most worn of Alexander staters the position of Nike’s arms is clear. The depiction of a serpent thus suggests a deliberate change of iconography.

A Unique Didrachm of Obodas III (or II)

377. Nabataea, Obodas III (or II) AR Didrachm. Petra(?), dated year 6 = 25/4 BC. Bust of Obodas right / Eagle standing to left on thunderbolt; Aramaic inscription ‘Abdat the King, King of the Nabataeans’ around, Aramaic word for year in right field, date in left field. Meshorer, Nabataea -; DCA -; Hoover & Barkay -. 6.62g, 22mm, 12h. Near Very Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished.

1,500

From a private North American collection. This apparently unique Nabataean didrachm belongs to the reign of a certain King Obodas. Martin Huth, in ‘Some Nabataean Questions Reconsidered’ (Coinage of the Caravan Kingdoms, pp. 215-7) convincingly argued that there were only two kings named Obodas, and that Obodas II should therefore be removed from the chronology, leaving Obodas III properly as Obodas II. Only two coins of Obodas I are believed to exist, and though the present specimen (perhaps problematically) utilises a similarly Ptolemaic-style eagle on thunderbolt reverse design as the coins of Obodas I, the portraiture is very different and far more consistent with the coins of the latter Obodas.

130


ACHAEMENID EMPIRE

Pharnabazos, Persian Military Commander

378. Achaemenid Empire, Pharnabazos as satrap AR Tetradrachm. Kyzikos, circa 398-396/5 BC. Head of Pharnabazos right, wearing satrapal cap tied below his chin, and diadem; ΦAP-N-[A]-BA around / Ornate ship’s prow left, decorated with a griffin and apotropaic eye; before and aft, two dolphins downward; below, tunny left; all within shallow incuse circle. Maffre 1-11 (uncertain dies); SNG France 395; SNG von Aulock 1216; BMC 12; ACGC 951; Franke & Hirmer 718. 14.33g, 26mm, 10h. Very Fine; corroded surfaces and harshly cleaned in parts. Very Rare; one of fourteen known examples, and one of only six in private hands. 15,000 From the inventory of a North American dealer. This exceptional coin was struck by Pharnabazos, satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia, during a time of war between Sparta and the Achaemenid empire, for the financing of the Persian navy over which he had been given responsibility in 398 BC. Minted at Kyzikos from this time until circa 396/5 when the mint was temporarily closed due to the close proximity of Spartan forces, this coinage is now very rare, with only fourteen known surviving examples, however Maffre (Le monnayage de Pharnabaze frappé dans l’atelier de Cyzique, NumChron 164, 2004 pp. 1-32) noted that it is likely a vast number were originally produced to pay for the construction and maintenance of the fleet and the service of thousands of men (pp. 25-28). A member of the Persian nobility, Pharnabazos had already proved himself to be both a competent military commander and diplomat, having entered into negotiations with Sparta in 413/2 BC (see Thucydides 8.99ff) which saw the latter receive military and economic support against Athens in the closing phase of the Peloponnesian War (this phase referred to as the Ionian War [412-405 BC]). Pharnabazos not only provided monetary assistance, but was himself active against the Athenians (see Xenophon Hellenica 1.1.6: Pharnabazos rides his horse into the sea while fighting during the Battle of Abydos in 411 BC). As a result of this alliance, Persia was able to re-annex Greek towns in Asia Minor and extract tribute. This had been specifically agreed to by Sparta in the treaty that sealed the alliance and it had also been agreed that Sparta would not invade or injure the land which was now owned by the Persians; however by 400 BC an emboldened Sparta had broken the agreement and declared war on Persia, claiming to wish now to liberate the towns under Persian rule. With the outbreak of war, Pharnabazos was the first to realise the military necessity of launching a Persian counter-attack at sea and on land. Alongside the exiled Konon of Athens, Pharnabazos held military command over the navy, and at Knidos in 394 BC the Persian fleet comprised of Phoenician, Cilician and Cypriot contingents effectively wiped the Spartans from the sea, ending Sparta’s short-lived naval dominance of the Aegean (see Xenophon Hellenica 4.8.1). However, despite this success, Sparta remained undefeated on land, and concerned by a resurgence of the Athenian empire from out of the chaos, the Persians concluded a peace treaty with Sparta in 387/6 BC known as the King’s Peace, or the Peace of Antalkidas, affirming Spartan hegemony in Greece and Persian control over the Greek towns in Asia. Pharnabazos was recalled with honour by the great king Artaxerxes II following the peace treaty and permitted to marry the king’s daughter Apama. He was later given command of an ultimately unsuccessful attempt to reclaim the rebellious satrapy of Egypt, following which failure in 373 (by which time he was now over seventy) nothing more is heard of him.

A Unique Achaemenid Tetradrachm

379. Achaemenid Empire AR Tetradrachm. Uncertain mint in Karia, circa 341-334 BC. Persian king or hero in kneeling-running stance right, drawing bow; control letter behind, B-A(?) in exergue / Satrap on horseback right, thrusting spear; to left, bearded male head right. Cf. Meadows, Administration 327 (BA in l. field); Konuk, Influences, Group 5 var. (head of Herakles); SNG Copenhagen (Persian Empire) 290-291 var. (same); Traité II 121 var. (same). 15.43g, 24mm, 1h. Extremely Fine; minor areas of flat strike. An apparently unpublished and unique variety. From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-90s.

131

2,000


SELEUKID EMPIRE

132


A New Reverse Die

380.

Seleukid Empire, Seleukos I Nikator AV Distater. Uncertain mint in Cappadocia, Syria, or Mesopotamian, after 305 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet ornamented with serpent on bowl / Nike standing left, holding wreath in right hand and stylis in left, monogram in lower left field; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to left, ΣEΛEYKOY to right. SC 55 = HGC 9, 1 = Triton IX, 2065; WSM 1334 = Leu 20, 157 = M&M XIX, 518; NAC 79, 17 = JDL Collection 33 = SBV 21, 87 = SBV 6, lot 84; Roma IX, 35 (all from the same obverse die). 17.24g, 22mm, 2h. Good Extremely Fine; minor marks. Of the highest rarity, one of only five specimens known, in exceptional state of preservation for the type, and of significant numismatic importance, being struck from a previously unknown reverse die. 50,000 From the “Triskeles” (Moutin) Collection, formed circa 1995-1998, Santa Barbara, CA. It seems highly probable that the exceedingly rare distaters of Seleukos I were struck for some ceremonial or commemorative purpose rather than for circulation alongside the regular Alexandrine staters - the paucity of surviving specimens would seem to rule this out. That they were struck after 305 BC is certain, since the coins clearly name Seleukos as ‘Basileos’ - a title to which Seleukos did not lay claim until after 306 BC when following the extinction of the old royal line in 309 with the murder of Alexander IV and his mother Roxana at the hands of Kassander, Antigonos (who ruled over all of Asia Minor and Phoenicia) declared himself king. Possible events that would have warranted the striking of such a grand type are the foundation of Seleukeia on the Tigris in 305/4, at which time Seleukos also claimed the title Basileos, or the defeat of Antigonos at the Battle of Ipsos in 301, a victory which seems to have been celebrated on the Seleukid coinage with the tetradrachms of Nike erecting a trophy of Macedonian arms. A later date also remains possible, since Alexandrine type staters continued to be struck into the 280s, and the defeat of Lysimachos at Korupedion in 281 also represents a momentous event for Seleukos’ empire. This last battle of the diadochi gave Seleukos control of nearly every part of Alexander’s former realm except for Ptolemaic Egypt. This reunification of the Macedonian empire was to be short lived however; not long after the battle, after crossing the Hellespont to take control of Lysimachos’ European territories, Seleukos was assassinated by Ptolemy Keraunos. The mint used to strike this issue is uncertain; Houghton & Lorber (SC I, p. 31) note that it must have been “a centre of commercial or strategic importance.” Following Newell (WSM, pp. 236-0), who by a process of elimination assigned various unattributed issues to the north-central portion of Seleukos’ realm and favoured an origin in Cappadocia or northern Mesopotamia, consider Tyana and Mazaca as possibilities in Cappadocia, and consider Le Rider’s (Meydancikkale, p. 145) suggestion of Sekeukeia (due to controls on the distater series possibly representing variants of SC 119.9b) as tentative given the lack of an actual die link. Regardless, what is abundantly evident is that this - the only issue of gold distaters of Alexandrine type in the name of Seleukos - should be regarded as an issue of considerable prestige and importance. Outside of Ptolemaic Egypt it was most unusual for any Greek kingdom to produce high denomination gold (or silver) coins, and even Alexander’s distaters are, in comparison to the rest of his coinage, very rare. The discovery of a second reverse die for this issue is most significant - it demonstrates that the number of coins originally struck would have been much greater than we have hitherto thought.

133


381. Seleukid Empire, Seleukos I Nikator AR Tetradrachm. In the name and types of Alexander III of Macedon. Susa, circa 305-298/7 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; bee in left field, AY below throne. SC 164.5; Price 3689 corr. (AY not ΛΥ, Susa not Babylon); HGC 9, 10g. 17.14g, 25mm, 4h. Extremely Fine.

750

382. Seleukid Empire, Seleukos I Nikator AR Tetradrachm. In the name and types of Alexander III of Macedon. Susa, circa 298/7-295/4 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; BAΣIΛEΩΣ below, AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, anchor and kantharos above monogram in left field, Σ beneath throne above strut, ΘE below. SC 164.7; ESMS p. 139, variety DD = Meydancikkale 2476-7 (same obv. die); Price -; HGC 9, 10g. 17.12g, 26mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare - only the Meydancikkale examples published, and three further specimens on CoinArchives.

750

383. Seleukid Empire, Seleukos I Nikator AR Tetradrachm. In the name and types of Alexander III of Macedon. Susa, circa 298/7-295/4 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; BAΣIΛEΩΣ below, AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, [anchor] in left field, Σ above strut of throne, AP below. SC 164.8c; Price 3874; HGC 9, 10g. 17.07g, 25mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

134

750


The Trophy Tetradrachms of Seleukos I

384.

Seleukid Empire, Seleukos I Nikator AR Tetradrachm. Susa, circa 300-294 BC. Head of Seleukos I right, wearing helmet covered with panther skin and adorned with bull’s ears and horns, panther skin tied around neck / Nike standing right, wearing peplos, crowning trophy of Macedonian arms set on sapling tree, from which branch sprouts near base; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ around; AP below left wing, facing bust of Helios in lower middle field, monogram to lower right. SC 173.16; ESM 301; ESMS Tr. 108; HGC 9, 20; SNG Spaer -; Houghton -. 17.24g, 26mm, 4h. Mint State. Rare variety.

15,000

From the inventory of a North American dealer. The trophy series of Seleukos was issued over an extended period, and used 67 obverse dies and at least 93 reverses that we are aware of. The type is generally assumed to commemorate the victories of Seleukos as he pushed eastwards into India, occupying territory as far as the Indus, and eventually waging war against the Mauryan Empire. This campaign against Chandragupta Maurya was however a failure. While there is no record of what transpired to prevent Seleukos achieving his aims, the two leaders eventually reached an accord whereby Seleukos ceded some of his easternmost territory in exchange for a gift of 500 war elephants. The massive beasts were to play a significant role in the coming wars of the Diadochi, in particular at the Battle of Ipsos in 301 BC. The assertion that the trophy reverse commemorates a victory by Seleukos in the east or in the Upper Satrapies, and his subsequent assumption of a the royal title in 305/4 BC is problematic. The dating of the issue was proposed by Kritt (The Early Seleukid Mint of Susa, 1997) and subsequently accepted by the numismatic community seemingly without question. Moreover, the important detail of the trophy’s composition is ignored. The trophy is unquestionably built from Macedonian arms, as evidenced by the Vergina Sun (or Argead Star) clearly emblazoned on the shield. That this should therefore represent an eastern victory is impossible, particularly given the inconclusive nature of Seleukos’ campaign against Chandragupta, and its stale conclusion. The issue bears far more significance when viewed in the context of a victory over other Macedonians - for which we should look to the battle of Ipsos, in which Seleukos’ elephants played a decisive role in the victory over Antigonos.

135


385. Seleukid Empire, Seleukos I Nikator AR Tetradrachm. Susa, circa 300-294 BC. Head of Seleukos I right, wearing helmet covered with panther skin and adorned with bull’s ears and horns, panther skin tied around neck / Nike standing right, wearing peplos, crowning trophy of Macedonian arms set on sapling tree, from which branch sprouts near base; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ around; AP below left wing, monogram in lower middle field. SC 173.15; ESMS 106; HGC 9, 20; SNG Spaer -; Houghton -. 17.18g, 27mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Rare variety.

7,500

From a private German collection; Privately purchased from Pars Coins, San Jose CA.

386. Seleukid Empire, Seleukos I Nikator AR Tetradrachm. Susa, circa 300-294 BC. Head of Seleukos I right, wearing helmet covered with panther skin and adorned with bull’s ears and horns, panther skin tied around neck / Nike standing right, wearing peplos, crowning trophy of Macedonian arms set on sapling tree, from which branch sprouts near base; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ around; AP below left wing, monogram in lower middle field. SC 173.15; ESMS 106; HGC 9, 20; SNG Spaer -; Houghton -. 17.19g, 25mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare variety.

7,500

From the property of B.R.S., United Kingdom.

387. Seleukid Empire, Seleukos I Nikator AR Tetradrachm. Susa, circa 300-294 BC. Head of Seleukos I right, wearing helmet covered with panther skin and adorned with bull’s ears and horns, panther skin tied around neck / Nike standing right, wearing peplos, crowning trophy of Macedonian arms set on sapling tree, from which branch sprouts near base, AX between, M to left; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ around. SC 173.14; HGC 9, 20. 16.90g, 25mm, 11h. Good Very Fine.

136

3,000


The Coregency of Antiochos and Seleukos

388. Seleukid Empire, Antiochos I, with Seleukos I, AR Drachm. Coregency issue. Drangiana, circa 294-281 BC. Head of hero right, assimilating Seleukos, Alexander and Dionysos, wearing helmet covered with panther skin and adorned with bull’s ears and horns, lion skin tied around neck / Nike standing left, crowning trophy; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to left, ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ to right, A between Nike and trophy. SC 226b; Houghton, SNR 59, p. 12, 5. 4.18g, 19mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine. Excessively Rare.

1,000

From the inventory of a North American dealer. The silver Nike-trophy type coinage in the name of Antiochos are attributed to the period of coregency with his father Seleukos, and their mint is believed to be in the satrapy of Drangiana. Houghton and Lorber (SC, pp. 88-89) contend that this issue “is evidence that Seleukid authority was still recognised in Drangiana after the treaty with Chandragupta (c. 305)... the controls of this trophy coinage cannot be accounted for as mere imitations, but seem to attest to the operation of an official mint.” During the coregency, Antiochos governed the eastern parts of the empire, pursuing a policy of colonisation and the improvement of existing cities. Hence, an issue taking as its prototype the Susa Nike-Trophy type of Seleukos is most plausibly attributed to the coregency period than the years after the death of Seleukos, when Antiochos was occupied in the west.

389. Seleukid Empire, Antiochos I Soter AR Tetradrachm. Smyrna, circa 281-261 BC. Diademed head right / Apollo Delphios seated left on omphalos, testing arrows and resting on grounded bow; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ to left, ΘΕ monogram to right, ΑΤΡ monogram in exergue. SC 311.2; WSM 1494; Roma VII, 818 = Nomos 1, 120 (same dies). 16.77g, 30mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

5,000

Ex Roma Numismatics XIV, 21 September 2017, lot 305.

390

391

390. Seleukid Empire, Antiochos I Soter AR Tetradrachm. Seleukeia on the Tigris, circa 281-261 BC. Diademed head right / Apollo Delphios seated left on omphalos, testing arrows and resting on grounded bow; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ to left, ΠA monogram to outer left, HP monogram to outer right. SC 379.1; SNG Spaer 287 var. (one arrow); ESM 143. 17.04g, 29mm, 7h. Good Very Fine. 1,500 Ex Roma Numismatics XIV, 21 September 2017, lot 307. 391. Seleukid Empire, Antiochos I Soter AR Tetradrachm. Seleukeia on the Tigris, circa 281-261 BC. Diademed head right / Apollo Delphios seated left on omphalos, testing arrow and resting on grounded bow; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ to left, AP monogram to outer left, HP monogram to outer right. SC 379.3a; HGC 9; ESM 149; Houghton 950; SNG Spaer 289. 17.22g, 28mm, 9h. Good Extremely Fine; rev. die somewhat worn. 2,000 Ex Roma Numismatics XIV, 21 September 2017, lot 306.

137


An Extremely Rare Gold Stater of Antiochos II Theos

392.

Seleukid Empire, Antiochos II Theos AV Stater. Aï Khanoum, 261-246 BC. Diademed head of Antiochos I right / Apollo Delphinios seated to left on omphalos, holding arrow and resting left hand upon bow set on ground; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ to left, monogram in left field. SC 435.1; ESM 695. 8.50g, 18mm, 5h. Good Very Fine, minor scuff on neck. Extremely Rare.

10,000

Ex private German collection. Recent scholarship has reattributed a series of gold, silver and bronze coins with the mint mark of a delta within a circle, or close variants, from the ancient capital of Baktria, Baktra to previously unknown the city of Aï Khanoum in northeast Afghanistan. The history of this Hellenistic city is unclear - it was possibly founded by Alexander the Great as one of the military settlements left in this region, and could have been the settlement of Alexandeia Oxeiana. Another theory is that it was founded by Antiochos I in the early third century BC as a royal residence while Baktria was under Seleukid rule. Either way, the archaeological evidence clearly demonstrates that during the Hellenistic era Aï Khanoum was a major city. The excavations reveal that the city had a palace complex as well as a treasury, gymnasium, mausoleums and temples in addition to the discovery of unstruck bronze flans, highly suggestive that a mint was active here, although its dates of operation are not clear. Baktra had been suggested as the mint location only because, as Newell (Newell The Coinage of the Eastern Seleucid Mints. From Seleucus I to Antiochus III. 1938 pp. 229) wrote, the “only logical location for a large and active royal mint…[was] at Baktra, the political, commercial and geographical centre of the entire province.” However, a variant of the mintmark seen on this coin was found on bricks at one of the oldest parts of the ancient city of Aï Khanoum, a factor which led Kritt in his 2016 work ‘The Seleucid Mint of Aï Khanoum’ (Classical Numismatic Studies No. 9) to reattribute coins bearing this mintmark to this city. This was supported by Houghton and Lorber in ‘Seleukid Coins: a Comprehensive Catalogue’ who reassigned this whole series to Aï Khanoum and further argue that Baktra could not have issued these coins as a newly discovered bronze coin (catalogue number 283A) depicted the river god of the Oxus, which flowed by the city of Aï Khanoum, not Baktra.

138


One of Four Known

393. Seleukid Empire, Seleukos II Kallinikos AV Stater. Uncertain western mint, circa 246-225 BC. Diademed head right / Apollo, nude, standing to left and examining arrow held in right hand, left hand resting on grounded bow; BAΣIΛEΩΣ to right, ΣEΛEYKOY to left. SC 720; HGC 9, 299f; CSE 1158; Arthur Houghton, The Tarik Derreh (Kangavar) Hoard in ANSMN 25, 1980, 25-27 and plate 5, 26 (same obv. die). 8.52g, 19mm, 2h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; one of only four known examples.

12,500

Originally attributed to Ekbatana by Houghton (ANSMN 25, 1980, pp. 43), this issue has recently been reassessed by Houghton and Lorber in Seleukid Coins and assigned to an unknown western mint. The difficulty in attribution, besides the obvious lack of mintmarks, seems to concern both the style of the portrait and the reliance upon the location of the hoard that contained most of the known examples as a reflection of whence the coins originated. The closest parallel to the portrait of this coin is SC 719, attributed to Laodikeia by the Sea, being particularly similar in the breaks and modelling of the hair. However, Houghton and Lorber separate these two issues by arguing that it cannot be securely attributed to the same mint, given differences of style. Why then can it not be attributed to Ekbatana as Houghton originally suggested? Within the hoard there were three coins of the type, struck from identical obverse dies, all in mint condition. Houghton argued that the proximity of their find-spot to the ancient city of Ekbatana, coupled with a stater identified by Newell as from Ekbatana which similarly lacks identifying marks, is evidence enough to assign this type to Ekbatana. However, it is noted that this is problematic, especially considering the vertical die axes of the coins, and instead decides an unknown mint to be the best option. Seleukos II was born in circa 265 BC, the first son of Antiochos II and his first wife Laodike. In 252 BC Antiochos II repudiated Laodike and sent her to Ephesos in order to marry the daughter of his enemy Ptolemy II and seal a peace treaty that ended the Second Syrian War. In 246 BC, Ptolemy II died, shortly followed by Antiochos II, leaving the dynastic succession in a state of confusion. Antiochos II had begot a son with Ptolemy’s daughter, Berenike, and named him Antiochos, however there were rumours that before his death he had returned to Laodike and declared Seleukos II his rightful heir. With his father’s death, Seleukos II became king with his younger brother Antiochos Hierax named joint-ruler in Sardis. Their mother Laodike had Berenike and her son murdered to avoid any competition for the throne, thus sparking the Third Syrian War, also known as the Laodikean War, which saw Berenike’s brother Ptolemy III invade the Seleukid Empire to avenge his sister. This was not the end of Seleukos’ troubles, as his younger brother Antiochos Hierax soon launched a rebellion against him aided by their mother. However, after a victory for Antiochos Hierax at the Battle of Ankyra in circa 239 BC, his usurpation was ultimately unsuccessful and Seleukos II would eventually be succeeded by his eldest son, Seleukos III Soter.

A Line in the Sand

394. Seleukid Empire, Antiochos IV Epiphanes AR Tetradrachm. Antioch, circa 168-164 BC. Laureate head of Zeus right, with the features of Antiochos / Zeus Nikephoros seated left, with Nike standing right crowning Zeus with laurel wreath; BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY to right, ΘEOY EΠIΦANOYΣ NIKHΦOPOY to left. SC 1398; Le Rider, Antioche, Series IIIA; Mørkholm Series III; SMA 63; SNG Spaer 1003; Houghton 106-107. 16.79g, 33mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

3,000

From the inventory of a North American dealer; Ex Roma Numismatics XIII, 23 March 2017, lot 440. Struck to commemorate Antiochos’ return to Antioch following the conclusion of his second Egyptian campaign, this coin features a head of Zeus that bears distinct resemblance to Antiochos IV himself. Evidence to support an interpretation of the obverse as an amalgamation of Antiochos and Zeus can be found in the facts that Antiochos both caused the radiate diadem – a symbol of royal apotheosis - to be introduced on Seleukid coinage, and added the self-given title EΠIΦANHΣ (God Manifest) to his coinage. Yet despite his grand titles, Antiochos IV’s second Egyptian campaign was brought to a conclusion not by any great victory of his or his enemy’s. Before reaching Alexandria, Antiochos’ path was blocked by a single, old Roman ambassador named Gaius Popillius Laenas. Popillius, with whom Antiochos had been friends in the time of his stay in Rome during his youth, offered Antiochos not a friendly welcome, but an ultimatum from the Senate: he must withdraw his armies from Egypt and Cyprus, or consider himself in a state of war with the Roman Republic. Antiochos begged to have time to consider but Popillius drew a circle around him in the sand with his cane and told him to decide before he stepped outside it. Weighing his options, Antiochos decided to withdraw; only then did Popillius agree to shake hands with him.

139


An Excessively Rare Drachm of Sidon

395. Seleukid Empire, Alexander I Balas AR Drachm. Sidon, dated SE 166 = 147/6 BC. Diademed head of Alexander I right / Eagle standing left with palm over wing; ςΞP (date) to left, ΣIΔΩ over aphlaston to right; ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ around. SC 1832.2; SNG Spaer 1524. 3.41g, 17mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Excessively Rare; no other drachms of Sidon (or Tyre, for that matter) for Alexander are present on CoinArchives.

2,000

Sold with export licence issued by The Israel Antiquities Authority.

396. Seleukid Empire, Alexander I Balas AR Tetradrachm. Tyre, dated SE 165 = 148/7 BC. Diademed and draped bust right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞANΔPOY, eagle standing left on prow left, with palm branch over shoulder; to left, club surmounted by monogram of Tyre; to right, EΞP (date) above monogram. SC 1835.4c; HGC 9, 883; DCA 122. 13.93g, 28mm, 12h. Near Mint State.

1,000

From a private North American collection.

397. Seleukid Empire, Antiochos VII Euergetes AR Tetradrachm. Tyre, circa 135-134 BC. Diademed, draped bust right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY, eagle standing left on prow, TYP monogram on club to left, APE monogram above club, monogram in right field above HOP, control mark between legs. SC 2109.6. 14.11g, 28mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Pleasantly toned. Rare.

400

398. Seleukid Empire, Antiochos VII Euergetes (Sidetes) AR Didrachm. Tyre, dated SE 177 = 136/5 BC. Diademed and draped bust right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY, eagle standing left on ship’s ram, with palm branch over shoulder; to left, A-PE above monogram of Tyre above club; ZOP (date) to right, Σ between legs. SC 2110.5a; HGC 9, 1077; DCA 201. 6.97g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Rare. From a private North American collection.

140

300


PARTHIA

An Exceedingly Rare Tetradachm of Andragoras

399. Parthia, Andragoras AR Tetradrachm. Ekbatana, circa 246/5-239/8 BC. Turreted head of Tyche right, wearing pendant earring and necklace; monogram of Andragoras behind / Athena standing left, wearing helmet, long chiton and himation, holding owl on extended right hand and resting left hand on grounded shield, transverse spear in background; ANΔPAΓOPOY to right. Roma XIV, 325; Mitchiner 20; BMC 3-4, pl. xxviii, 2-3. 16.96g, 26mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. One of exceedingly few known examples, in outstanding condition for the type which is otherwise almost uniformly well worn. 15,000 From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA. It has been suggested that the Andragoras of Parthia whom Alexander the Great supposedly conferred local authority upon (Justin, xii. 4), never existed at all and is only mentioned by Justin by mistake. Andragoras was in fact not included in the partition of power at the Treaty of Triparadisus in 321 BC, when instead Philip was named as the ruler of Parthia, and in other classical sources Phrataphernes is usually mentioned as the satrap of Parthia until Philip replaced him. Philip in turn was satrap until 318 BC, when Peithon, who was then seeking to establish his power over all the Eastern provinces, made himself master of Parthia, and put Philip to death. Andragoras therefore has no secure place in the immediate chronology of post-Alexandrine Parthia. It is of course possible that Justin was mistaken about his satrapy (numerous other small satrapies existed in the area), or had his dating confused - the existence of an Andragoras who was Satrap of Parthia under Antiochos I, is uncontested. This Andragoras appears to have taken advantage of what appeared to be the imminent collapse of the Seleukid Empire in the Third Syrian War, when - following the death of Antiochus II - Ptolemy III seized control of the Seleucid capital at Antioch, to secede from the empire and make his satrapy into an independent kingdom. Following the secession of Parthia from the Empire and the resultant loss of military support, Andragoras had difficulty in maintaining his borders, and in about 238 BC the Parni invaded under the command of Arsakes and his brother Tiridates and seized control of the northern region of the Parthian territory. Andragoras appears to have been killed either attempting to retake this territory, or while resisting the Parni conquest of the remainder of Parthia. Given the evidence we are presented with, the silver coinage of Andragoras and Sophytes should be considered roughly contemporary, but it seems apparent that Andragoras’ Tyche-Athena tetradrachms slightly pre-dated the helmeted head series of Sophytes. Earlier scholarship has often tended to date the coinage of both Andragoras and Sophytes much too early, occasionally to the period immediately following the death of Alexander. The presence in this group of a somewhat worn Seleukos elephant-quadriga type tetradrachm (SC 177.5) from the Susa mint, suggests a terminus post quem of 295 BC. Further considerations on the identical monograms found on the gold and silver coinage of Andragoras, and a thorough review of the political history of the eastern satrapies of the Seleukid empire from 321-250 BC lead us to conclude that there can have been only one Andragoras, and that both the silver and gold coinage must date to the time of his rebellion and secession from the Empire. We have therefore proposed the redating of this series to c.246/5-239/8 BC.

400. Parthia, Andragoras AR Tetradrachm. Hekatompylos, circa 246/5-239/8 BC. Turreted head of Tyche right, wearing pendant earring and necklace; monogram of Andragoras behind / Athena standing left, wearing helmet, long chiton and himation, holding owl on extended right hand and resting left hand on grounded shield, transverse spear in background; ANΔPAΓOPOY to right. Roma XIV, 326; Mitchiner 20; BMC 3-4, pl. xxviii, 2-3. 16.74g, 26mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare. From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

141

4,000


The Third Known

401. Parthia, Andragoras AR Tetradrachm. Hekatompylos, circa 246/5-239/8 BC. Turreted head of Tyche right, wearing pendant earring and necklace, rosettes on turrets; monogram of Andragoras behind / Athena standing right, wearing helmet, long chiton and peplos, holding owl on extended left hand and with right hand holding transverse spear behind her, shield at side; ANΔPAΓOPOY to left. Roma XIV, 328; Mitchiner -; BMC -. 17.28g, 26mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Unpublished, only the third known example of this numismatically important type.

5,000

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA. If we accept that the silver coinage of Andragoras was struck by the same individual responsible for the gold staters (BMC Arabia, North East Persia 1), and that this individual was the Andragoras recorded as being the satrap who rebelled against Seleukid rule in the early part of the second half of the third century BC, the types employed on this ruler’s coinage now make perfect sense given their context. Andragoras faced a belligerent tribe the Parni - on his border, and with Seleukos II preoccupied with fighting an increasingly desperate war against Ptolemy III, no assistance would be forthcoming. Thus we find the types of Tyche, wearing her mural crown, who on the obverse is invoked as the goddess governing the fortune and prosperity of the city, and Athena as military protectress on the reverse. The gold staters depicting Zeus, the supreme Greek deity, and a war-chariot guided by Nike the goddess of Victory, likewise hint at production in a war-time setting.

402. Parthia(?), ‘Athenian Series’ AR Tetradrachm. Hekatompylos(?), circa 246/5-239/8 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl; monogram of Andragoras(?) behind / Owl standing right, head facing; prow behind, AΘE before. Roma XIV, 329; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 1A; SNG ANS -; H. NicoletPierre / M. Amandry, “Un nouveau trésor de monnaies d’argent pseudo-Athéniennes venu d’Afghanistan”, RN 1994, 36-39; Mitchiner 13a = G.F. Hill, Greek coins acquired by the British Museum in 1920,” in NC 1921, 17. 16.93g, 25mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare. From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

142

1,000


A Unique Didrachm

403. Parthia(?), ‘Athenian Series’ AR Didrachm. Hekatompylos(?), circa 246/5-239/8 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl; monogram of Andragoras(?) behind / Owl standing right, head facing; prow behind, AΘE before. Roma XIV, -cf. 330 (tetradrachm); Bopearachchi, Sophytes -; SNG ANS -; N&A -, cf. 36-39 (tetradrachms). 8.11g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Unique and Unpublished.

3,000

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

404. Parthia(?), ‘Athenian Series’ AR Tetradrachm. Hekatompylos(?), circa 246/5-239/8 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl; monogram of Andragoras(?) behind / Owl standing right, head facing; behind, prow and grape bunch on vine with leaf, AΘE before. Roma XIV, 330; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 1A; SNG ANS 3; N&A 40-42; Mitchiner -. 16.91g, 28mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

1,500

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

405. Parthia(?), ‘Athenian Series’ AR Tetradrachm. Hekatompylos(?), circa 246/5-239/8 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl; monogram of Andragoras(?) behind / Owl standing right, head facing; behind, prow and grape bunch on vine with leaf, AΘE before. Roma XIV, 330; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 1A; SNG ANS 3; N&A 40-42; Mitchiner -. 17.14g, 24mm, 7h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

1,000

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

406. Parthia(?), ‘Athenian Series’ AR Didrachm. Hekatompylos(?), circa 246/5-239/8 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl; monogram of Andragoras(?) behind / Owl standing right, head facing; behind, prow and grape bunch on vine with leaf, AΘE before. Roma XIV, 331; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 1A; SNG ANS 6; N&A 43-45. 8.03g, 20mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Extremely Rare. From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

143

750


407. Parthia(?), ‘Athenian Series’ AR Didrachm. Hekatompylos(?), circa 246/5-239/8 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl; monogram of Andragoras(?) behind / Owl standing right, head facing; behind, prow and grape bunch on vine with leaf, AΘE before. Roma XIV, 331; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 1A; SNG ANS 6; N&A 43-45. 7.93g, 19mm, 5h. Mint State. Extremely Rare.

1,250

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

408. Parthia(?), ‘Athenian Series’ AR Didrachm. Hekatompylos(?), circa 246/5-239/8 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl; monogram of Andragoras(?) behind / Owl standing right, head facing; behind, prow and grape bunch on vine with leaf, AΘE before. Roma XIV, 331; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 1A; SNG ANS 6; N&A 43-45. 8.13g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

750

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

409. Parthia(?), ‘Eagle series’ AR Drachm. Hekatompylos(?), circa 246/5-239/8 BC. Local standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl; monogram of Andragoras(?) behind / Eagle standing left, head right; behind, grape cluster on vine with leaf. Roma XIV, 332; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 2A; SNG ANS -; Mitchiner -; N&A -; CNG 63, 920. 3.16g, 14mm, 6h. Mint State. Extremely Rare.

1,000

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

410. Parthia(?), ‘Eagle series’ AR Drachm. Hekatompylos(?), circa 246/5-239/8 BC. Local standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl; monogram of Andragoras(?) behind / Eagle standing left, head right; behind, grape cluster on vine with leaf. Roma XIV, 332; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 2A; SNG ANS -; Mitchiner -; N&A -; CNG 63, 920. 3.58g, 15mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; metal void on rev. Extremely Rare. From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

144

500


411. Parthia(?), ‘Eagle series’ AR Drachm. Ekbatana(?), circa 246/5-239/8 BC. Local standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Eagle standing left, head right; grape cluster on vine with leaf above. Roma XIV, 334; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 2A; SNG ANS 14-16; Mitchiner 26c; N&A 52-57. 3.58g, 15mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

1,000

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

412. Parthia(?), ‘Eagle series’ AR Drachm. Hekatompylos(?), circa 246/5-239/8 BC. Local standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Eagle standing left, head right; behind, grape cluster on vine with leaf, and kerykeion above. Roma XIV, 335; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 2A; SNG ANS -; Mitchiner 26d; N&A 63-64. 3.60g, 15mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Extremely Rare.

1,000

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

413. Parthia(?), ‘Eagle series’ AR Drachm. Hekatompylos(?), circa 246/5-239/8 BC. Local standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Eagle standing left, head right; behind, grape cluster on vine with leaf, and kerykeion above. Roma XIV, 335; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 2A; SNG ANS -; Mitchiner 26d; N&A 63-64. 3.55g, 15mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Extremely Rare.

750

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

414. Parthia(?), ‘Eagle series’ AR Drachm. Hekatompylos(?), circa 246/5-239/8 BC. Local standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Eagle standing left, head right; behind, grape cluster on vine with leaf, and kerykeion above. Roma XIV, 335; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 2A; SNG ANS -; Mitchiner 26d; N&A 63-64. 3.65g, 15mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Extremely Rare. From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

145

750


415. Uncertain Eastern Satrapy, ‘Athenian Series’ AR Tetradrachm. Uncertain mint, circa 323-240 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette and grape bunch on the bowl / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig and crescent behind, AΘE before; all within incuse square. Roma XV, 337; cf. Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 1A; cf. Roma XIV, 341 corr. (grape bunch on rev.). 16.86g, 23mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

1,250

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA. Sharing the obverse grape bunch of lot 344, but struck with an incuse square reverse, the present piece, attributed in Roma XIV to ‘uncertain eastern satrapy’ is more appropriately attributed to the Baktrian ‘Athenian series’, but its chronological relationship is uncertain.

416. Uncertain Eastern Satrapy, ‘Athenian Series’ AR Tetradrachm. Uncertain mint, circa 323-240 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig and crescent behind, AΘE before; all within incuse square. Roma XIV, 345; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 1A; Mitchiner 13a; SNG ANS 1. 16.82g, 26mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

1,500

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

BAKTRIA

Extremely Rare MNA Issue

417. Baktria, ‘Athenian Series’ AR Tetradrachm. Uncertain mint in the Oxus region, circa 261-239/8 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl; MNA behind / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig, crescent and grape bunch behind, AΘE before. Roma XIV, 347; Bopearachchi, Sophytes -; Mitchiner -; SNG ANS -; N&A 18-19; Leu 83, 264. 16.87g, 24mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Only four other specimens previously recorded with the MNA / grape bunch combination.

2,000

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA. The appearance of the letters MNA on their own, not preceded by ΣTA, which also appear in abbreviated form as MN and M, both on this ‘Athenian Series’ coinage and on the helmeted portrait issues of Sophytes, is suggestive of MNA being either a magistral mark, or an engraver’s signature. While the prominent placement of MNA on both the double daric and the tetradrachm would seem to be counter-indicative of its being a signature because of its brazen size and obtrusiveness, on the helmeted portrait coins of Sophytes it is very discreetly placed on the bust truncation. The fact that it is so well hidden (and on the tetradrachms, abbreviated simply to ‘M’) very strongly argues against it being a magistrate or subordinate official’s name. The Baktrian ‘Athenian series’ coinage, judging from its lack of wear, must have been issued immediately prior to or concurrent to Sophytes’ named coinage.

146


The Sixth Known

418. Baktria, ‘Athenian Series’ AR Didrachm. Uncertain mint in the Oxus region, circa 261-239/8 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl; MNA behind / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig and crescent behind, AΘE before. Roma XIV, 349; Bopearachchi, Sophytes -; Mitchiner -; SNG ANS -; N&A -, cf. 18-19 (tetradrachms); CNG E-115, 180 (misdescribed). 7.75g, 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; only five other didrachms of the MNA issue in CoinArchives.

2,500

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

419. Baktria, ‘Athenian Series’ AR Tetradrachm. Uncertain mint in the Oxus region, circa 261-239/8 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl; ΦA over prow behind / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig, crescent and grape bunch behind, AΘE before. Roma XIV, 352; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 1A; Mitchiner -; N&A 20-22; SNG ANS -. 17.25g, 23mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

750

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

Only 1 Other Example on CoinArchives

420. Baktria, ‘Athenian Series’ AR Drachm. Uncertain mint in the Oxus region, circa 261-239/8 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl; monogram behind / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig and crescent behind, grape bunch over tail, AΘE before. Roma XIV, 359; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 1A; SNG ANS -; Mitchiner -, cf. 13e (tetradrachm); N&A -, cf. 13-15 (tetradrachms). 3.67g, 15mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; some corrosion. Excessively Rare - only one other example on CoinArchives. From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

147

750


A Portrait of Seleukos?

421.

Baktria, Sophytes AR Tetradrachm. Uncertain mint in the Oxus region, circa 246/5-235 BC. Attic standard. Head of Seleukos(?) right, wearing laurel wreathed Attic helmet decorated with spiral pattern on crest and eagle wings on cheek-guard, tied under chin; no letters on bust truncation / Cockerel standing right; kerykeion behind, ΣΩΦYΤΟΥ to right. Cf. Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 3A, pl. I, 1; for type cf. SNG ANS 21-23 (drachm); Mitchiner 29 (drachm); Whitehead NC 1943, pp. 64, 1 and pl. III, 7-8 (drachm); Roma XIV, 365. 17.06g, 26mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Only the fourth known example of an issue of considerable numismatic interest. A bold and expressive portrait engraved in the finest Hellenistic style. 30,000 From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA. This portrait, which has all too often been simply assumed to be that of Sophytes himself, is eminently worthy of further scrutiny. It is the work of a highly talented individual, and depicts what should by any account be a great general, helmeted in Attic style and wearing the laurel wreath of a conqueror. Unfortunately the actions of Sophytes, whatever they might have been, were either not recorded or have long since been lost. We cannot therefore determine whether this individual may indeed have performed such deeds as to be worthy of commemoration in such a fashion. In examining the features of the individual depicted on this coin however, it becomes immediately apparent that there are distinct similarities with certain idealised portraits of Seleukos I. It is conceivable that we should see in this portrait not an image of the unknown ruler Sophytes, but an idealised image of the deified Seleukos, as can be found on the somewhat earlier coinage of Philetairos. Those images (cf. in particular Gulbenkian 966) have nearly identical features - in particular the heavy brow, aquiline nose, down-turned mouth and prominent chin. The historical sources offer us few clues as to the dating of Sophytes’ rule. They tell us that Stasanor was satrap of Baktria until at least 316 BC, and that Seleukos reintegrated Baktria into his empire on his eastern anabasis in c. 305. An early date therefore seems highly unlikely. Turning to the evidence of the coin itself, numismatists have correctly observed that the obverse portrait is derived from the similar type of Seleukos on his trophy tetradrachms (SC 174), which should be dated to after c. 301 BC; the presence of the somewhat worn elephant-quadriga tetradrachm in the present group pushes the date even further to the right, and into the third century. Now, the presence of this type in this group along with coins of Andragoras indicates a considerably later date than previously supposed. We have already proposed with good reason that the coinage of Andragoras should be dated to c.246/5-239/8 BC and that given the patterns of wear that may be observed upon them, there is sufficient justification to argue for the dating of Sophytes’ named coinage to c. 246/5-235, after Andragoras had begun coining but before Diodotos II would have been free to dispose of any lesser regional powers. This turbulent time period has already afforded us a plausible reason for the striking of Andragoras’ coinage. It is possible that Sophytes too was prompted to look to the security of his own territory following the effective withdrawal of the central government’s influence in that area. Diodotos I too struck his own coinage in Baktria, which while bearing his own portrait on the obverse nevertheless maintained the name ‘Antiochos’ on the reverse as a token symbol of loyalty. Does Sophytes coinage, with a distinctly ‘local’ reverse type, seek to achieve the same veneer of loyalty as that of Philetairos and Diodotos by placing the image of Seleukos I, the founder of the Seleukid empire, on his obverse?

148


149


An Exceedingly Rare Didrachm of Sophytes

422. Baktria, Sophytes AR Didrachm. Uncertain mint in the Oxus region, circa 246/5-235 BC. Attic standard. Head of Seleukos(?) right, wearing laurel wreathed Attic helmet decorated with spiral pattern on crest and eagle wings on cheek-guard; MNA on bust truncation / Cockerel standing right; kerykeion behind, ΣΩΦYΤΟΥ to right. Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 3A, pl. I, 2 = Alpha Bank 7461; for type cf. SNG ANS 21-23 (drachm); Mitchiner 29 (drachm); Whitehead NC 1943, pp. 64, 1 and pl. III, 7-8 (drachm); Roma XIV, 366. 7.91g, 20mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Exceedingly Rare; one of only half a dozen known specimens, and of considerable numismatic interest.

10,000

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

423. Baktria, Sophytes AR Drachm. Uncertain mint in the Oxus region, circa 246/5-235 BC. Attic standard. Head of Seleukos(?) right, wearing laurel wreathed Attic helmet decorated with spiral pattern on crest and eagle wings on cheek-guard; MNA on bust truncation / Cockerel standing right; kerykeion behind, ΣΟΦYΤΟΥ to right. Roma XIV, 367; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 3A, pl. I, 3; G&M 169, 149 (same mark on bust truncation); cf. SNG ANS 21-23 (M only on bust truncation); cf. Mitchiner 29b (M only); cf. Whitehead NC 1943, pp. 64, 1 and pl. III, 7-8 (M only). 3.77g, 17mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

2,500

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

424. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Euthydemos I AR Tetradrachm. Mint A (near Aï Khanoum), circa 220/215-210/208 BC. Diademed head right / Herakles seated left on rock, holding club set on rocks to left; monogram to inner right; N in exergue. Kritt A11; Bopearachchi Série 5D; SNG ANS 128-9. 16.67g, 29mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Rare, and exceptionally well preserved for the type. Ex private Spanish collection.

150

2,000


Artistic Dies for Euthydemos

425. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Euthydemos I AR Tetradrachm. Mint B (‘Baktra’), circa 210-206 BC. Diademed head right / Herakles seated left on lion skin draped over rocks, holding club set on rock behind knee; monogram below to right; BAΣIΛEΩΣ to right, EYΘYΔHMOY to left. Mitchiner 94; Kritt B14; Bopearachchi 9A; Bopearachchi & Rahman 110-2; SNG ANS 136. 16.62g, 29mm, 12h. Struck from dies of artistic merit, Good Extremely Fine.

4,000

Ex Roma Numismatics VII, 22 March 2014, lot 839 (sold for £5,000 but not paid).

A Unique Greco-Baktrian Gold Coin

2x

2x

426. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, anonymous AV Unit. Time of Demetrios I Aniketos(?), circa 200-185 BC. Shield(?), XXX across; all within bead-andreel border / Kerykeion; –C to right; all within bead-and-reel border. Bopearachchi -; O. Bopearachchi, “Two more unique coins from the second Mir Zakah deposit,” ONS Newsletter 169 (Autumn 2001), pp. 21-22 (this coin); Bopearachchi & Rahman -; SNG ANS -; MIG -. 1.06g, 10mm. Good Very Fine. Unique.

3,000

From a private British collection; This coin published in O. Bopearachchi, Two more unique coins from the second Mir Zakah deposit (ONS Newsletter 169, Autumn 2001); Ex Classical Numismatic Group 93, 22 May 2013, lot 680; Ex Triton XV, 3 January 2012, lot 1345; Ex 1992 Mir Zakah Hoard. This coin is one of a very few non-royal coins struck in the region of the Greco-Baktrian Kingdom. Bopearachchi dated this gold coin to the time of Demetrios I, based on use of the bead-and-reel obverse and reverse borders and the depiction of the kerykeion type which link it to the bronze issues of that king. It has also been suggested that this gold coin could have been struck at the time of the Indo-Skythian king Maues, who also minted bronze coins utilising the kerykeion as a reverse type, along with a bead-and-reel border (though only on the obverse).

A Unique Gold Coin of Eukratides I

2x

2x

427. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Eukratides I AV Half-Unit. Circa 170-145 BC. Monogram / Horse’s head to right. Unpublished in the standard references. For monogram cf. Roma Numismatics XII, 419; cf. Roma Numismatics II, 370. 0.51g, 6mm, 12h. Near Mint State. Apparently unique and unpublished.

1,500

From a private British collection. This extraordinary coin can be linked to the reign of Eukratides I by the use of the same monogram that appears on his very rare gold staters. Though this monogram was also used by the Indo-Greek kingdom, notably on tetradrachms of Apollodotos I, the latter is not known to have struck coins in gold.

151


Finely Detailed Reverse

428. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Eukratides I ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Circa 170-145 BC. Helmeted bust right / The Dioskouroi on horses prancing right, each holding spear and palm; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ above, ΕΥΚΡΑΤΙΔΟΥ below, monogram in lower right field. Bopearachchi 6X; SNG ANS 472. 16.94g, 32mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine.

1,500

Ex private American collection, Roma Numismatics XIV, 21 September 2017, lot 377 (hammer: £2,400).

A Very Rare Tetradrachm of Philoxenos

429. Indo-Greek Kingdom, Philoxenos Aniketos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 125-110 BC. BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANIKHTOY ΦΙΛOΞENOY, diademed, helmeted, draped and cuirassed bust right / ‘Maharajasa apadihatasa Philasinasa’, Philoxenos, in military attire, on horse rearing right; monogram to lower right. Bopearachchi 5C; SNG ANS 1183-6; HGC 12, 268. 9.77g, 28mm, 10h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

1,500

Ex private American collection, Roma Numismatics XIV, 21 September 2017, lot 385 (hammer: £2,700).

ARSACID EMPIRE

430. Arsacid Empire, Mithradates II AR Tetradrachm. Seleukeia on the Tigris, circa 119-109 BC. Diademed and draped bust left, wearing long beard, earring, and torque; all within pelleted border / ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΑΡΣΑΚΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ, archer (Arsakes I) seated right on omphalos, holding bow in outstretched right hand; palm to outer right; monogram to inner left. Sellwood 24.5 corr. (monogram behind archer); Sunrise 282; Shore 68. 16.02g, 31mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; well centred and with pleasant old cabinet tone. Ex Nomisma s.p.a. 48, 26 October 2013, lot 66.

152

1,250


SASANIAN EMPIRE

Azarmidokht, daughter of Khosrau II

431. Sasanian Kings, Azarmidokht AR Drachm. WYHC (Weh-az-Amid-Kavad) mint, AD 631. Bust of Khosrau II right, wearing mural crown with frontal crescent, two wings, and star set on crescent; star-in-crescents in border / Two attendants flanking fire altar with ribbons; star and crescent flanking flames; star-in-crescents in border. Göbl -; Mochiri 505; Saeedi -. 3.28g, 30mm, 3h. Near Extremely Fine; edge lightly corroded at 6 o’clock obv., otherwise good metal. Extremely Rare.

3,000

The daughter of Khosrau II, Azarmidokht was queen of the Sasanian Empire in AD 631. Her ascension followed a particularly bloody period during which time her brother, Kavad II (also known as Shiruya) overthrew their father in AD 628 and killed all of his seventeen brothers before executing him. His sisters were not included in the slaughter however and following Kavad II’s death after just a few months of rule, as well as the death of four successors over the next few years including Boran, a daughter of Khosrau II, Azarmidokht took the throne. Kavad II’s massacre of the royal family had left the Sasanian Empire uncontrollable; internally, claimants for the throne including generals and aristocracy were in a state of constant conflict and externally the Turks and the Kazars saw the weakening Empire as an opportunity for invasion. Azarmidokht herself was only queen for a few months, as related by the historian Tabari. Having been offered marriage by the military governor Farrokh Hormozd, Azarmidokht reportedly had her would-be husband assassinated rather than refuse his offer. She was in turn murdered by Rostam, the son of Farrokh Hormozd. The Sasanian Empire never fully recovered from this calamitous period, and later the Sasanian dynasty fell with Yazdegerd III in AD 651. This coin pays tribute to Azarmidokht’s father, Khosrau II, perhaps to validate his daughter’s right to the throne at a time when stable government was desperately needed.

PHILISTIA

A Unique Philistian Obol

2x 432. Philistia, uncertain mint AR Obol. Circa mid 5th century - 333 BC. Male head right in Achaemenid style, with hair bunched at back of neck and long pointed beard / ΑΘΕ, owl standing to right; behind, human head to right; all within reel border in incuse square. Unique and unpublished in the standard references including Gitler & Tal. 0.57g, 10mm, 9h. Extremely Fine. Unique, unpublished and of significant numismatic interest.

2,000

From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-90s.

JUDAEAN COINS Herod IV Philip

433. Herodians, Herod IV Philip Æ18. Caesarea Paneas, dated year 5 = 1/2 CE. ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟ]Υ ΤΕΤΡ[ΑΡΧΟΥ], bare head of Herod Philip right, [LE (date) across fields] / CEBAC KAICAP, the Augusteum of Paneas shown as a tetrastyle temple on high platform, lily in pediment. RPC I 4939; Hendin 1220; TJC 228, 96; AJC II 244, 2; Samuels 54. 5.55g, 18mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; in exceptional state of preservation for the type. From the inventory of a North American dealer.

153

2,000


An Extremely Rare Bronze of Herod IV Philip

2x 434. Herodians, Herod IV Philip Æ12. Caesarea Philippi (Panias) mint, dated CY 37 = 33/4 CE. Bare head of Herod Philip right / LΛZ within wreath. Hendin 1235; RPC I 4952; BMC 5; TJC 111; Baramki 3. 1.42g, 12mm, 12h. Very Fine; earthen repatination. Extremely Rare.

3,000

From the inventory of a North American dealer. Herod Philip was the first Jewish ruler to place his own portrait on coins. Hendin (p. 257) notes: “Philip was able to immortalise his face on his coins largely because so few Jews lived in the territories over which he ruled. Jews would have taken this act as an insult and violation of the Mosaic Law against graven images.”

An Extremely Rare Issue of Agrippa I

435. Herodians, Agrippa I, with Herod of Chalcis and Claudius Æ25. Caesarea Maritima, dated RY 8 of Agrippa I = 43 CE. [BAΣ] AΓPIΠΠAΣ ΣEB KAIΣAP BAΣ HPΩΔHΣ (King Agrippa, Augustus Caesar, King Herod), Claudius, togate and standing left, sacrificing from patera, between Agrippa I and Herod of Chalcis, each crowning the emperor with a wreath; [L H (date) in exergue] / [OPKIA BAΣ ME AΓPIΠΠA Π ΣEΒ KAIΣAP AK ΣYNKΛHTON K ΔHMO PΩM ΦIΛI K ΣYNMAXI AYTOY (A vow and treaty of friendship and alliance between the Great King Agrippa and Augustus Caesar, the Senate and the People of Rome) in two concentric circles divided by wreath; clasped right hands in centre; Burnett, Coinage 8; Hendin 1248; Meshorer 124a; RPC I 4982. 16.83g, 26mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare; of great historical importance and certainly the finest surviving example of the type.

10,000

From the inventory of a North American dealer. This extremely rare coin commemorates the treaty wherein Claudius awarded the kingdoms of Judaea and Samaria to Agrippa, and Chalcis to Agrippa’s brother Herod. The reverse legend is an excerpt of the treaty and appropriately encircles two clasped hands signifying the agreement, a long-established Roman numismatic motif dating back to the first century BC (see Crawford 450/2). That the agreement was rather favourable to Agrippa perhaps reflects his importance as a political force in the promotion of Claudius’ succession (for an account of Agrippa’s role, see Flavius Josephus, Antiquities, 19.236-45). The obverse depicts three full-length portraits of the two client kings crowning the emperor Claudius with laurel wreaths, all of whom are identified by the obverse legend. Whilst it is tempting to imagine, there is no historical record of such a ceremony taking place during the treaty making in Rome in AD 41. Despite this, the crowning scene is highly intriguing in its novelty - there is no parallel in Roman coinage of an emperor being crowned by two client kings. The iconography has been discussed at length by Andreas Kropp, who rightly highlights that Roman artists would never have depicted such a scene implying the source of the emperor’s power came from the hands of mere mortals, let alone a client king. As such, this coin appears to have been designed by artists at the Caesarea mint not for the glorification of the emperor but for emphasising Agrippa’s own power as a kingmaker, rather than a mere vassal, and without fear of Roman authority (see Crowning the Emperor an unorthodox image of Claudius, Agrippa I and Herod of Chalkis, 2013).

436. Caracalla Æ32 of Abila, Decapolis. Dated CY 270 and Year 4 of an unknown era = 206/7 CE. AVTO KAI• ANTWNINOC, laureate and cuirassed bust right / Flaming altar within hexastyle temple with pediment of central arch surmounted by statue of Victory, and two flanking towers with arched doors and windows; KOI CY to left, TO Δ (date) above, E KOC (date) to right, ABIΛHNѠ in exergue. Spijkerman 18; Sofaer 20; SNG ANS 1127; Meshorer 214. 18.81g, 32mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare, and very well preserved for the type. From the inventory of a North American dealer; Ex Goldberg 98, 6 June 2017, lot 1704.

154

1,000


An Unpublished Tetradrachm of Aelia Capitolina

437. Caracalla AR Tetradrachm of Aelia Capitolina, Judaea. 215-217 CE. AYT KAI ANTѠNINOC CE, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / ΔHMAPX ЄΞ VΠATOC TOΔ, eagle standing left on thyrsus; below, panther seated to right, rearing up to amphora which it tips over with its front legs. Unpublished in the standard references. 12.37g, 25mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished.

2,500

Ex Roma Numismatics XIII, 23 March 2017, lot 520.

ROMAN PROVINCIAL COINS A Unique Pergamum Issue for T. Ampius T. f. Balbus

438. T. Ampius T. f. Balbus AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm. Attalos and Philostratos, magistrates. Pergamum, 58-57 BC. Serpent emerging from cista mystica; the whole within wreath / Two serpents standing by tripod; T•AMPI•T•F PRO•COS in two lines above, monogram of Pergagum to left, staff of Asclepios to right, ATTAΛOC and ΦIΛOCTPATOC below. Stumpf -. 12.64g, 29mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished.

1,500

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

439. T. Ampius T. f. Balbus AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm. Theodoros and Aratos, magistrates. Ephesus, 58-57 BC. Serpent emerging from cista mystica; the whole within wreath / Two serpents standing by tripod on which cult statue of Ephesian Artemis; T•AM-PI•T•F PRO•COS in two lines above, OC and monogram of Ephesos to left, race-torch to right, ΘΕΟΔWPOC and APATOC below. Stumpf 4. 12.56g, 26mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare - two examples recorded by Stumpf, one other on CoinArchives. From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

155

1,000


All images on this page are 1.25x enlargements

440

441

440. T. Ampius T. f. Balbus AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm of Tralles, Lydia. 58-57 BC. Serpents emerging from cista mystica; all within ivy wreath / T AM-PI T F PRO COS above two serpents standing by tripod surmounted by eagle; TPAΛ to left, ΔΙΟΝΥΣΙΟΣ to right, ΜΕΝΑΝΔΡΟΣ ΙΕΡΕΥΣ below. Stumpf 20. 12.52g, 26mm, 12h. Near Mint State. Extremely Rare. 1,250 Ex Fritz Rudolf Künker 304, 19 March 2018, lot 551. 441. C. Fabius M. f. AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm. Attalos, son of Bianoros, magistrate. Apamea, 57-56 BC. Serpent emerging from cista mystica; the whole within wreath / Two serpents standing by decorated bow case; C•FABI•M•F PRO COS in two lines above, AΠA to left, two flutes to right, ΑTTAΛΟΥ BIANOPOΣ below. Stumpf 21. 12.21g, 28mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare - two examples recorded by Stumpf. 1,000 From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

442

443

442. C. Fabius M. f. AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm. Andronikos, son of Xenios, magistrate. Apamea, 57-56 BC. Serpent emerging from cista mystica; the whole within wreath / Two serpents standing by decorated bow case; C•FABI•M•F PRO COS in two lines above, AΠA to left, two flutes to right, ΑΝΔΡΟΝΙΚΟΥ ΞΕΝΙΟΥ below. Stumpf 22; Waddington 7016. 12.97g, 30mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare - two examples recorded by Stumpf. 1,000 From the A.F. Collection, Germany. 443. C. Fabius M. f. AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm. Demeas, magistrate. Pergamum, 57-56 BC. Serpent emerging from cista mystica; the whole within wreath / Two serpents standing by decorated bow case; C•FABI•M•F PRO•COS in two lines above, monogram of Pergamum to left, staff of Asclepius to right, ΔΗΜΕΑC below. Stumpf 28. 12.57g, 28mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare. 1,000 From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

444

445

444. C. Fabius M. f. AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm. Demetrios, magistrate. Pergamum, 57-56 BC. Serpent emerging from cista mystica; the whole within wreath / Two serpents standing by decorated bow case; C•FABI•M•F PRO•COS in two lines above, monogram of Pergamum to left, staff of Asclepius to right, ΔΗΜΕTPIOC below. Stumpf 29. 12.62g, 30mm, 12h. Near Mint State. Extremely Rare - only one example recorded by Stumpf; apparently the second known example. 1,500 From the A.F. Collection, Germany. 445. C. Fabius M. f. AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm. Menophilos, magistrate. Pergamum, 57-56 BC. Serpent emerging from cista mystica; the whole within wreath / Two serpents standing by decorated bow case; C•FABI•M•F PRO•COS in two lines above, monogram of Pergamum to left, staff of Asclepius to right, MΗNOΦIΛOC below. Stumpf 30; SNG von Aulock 7485. 12.54g, 29mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare - four examples recorded by Stumpf, one other on CoinArchives. 1,000 From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

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All images on this page are 1.25x enlargements

A Unique Ephesian Issue for C. Septimius T. f.

446. C. Septimius T. f. AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm. Taureas, magistrate. Ephesus, 57-55 BC. Serpent emerging from cista mystica; the whole within wreath / Two serpents standing by aphlaston surmounted by platform on which two facing fasces; C•SEPTVMI[V](?)•T•F PRO•COS above, OH and EΦE to left, staff of Asclepius and torch to right, TAYPEAΣ below. Stumpf 34 var. (position of staff, no platform); Waddington 6980.66 var. (same). 12.52g, 29mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Unique and unpublished.

1,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

447

448

447. C. Septimius T. f. AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm. Menogenes, magistrate. Pergamum, 57-55 BC. Serpent emerging from cista mystica; the whole within wreath / Two serpents standing by decorated bow case; C•SEPTVMI•T•F PRO•COS in two lines above, monogram of Pergamum to left, staff of Asclepius to right, MHNOΓЄNHC below. Stumpf 38. 12.46g, 28mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare - two examples recorded by Stumpf. 1,000 From the A.F. Collection, Germany. 448. C. Septimius T. f. AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm. Poseidonios, magistrate. Pergamum, 57-55 BC. Serpent emerging from cista mystica; the whole within wreath / Two serpents standing by decorated bow case; C•SEPTVMI•T•F PRO•COS in two lines above, monogram of Pergamum to left, staff of Asclepius to right, ΠOCЄIΔѠNIOC below. Stumpf 41. 12.52g, 28mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare - two examples recorded by Stumpf, a further two on CoinArchives. 1,000 From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

449

450

449. C. Claudius A. P. f. Pulcher AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm. Menophantos, magistrate. Pergamum, 55-53 BC. Serpent emerging from cista mystica; the whole within wreath / Two serpents standing by decorated bow case; C•PVLCHER PRO•COS in two lines above, monogram of Pergamum to left, staff of Asclepius to right, MHNOΦANTOC below. Stumpf 54. 12.32g, 28mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare. 1,000 From the A.F. Collection, Germany. 450. C. Claudius A. P. f. Pulcher AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm. Ploutichos, magistrate. Ephesus, 55-53 BC. Serpent emerging from cista mystica; the whole within wreath / Two serpents standing by decorated bow case; C•PVLCHRI PRO COS in two lines above, ΘE and EΦE to left, race-torch to right, ΠΛOYTIXOΣ below. Stumpf -. 12.63g, 26mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Unique and unpublished. 750 From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

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All images on this page are 1.25x enlargements

451

452

451. P. Cornelius P. f. Lentulus Spinther AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm. Attalos, son of Bianoros, magistrate. Apamea, 56-54 BC. Serpent emerging from cista mystica; the whole within wreath / Two serpents standing by decorated bow case; LENTVLVS IMPERATOR in two lines above, [A]ΠA to left, two flutes to right, AΤΤΑΛΟΥ ΒΙΑΝΟΡΟΣ in two lines below. Stumpf 71. 12.15g, 27mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare - only one example recorded by Stumpf. 1,000 From the A.F. Collection, Germany. 452. P. Cornelius P. f. Lentulus Spinther AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm. Attalos, son of Bianoros, magistrate. Apamea, 57-56 BC. Serpent emerging from cista mystica; the whole within wreath / Two serpents standing by decorated bow case; P LENTVLVS P F IMPERATOR in two lines above, AΠA to left, two flutes to right, ΑTTAΛΟΥ BIANOPOΣ below. Stumpf 71. 12.21g, 27mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare - only one example recorded by Stumpf. 1,000 From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

453

454

453. P. Cornelius P. f. Lentulus Spinther AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm. Attalos and Mantitheos, magistrates. Apamea, 57-56 BC. Serpent emerging from cista mystica; the whole within wreath / Two serpents standing by decorated bow case; P LENTVLVS P F IMPERATOR in two lines above, AΠA to left, two flutes to right, ΑTTAΛΟΥ MANTIΘEOY below. Stumpf 72. 11.82g, 28mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare - only one example recorded by Stumpf. 1,000 From the A.F. Collection, Germany. 454. P. Cornelius P. f. Lentulus Spinther AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm. Kastoros, son of Apollodoros, magistrate. Apamea, 57-56 BC. Serpent emerging from cista mystica; the whole within wreath / Two serpents standing by decorated bow case; P LENTVLVS [P F] IMPERATOR in two lines above, AΠA to left, two flutes to right, KAΣTOPOΣ AΠOΛΛOΔΩPOY below. Stumpf 73; BMC 26 = Bunbury, CN 1883, 45; Waddington 7011. 12.11g, 26mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare - two examples recorded by Stumpf. 750 From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

455

456

455. P. Cornelius P. f. Lentulus Spinther AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm. Artemidoros, son of Damokrates, magistrate. Laodicea, 56-54 BC. Serpent emerging from cista mystica; the whole within wreath / Two serpents standing by decorated bow case; P LENTVLVS P F IMP in two lines above, [Λ]AO to left, ornate winged caduceus to right, APTEMIΔOPOΣ ΔAMOKPATOY in two lines below. Stumpf 77. 12.63g, 27mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare. 1,000 From the A.F. Collection, Germany. 456. P. Cornelius P. f. Lentulus Spinther AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm. Erophantos, son of Erophantos, magistrate. Laodicea, 56-54 BC. Serpent emerging from cista mystica; the whole within wreath / Two serpents standing by decorated bow case; P LENTVLVS P F IMP in two lines above, ΛAO to left, winged caduceus to right, KPATIΠΠOΣ below. Stumpf 78; BMC 16. 12.73g, 27mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare - only one example recorded by Stumpf; apparently the second known example. 1,000 From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

All images on this page are 1.25x enlargements 158


1.25x

457

458

457. P. Cornelius P. f. Lentulus Spinther AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm. Kratippos, magistrate. Laodicea, 56-54 BC. Serpent emerging from cista mystica; the whole within wreath / Two serpents standing by decorated bow case; P LENTVLVS P F IMP in two lines above, ΛAO to left, winged caduceus to right, KPATIΠΠOΣ below. Stumpf 79; BMC 17 = Bunbury, NC 1883, 4m; SNG Copenhagen 494. 12.49g, 26mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare - two examples recorded by Stumpf, a further three on CoinArchives. 750 From the A.F. Collection, Germany. 458. Cleopatra and Marc Antony Æ28. Cyrenaica, 31 BC. BACIΛ ΘЄA NЄ in three lines / ANTѠ YΠA Γ in three lines. RPC I 924; Svoronos 1899. 10.08g, 28mm, 11h. Good Very Fine; earthen repatination. Very Rare. 1,000 Sold with export licence issued by The Israel Antiquities Authority.

459. Marc Antony and Octavia AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm of Ephesus, Ionia. 39 BC. M•ANTONIVS•IMP•COS•DESIG•ITER•ET•TERT, head of Antony right, wearing ivy wreath, lituus below; all within wreath of ivy and flowers / III•VIR• R•P•C, head of Octavia atop cista mystica, between twisting snakes. RPC I 2201; RSC 2; CRI 262; BMCRR East 133. 11.74g, 28mm, 1h. Good Very Fine.

500

460. Marc Antony and Octavia AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm of Ephesus, Ionia. 39 BC. M•ANTONIVS•IMP•COS•DESIG•ITER•ET•TERT, head of Antony right, wearing ivy wreath, lituus below; all within wreath of ivy and flowers / III•VIR• R•P•C, head of Octavia atop cista mystica, between twisting snakes. RPC I 2201; RSC 2; CRI 262; BMCRR East 133. 11.82g, 28mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine.

500

461. Marc Antony and Octavia AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm of Ephesus, Ionia. 39 BC. M•ANTONIVS•IMP•COS•DESIG•ITER•ET•TERT, head of Antony right, wearing ivy wreath, lituus below; all within wreath of ivy and flowers / III•VIR• R•P•C, head of Octavia atop cista mystica, between twisting snakes. RPC I 2201; RSC 2; CRI 262; BMCRR East 133. 11.82g, 28mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine.

159

500


A Fine Portrait of Pompey Magnus

462. Time of Pompey the Great Æ20 of Soloi-Pompeiopolis, Cilicia. Pseudo-Autonomous issue, circa 66-48 BC. Bare head of Pompey the Great right / ΠΟΜΠΗΙΟΠΟΛΕΙΤΩΝ, Nike advancing right, holding palm and wreath; monogram above POY ΛH. RPC I -; SNG France 1217. 5.91g, 20mm, 11h. Good Very Fine. A fine style portrait of Pompey Magnus.

500

Sold with export licence issued by The Israel Antiquities Authority.

463. Augustus Æ Dupondius of Hadrumentum, Africa. L. Volusius Saturninus, proconsul. Struck 7-6 BC. Radiate head of Sol right; trident to left, HADR to right / Bare head of Saturninus left; L VOLVSIVS SATVR around. RPC I 778; MAA 88; SNG Copenhagen 63. 15.19g, 31mm, 6h. Very Fine - Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

2,500

464. Augustus AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm of Ephesus, Ionia. Circa 28-20 BC. IMP•CAESAR•DIVI•F•COS•VI•LIBERTATIS•P•R•VINDEX, laureate head right / Pax standing left on parazonium, holding caduceus, snake emerging from cista mystica in right field, PAX in left field; all within laurelwreath. RIC 476; RPC I 2203; RSC 218; BMCRE 691. 12.03g, 28mm, 12h. Near Mint State.

2,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

465. Augustus AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm of Ephesus, Ionia. Circa 28-20 BC. IMP•CAESAR•DIVI•F•COS•VI•LIBERTATIS•P•R•VINDEX, laureate head right / Pax standing left on parazonium, holding caduceus, snake emerging from cista mystica in right field, PAX in left field; all within laurelwreath. RIC 476; RPC I 2203; RSC 218; BMCRE 691. 12.04g, 28mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

160

1,000


466. Augustus AR Cistophorus. Ephesus, circa 25 BC. IMP CAESAR, bare head right / AVGVSTVS, capricorn to right, head turned back to left, cornucopiae on its back; all within wreath. RIC 477; RPC 2213. 12.09g, 26mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare.

5,000

Ex H. D. Rauch 94, 9 April 2014, lot 703; Ex Mßnzen und Medaillen 81, 18 September 1995, lot 170. The significance of the constellation Capricorn to Augustus is subject to debate, with some ancient sources reporting that it was his birth sign and others relating that he was conceived under the sign - the latter tying in with his official birthday on 23rd-24th September. Although we now view conception and birth as two separate events, the Romans viewed conception through to birth as a continuous process. Under the tropical zodiac, the sun transits Capricorn from late December to late January, marking midwinter and the shortest day of the year. For this reason, often it was considered a hostile sign but Augustus chose to interpret it positively since it had governed two major events in his life - the granting of imperium to him by the Senate in January 43 BC, and the acceptance of the title Augustus on 16 January 27 BC. The capricorn is represented as a goat with a fish tail, and is often thought to be a representation of Pan escaping an attack by the monster Typhon. Having jumped into the Nile, the half of Pan’s body which was submerged was transformed into a fish. An alternative interpretation is that the goat is Amalthea, who suckled the infant Zeus after Rhea rescued him from being devoured by his father Cronus. The broken horn of Amalthea transformed into the cornucopiae, which on the present example is carried on the back of the capricorn. It is a symbol of fertility and abundance, and here accompanies the corona civica, awarded to Romans who saved the lives of fellow citizens by slaying an enemy, but in the case of Augustus for having saved the entire Roman citizenry from the horrors of further civil war. In 27 BC, Augustus had declared Ephesus capital of Asia Minor, promoting the city above the former capital Pergamum. The decision to use such striking imagery alongside his birth sign for issues minted in the new capital reinforced Augustus as the head of the new imperial regime.

467. Augustus AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm of Ephesus, Ionia. Circa 25 BC. IMP CAESAR, bare head right / AVGVSTVS, capricorn to right, head turned back to left, cornucopiae on its back; all within wreath. RIC 477; RPC I 2213; RSC 16; BMCRE 696 = BMCRR East 263. 11.78g, 27mm, 1h. Near Mint State.

2,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

468. Augustus AR Cistophorus. Ephesus, 24-20 BC. IMP CAESAR, bare head right / AVGVSTVS above garlanded altar decorated with two confronted hinds. RIC 482; RSC 33; RPC 2215; BN 923. 11.94g, 25mm, 12h. About Extremely Fine; beautiful old cabinet tone. Ex Monsieur Note (1910-1982) Collection, France.

161

1,500


469. Augustus AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm of Pergamum, Mysia. Circa 19-18 BC. IMP•IX•TR•PO•V•, bare head right / Triumphal Arch of Augustus, surmounted by charioteer in facing quadriga, an aquila before each side wall; IMP•IX•TR•POT•V• on entablature, S•P•R• SIGNIS RECEPTIS in three lines below. RPC I 2218; RIC 510; RSC 298; BMCRE 703 = BMCRR East 310. 11.65g, 27mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; excellent condition for the issue.

2,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

470. Augustus AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm of Pergamum, Mysia. Circa 19-18 BC. IMP•IX•TR•PO•V, bare head right / Hexastyle temple with four steps before, pediment surmounted by acroteria, architrave inscribed ROM•ET•AVGVST; COM - ASIAE across fields. RIC 506; RPC I 2219; RSC 86; BMCRE 705-6 = BMCRR East 312-3. 11.88g, 26mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

2,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

471. Augustus AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm of Pergamum, Mysia. Circa 19-18 BC. IMP•IX•TR•PO•V, bare head right / Temple of Mars Ultor: circular, domed, tetrastyle temple set on five-tiered base, a signum within; MART - VLTO across fields. RIC 507; RPC I 2220; RSC 202; BMCRE 704 = BMCRR East 311. 11.80g, 26mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

162

1,500


Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar

472. Caligula Æ Tetrassarion of Aegeae, Cilicia. Mi-, magistrate. Dated year 87 = AD 40/41. Diademed and draped bust of Alexander the Great to right / AIΓAIΩN THΣ IEΡAΣ KAI AΥTONOMOΥ, bare head of Julius Caesar to right; ZΠ (date) over MI behind. RPC I 4036; SNG Levante 1691. 13.43g, 29mm, 1h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; one of only four examples on CoinArchives, and in excellent condition for the type.

4,000

Ex Obolos 5, 26 June 2016, lot 540. The Cilician city of Aegeae (Greek: city of goats) was apparently of Macedonian foundation. A fictitious letter of Alexander to his mother from (The Alexander Romance, 23) composed in the third century AD attributes the city’s origin to Alexander having beaten the Persians at Issos by means of fastening torches to the horns of goats so that by night his forces seemed greater than they were, and having thus won, founded a city on that spot. In any case, cities in Cilicia were the first to depict Alexander on their civic coins, often claiming to have been founded by the great conqueror whether or not there was any truth to the matter. Certainly in Aegeae’s case, the legend stuck – the city portrayed Alexander on its coinage for a period of nearly 300 years, its name recalling the capital of the Kingdom of Macedonia, and from the time of Caracalla onwards it bore the title of ‘Makedonike’ and in AD 228/9, ‘Alexandroupolis’. The city appears to have lost its autonomy in the mid first century BC, probably at the hands of Pompey during the civil war, since as Kent J. Rigsby (Asylia: Territorial Inviolability in the Hellenistic World, 1997) notes: “it is after Caesar that Aegeae is seen to enjoy both a new era and the right to strike silver”. That he should be depicted on the city’s coinage as a second founder is telling, and must argue against his having been the cause of the city’s loss of its old right (Hansjörg Bloesch, Hellenistic Coins of Aegeae in ANSMN 27, 1982). This refoundation must be assumed to have taken place in 47 BC, when Caesar reorganised the province.

A Superb Cistophorus of Claudius

473. Claudius I AR Cistophorus. Uncertain mint in Asia Minor, AD 41-54. TI CLAVD CAES AVG, bare-head left / Distyle temple inscribed ROM ET AVG on entablature and containing figure of Augustus, standing facing on left, holding spear, being crowned by female figure on right, holding cornucopiae; COM-ASI across fields. RIC 120 (Pergamum); BMCRE 228 (Ephesus?) RPC 2221 (same). 11.31g, 26mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

6,000

From a private British collection. Not since the magnificent and varied types of Augustus over sixty years earlier had any cistophori been produced by the Romans. Two brief issues were struck under Claudius, which appear to have been commemorative in nature, and not intended for general circulation. The present type, from the first issue, probably depicts the temple of Roma and Augustus at Pergamum, to which mint this type is sometimes attributed. The authors of RPC note however that the numerous die links between this issue and that depicting the temple of Diana at Ephesus indicate that despite the reverse types, the coins were all produced at a single mint - probably Ephesus, since that is where the second Claudian issue appears to have been made.

163


474. Claudius I AR Cistophorus. Uncertain mint in Asia Minor, AD 41-54. TI CLAVD CAES AVG, bare-head left / Distyle temple inscribed ROM ET AVG on entablature and containing figure of Augustus, standing facing on left, holding spear, being crowned by female figure on right, holding cornucopiae; COM-ASI across fields. RIC 120 (Pergamum); BMCRE 228 (Ephesus?) RPC 2221 (same). 11.45g, 27mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; beautiful old cabinet tone.

4,000

From the collection of P.R., United Kingdom.

A Very Rare Didrachm of Domitian and Domitia

475. Domitian, with Domitia AR Didrachm. Struck in Rome for Caesarea, circa 93/4 AD. AVT KAI ΔOMITIANOC CЄBACTOC ΓЄPM, laureate head of Domitian right / ΔOMITIA CЄBACTH, draped and diademed bust of Domitia right, hair braided and tied in queue at neck. RPC II 1665; Sydenham, Caesarea 129; Metcalf, Caesarea 27. 6.17g, 23mm, 6h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

1,000

Ex Fritz Rudolf Künker 270, 2 October 2015, lot 8690.

476. Trajan AR Drachm of Bostra, Arabia. AD 114-116. AYTOKP KAIC NEP TRAIANѠ ARICTѠ CEB ΓΕΡΜ ΔΑΚ, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / ΔHMAPX EΞ YΠATO S, two-humped (Bactrian) camel to left. Metcalf-; Tell Kalak 19; RPC III 4077. 3.44g, 20mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. From a private British collection.

164

500


Achilles and Chiron

477.

Antoninus Pius Æ Drachm of Egypt, Alexandria. Dated RY 5 = AD 141/142. AYT K T AIΛ A∆P ANTѠNINOC CЄB ЄYC, laureate head right / Achilles and the Centaur Chiron walking to right, Chiron with left foreleg raised, head and human torso turned towards Achilles, holding a helmet in his left hand, his right arm across the shoulder of the young Achilles who holds a spear in his right hand and places his left around Chiron; between them billows Achilles’ cloak, LЄ (date) in exergue. Köln 1873 (same dies); Dattari (Savio) 2505 & 8369; K&G -; Emmett 1485.5 (R5); Staffieri, Alexandria In Nummis 135 (this coin). 23.86g, 34mm, 1h. Very Fine. Wonderful surfaces with a dark brown patina with hints of green and red. Extremely Rare; probably the finest known specimen of the type. 7,500 Ex Giovanni Maria Staffieri Collection, Triton XXI, 9 January 2018, lot 164; Ex Kerry K. Wetterstrom Collection, Classical Numismatic Auctions XIII, 4 December 1990, lot 218. Numismatic artistry flourished at the mint of Alexandria during the early years of Antoninus Pius’ reign with the introduction of an ambitious range of new reverse types. This coin is a rarity of the mythological series, alongside which the Labours of Hercules and the signs of the Zodiac were also produced. The reason for these strikingly different pictorial types has been examined by J.G. Milne, who suggests that a masterful Greek artist was active for a limited time at Alexandria, producing imagery previously unfamiliar to Egypt and later copied in a less expert style (speaking specifically about the Hercules series, see Pictorial Coin-Types at the Roman Mint of Alexandria, The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 39, 1943). This artist seemed to work exclusively on bronze drachms which in comparison to smaller silver and bronze denominations were naturally preferable for these new medallic designs.   The childhood of Achilles was only briefly touched upon in the Homeric cycle; it is not until much later that the story is embellished and his early years described at length. That Achilles was tutored by the wise centaur Chiron was mentioned in Homer’s Iliad, not an unusual upbringing for a mythical hero as many other heroes including Herakles, Jason, Perseus and Theseus were also trained by Chiron as youths. The work which is the most descriptive in presenting Achilles’ time with Chiron on Mount Pelion is Statius’ unfinished epic, the Achilleid, published in the first century AD, which also covers his time on Skyros where he was hidden by his mother Thetis, disguised as a girl so that he might avoid his fated death should he go to Troy and war. Statius expanded upon the surviving Greek sources for Achilles’ upbringing with Chiron, portraying the centaur as more than a teacher and mentor, adapting his role into that of a loving foster father. Thus Achilles, when later describing what he ate when growing up, refers to Chiron as such: “thus that father [pater] of mine used to feed me” (2.102). Statius may have been following a theme begun by Ovid some years earlier; in Fasti (5.412) Achilles laments at Chiron’s death, saying “Live, I beg you; don’t leave me, dear father [pater]!” It was perhaps with such thoughts in mind that the engraver here portrays Achilles and Chiron: the old centaur drapes his left arm in an affectionate, paternal manner across the youth’s shoulder, a gesture which Achilles reciprocates, as the two walk together. Chiron carries Achilles helmet, while Achilles himself rests his spear across his shoulder, the point of which emerges on the far side of Chiron, behind him. It may be that we are invited to see in this scene the end of a day’s training: “Already at that time weapons were in my hand... Never would he suffer me to follow unwarlike deer through the pathless glens of Ossa, or lay low timid lynxes with my spear, but only to drive angry bears from their resting-places, and boars with lightning thrust; or if anywhere a mighty tiger lurked or a lioness with her cubs in some secret lair upon the mountain-side, he himself, seated in his vast cave, awaited my exploits, if perchance I should return bespattered with dark blood; nor did he admit me to his embrace before he had scanned my weapons” (2.106-128)”.

165


478. Antoninus Pius Æ Drachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Dated RY 12 = AD 148/149. Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Isis Pharia, holding billowing sail and sistrum, standing right before the Pharos of Alexandria, which is surmounted by a statue and two Tritons; L ΔѠΔЄKATOV (date) around. Köln 1604; Dattari (Savio) 8571; K&G 35.434; Emmett 1592.12. 18.42g, 35mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine.

1,000

Ex Classical Numismatic Group e328, 11 June 2014, lot 399. Sold with export licence issued by The Israel Antiquities Authority.

An Extremely Rare Bronze of Faustina from Perinthus

479. Diva Faustina I (wife of A. Pius) Æ32 of Perinthus, Thrace. Circa AD 139-144. ΘEA ΦAVCTEINA, veiled bust right, hair coiled on top of head / EΠI ANT•ZHNΩNOC ΠP•CEB•ANT•ΠEPINΘIΩN, Aphrodite standing right, holding sceptre and apple. Varbanov 121 var.; RPC -, cf. 8656. 19.10g, 32mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

1,250

From a central European collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 92, 24 May 2016, lot 2242.

An Extremely Rare Alexandrian Tetradrachm of Septimius

480. Septimius Severus BI Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Dated RY 2 = AD 193/4. K•Λ•CЄΠT CЄOYHPOC ΠЄPT•CЄB•AVTOKPA•, laureate head right / Nike driving quadriga to left, holding reins in both hands; LB (date) above. Dattari 3993, Emmett 2683. 11.42g, 25mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare; Emmett records 4 examples, none in CoinArchives.

1,000

From a private North American collection.

481. Septimius Severus AR Tetradrachm of Antioch, Seleucis and Pieria. Circa AD 202-204/5. •AVT•KAI• CЄOVHPOC CЄ •B, laureate bust right / ΔHMAPX•ЄΞ• VΠATO•Γ•, Tyche seated to right on rocky outcrop, holding poppy and two grain ears; below, half-length figure of river-god Orontes swimming right. McAlee 656; Prieur 185. 13.72g, 27mm, 12h. About Extremely Fine. Very Rare. From a private North American collection.

166

750


482. Caracalla AR Tetradrachm of Tyre, Phoenicia. AD 213-217. AYT KAI ANTѠNINOC CЄ, laureate head right; beneath neck, eagle to right passing head behind truncation; in right field, club with haft upwards / ΔHMAPX ЄΞ YΠATΔ•, laureate head of Melkart right, lion skin around neck. Rouvier -; Prieur 1543. 14.11g, 27mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; lightly toned with bright underlying lustre.

2,000

Ex Classical Numismatic Group 85, 15 September 2010, lot 683; Ex Gorny & Mosch 185, 8 March 2010, lot 219.

The Temple of Paphian Aphrodite

483. Caracalla Æ33 of Paphos, Cyprus. AD 193-211. Μ ΑΝΤΩΝΕΙΝΟC ΑVΓΟVCΤΟC, laureate head right / ΚΟΙΝΟΝ ΚΥΠΡΙΩΝ, temple of Paphian Aphrodite, conical cult xoanon within central distyle tower with star within crescent above, distyle porticoes flanking, each containing candelabra and dove above; paved semicircular court before temple with hatched enclosure around, within which stands a dove, altar, and Cypriot character ‘pa’. Parks 25; SNG Copenhagen 92; BMC 60. 21.32g, 33mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; earthen repatination. In extraordinary state of preservation for the type.

1,000

From the inventory of a North American dealer. Palea Paphos was one of the most important pilgrimage centres in the Greek world due to its famous Sanctuary of Aphrodite; the goddess herself was born of the sea near Paphos, and floated in on a scallop shell. When she arose, she was hailed as ‘Cyprian’. The Sanctuary of Aphrodite continued to flourish well into the Roman era. Several Roman emperors honoured the shrine, and it was visited by Titus in AD 69 when the future emperor was on his way to Egypt; he consulted the oracle of Aphrodite, and was told that he had a great future. The sanctuary was rebuilt by the Romans after the earthquake of AD 76/77, in a design that preserved the layout of the original. The cult of Aphrodite survived at Palea Paphos until the 4th century AD, when emperor Theodosius I outlawed paganism. Today, virtually nothing remains of the Sanctuary save the holy ground itself.

484. Plautilla (wife of Caracalla) Æ25 of Corcyra, Illyria. AD 202-211. ΠΛAVTIΛΛA CЄBACTH, draped bust right / KOPKYPAIѠN, masted galley under oar to left; waves below. BMC 693 var. (galley right). 11.42g, 25mm, 1h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

167

500


The Second (and Finest) Known Example

485. Geta, as Caesar, Æ Tetrassarion of Heracleopolis (as Sebastopolis), Pontus. Dated CY 208 = 205/6 AD. CЄΠTIMI ΓЄTA[C KAICAP], bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right / CЄBACTOΠO HP...ЄT HC, deer standing left, suckling the infant Telephus, son of Hercules. Unpublished in the standard references; Leu Numismatik Web Auction 4, 479 (same dies). 13.05g, 29mm, 4h. Good Very Fine; earthen repatination. Apparently the second (and finest) known example.

750

Sold with export licence issued by The Israel Antiquities Authority.

A Very Rare and Sharp Macrinus Tetradrachm

486. Macrinus AR Tetradrachm of Edessa, Mesopotamia. AD 217-218. AYK M OΠEΛ CE MAKPEINOC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / ΔHMAP X EΞ YΠATOC, eagle standing facing, head right, holding wreath in beak; shrine between legs. Prieur 852. 12.70g, 28mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Superb style and metal quality. Very Rare.

1,250

Perseus Saves Andromeda

487. Macrinus Æ23 of Deultum, Thrace. AD 217-218. IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AV, radiate and cuirassed bust right / COL FL PAC DEVLT, Perseus standing left, with right foot on rock, holding head of Medusa and harpa in left hand, freeing Andromeda with right; below, sea-monster turned to stone. Draganov 119 (O19/R587); Youroukova 61; Varbanov 2129. 7.73g, 23mm, 7h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

750

Ex Classical Numismatic Group E-319, 29 January 2014, lot 197. When Cassiopeia, Queen of Aethiopia, boasted that her daughter Andromeda was more beautiful than the Nereids, this invoked the wrath of Poseidon who sent the sea monster Cetus to attack Aethiopia. Upon consulting the Oracle of Apollo, the queen and king were informed there would be no respite until they sacrificed their daughter Andromeda to the monster. Thus Andromeda was chained to a rock near the ocean for Cetus to devour. Perseus perchance saw Andromeda chained to the rock and learned of her plight; as Cetus emerged from the ocean to devour Andromeda, Perseus killed it thanks to Hades’ helm rending him invisible. This very rare reverse type depicts the immediate aftermath, having used Medusa’s severed head to turn the sea monster to stone, Perseus frees Andromeda from her bonds and helps her down from the rock. The composition follows very closely two mosaics of the same subject found at Pompeii and now displayed in the Archaeological Museum of Naples.

168


488. Maximinus I Ӕ31 of Anemurium, Cilicia. Dated RY 1 = AD 235. AVT K Γ IO OVHPON MAΞIMEINON, laureate and cuirassed bust right / ΑΝЄΜΟΥΡΙЄѠΝ, lion advancing right, looking back; star and crescent above, ЄΤ Α (date) below. RPC Online 7011 (temporary); SNG France 711; Ziegler, Anemurion 74. 15.20g, 31mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Minor scrape to obverse edge. Rare; RPC cites only 6 other examples and the first example to be offered at auction since 2010. 500

A Very Rare Bronze of Uranius Antoninus

489. Uranius Antoninus Æ32 of Emesa, Seleucis and Pieria. Dated SE 565 = AD 253/4. AVTOK C OVΛΠ ANTѠNЄINOC CЄ, laureate bust right, wearing paludamentum and cuirass / ЄMICѠN KOΛΩN, hexastyle temple of Elagabal at Emesa containing the conical stone of Elagabal shaded by two parasols; crescent in pediment, ЄΞΦ (date) in exergue. BMC 24; Baldus 38-42; R. Delbrueck, ‘Uranius of Emesa,’ NC 1948, Series I, 2; SNG Hunterian 3174. 24.03g, 32mm, 1h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

5,000

Sold with export licence issued by The Israel Antiquities Authority. The literary sources are unclear about Uranius Antoninus: Zosimus describes a usurper by the name of Antoninus during the reign of Gallienus, while contemporary Christian writer John Malalas speaks of an Emesan priest by the name of Samsigeramus who repulsed the Sassanid king Shapur I. Whether the accounts describe the same person, and whether this person was the Uranius who struck coins at Emesa, is a matter for debate. The era date given on the reverse of this coin, ЄΞΦ = 565 = 253/4, suggests that Uranius established an independent Empire at Emesa around the time Valerian and Gallienus were crowned co-augusti in 253. The dating supports Malalas’ account and Uranius may have indeed come to prominence during the attempts to defend the city of Emesa from the invasion of Shapur, prompting the establishment of his small independent state. If Uranius was the priest described by Malalas, the name Samsigeramus suggests that he may have been a member of the Emesan royal house of the same name and likely, the high priest of Elagabal. If this was the case, we might assume that Uranius was a descendant of the Severan-Emesan house who had previously seen a priest proclaimed emperor in Elagabalus. Though the name Samsigeramus is not attested on the coinage of Uranius, the reverse depiction of the temple of Elagabal certainly suggests the cult was important to his legitimacy. There is little doubt that Uranius’ rebellion came to an end shortly after Valerian marched east and recovered Syria in AD 254.

169


490. Uranius Antoninus Æ30 of Emesa, Seleucis and Pieria. Dated SE 565 = AD 253/4. AVTOK C OVΛΠ ANTѠNЄINOC CЄ, laureate bust right, wearing paludamentum and cuirass / ЄMICѠN KOΛΩN, hexastyle temple of Elagabal at Emesa containing the conical stone of Elagabal shaded by two parasols; crescent in pediment, ЄΞΦ (date) in exergue. BMC 24; Baldus 38-42; R. Delbrueck, ‘Uranius of Emesa,’ NC 1948, Series I, 2; SNG Hunterian 3174. 24.38g, 30mm, 1h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

4,000

From the inventory of a North American dealer.

COINS OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC

491. Anonymous Cast Æ As. Rome, circa 275-270 BC. Diademed head of Apollo right, I (mark of value) above; all on a raised disk / Diademed head of Apollo left, I (mark of value) above; all on a raised disk. Crawford 18/1; ICC 33; HN Italy 279. 233.57g, 66mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

2,500

From a private Swiss collection, outside of Italy prior to January 2011.

492. Anonymous AR Didrachm. Rome or Neapolis(?), circa 264-255 BC. Diademed head of Hercules right, wearing lion skin around neck; club on shoulder / She-wolf standing right, head left, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus; ROMANO in exergue. Crawford 20/1; Sydenham 6; RSC 8. 7.12g, 22mm, 8h. Extremely Fine; beautiful cabinet tone. Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 25, 25 June 2003, lot 236.

170

5,000


493. Anonymous Cast Æ As. Rome, circa 230 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right, I (mark of value) behind; all on a raised disk / Wheel of six spokes, I (mark of value) between two of the spokes; all on a raised disk. Crawford 24/3; ICC 66; HN Italy 326. 233.10g, 66mm. Extremely Fine; untouched surfaces.

2,500

From a private Swiss collection, outside of Italy prior to January 2011.

494. Anonymous Cast Æ As. Rome, circa 230 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right, I (mark of value) behind; all on a raised disk / Wheel of six spokes, I (mark of value) between two of the spokes; all on a raised disk. Crawford 24/3; ICC 66; HN Italy 326. 213.17g, 60mm. Very Fine.

1,750

From a private Swiss collection, outside of Italy prior to January 2011.

495. Anonymous Cast Æ Sextans. Rome, circa 230 BC. Tortoise / Wheel of six spokes. Crawford 24/7; ICC 71; HN Italy 330. 37.56g, 33mm. Good Very Fine. From a private Swiss collection, outside of Italy prior to January 2011.

171

650


496. Anonymous AR Didrachm (Quadrigatus). Rome, circa 225-214 BC. Laureate head of Janus / Jupiter, hurling thunderbolt and holding sceptre, in quadriga right driven by Victory; ROMA raised on outlined tablet in exergue. Crawford 29/3; Sydenham 64d; RSC 24. 6.68g, 20mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

850

Ex MĂźnzen & Medaillen 2, 27 March 1998, lot 338.

497. Anonymous AR Didrachm (Quadrigatus). Uncertain mint, 225-214 BC. Laureate head of Janus / Jupiter holding sceptre and brandishing thunderbolt, in quadriga driven to right by Victory; ROMA in relief in linear frame below. Crawford 30/1; Sydenham 64b. 6.69g, 20mm, 1h. Extremely Fine.

850

From a private Swiss collection, outside of Italy prior to January 2011.

498. Anonymous AR Didrachm (Quadrigatus). Uncertain mint, 225-214 BC. Laureate head of Janus / Jupiter holding sceptre and brandishing thunderbolt, in quadriga driven to right by Victory; ROMA in relief in linear frame below. Crawford 30/1; Sydenham 64b. 6.57g, 22mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. From a private Swiss collection, outside of Italy prior to January 2011.

172

850


499. Anonymous Cast Æ As. Rome, circa 225-217 BC. Head of Janus, I (mark of value) below, set horizontally; all on a raised disk / Prow of galley to right, I (mark of value) above; all on a raised disk. Crawford 35/1; ICC 74; HN Italy 337. 252.58g, 66mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

1,750

From a private Swiss collection, outside of Italy prior to January 2011.

500. Anonymous Cast Æ As. Rome, circa 225-217 BC. Head of Janus, I (mark of value) below, set horizontally; all on a raised disk / Prow of galley to right, I (mark of value) above; all on a raised disk. Crawford 35/1; ICC 74; HN Italy 337. 270.88g, 61mm, 12h. Very Fine. From a private Swiss collection, outside of Italy prior to January 2011.

173

1,750


174


501. Anonymous Cast Æ Triens. Rome, circa 225-217 BC. Helmeted head of Minerva or Mars left; •••• (mark of value) below; all on a raised disk / Prow of galley right; •••• (mark of value) below; all on a raised disk. Crawford 35/3a; ICC 78; HN Italy 339. 94.69g, 47mm, 12h. Very Fine.

450

From a private Swiss collection, outside of Italy prior to January 2011.

Ex De Guermantes Collection, Leu 86

502. Anonymous Æ Uncia. Rome, circa 217-215. Draped bust of Sol facing; pellet in left field / Pellet between two stars over crescent; ROMA below. Crawford 39/4; Sydenham 96; RBW 108. 11.45g, 25mm, 11h. Extremely Fine; in uncommonly good condition for the issue.

1,000

Ex De Guermantes Collection; Leu Numismatics 86, 5 May 2003, lot 653.

2x

2x

503. Anonymous AR Sestertius. Rome, circa 214-213. Helmeted head of Roma right; IIS behind / The Dioscuri, each holding spear, riding right; ROMA in linear frame in exergue. Crawford 44/7; RSC 4; RBW 176. 1.07g, 13mm, 2h. Extremely Fine.

700

Ex private Spanish collection.

An Extremely Rare Sow Series Denarius

504. Sow series AR Denarius. Rome, circa 206-195 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; X behind / The Dioscuri, each holding spear, riding right; sow below horses, ROMA in linear frame in exergue. Crawford 121/2; RSC 20r (Hog). 3.94g, 19mm, 10h. Near Very Fine. Extremely Rare. From a private British collection.

175

500


A Very Rare L. Autronius Denarius

505. L. Autronius AR Denarius. Rome, 189-180 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; X behind / The Dioscuri, each holding spear, riding right; AVTR monogram below horses, ROMA in linear frame in exergue. Crawford 146/1; RSC Autronia 1. 2.88g, 18mm, 3h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare, and very well preserved for the type.

750

From a private British collection.

506 507 506. Anonymous AR Denarius. Rome, 179-170 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; X behind / The Dioscuri, each holding spear, riding right; ROMA in linear frame in exergue. Crawford 167/1; RSC -; Sydenham 311. 3.32g, 20mm, 2h. Extremely Fine. 150 From the R.C. Vermeer Collection; Ex Naville Numismatics 36, 3 December 2017, lot 512. 507. Anonymous AR Denarius. Rome, 179-170 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; X behind / The Dioscuri, each holding spear, riding right; ROMA in linear frame in exergue. Crawford 167/1; RSC -; Sydenham 311. 4.05g, 20mm, 11h. Very Fine; pleasant cabinet tone. 100 From a private British collection.

508

509

508. Griffin series AR Denarius. Rome, 169-158 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right, X behind / The Dioscuri, each holding spear, riding right; griffin below horses, ROMA in exergue. Crawford 182/1; RSC 20n. 3.25g, 20mm, 4h. Extremely Fine; corrosion spots. 200 From the R.C. Vermeer Collection; Ex Nomisma s.p.a. 1, 20 February 1993, lot 78. 509. Atilius Saranus AR Denarius. Rome, 155 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; X behind / Victory driving galloping biga right, holding reins and whip; SAR below horses, ROMA in exergue. Crawford 199/1a; RSC Atilia 1. 4.16g, 18mm, 2h. Extremely Fine; attractive iridescent toning. 200 From the R.C. Vermeer Collection; Ex Asta Internazionale del Titano 54, 25 September 1993, lot 129.

510. C. Juventius Thalna AR Denarius. Rome, 154 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; X behind / Victory driving galloping biga right, holding reins and whip; C•TAL (ligate) below horses, ROMA in exergue. Crawford 202/1a; RSC Juventia 7. 3.84g, 19mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare; exceptionally well preserved for the issue. Ex private Spanish collection.

176

500


511. L. Saufeius AR Denarius. Rome, 152 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; X behind / Victory driving galloping biga right, holding reins and whip; L•SAVF below horses, ROMA in exergue. Crawford 204/1; RSC Saufeia 1. 3.85g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; light cabinet tone with golden iridescence.

150

From the R.C. Vermeer Collection.

512. S. Afranius AR Denarius. Rome, 150 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; X behind / Victory driving galloping biga right, holding reins and whip; SAFRA below horses, ROMA in exergue. Crawford 206/1; RSC Afrania 1. 3.78g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Beautiful old cabinet tone with iridescent highlights.

300

Ex Jesus Vico, 9 June 1992, lot 90.

513. Pinarius Natta AR Denarius. Rome, 149 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; X behind / Victory driving galloping biga right, holding reins and whip; NATTA (ligate) below horses; ROMA in linear frame in exergue. Crawford 208/1; RSC Pinaria 1. 3.72g, 17mm, 2h. Good Extremely Fine; very pleasant old cabinet tone.

300

Ex Bertolami Fine Arts 24, 22 June 2016, lot 382; Ex Nomisma s.p.a. 53, 20 October 2015, lot 91; Ex Collection of Roman Republican Coins of a Student and his Mentor, Numismatica Ars Classica 70, 16 May 2013, lot 26; Privately purchased from Spink & Son in December 1969 for £25.

514. Pinarius Natta AR Denarius. Rome, 149 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; X behind / Victory driving galloping biga right, holding reins and whip; NATTA (ligate) below horses; ROMA in linear frame in exergue. Crawford 208/1; RSC Pinaria 1. 3.76g, 17mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; deep iridescent cabinet tone.

300

Ex Jesus Vico, 9 June 1992, lot 247.

515. Ti. Veturius AR Denarius. Rome, 137 BC. Helmeted and draped bust of Mars right; TI•VET (ligate) downwards and X behind / Two soldiers face each other, one bearded and without armour, one bearded and in armour; each holds a spear in left hand and with sword in right hand touches pig held by figure kneeling between them; above, ROMA. Crawford 234/1; RSC Veturia 1. 3.98g, 20mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine; excellent for the type. Purchased from Numismatica Varesi, February 1992; Ex Numismatic Fine Arts 27, 4 December 1991, lot 352.

177

500


516. M. Atilius Saranus AR Denarius. Rome, 148 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; SARAN (ligate) downwards behind, X below chin / The Dioscuri, each holding spear, riding right; M•ATILI below horses, ROMA in exergue. Crawford 214/1b; RSC Atilia 9. 3.75g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

500

Ex Jesus Vico, 4 March 1992, lot 47.

517. M. Atilius Saranus AR Denarius. Rome, 148 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; SARAN (ligate) upwards behind, X below chin / The Dioscuri, each holding spear, riding right; M•ATIL below horses, ROMA in exergue. Crawford 214/1c; RSC Atilia 8. 3.82g, 19mm, 9h. Near Mint State. Wonderful old collection toning.

500

Ex Jesus Vico, 9 June 1992, lot 103.

518. L. Sempronius Pitio AR Denarius. Rome, 148 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; PITIO downwards behind, X below chin / The Dioscuri, each holding spear, riding right; L•SEMP below, ROMA in linear frame in exergue. Crawford 216/1; RSC Sempronia 2. 3.71g, 20mm, 10h. Good Extremely Fine.

400

Ex Jesus Vico, 9 June 1992, lot 294.

519. L. Cupiennius AR Denarius. Rome, 147 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; cornucopiae behind, X below chin / The Dioscuri, each holding spear, riding right; L•CVP below, ROMA in linear frame in exergue. Crawford 218/1; RSC Cupiennia 1. 3.82g, 19mm, 4h. Near Mint State.

400

Ex private Spanish collection.

520. C. Antestius AR Denarius. Rome, 146 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; C•ANTESTI (ligate) upwards behind, X below chin / The Dioscuri, each holding spear, riding right; dog, with both fore-feet raised, below horses, ROMA in exergue. Crawford 219/1e; RSC Antestia 1. 3.78g, 19mm, 9h. Extremely Fine. Ex Jesus Vico, 9 June 1994, lot 117.

178

300


521. C. Valerius C. f. Flaccus AR Denarius. Rome, 140 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; XVI behind / Victory driving galloping biga right, holding reins and whip; FLAC above, C•VAL•C•F below, ROMA in exergue. Crawford 228/1; RSC Valeria 8. 3.95g, 19mm, 9h. Good Very Fine.

200

From the R.C. Vermeer Collection; Ex Dr. Busso Peus Nachfolger 419, 27 April 2017, lot 122; Ex Spink Numismatic Circular 1975.

522

523

522. Cn. Lucretius Trio AR Denarius. Rome, 136 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; TRIO downwards behind, X below chin / The Dioscuri, each holding spear, riding right; CN•LVCR below, ROMA in exergue. Crawford 237/1a; RSC Lucretia 1. 3.84g, 18mm, 11h. Near Mint State. From the R.C. Vermeer Collection.

100

523. P. Maenius Antiaticus M. f. AR Denarius. Rome, 132 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; XVI monogram behind / Victory driving galloping quadriga right, holding reins and whip; P•MAE ANT (ligate) below, ROMA in exergue. Crawford 249/1; RSC Maenia 7. 3.99g, 20mm, 2h. Good Very Fine. Ex Elvira E. Clain-Stefanelli Collection, Naville Numismatics 28, 22 January 2017, lot 453.

100

524. C. Caecilius Metellus AR Denarius. Rome, 125 BC. Head of Roma right, wearing helmet surmounted by eagle’s head; ROMA downwards behind, monogram below chin / Jupiter, being crowned by Victory flying right, in biga of elephants to left, holding thunderbolt and reins; C•METELLVS in exergue. Crawford 269/1; RSC Caecilia 14. 3.85g, 17mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

750

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 78, 27 May 2014, lot 421.

525. Anonymous AR Denarius. Rome, 115-114 BC. Head of Roma right, wearing winged and crested helmet; X behind, ROMA below / Roma, helmeted, seated right on two shields, holding spear before her; wolf standing right at her feet, head turned back, suckling Romulus and Remus; in left and right fields, two birds flying towards her. Crawford 287/1; RSC 176. 3.98g, 22mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine.

1,000

From a private South American collection. A notoriously difficult issue to find in good condition, this iconic reverse design portrays the Roman foundation myth in a new manner – showing the goddess Roma watching over the twins Romulus and Remus as they are suckled by the she-wolf, waiting for the day that Rome will be built. The contemporary popularity of the type is evidenced by its subsequent reproduction on the later coinage of Titus.

179


526. M. Furius L. f. Philus AR Denarius. Rome, 120 BC. Laureate head of Janus; M•FOVRI•L•F around / Roma standing left, holding wreath and sceptre; to left, trophy of Gallic arms flanked by a carnyx and shield on each side; star above, ROMA to right, PHI•L•I (ligate) in exergue. Crawford 281/1; RSC Furia 18. 3.96g, 19mm, 2h. Near Mint State. In excellent state of preservation for the type.

500

Ex Dr. Allan Smith Collection; Privately purchased from Ed Waddell, November 2016; Ex Roma Numismatics XII, 29 September 2016, lot 499.

527

528

527. M. Furius L. f. Philus AR Denarius. Rome, 120 BC. Laureate head of Janus; M•FOVRI•L•F around / Roma standing left, holding wreath and sceptre; to left, trophy of Gallic arms flanked by a carnyx and shield on each side; star above, ROMA to right, PHI•L•I (ligate) in exergue. Crawford 281/1; RSC Furia 18. 3.89g, 21mm, 12h. About Extremely Fine. 300 Ex private Spanish collection. 528. M. Sergius Silus AR Denarius. Rome, 116-115 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; ROMA downwards and XVI monogram behind, EX•S•C upwards before / Helmeted horseman galloping left, holding sword and severed Gallic head; Q in lower left field, M•SERGI below, SILVS in exergue. Crawford 286/1; RSC Sergia 1. 3.84g, 20mm, 5h. Near Extremely Fine. An excellent example of this issue. Ex private Spanish collection.

250

529. L. Manlius Torquatus AR Denarius. Rome, 113-112 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; ROMA downwards behind, X below chin, all within torque / Helmeted horseman galloping left, holding spear and shield; Q above, L•TORQVA below, EX•S•C in exergue. Crawford 295/1; RSC Manlia 25. 3.92g, 20mm, 7h. Extremely Fine; unusually complete and well-centred for the issue.

400

Ex private Spanish collection.

530. A. Manlius Q. f. Sergianus AR Denarius. Rome, 118-107 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; SER downwards behind, ROMA upwards before / Sol standing facing in spread quadriga rising from the waves of the sea; X and crescent above, XVI monograms in both fields, A•MANLI•Q•F below. Crawford 309/1; RSC Manlia 1. 3.72g, 20mm, 1h. Very Fine. Rare. From the R.C. Vermeer Collection; Ex Dr. Busso Peus Nachfolger 322, 1 November 1988, lot 223.

180

250


531. C. Coelius Caldus AR Denarius. Rome, 104 BC. Helmeted head of Roma left / Victory driving galloping biga left, holding reins and whip; •H above, C•COIL below, CALD in exergue. Crawford 318/1a; RSC Coelia 2. 3.94g, 19mm, 3h. Extremely Fine. Beautiful golden iridescent highlights.

400

Ex private Spanish collection.

A Superb Minucius Thermus Denarius

532. Q. Minucius Thermus M.f. AR Denarius. Rome, 103 BC. Helmeted head of Mars left / Two warriors in combat, one on left protecting a fallen comrade; Q•THERM•MF (ligate) in exergue. Crawford 319/1; RSC Minucia 19. 4.08g, 19mm, 8h. Near Mint State.

1,500

Ex Dr. Patrick H. C. Tan Collection, Triton XX, 9 January 2017, lot 509. This coin records the brave deeds of the moneyer’s ancestor and namesake, Quintus Minucius Q. f. L. n. Thermus who was elected consul in 193 and assigned Liguria as his province. From his base in Pisa, he waged war against the Ligurians. His command was extended for the following year, during which time he defeated the Ligurian forces near Pisa. He remained as proconsul in Liguria for 191–190. During this time it appears that he may have won the distinction of the corona civica, the second highest military award to which a Roman could aspire, by saving the life of a fellow citizen in battle through slaying an enemy on a spot not further held by the enemy army that day - this act being depicted on the reverse. He may also have been the same Thermus who served as military tribune under Scipio in North Africa in 202 BC. Appian relates that about this time there was a cavalry engagement between the forces of Hannibal and those of Scipio near Zama, in which the latter had the advantage. On the succeeding days they had sundry skirmishes until Scipio, learning that Hannibal was very short of supplies and was expecting a convoy, sent the military tribune, [Quintus Minucius] Thermus, by night to attack the supply train. Thermus took a position on the crest of a hill at a narrow pass, where he killed 4,000 Africans, took as many more prisoners, and brought the supplies to Scipio.

A Perfectly Preserved M. Servilius Denarius

533. M. Servilius AR Denarius. Rome, 100 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; control mark Є behind / Two warriors, a Roman and a barbarian, fighting on foot, each with a horse behind him; M•SERVEILI•C•[F] V in two lines in exergue. Crawford 327/1; RSC Servilia 13. 3.48g, 20mm, 6h. Mint State; lustrous metal. The best preserved example on CoinArchives by a substantial margin. Extremely rare thus.

1,000

Ex Nomisma s.p.a. 35, 17 October 2007, lot 226. This issue commemorates the heroic deeds of M. Servilius Pulex Geminus, the younger son of Gaius Servilius Geminus who was praetor about 220 BC, and grandson of Publius Servilius Geminus who was consul in 252. Servilius was elected Augur in 211 BC (a post he held until his death), curule aedile in 204, magister equitum in 203, and consul in 202. A skilled duellist, he was said to have received wounds in twenty-three single combats and to have been victorious in all. In 167 BC, during the debate whether to grant a triumph to Lucius Aemilius Paullus, Servilius - then an old man - addressed the people in favour of Paullus, showing his multiple scars earned in battle in order to impress the crowd.

181


534. C. Poblicius Malleolus AR Denarius. Rome, 96 BC. Helmeted head of Mars right; mallet (malleolus) above, mark of value below chin / Warrior standing left before trophy, right foot on cuirass, holding spear; C•MAL and caduceus above prow behind. Crawford 335/3c; RSC Poblicia 6. 3.92g, 19mm, 7h. Extremely Fine; lustrous metal. Scarce variety.

500

Ex private Spanish collection.

535. C. Allius Bala AR Denarius. Rome, 92 BC. Diademed female head right; BALA behind, G below chin / Diana driving biga of stags to right, with quiver over shoulder, holding sceptre and reins in left hand and torch in right; plough below horses, C•ALL[I] in exergue; all within laurel wreath. Crawford 336/1b; RSC Allia 4. 3.99g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; well-struck example displaying a full obverse border.

500

Ex private Spanish collection.

Two Excellent Denarii of the Social War

536. The Social War, C. Papius AR Denarius. Mint moving with Papius in Campania, circa 90 BC. Helmeted and draped bust of Mars right; X• and VITELIV (= ITALIA) retrograde in Oscan script behind / Oath-taking scene of four soldiers, two on each side, pointing their swords at pig held by kneeling youth; C•PAAPI•C• (retrograde and in Oscan characters) in exergue. Campana 83; Sydenham 637; HN Italy 425. 3.45g, 19mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

1,250

From the collection of Z.P., Austria.

537. The Social War, Marsic Confederation AR Denarius. Bovianum(?), 89 BC. Laureate head of Italia left; VITELIV (= ITALIA) retrograde in Oscan script behind / Soldier standing facing, with foot on uncertain object, holding inverted spear and sword, and head right facing recumbent bull to right; I in exergue. Campana group 9b, 141 (D97/R118); Sydenham 627; HN Italy 407. 3.75g, 21mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

182

2,000


538. L. Cornelius Sulla AR Denarius. Mint moving with Sulla in Asia or Greece, 84-83 BC. Diademed bust of Venus right, cupid standing left before, holding palm; [L]•SVLLA below / Capis and lituus between two trophies; IMPER above, ITERVM below. Crawford 359/2; RSC Cornelia 29. 3.94g, 20mm, 1h. Near Extremely Fine; struck on a very large flan.

500

Ex private Spanish collection.

539. C. Mamilius Limetanus AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 82 BC. Bust of Mercury right, draped and wearing winged petasos; caduceus [and control letter] behind / Ulysses standing right, holding staff in left hand and extending right hand to Argus; C•MAMIL downwards to left, LIMETAN upwards to right. Crawford 362/1; RSC Mamilia 6. 4.04g, 20mm, 8h. Extremely Fine.

500

540. C. Valerius Flaccus AR Denarius. Massalia, 82 BC. Draped and winged bust of Victory right; E behind / Legionary eagle between two standards inscribed H (Hastati) and P (Principes); C•VAL•FLA (ligate) upwards to left, IMPERAT upwards to right, EX• S•C below. Crawford 365/1b; BMCRR Gaul 17; RSC Valeria 12b. 3.77g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

300

Ex private Spanish collection.

541. C. Annius T. f. T. n. and L. Fabius L. f. Hispaniensis AR Denarius. Mint in north Italy or Spain, 82-81 BC. Diademed and draped bust of Anna Perenna right; C•ANNI•T•F•T•N•V•PRO•COS•EX•S•C• around, scales before, winged caduceus behind, symbol (wing?) below / Victory driving galloping quadriga right, holding reins and palm-branch; Q• above, L•FABI•L•F•HIS[P] in exergue. Crawford 366/1a; RSC Annia 2a. 3.89g, 19mm, 8h. Extremely Fine. Beautiful light tone with iridescent highlights.

500

Ex private Spanish collection.

542. C. Annius T. f. T. n. and L. Fabius L. f. Hispaniensis AR Denarius. Mint in north Italy or Spain, 82-81 BC. Diademed and draped bust of Anna Perenna right; C•ANNI•T•F•T•N•V•PRO•COS•EX•S•C• around; all within beaded border / Victory driving galloping quadriga right, holding reins and palm-branch; Q• above, E• below horses, L•FABI•L•F•HISP in exergue. Crawford 366/2b; RSC Annia 3a. 3.69g, 20mm, 9h. Near Mint State. Very rare variety, unusually complete and struck on a very large flan.

183

500


543. L. Cornelius Sulla and L. Manlius Torquatus AR Denarius. Rome, 82 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; L•MANLI upwards to right, PRO•Q downwards to left / Sulla as triumphator in slow quadriga right, holding reins and caduceus, being crowned by Victory flying left above; [L]•SVLLA•IM in exergue. Crawford 367/3; RSC Cornelia 42. 3.90g, 17mm, 11h. Extremely Fine.

750

Ex Jesus Vico, 9 June 1992, lot 220.

544. Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius AR Denarius. Spain, 81 BC. Diademed bust of Pietas right; stork standing right before / Jug and lituus; IMPER in exergue; all within laurel wreath. Crawford 374/2; RSC Caecilia 44. 3.86g, 20mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine; attractive old cabinet tone.

200

From the R.C. Vermeer Collection; Ex Naville Numismatics 33, 16 July 2017, lot 345 (then sold with an export license from Italy).

545. L. Procilius AR Denarius. Rome, 80 BC. Laureate head of Jupiter right; S•C downwards behind / Juno Sospita advancing right, hurling spear and holding shield decorated with thunderbolt; L•PROCILI•F downwards in two lines to left, serpent to right. Crawford 379/1; RSC Procilia 1. 3.77g, 18mm, 1h. Near Mint State.

500

Purchased from Numismatica Varesi, December 1998.

546. L. Procilius AR Denarius. Rome, 80 BC. Laureate head of Jupiter right; S•C downwards behind / Juno Sospita advancing right, hurling spear and holding shield decorated with thunderbolt; L•PROCILI•F downwards in two lines to left, serpent to right. Crawford 379/1; RSC Procilia 1. 3.93g, 18mm, 3h. Extremely Fine; light golden iridescence. Ex private Spanish collection.

184

250


Fleur De Coin

547. C. Poblicius Q. f. AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 80 BC. Helmeted and draped bust of Roma right; T above, ROMA downwards behind / Hercules standing left, strangling the Nemean lion; club at his feet, bow and arrows in bowcase to lower left, T to upper left, C•POBLICI•Q•F upwards to right. Crawford 380/1; RSC Poblicia 9. 3.95g, 19mm, 4h. Fleur De Coin.

2,500

Purchased from Numismatics Varesi, May 1994.

548. C. Poblicius Q. f. AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 80 BC. Helmeted and draped bust of Roma right; T above, ROMA downwards behind / Hercules standing left, strangling the Nemean lion; club at his feet, bow and arrows in bowcase to lower left, T to upper left, C•POBLICI•Q•F upwards to right. Crawford 380/1; RSC Poblicia 9. 3.90g, 19mm, 8h. Near Mint State; lightly toned with bright lustre and subtle iridescence. Previously slabbed by NGC and graded MS* Strike 5/5, Surface 5/5.

750

549. Cn. Lentulus AR Denarius. Spanish (?) mint, 76-75 BC. Diademed and draped bust of Genius Populi Romani right, with sceptre over shoulder; G•P•R above / Sceptre with wreath, globe and rudder; EX to left, S•C to right, LENT•CVR•Ӿ•FL in exergue. Crawford 393/1b; RSC Cornelia 55. 3.99g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; lustrous.

300

Ex private Spanish collection.

550. Pub. Lentulus P. f. L. n. Spinther AR Denarius. Rome, 74 BC. Bust of Hercules right; Q•S•C behind / Genius of the Roman People seated facing, holding cornucopiae and sceptre, being crowned by Victory flying left above; P•LENT•P•F downwards to left, L•N upwards to right. Crawford 397/1; RSC Cornelia 58. 3.88g, 18mm, 10h. Very Fine; attractive old cabinet tone. From the R.C. Vermeer Collection; Ex Münz Zentrum Rheinland 179, 11-12 January 2017, lot 279.

185

500


551. Q. Fufius Kalenus and Mucius Cordus AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 70 BC. Jugate heads right of Honos, laureate, and Virtus, wearing crested helmet; KALENI below, HO behind, VIRT before / Italia standing right, holding cornucopiae, and Roma standing left, foot on globe and holding sceptre, clasping hands; winged caduceus and ITAL monogram behind Italia, RO behind Roma, CORDI in exergue. Crawford 403/1; RSC Fufia 1. 3.94g, 20mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine.

300

From the R.C. Vermeer Collection; Ex Kölner Münzkabinett 34, 15 Apr 1983, lot 147.

552. T. Vettius Sabinus AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 70 BC. Bareheaded and bearded head of King Tatius right; SABINVS downwards behind, S•C downwards before, TA monogram (for Tatius) below chin / Togate figure, holding reins and magistrate’s sceptre, driving slow biga left; IVDEX above, stalk of grain to right, T•VETTIVS in exergue. Crawford 404/1; RSC Vettia 2. 3.75g, 20mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine.

500

A Very Rare Plaetorius Denarius

553. M. Plaetorius M. f. Cestianus AR Denarius. Rome, 69 BC. Draped female bust left, wearing winged diadem; control-mark behind / Pediment of temple within which an anguipede monster holding cornucopiae; M•PLAETORI on entablature, CEST•S•C• in exergue. Crawford 405/1b; RSC Plaetoria 9b. 3.89g, 21mm, 9h. Near Mint State. Very Rare.

1,500

Ex private Spanish collection. This type may have been issued on the occasion of the celebration of the Ludi Florales, which were games arranged in honour of the goddess Flora to invoke the seasonable appearance of the flowers. They were celebrated on the 29th April in Rome, under the direction of the curule aediles. The obverse bust may be that of Fortuna, and the reverse a view of the tympanum of her celebrated temple at Praeneste. The gens Plaetoria was of Sabine origin, and of the Cestianus family there are fifty seven varieties of coins engraved by Morell, all silver, amongst which there are pieces struck in honour of Brutus, including the celebrated EID MAR denarius.

554. M. Plaetorius M. f. Cestianus AR Denarius. Rome, 69 BC. Male head right, with flowing hair; control mark behind / Winged caduceus; M•PLAETORI downwards to right, CEST•EX•S•C downwards to left. Crawford 405/5; RSC Plaetoria 5. 3.53g, 19mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine; lustrous metal with light cabinet tone. Ex private Spanish collection.

186

300


555. M. Plaetorius M. f. Cestianus AR Denarius. Rome, 69 BC. Male head right, with flowing hair; control mark behind / Winged caduceus; M•PLAETORI downwards to right, CEST•EX•S•C downwards to left. Crawford 405/5; RSC Plaetoria 5. 3.86g, 19mm, 4h. Extremely Fine.

200

From the R.C. Vermeer Collection; Ex Dr. Busso Peus Nachfolger 419, 27 April 2017, lot 314; Privately purchased from Spink & Son, London.

556. P. Galba AR Denarius. Rome, 69 BC. Veiled head of Vesta right; S•C downwards behind / Secespita, simpulum, and securis; AE in left field, CVR in right field, P•GALB in exergue. Crawford 406/1; RSC Sulpicia 7. 3.68g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

150

From the R.C. Vermeer Collection.

557. C. Hosidius C. f. Geta AR Denarius. Rome, 68 BC. Draped bust of Diana right, wearing stephane, earring and double necklace of pendants, with bow and quiver over shoulder; III VIR downwards to left, GETA downwards to right / The Calydonian boar standing right, its front legs thrust forward, pierced by spear and harried by hound right below; C HOSIDI C F in exergue. Crawford 407/2; RSC Hosidia 1. 3.84g, 18mm, 4h. Good Extremely Fine. Beautifully detailed reverse.

500

Ex Freeman and Sear MBS 1, 10 March 1995, lot 300.

558. C. Hosidius C. f. Geta AR Denarius. Rome, 68 BC. Draped bust of Diana right, wearing stephane, earring and necklace with bow and quiver over shoulder; III VIR downwards to left, GETA downwards to right/ The Calydonian boar standing right, its front legs thrust forward, pierced through by a spear and harried by a hound below; C•HOSIDI•C•F in exergue. Crawford 407/2; RSC Hosidia 1. 3.97g, 17mm, 4h. Good Extremely Fine.

300

Ex Gorny & Mosch 249, 11 October 2017, lot 475; Ex Bertolami Fine Arts 15, 27 April 2015, lot 417.

559. C. Calpurnius L. f. Frugi AR Denarius. Rome, 67 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right; monogram behind / Nude horseman galloping right, carrying long palm over shoulder; C PISO•L•F FRVG and symbol (flower?) below. Crawford 408/1b; RSC Calpurnia 24. 3.98g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; one of the most attractive obverse dies of the series. Ex private Spanish collection.

187

500


Hercules, Leader of the Muses

560. Q. Pomponius Musa AR Denarius. Rome, 66 BC. Diademed head of Apollo right; Q•POMPONI downwards behind, MVSA upwards before / Hercules standing right, wearing lion skin headdress and playing lyre, with club at his side; HERCVLES downwards to right, MVSARVM downwards to left. Crawford 410/1; RSC Pomponia 8. 3.94g, 18mm, 6h. Mint State; light golden iridescence.

5,000

Known in Greece as Hercules Musagetes, or leader of the choir of Muses, and appropriately shown here playing a lyre, his worship was often associated with that paid to the nine virgin goddesses of poetry and civilisation. It is difficult to account for this seeming abandonment of Apollo’s maiden companions by the God of Song himself to the protection of another and inferior divinity, however such were the contradictions and inconsistencies of the superstitious patchwork which formed the Greco-Roman system of deification. The subject before us has been reasonably supposed to indicate, by an allegory, that the cultivation of intellectual pursuits rests secure under the guardianship of strength and courage, and that the heroic genius of Hercules can be worthily proclaimed only through the influence of the Muses.

561. Q. Pomponius Musa AR Denarius. Rome, 66 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right; tortoise behind / Terpsichore, the Muse of Dance, standing right, holding plectrum and lyre; Q•POMPONI downwards to right, MVSA downwards to left. Crawford 410/7a; RSC Pomponia 18a. 3.91g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

2,000

Ex private Spanish collection.

562. Q. Pomponius Musa AR Denarius. Rome, 66 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right; sandal behind / Thalia, the Muse of Comedy and Idyllic Poetry, standing left, holding comic mask and resting elbow on column; Q•POMPONI downwards to right, MVSA downwards to left. Crawford 410/9b; RSC Pomponia 19. 3.66g, 17mm, 1h. Near Mint State; attractive light tone with hints of golden iridescence.

1,500

Ex private Spanish collection. Thalia, like all the Muses, is the daughter of Zeus and Mnemosyne and the eighth child born of the nine, her name meaning ‘the joyous’, or ‘the flourishing’.

188


563. L. Manlius Torquatus AR Denarius. Rome, 65 BC. Ivy-wreathed head of Sybil right; SIBYLLA below neck truncation / Tripod, on which stands amphora flanked by two stars; L•TORQVAT downwards to left, III•VIR upwards to right, all within torque. Crawford 411/1b; RSC Manlia 12. 3.98g, 18mm, 3h. Extremely Fine. A superb example of the type, with a deep old cabinet tone.

1,500

Ex Bernard Poindessault (1935-2014) legacy.

564. L. Manlius Torquatus AR Denarius. Rome, 65 BC. Ivy-wreathed head of Sybil right; [SIBYLLA below neck truncation] / Tripod, on which stands amphora flanked by two stars; L•TORQVAT downwards to left, III•VIR upwards to right, all within torque. Crawford 411/1b; RSC Manlia 12. 3.98g, 17mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Lustrous metal.

1,000

Ex private Spanish collection.

565. L. Manlius Torquatus AR Denarius. Rome, 65 BC. Ivy-wreathed head of Sybil right; [SIBYLLA below neck truncation]; all within laurel wreath / Tripod, on which stands amphora flanked by two stars; L•TORQVAT downwards to left, III•VIR upwards to right, all within torque. Crawford 411/1a; RSC Manlia 11. 3.97g, 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Beautiful light tone with golden iridescent highlights.

750

Ex private Spanish collection.

566. L. Manlius Torquatus AR Denarius. Rome, 65 BC. Ivy-wreathed head of Sybil right; SIBYLLA below neck truncation; all within laurel wreath / Tripod, on which stands amphora flanked by two stars; L•TORQVAT downwards to left, III•VIR upwards to right, all within torque. Crawford 411/1a; RSC Manlia 11. 3.83g, 20mm, 4h. Good Very Fine. Ex Dr. Allan Smith Collection.

189

750


567. L. Roscius Fabatus AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 64 BC. Head of Juno Sospita right, wearing goat-skin headdress; shield behind, [L•ROSCI below] / Female standing right facing serpent; spear in left field, pellet in central field, FABATI in exergue. Crawford 412/1; RSC Roscia 3. 3.86g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; beautiful light cabinet tone. Very rare symbols. Ex private Spanish collection.

750

568. L. Roscius Fabatus AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 59 BC. Head of Juno Sospita right, wearing goat skin headdress; pileus of the Dioscuri surmounted by star behind, [L•ROSCI below] / Female standing right facing serpent; pileus of the Dioscuri surmounted by star to left, FABATI in exergue. Crawford 412/1; RSC Roscia 3. 3.94g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare symbols.

500

569. L. Roscius Fabatus AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 64 BC. Head of Juno Sospita right, wearing goat-skin headdress; control mark behind, [L•ROSCI below] / Female standing right facing serpent; control mark in left field, pellet in central field, FABATI in exergue. Crawford 412/1; RSC Roscia 3. 3.90g, 19mm, 8h. Mint State. Light cabinet tone with hints of violet and golden iridescence.

500

Ex private Spanish collection.

570. L. Roscius Fabatus AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 64 BC. Head of Juno Sospita right, wearing goat-skin headdress; control mark behind, [L•ROSCI below] / Female standing right facing serpent; control mark in left field, [FABATI in exergue]. Crawford 412/1; RSC Roscia 3. 3.98g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

300

Ex Jesus Vico, 10 September 1994, lot 330.

571

572

571. L. Furius Brocchus AR Denarius. Rome, 63 BC. Wreathed and draped bust of Ceres right, between wheat-ear and barley corn; III-VIR across upper fields, BROCCHI below neck truncation / Curule chair between fasces; L•FVRI CN•F in two lines above. Crawford 414/1; RSC Furia 23a. 3.88g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. 250 572. L. Furius Brocchus AR Denarius. Rome, 63 BC. Wreathed and draped bust of Ceres right, between wheat-ear and barley corn; III-VIR across upper fields, BROCCHI below neck truncation / Curule chair between fasces; L•FVRI CN•F in two lines above. Crawford 414/1; RSC Furia 23a. 3.67g, 19mm, 7h. Good Very Fine. Well centred, and struck on a full flan with attractive iridescent toning. 200

190


573. M. Piso M. f. Frugi AR Denarius. Rome, 61 BC. Terminal bust of Mercury right; star above wreath in left field, calyx in right field / M•PISO•M•F FRVGI in two lines above secespita and patera; all within laurel wreath. Crawford 418/2b; RSC Calpurnia 23. 4.00g, 18mm, 10h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

1,500

From the R.C. Vermeer Collection; Ex Jean Elsen & ses Fils, 9 December 2017, lot 134.

574. M. Aemilius Lepidus AR Denarius. Rome, 61 BC. Diademed female head right / Horseman right, carrying trophy over shoulder; AN•XV•PR•H•O•C•S• around; M•LEPIDVS in exergue. Crawford 419/1a; RSC Aemilia 21. 3.89g, 18mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

500

Ex private Spanish collection.

Ex Haeberlin Collection

575. M. Nonius Sufenas AR Denarius. Rome, 59 BC. Bearded head of Saturn right; harpa and baetyl behind, SVFENAS downwards before / Roma seated left on cuirass and shields, holding sceptre and sword, being crowned by Victory standing left behind, holding palm frond; PR•L•V•P•F around, SEX•NONI• in exergue. Crawford 421/1; RSC Nonia 1. 3.94g, 19mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Attractive old cabinet tone.

500

Ex Eberhard Link Collection, collector’s ticket included; Ex Münzen und Medaillen FPL 283, 1967, no. 51; Ex Ernst Justus Haeberlin Collection, E. Cahn and A. Hess Nachf., 17 July 1933, lot 2315.

576

577

576. M. Nonius Sufenas AR Denarius. Rome, 59 BC. Bearded head of Saturn right; harpa and baetyl behind, SVFENAS downwards before / Roma seated left on cuirass and shields, holding sceptre and sword, being crowned by Victory standing left behind, holding palm frond; PR•L•V•P•F around, SEX•NONI• in exergue. Crawford 421/1; RSC Nonia 1. 3.91g, 19mm, 3h. Good Extremely Fine. 500 577. M. Nonius Sufenas AR Denarius. Rome, 59 BC. Bearded head of Saturn right; harpa and baetyl behind, SVFENAS downwards before / Roma seated left on cuirass and shields, holding sceptre and sword, being crowned by Victory standing left behind, holding palm frond; PR•L•V•P•F around, SEX•NONI• in exergue. Crawford 421/1; RSC Nonia 1. 3.86g, 18mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. 300 Ex private Spanish collection.

191


578. Faustus Cornelius Sulla AR Denarius. Rome, 56 BC. Draped bust of Diana right, wearing diadem with crescent; lituus behind, FAVSTVS downwards before / Sulla seated left on platform above kneeling figures of Bocchus, king of Mauretania, on left who offers an olive branch and Jugurtha, king of Numidia, on right, his hands tied behind his back; FELIX downwards to right. Crawford 426/1; RSC Cornelia 59. 3.93g, 20mm, 8h. Extremely Fine; pleasant light tone.

500

Ex private Spanish collection.

579. C. Memmius C. f. AR Denarius. Rome, 56 BC. Head of Ceres right, wearing wreath of grain ears; C•MEMMI•C•F downwards before / Naked captive, his hands tied behind his back, kneeling right at foot of trophy of arms with a Greek shield; C•MEMMIVS downwards to right, IMPERATOR downwards to left. Crawford 427/1; RSC Memmia 10. 3.92g, 21mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine; well struck on a very large flan.

2,000

Ex private Spanish collection.

580. C. Memmius C. f. AR Denarius. Rome, 56 BC. Laureate head of Quirinus right; QVRINVS downwards behind, C•MEMMI•C•F downards before / Ceres seated right, holding torch and corn-ears, serpent before; MEMMIVS•AED•CERIALIA•PREIMVS•FECIT around. Crawford 427/2; RSC Memmia 9. 4.02g, 18mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

750

Ex private Spanish collection.

581. P. Licinius Crassus AR Denarius. Rome, 55 BC. Diademed, laureate and draped bust of Venus right; S•C downwrads behind / Female figure leading horse left, holding spear and with cuirass and shield at her feet; P•CRASSVS•M•F around. Crawford 430/1; RSC Licinia 18. 4.04g, 20mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine. From the R.C. Vermeer Collection; Ex private Spanish collection.

192

500


582. Q. Servilius Caepio (M. Junius) Brutus AR Denarius. Rome, 54 BC. Bare head of L. Junius Brutus right; BRVTVS downwards to left / Bare head of C. Servilius Ahala right; AHALA downwards to left. Crawford 433/2; RSC Junia 30. 3.71g, 18mm, 8h. Near Mint State; edge nick. Lightly toned with hints of golden iridescence.

1,000

Ex private Spanish collection. Caius Servilius Ahala served as magister equitum in 439 BC, when Cincinnatus was appointed dictator on the supposition that Spurius Maelius was styling himself a king and plotting against the state. During the night on which the dictator was appointed, the capitol and all the strong posts were garrisoned by the partisans of the patricians. In the morning, when the people assembled in the forum, with Spurius Maelius among them, Ahala summoned the latter to appear before the dictator; and upon Maelius disobeying and taking refuge in the crowd, Ahala rushed into the throng and killed him. Though considered an act of murder at the time, Ahala was regarded by later writers as a hero.

583. C. Coelius Caldus AR Denarius. Rome, 51 BC. Head of Coelius Caldus right, standard inscribed HS behind, [standard in the form of a boar before]; C•COEL•CALDVS downwards before, [COS below] / Table, inscribed L•CALDVS•VII•VR (ligate) EP•VL (ligate) in two lines, with figure behind preparing epulum; on right, trophy with Macedonian shield; on left, trophy with carnyx and oval shield decorated with thunderbolt; on far left, C•CALDVS downwards; on far right, IMP•A•X downwards; below, CALDVS•III VIR. Crawford 437/2b; RSC Coelia 9. 3.83g, 18mm, 3h. Extremely Fine; old cabinet tone with golden iridescence.

500

From the R.C. Vermeer Collection; Ex Jean Elsen & ses Fils 135, 9 December 2017, lot 152.

584. Cn. Nerius, L. Lentulus and Claudius Marcellus AR Denarius. Rome, 49 BC. Head of Saturn right, harpa over shoulder; NERI•Q•VRB (ligate) downwards before / Aquila between two signa inscribed H (for Hastati) and P (for Principes), respectively; L•LENT upwards to left, C•MARC upwards to right, CO-S across lower fields. Crawford 441/1; RSC Neria 1; CRI 2; BMCRR Rome 3950. 3.80g, 20mm, 2h. About Extremely Fine.

750

Ex Jesus Vico, 13 March 1997, lot 79.

Ex Numismatic Fine Arts 1990

585. L. Hostilius Saserna AR Denarius. Rome, 48 BC. Head of Gallic captive right; [Gallic shield behind] / Two warriors in galloping biga right: one driving, holding whip and reins, [and the other, facing backward, holding shield and brandishing spear]; [L•HO]STILIVS above, SASERN below. Crawford 448/2a; RSC Hostilia 2; CRI 18. 3.84g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; slight area of weak strike. Beautifully toned, with golden highlights. Ex Randy Haviland Collection, Gemini X, 13 January 2013, lot 183; Ex Hess-Divo 317, 27 October 2010, lot 755; Ex Philip Davis Collection, Harlan J. Berk 94, 16 January 1997, lot 326; Ex Numismatic Fine Arts Fall Mail Bid Sale, 18 October 1990, lot 1335.

193

2,000


586. L. Hostilius Saserna AR Denarius. Rome, 48 BC. Head of Gallic captive right; Gallic shield behind / Two warriors in galloping biga right: one driving, holding whip and reins, and the other, facing backward, holding shield and brandishing spear; [L•HOSTILIVS above], SASERN below. Crawford 448/2a; RSC Hostilia 2; CRI 18. 3.97g, 19mm, 7h. About Extremely Fine.

1,000

From a private British collection; Ex Nomisma Nomisma s.p.a. 52, 12 May 2015, lot 37.

587. L. Hostilius Saserna AR Denarius. Rome, 48 BC. Bare head of Gallia right, with long, dishevelled hair; carnyx behind / Artemis (Diana) standing facing, laureate and wearing long flowing robes, with long hair falling down her shoulders, and holding spear in left hand and stag by its antlers in right; L•HOSTILIVS downwards to right, SASERNA upwards to left. Crawford 448/3; RSC Hostilia 4. 3.99g, 21mm, 2h. Extremely Fine; dark cabinet tone.

250

From the R.C. Vermeer Collection; Ex Dr. Walter Neussel Collection.

588. C. Vibius C. f. C. n. Pansa Caetronianus AR Denarius. Rome, 48 BC. Mask of bearded Pan right; [PANSA below] / Jupiter Axurus (or Anxurus) seated left, holding patera in right hand, sceptre in left; C•VIBIVS•C•F•[C•N] downwards to right, IOVIS•AXVR upwards to left. Crawford 449/1a; RSC Vibia 18. 3.30g, 18mm, 2h. Good Extremely Fine; golden iridescence, some light surface adhesions.

500

Ex private Spanish collection; Purchased from Jesus Vico, June 1992.

589. D. Junius Brutus Albinus AR Denarius. Rome, 48 BC. Bare head of the consul Aulus Postumius Albinus right; A•POSTVMIVS•COS around / ALBINV BRVTI•F in two lines within wreath of grain ears. Crawford 450/3b; RSC Postumia 14. 3.85g, 18mm, 4h. Good Extremely Fine. Ex Sotheby’s, 28 October 1993, lot 1354.

194

750


A Well Detailed Head of Medusa

590. L. Plautius Plancus AR Denarius. Rome, 47 BC. Head of Medusa facing, with coiled snake on either side; L•PLAV[TIVS] below / Aurora flying right, conducting the four horses of the sun and holding palm frond; PLANCVS below. Crawford 453/1a; RSC Plautia 11; CRI 29. 3.79g, 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Attractive lustre and golden toning.

1,000

Ex A. Tkalec, 27 October 2011, lot 154. This moneyer was the brother of L. Munatius but was adopted into the Plautia gens. Ovid relates that during the censorship of C. Plautius and Ap. Claudius Caecus in 312 BC, the latter quarrelled with the Tibicenes, who retired to Tibur. As the people resented their loss, Plautius caused them to be placed in wagons and conveyed back to Rome early in the morning, and in order that they should not be recognised their faces were covered with masks. The depiction of Aurora is an allusion to their early arrival and the mask to the concealment of their faces. In commemoration of this event the Quinquatrus Minusculae were celebrated yearly at Rome on the 13th June, at which those who took part in them wore masks.

A Very Rare C. Antius Restio Sestertius

2x

2x

591. C. Antius C. f. Restio AR Sestertius. Rome, 47 BC. Facing bucranium with garlanded horns; C ANTIVS below / Lit altar; RES-TIO across fields. Crawford 455/4; RSC 4; CRI 37; RBW 1596. 0.68g, 12mm, 12h. Very Fine. Very Rare; very complete for the issue.

1,000

From a private British collection.

592. T. Carisius AR Denarius. Rome, 46 BC. Head of Roma right, wearing ornate crested helmet; ROMA downwards behind / Sceptre, cornucopiae on globe, and rudder, T•CARISI below; all within laurel wreath. Crawford 464/3a; RSC Carisia 4. 3.93g, 17mm, 8h. Near Extremely Fine.

250

From the R.C. Vermeer Collection; Ex private Spanish collection; Ex Ibergold, 1 April 1986, lot 91.

593. L. Valerius Acisculus AR Denarius. Rome, 45 BC. Head of Apollo right; star above, acisculus and ACISCVLVS behind / Europa seated on bull right; L•VALERIVS in exergue. Crawford 474/1a; RSC Valeria 17. 3.84g, 21mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine; rich old cabinet tone. Struck on a broad flan. Ex Jesus Vico, 13 November 1997, lot 173.

195

750


594. L. Valerius Acisculus AR Denarius. Rome, 45 BC. Head of Apollo right; star above, acisculus and ACISCVLVS behind, all within wreath / Europa seated on bull right; L•VALERIVS in exergue. Crawford 474/1b; RSC Valeria 16. 3.99g, 20mm, 4h. Extremely Fine; rich old cabinet tone.

500

Ex Jesus Vico, 9 June 1992, lot 323.

595. L. Valerius Acisculus AR Denarius. Rome, 45 BC. Head of Apollo right; star above, acisculus and ACISCVLVS behind, all within wreath / Europa seated on bull right; L•VALERIVS in exergue. Crawford 474/1b; RSC Valeria 16. 3.65g, 19mm, 2h. Good Very Fine; attractive old cabinet tone.

250

From the R.C. Vermeer Collection; Privately purchased from Montay Numismatique, March 2015.

596. L. Livineius Regulus AR Denarius. Rome, 42 BC. Bare head of the praetor L. Livineius Regulus right / Gladiatorial scene: in foreground, lion charging right toward a combatant who spears it; in background on left, a wounded bear sits right; on right, another gladiator, holding sword and shield, defends himself against a tiger charging left; [L•RE]GVLVS in exergue. Crawford 494/30; RSC Livineia 12. 3.73g, 19mm, 5h. Good Very Fine.

500

From the R.C. Vermeer Collection; Ex Naville Numismatics 33, 16 July 2017, lot 399 (then sold with an export license from Italy); Ex Kunst und Münzen 3, 6 November 1969, lot 183.

A Superb C. Vibius Varus Denarius

597. C. Vibius Varus AR Denarius. Rome, 42 BC. Laureate and bearded head of Hercules right / Minerva standing right, holding spear and Victory, shield set on ground before; VARVS downwards to left, C•VIBIVS downwards to right. Crawford 494/37; RSC Vibia 23. 4.15g, 18mm, 8h. Extremely Fine; old cabinet tone. Rare; an excellent example of the type. Ex Bernard Poindessault (1935-2014) legacy; ticket included.

196

3,000


598. L. Mussidius Longus AR Denarius. Rome, 42 BC. Radiate and draped bust of Sol facing slightly right / The shrine of Venus Cloacina; a low circular platform surmounted by two statues of the goddess, each resting right hand on cippus, the platform inscribed CLOACIN and ornamented with trellis-pattern balustrade, with flight of steps and portico on left; L•MVSSIDIVS•LONGVS above. Crawford 494/43a; RSC Mussidia 7. 3.68g, 19mm, 3h. About Extremely Fine.

750

Ex Jesus Vico, 10 March 1994, lot 269.

COINS OF THE IMPERATORS

599. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Caesar, 49-48 BC. Elephant advancing right, trampling on serpent; CAESAR in exergue / Emblems of the pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, securis (surmounted by wolf’s head), and apex. Crawford 443/1; CRI 9; RSC 49. 3.95g, 19mm, 3h. Mint State.

1,000

Ex private Spanish collection.

600. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Caesar, 49-48 BC. Elephant advancing right, trampling on serpent; CAESAR in exergue / Emblems of the pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, securis (surmounted by wolf’s head), and apex. Crawford 443/1; CRI 9; RSC 49. 3.93g, 19mm, 10h. Extremely Fine.

1,000

601. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Caesar, 49-48 BC. Elephant advancing right, trampling on serpent; CAESAR in exergue / Emblems of the pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, securis (surmounted by wolf’s head), and apex. Crawford 443/1; CRI 9; RSC 49. 3.64g, 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. From the R.C. Vermeer Collection.

197

1,000


602. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Caesar, 49-48 BC. Elephant advancing right, trampling on serpent; CAESAR in exergue / Emblems of the pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, securis (surmounted by wolf’s head), and apex. Crawford 443/1; CRI 9; RSC 49. 3.82g, 20mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

750

From the R.C. Vermeer Collection; Privately purchased from Münzenkontor Kornblum.

603. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Caesar, 49-48 BC. Elephant advancing right, trampling on serpent; CAESAR in exergue / Emblems of the pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, securis (surmounted by wolf’s head), and apex. Crawford 443/1; CRI 9; RSC 49. 3.78g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

500

From the R.C. Vermeer Collection; Ex Fritz Rudolf Künker 153, 14 March 2009, lot 8526.

A Highly Attractive Scipio Denarius

604. Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Scipio in Africa, 47-46 BC. Eppius, legate. Small head of Africa right, wearing elephant skin headdress; grain ear before, plough below, Q•METELL downwards to right, SCIPIO•IMP upwards to left / Hercules standing facing, right hand on hip, leaning on club draped with lion skin and set on rock; LEG•F•C upwards to left, EPPIVS downwards to right. Crawford 461/1; CRI 44; RSC Caecilia 50 and Eppia 1. 3.75g, 18mm, 10h. Good Extremely Fine; in an excellent state of preservation for the type.

750

605. Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Scipio in Africa, 47-46 BC. Laureate head of Jupiter right, in archaic style with beard and hair in ringlets; Q•METEL PIVS around / Elephant standing right; SCIPIO above, IMP below. Crawford 459/1; CRI 45; RSC Caecilia 47. 3.75g, 18mm, 12h. Very Fine. From the R.C. Vermeer Collection; Ex Dr. Busso Peus Nachfolger 419, 27 April 2017, lot 424; Ex Spink Numismatic Circular 1973, 2159.

198

250


606. Cnaeus Pompey Junior AR Denarius. M. Poblicius, legate pro praetore. Corduba (Cordoba) mint, Summer 46-Spring 45 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; M•POBLICI•LEG PRO•PR around / Female figure standing right, with shield slung on back, holding two spears in left hand and with right hand giving palm-branch to soldier, standing left on prow of ship; on right CN•MAGNVS•IMP upwards. Crawford 469/1a; CRI 48; RSC 1 (Pompey the Great). 3.93g, 20mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

1,000

From a private European collection.

607. Cnaeus Pompey Junior AR Denarius. M. Poblicius, legate pro praetore. Corduba (Cordoba) mint, Summer 46-Spring 45 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; M•POBLICI•LEG PRO•PR around / Female figure standing right, with shield slung on back, holding two spears in left hand and with right hand giving palm-branch to soldier, standing left on prow of ship; on right CN•MAGNVS•IMP upwards. Crawford 469/1a; CRI 48; RSC 1 (Pompey the Great). 3.99g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

1,000

608. Cnaeus Pompey Junior AR Denarius. M. Poblicius, legate pro praetore. Corduba (Cordoba) mint, Summer 46-Spring 45 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; M•POBLICI•LEG PRO•PR around / Female figure standing right, with shield slung on back, holding two spears in left hand and with right hand giving palm-branch to soldier, standing left on prow of ship; on right CN•MAGNVS•IMP upwards. Crawford 469/1a; CRI 48; RSC 1 (Pompey the Great). 3.90g, 20mm, 8h. Extremely Fine; pleasant old cabinet tone.

500

From a private British collection.

A Rare Variant

609. Cnaeus Pompey Junior AR Denarius. M. Poblicius, legate pro praetore. Corduba (Cordoba) mint, Summer 46-Spring 45 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; M•POBLICI•LEG PRO•PR around / Female figure standing right, with shield slung on back, holding two spears in left hand and with right hand giving palm-branch to soldier, standing left on prow of ship; on right CN•MAGNVS•IMP upwards. Crawford 469/1e; CRI 48a; RSC 1a (Pompey the Great). 3.91g, 19mm, 8h. Near Mint State. Rare variant obv. legend arrangement. Ex private Spanish collection.

199

1,000


An Extremely Rare Issue of Cnaeus Pompey Junior

610.

Cnaeus Pompey Junior AR Denarius. M. Minatius Sabinus, proquaestor. Corduba (Cordoba) mint, Summer 46-Spring 45 BC. Bare head of Pompey the Great right, IMP behind, CN•MAGNVS before / Spanish city-goddess, holding caduceus in left hand, advancing right and clasping hands with Pompeian soldier in military outfit standing slightly to left, behind whom another city-goddess holding trophy over left shoulder advancing left; PR•Q to right, M•MINAT SABI in two lines in exergue. Crawford 470/1d; CRI 51; T. V. Buttrey, ANSMN 9, 1960, Pg. 77, Type C, and Pl. VII (O1/RH). 3.84g, 18mm, 2h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare; only one example on CoinArchives (in considerably poorer condition).

10,000

Ex private Spanish collection. The eldest son of Pompey Magnus, Cnaeus Pompeius (also commonly referred to as Pompey Junior) and his brother Sextus grew up in the long shadow of their father’s fame as the greatest general of his age. The elder Pompey had seemed to hold the whole Roman world in the palm of his hand, yet in the struggle for mastery of the Republic against his former friend and ally Caesar, Pompey was forced to abandon Italy with his family, and was utterly undone at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC. Defeated, Pompey and his family took flight to Egypt where the general believed they would be safe, since the boy king Ptolemy XIII was indebted to the friendship and the help Pompey had given to his father. Upon their arrival in Egypt however, Pompey was treacherously murdered by a former comrade on the orders of the Egyptian king, who had been advised that this would forestall further civil war, and ingratiate him with Caesar. Stabbed to death by sword and daggers, his head severed and his unclothed body thrown into the sea, Pompey died the day after his sixtieth birthday. Horrified, his family put back out to sea. Cnaeus and Sextus joined the remainder of the resistance to Caesar in Africa, and after the defeat at Thapsus the brothers escaped to the Balearic islands, whence they crossed over to the Spanish mainland with Titus Labienus, a former lieutenant of Caesar. Struck at Corduba, which became the Pompeian military headquarters, this coin is laden with symbolism. The reverse is as imaginative and unusual as any reverse in the Republican series, and propagandises the welcome received by the brothers in Spain, which readily provided them with the means with which to continue the fight against Caesar. The obverse bears the first securely datable portrait of their dead father Pompey Magnus, whose success in bringing the Sertorian War to a close in 71 BC would still have been remembered in Spain. The legend names ‘Cnaeus Magnus Imperator, son’, a pious statement that the authority behind the striking of this coinage is that of the wronged and murdered Pompey Magnus, on whose behalf the resistance to Caesar was taken up by his son. This coin must have been struck only shortly before the Pompeian and Caesarian armies met on 17 March 45 BC; the extreme rarity of the issue argues for a limited production run. At the Battle of Munda, some 70,000 troops commanded by Cnaeus, Sextus, and Titus Labienus met Caesar’s battle-hardened veteran force of 40,000. The result of the contest was a decisive victory for Caesar; Labienus was killed along with around 30,000 Pompeian troops, and the brothers Cnaeus and Sextus were once again forced to flee. Cnaeus was quickly captured and executed, but Sextus would survive his brother in Sicily for over a decade.

200


611. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Uncertain mint, 46 BC. Head of Ceres right, wearing grain ear wreath; COS•TERT downwards behind, [D]ICT•ITER upwards before / Emblems of the augurate and pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, capis, and lituus; M to right, AVGVR above, PONT•MAX below. Crawford 467/1b; RSC 4; CRI 57a. 4.08g, 18mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine.

750

From a private British collection.

612. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Uncertain mint, 46 BC. Head of Ceres right, wearing grain ear wreath; COS•TERT downwards behind, DICT•ITER upwards before / Emblems of the augurate and pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, capis, and lituus; M to right, AVGVR above, PONT•MAX below. Crawford 467/1b; RSC 4; CRI 57a. 4.02g, 19mm, 9h. Good Extremely Fine.

500

From the collection of Z.P., Austria.

613. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Uncertain mint, 46 BC. Head of Ceres right, wearing grain ear wreath; COS•TERT downwards behind, DICT•ITER upwards before / Emblems of the augurate and pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, capis, and lituus; M to right, AVGVR above, PONT•MAX below. Crawford 467/1b; RSC 4; CRI 57a. 3.98g, 19mm, 8h. Good Extremely Fine; light cabinet tone with hints of golden iridescence.

750

Ex Triton XII, 6 January 2009, lot 503.

614. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Caesar in Spain, 46-45 BC. Head of Venus right, wearing stephane; Cupid behind shoulder / Trophy of Gallic arms between two seated captives: female seated left resting head in right hand, and bearded male seated right with hands tied behind back, looking left; CAESAR in exergue. Crawford 468/1; CRI 58; RSC 13; BMCRR Spain 86. 4.00g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

201

1,000


Ex Niggeler Collection; Alföldi Plate Coin

615. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. P. Sepullius Macer, moneyer. Rome, February-March 44 BC. Wreathed head right; CAESAR DICT PERPETVO around / Venus standing left, holding Victory and sceptre resting on shield; P•SEPVLLIVS downwards to right, MACER downwawrds to left. Crawford 480/10; CRI 107a; BMCRR Rome 4169-71; RSC 38; Alföldi Caesar, pl. LXVIII, 25 (this coin). 3.87g,18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; attractive old cabinet tone.

5,000

This coin published in A. Alföldi, Caesar in 44 v CHR (1974). Ex Walter Niggeler Collection, Bank Leu - Münzen und Medaillen, 21-22 October 1966, lot 935.

616. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. P. Sepullius Macer, moneyer. Rome, February-March 44 BC. Wreathed head right; CAESAR DICT PERPETVO around / Venus standing left, holding Victory and sceptre resting on shield; P•SEPVLLIVS downwards to right, MACER downwawrds to left. Crawford 480/10; CRI 107a; BMCRR Rome 4169-71; RSC 38. 3.41g, 19mm, 7h. Near Extremely Fine.

4,500

Ex Fritz Rudolf Künker 262, 13 March 2015, lot 7797.

617. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Rome, February-March 44 BC. P. Sepullius Macer, moneyer. Wreathed and veiled head right; CAESAR DICT PERPETVO around / Venus Victrix standing left, holding Victory and sceptre resting on shield; P•SEPVLLIVS downward to right, MACER downward to left. Crawford 480/13; CRI 107d; RSC 39. 4.05g, 18mm, 4h. Extremely Fine.

2,500

Ex Kölner Münzkabinett 107, 7 October 2017, lot 474.

618. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Rome, 42 BC. L. Livineius Regulus, moneyer. Wreathed head right; laurel branch behind, caduceus before / Bull charging right; L•LIVINEIVS above, REGVLVS below. Crawford 494/24; CRI 115; RSC 27; RBW 1730. 3.81g, 19mm, 3h. Extremely Fine. Rare. Ex Gerhard Hirsch Nachf. 264, 25 November 2009, lot 448.

202

7,500


A Beautiful Aureus of L. Cestius and C. Norbanus

619.

L. Cestius and C. Norbanus AV Aureus. Rome, January-April 43 BC. Draped bust of Africa right, wearing elephant skin headdress / Corinthian helmet set atop curule chair, legs decorated with eagles; CESTIVS above, C•NORBA below, S•C - PR across fields. Crawford 491/1a; CRI 195; Babelon Cestia 1 and Norbana 3; Bahrfeldt 24; Calicó 3a. 8.06g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; in superb condition for the issue.

12,500

Ex Ernst Ploil Collection; Privately purchased in July 1997. Dating and interpreting this aureus has proved troublesome in part due to its imagery. It is the second aureus type in a series which complicates more than it enlightens, and the lack of information regarding Cestius and Norbanus themselves hinders us considerably. The most likely explanation according to Sear (The History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators) is that this aureus was an emergency issue of the Senate in 43 BC, in response to Antony having marched his legions towards Cisalpine Gaul which he had demanded be given to himself despite it already being governed by Decimus Brutus. Antony’s actions were condemned by the Senate which, swayed by Cicero, allied itself with Octavian thus legalising any military action he and his troops might take against Antony, who was promptly declared a public enemy. If indeed this aureus was thus minted to pay for the Senate’s legions, then it is suggested by Sear and Crawford that the elephant skin headdress should be assumed to be a reference to the troops themselves, possibly being units hastily withdrawn from the province of Africa. The presence of the Corinthian helmet on the reverse of our current coin has not yet been fully explained. Sear has suggested it is symbolic of Minerva, goddess of war, particularly since CRI 195a replaces the helmet with snakes, also a symbol of Minerva. It is tempting however to see in the reverse image a powerful symbol of the times – by March of 43 BC both consuls had marched north with their legions, leaving the consuls’ chairs in Rome empty, replaced on these coins by symbols of war. Indeed both consuls, Hirtius and Pansa, would be mortally wounded in battle against Antony, leaving the consulship vacant for nearly four full months from April 21 until Octavian was sworn in on August 19. This coin is paired with an aureus also issued by Cestius and Norbanus which depicts the bust of Sibyl(?) on the obverse and a cart driven by Cybele on the reverse (Crawford 491/2, CRI 196). The iconography of that type is perhaps even less well understood than that of the present, and further complicates an already difficult interpretation. As for the moneyers themselves, Appian mentions a Cestius who was proscribed following the foundation of the first triumvirate (Civil War 4.26) and, like Cicero, came to a sudden end; C. Norbanus may have survived his colleague and may be the same C. Norbanus C. f. Flaccus who held the consulship in 38 BC.

203


620. Q. Servilius Caepio (M. Junius) Brutus and P. Cornelius Lentulus Spinther AR Denarius. Smyrna, 43-42 BC. Sacrificial axe, simpulum and sacrificial dagger; BRVTVS below / Jug and lituus; LENTVLVS SPINT in two lines below. Crawford 500/7; CRI 198; RSC 6. 3.86g, 19mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine.

500

From the collection of Z.P., Austria.

621. Q. Servilius Caepio (M. Junius) Brutus AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Brutus in Asia Minor, 42 BC. L. Sestius, proquaestor. Veiled and draped bust of Libertas right; L•SESTI•PRO•Q around / Tripod between sacrificial axe and simpulum; Q•CAEPIO•BRVTVS•PRO•COS around; all within beaded border. Crawford 502/2; CRI 201; RSC 11. 3.82g, 18mm, 6h. Near Mint State.

1,250

An Imitative EID MAR Denarius of Brutus

622. Q. Servilius Caepio (M. Junius) Brutus Imitative AR Denarius. Uncertain mint, after summer 42 BC (possibly AD 68/9, or later). Bare head of Brutus right; BRVT above, IMP to right, L•PLAET•CEST around / Pileus between two daggers pointing downward; EID•MAR below. Campana, Eidibus Martiis, U1 (this coin); for prototype, cf. Crawford 508/3, CRI 216, and RSC 15. 3.62g, 18mm, 5h. Near Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

`

10,000

This coin published in A. Campana, Eidibus Martiis (forthcoming); From a private British collection. In the summer of 42 BC Brutus and Cassius marched through Macedonia and in October met Antony and Octavian in battle on the Via Egnatia just outside Philippi, and won the first engagement. Cassius, as his conservative coins show, remained true to the old republican cause, while Brutus followed the self-advertising line of Antony in the new age of unashamed political propaganda and struck coins displaying his own portrait. Brutus’ estrangement from Cassius was effectively complete when this almost inanely assertive coin was struck displaying the pileus, or cap of liberty (symbol of the Dioscuri, saviours of Rome, and traditionally given to slaves who had received their freedom), between the daggers that executed Caesar. In an ironic twist of fate, Brutus committed suicide during the second battle at Philippi on 23 October 42 BC, using the dagger with which he assassinated Caesar. An iconic type from its very inception, the EID MAR type of Brutus was copied and counterfeited probably almost immediately. At least 16 plated contemporary counterfeits are known to have survived - a disproportionately high ratio of plated coins to official issues, surely making the EID MAR one of the most contemporaneously counterfeited coins in history. Struck from dies engraved in a variety of styles, some of which are very faithful to the solid silver counterparts, those plated denarii of Brutus’ EID MAR type have occasionally elicited speculation that they may have been produced thus on account of dwindling silver supplies in Brutus’ camp. However, none of the plated denarii can be die matched with official, solid silver denarii. Indeed, the wide range of styles on these plated issues is indicative of their true nature as contemporary counterfeits. Whether produced by disaffected, bored or greedy Republican soldiers, or idealistically inclined civilian fraudsters, we shall never know. Of unofficial but solid silver copies there are considerably fewer specimens; it has been suggested by Italo Vecchi that the present coin “is an ancient strike, crystalized and the product of a near contemporary unofficial mint, possibly during the Civil Wars of AD 68-69 in Gaul or Spain”, as its crude style bears some resemblance to the issues produced at that time which also feature the two daggers and pileus on the reverse, albeit with the legend P R RESTITVTA replacing EID MAR - however, the possibility of a later renaissance origin cannot be fully excluded.

204


623. C. Cassius Longinus and P. Cornelius Lentulus Spinther AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Brutus (Smyrna?), 43-42 BC. Tripod with cauldron, decorated with two laurel-branches; C•CASSI upwards to left, IMP upwards to right / Jug and lituus; LENTVLVS SPINT in two lines below. Crawford 500/1; CRI 219; RSC 7. 3.83g, 18mm, 6h. Mint State.

1,500

From a private British collection.

624. C. Cassius Longinus and P. Cornelius Lentulus Spinther AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Brutus (Smyrna?), 43-42 BC. Tripod with cauldron, decorated with two laurel-branches; C•CASSI upwards to left, IMP upwards to right / Jug and lituus; LENTVLVS SPINT in two lines below. Crawford 500/1; CRI 219; RSC 7. 3.86g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

1,250

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 106, 9 May 2018, lot 1309 (cleaned and conserved since).

625. C. Cassius Longinus and P. Cornelius Lentulus Spinther AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Brutus (Smyrna?), 43-42 BC. Tripod with cauldron, decorated with two laurel-branches; C•CASSI upwards to left, IMP upwards to right / Jug and lituus; LENTVLVS SPINT in two lines below. Crawford 500/1; CRI 219; RSC 7. 3.91g, 19mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Privately purchased from Numismatica Ars Classica.

205

1,250


An Extremely Rare Aureus of Marc Antony

626.

Marc Antony AV Aureus. Military mint moving with Antony in Asia, 41 BC. Bare head right, lituus behind; M•ANTONIVS•IMP•III•VIR•R•P•C around / Pietas standing left, holding lighted censer and cornucopiae surmounted by two storks; PIETAS COS across fields. Crawford 516/4; Calicó 104a (same dies); Babelon Antonia 45; BMCRR Gaul 65; CRI 237; Bahrfeldt 83.7 (same dies). 7.80g, 21mm, 11h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

15,000

Ex private Swiss Collection. Following the defeat of Brutus and Cassius at Philippi in 42 BC, Marc Antony travelled to Asia to settle affairs in the East. During the course of this journey he produced a series of gold and silver coins in honour of his younger brother Lucius Antoninus, surnamed ‘Pietas’, who was consul in 41 BC. Lucius had been a firm supporter of his brother and of Caesar, and while Antony was absent from Rome Lucius and Antony’s wife Fulvia acted in his interests. Lucius assumed the cognomen ‘Pietas’ which we see celebrated on this coin through fraternal devotion to his brother when he and Fulvia fell out with Octavian, resulting in an armed uprising towards the end of 41 BC (see Cassius Dio 48.5.4). Interestingly, matters could have gone very badly for Octavian at this time: he was attempting to fulfil his obligations to the army in Italy following Philippi and settle vast numbers of veterans on land which had been confiscated throughout the country, but delays and complications resulted in animosity which grew to such a height that Octavian feared for his life. Cassius Dio tells us that the final push to armed conflict was instigated by the veterans who, when Lucius and Fulvia refused to appear for a trial against themselves and Octavian regarding the progress of the veterans’ settlement, sided with Octavian and began making preparations for war. Lucius withdrew from Rome and, confident that his brother’s legions would soon arrive to assist him, remained in the city of Perusia which was duly besieged by Octavian. No rescue came for Lucius, and starvation forced him to surrender in February 40 BC. His life was spared and Octavian made him governor of Spain as a sign of his continuing goodwill towards Marc Antony. The imagery on this coin is symbolic of the fraternal bond between Marc Antony and his brother. The storks were chosen as symbols of familial piety as it was believed these birds would support their elderly parents on their own wings, and were the personal sigil of Antony. Combined with the figure of Pietas, this reverse therefore signifies the deep bond of brotherly love between Marc Antony and Lucius.

206


627. Marc Antony and Octavian AR Denarius. M. Barbatius Pollio, quaestor pro praetore. Military mint moving with Antony (Ephesus?), 41 BC. Bare head of Antony right;M•ANT•IMP•AVG•III•VIR•R•P•C•M•BARBAT•Q•P around / Bare head of Octavian right, with slight beard; CAESAR•IMP•PONT•III•VIR•R•P•C• around. Crawford 517/2; CRI 243; Sydenham 1181; RSC 8a. 3.79g, 23mm, 12h. Fleur De Coin. Struck on a broad, medallic flan.

3,000

628. Marc Antony and Octavian AR Denarius. M. Barbatius Pollio, quaestor pro praetore. Military mint moving with Antony (Ephesus?), 41 BC. Bare head of Antony right; M•ANT•IMP•AVG•III•VIR•R•P•C•M•BARBAT•Q•P around / Bare head of Octavian right, with slight beard; CAESAR•IMP•PONT•III•VIR•R•P•C• around. Crawford 517/2; CRI 243; Sydenham 1181; RSC 8a. 3.93g, 19mm, 1h. Near Extremely Fine.

1,250

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica, Auction G, April 1997, lot 1440.

629. Marc Antony and Octavian AR Denarius. M. Barbatius Pollio, quaestor pro praetore. Military mint moving with Antony (Ephesus?), 41 BC. Bare head of Antony right; M•ANT•IMP•AVG•III•VIR•R•P•C•M•BARBAT•Q•P around / Bare head of Octavian right, with slight beard; CAESAR•IMP•PONT•III•VIR•R•P•C• around. Crawford 517/2; CRI 243; Sydenham 1181; RSC 8a. 3.94g, 21mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine.

500

630. Marc Antony and Lucius Antony AR Denarius. L. Cocceius Nerva, quaestor pro praetore. Military mint moving with Marc Antony, 41 BC. M•ANT•IMP•AVG III VIR•R•P•C•M NERVA PROQ•P, bare head of Marc Antony right / L•ANTONIVS COS, bare head of Lucius Antonius right. Crawford 517/5a; Antonia 48 and Cocceia 2; Sydenham 1185; CRI 246. 3.33g, 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; small nick on edge, old cabinet tone. Rare. Ex Bernard Poindessault (1935-2014) legacy.

207

3,000


631. Marc Antony AR Denarius. Athens, 38-37 BC. III•VIR•R•P•C•COS•DESIG•ITER•ET•TERT, radiate bust of Sol right / M•ANTONIVS•M•F•M•N• AVGVR•IMP•TER, Antony standing right, dressed as priest, veiled, wearing toga and holding a lituus. Crawford 533/2; CRI 267; Sydenham 1199; RSC 13a. 3.72g, 18mm, 3h. Good Very Fine. Previously slabbed by NGC #4241286-004 and graded Ch XF Strike 4/5, Surface 3/5.

750

From the collection of PT, United States; Ex Roma Numismatics XIII, 23 March 2017, lot 658.

632. Marc Antony AR Denarius. Mint moving with Antony, 37 BC. M•ANT•AVGVR•III•VIR•R•P•C, bare head right / IMP-TER, trophy with curved sword attached to right arm and figure-of-eight shield attached to left; at its base, two spears and two round shields. Crawford 536/1; Antonia 76; Sydenham 1203; CRI 269; RSC 16. 4.08g, 20mm, 4h. Mint State. Very Rare, and in exceptional condition for the type.

7,500

633. Marc Antony AR Denarius. Mint moving with Antony, 37 BC. M•ANT•AVGVR•III•VIR•R•P•C, bare head right / IMP-TER, trophy with curved sword attached to right arm and figure-of-eight shield attached to left; at its base, two spears and two round shields. Crawford 536/1; Antonia 76; Sydenham 1203; CRI 269; RSC 16. 3.97g, 20mm, 2h. Mint State. Very Rare. Ex private German collection.

208

2,500


A Portrait of Brutus?

634. L. Servius Rufus AR Denarius. Rome, 43 BC. Bare head of Brutus right; L•SERVIVS RVFVS around / The Dioscuri standing facing, both holding spears and with swords hanging from waist. Crawford 515/2; CRI 324; Sydenham 1082; Sulpicia 10; Woytek, Arma et Nummi p. 558. 3.59g, 20mm, 2h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

3,000

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 100, 29 May 2017, lot 390. The portrait on this issue of a moneyer known only from his coins bears a remarkable resemblance to Brutus, and it has been suggested that this image could have been a veiled expression of political sympathy toward Brutus’ cause. The Republic was in a state of fractious civil war: the consuls Hirtius and Pansa, along with Octavian as propraetor, opposed the forces of Antony in Cisalpine Gaul; the liberators under Brutus and Cassius were meanwhile ravaging the territories in Illyria, Thrace and Macedonia, and Asia Minor. The moneyers of this uncertain period hence appear to have deliberately employed ambiguous types on their coins: an ancestor’s portrait that resembled Octavian on the denarii of M. Arrius Secundus; a head of Victory resembling Fulvia, the wife of Marc Antony, on C. Numonius Vaala’s aurei; and here the portrait of some ancestor or other which in fact most closely resembles Brutus.

635. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Rome, 40 BC. Ti. Sempronius Gracchus, moneyer. Laureate head of Caesar right, S-C across fields / Signum, aquila, plow, and decempeda; TI•SEMPRONIVS above, GRACCVS below, Q•DES downwards to left. Crawford 525/4c; Sydenham 1128a; CRI 327. 3.88g, 19mm, 1h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

2,250

From a central European collection.

636. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Rome, 40 BC. Q. Voconius Vitulus, moneyer. Laureate head of Caesar right / Bull-calf walking left; Q•VOCONIVS above, VITVLVS•Q DESIGN in two lines below, S-C across fields. Crawford 526/4; CRI 331; Sydenham 1133; BMCRR Rome 4311-2; RSC 45. 3.76g, 20mm, 4h. Near Extremely Fine; minor areas of weak strike. Rare.

2,000

Though struck during a period of high tension as opposing factions pulled the Republic apart, the reverse type seen here remains unsullied by the events of the day, the moneyer choosing a strictly personal, though perhaps unflattering, composition instead: his cognomen Vitulus translates as cow or calf.

209


637. Sextus Pompey AR Denarius. Uncertain mint in Sicily (Catania?), 42-40 BC. MAG•PIVS• IMP•ITER, diademed and bearded head of Neptune right; trident over left shoulder / Naval trophy set on anchor, top of trident visible above helmet; the arms composed of the stem of a prow in right and aplustre in left; heads of Scylla and Charybdis at base; PRAEF•CLAS•ET ORAE•MARIT•EX•S•C around. Crawford 511/2a; RSC 1a; Sydenham 1347; CRI 333. 3.74g, 19mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine; attractive old cabinet tone.

4,000

Ex Molard Collection, Switzerland. It has been remarked that the coinage of Sextus Pompey was a step towards the propagandistic issues of the Roman emperors. Having decided upon an affinity with Neptune, he minted a series of coins depicting the god and continuing his theme of pietas. This virtue was highly valued in Roman society; the city’s founder Aeneas’ epithet is pius and tradition details that his piety was three-fold; to his father, his homeland and the gods. Pompey was not the only imperator to draw upon the Aeneas myth on his coinage (see Crawford 458/1), however he was unique in commandeering a theme and using it repeatedly. His earliest denarii feature a personification of the goddess Pietas (Crawford 477/1a), but references become subtler and more complex on later issues as per the present example. Here, Pompey Magnus is remembered within the obverse legend, with Pietas also explicitly referenced. Sextus Pompey does not allow us to forget that it was the Senate who declared him praefectus classis et orae maritima, tying his patriotism in neatly. This military title lends itself obviously to Neptune, whose portrait is displayed on the obverse. The naval trophy not only alludes to Pompey’s naval victories but also to his piety towards Neptune to whom he is reported to have sacrificed 100 bulls and in whose honour a live horse was flung into the sea, along with an offering of gold (Florus 2.18.3).

A Superb Portrait of Pompey Magnus

638. Sextus Pompey AR Denarius. Uncertain mint in Sicily (Catania?), 42-40 BC. Bare head of Pompey Magnus right; capis behind, lituus before; MAG•PIVS•IMP•ITER around / Neptune standing left, holding aplustre and with foot on prow, between the Catanaean brothers, each carrying a parent on their shoulders; PRÆF above, [CL]AS•ET•ORÆ•[MARIT•EX•S•C] in two lines in exergue. Crawford 511/3a; CRI 334; RSC 17. 3.66g, 19mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine; attractive old tone. A superb portrait of Pompey Magnus.

4,500

Privately purchased from Agora Numismatiek.

639. Sextus Pompey AR Denarius. Uncertain mint in Sicily (Catania?), 42-40 BC. MAG•PIVS•IMP•ITER, bare head of Pompey Magnus right; capis behind, lituus before / Neptune standing left, holding aplustre in right hand, resting right foot on prow, between the Catanaean brothers, Anapias and Amphinomus, carrying their parents on their shoulders; PRÆF above, CLAS•ET•ORÆ•MARIT•EX•S•C in two lines in exergue. Crawford 511/3a; Sydenham 1344; CRI 334; RRC 511/3a; BMCRR Sicily 7; Pompeia 27; Catalli 2001, 824; RSC 17 (Pompey the Great); Catalli 2001, 824. 3.68g, 19mm, 9h. Extremely Fine. Unusually complete reverse. Privately purchased from Sovereign Rarities Ltd, London.

210

2,500


640. Sextus Pompey AR Denarius. Sicily, 42-40 BC. The Pharos of Messana surmounted by a statue of Neptune; in foreground, galley left adorned with legionary eagle, sceptre and trident, [MAG•PIVS]•IMP•ITER around / Scylla left, wielding a rudder in both hands; PRÆF•CLAS•E[T•ORÆ•MAR IT•EX•S•C] around. Crawford 511/4a; CRI 335; Sydenham 1348; RSC 2. 3.82g, 21mm, 11h. Near Mint State; beautiful deep old cabinet tone. Exceptionally sharp for the issue.

3,000

From a private Anglo-Italian collection.

Quintus Labienus - Failed Ambassador, Coward, Traitor

641. Quintus Labienus AR Denarius. Uncertain mint in Syria or south-eastern Asia Minor, early 40 BC. Bare head right; Q•LABIENVS•PARTHICVS• IMP around / Horse standing to right on ground line, wearing saddle with quiver attached and bridle. Crawford 524/2; CRI 341; Sydenham 1357; RSC 2. 3.20g, 18mm, 5h. Near Very Fine; light bend in flan from banker’s mark. Very Rare.

7,500

From the collection of Patrick Mulcahy; Ex Harlan J. Berk 189, 25 March 2014, lot 201; Ex Randy Haviland Collection, Gemini X, 13 January 2013, lot 388; Ex Harlan J. Berk 125, 27 February 2002, lot 348. It should perhaps not come as a surprise that Quintus Labienus, the son of Titus Labienus who was an important general to Caesar during the Gaul Campaign and then broke ties with him to form an alliance with Pompey, also became a traitor during his lifetime. After the assassination of Caesar, the younger Labienus joined Cassius and Brutus who sent him as an ambassador to Parthia to request support from King Orodes II. This mission proved to be unsuccessful and thus contributed to Cassius and Brutus being defeated in the battle of Philippi by Octavian and Antony in 42 BC. It is at this point that some may call Labienus a coward, and some an opportunist. He knew if he returned home he would face punishment, and the chances of advancement for himself would all but disappear. However, if he stayed with the Parthians he could perhaps have the opportunity to fulfil his military ambitions. Labienus therefore decided to stay and convince Orodes to invade Syria on the pretence that several areas under Antony and Octavian were not well protected. In 40 BC he jointly commanded forces with Orodes’ son Pacorus II that invaded areas of Syria and Asia Minor. Labienus and Pacorus were able to achieve much success and overtook Apameia, Antioch, and Cilicia. His success was short lived though, as in 39 BC he was defeated, captured and executed in an attack orchestrated by Antony and Octavian and carried out by Publius Ventidius. It is around the time of his military victories that he began striking coinage to pay the many soldiers he was acquiring through his conquests. This coin in particular strikes a balance between Roman and Parthian characteristics. The obverse depicts a very serious, yet commanding portrait in Roman style, but with a legend naming him PARTHICVS. The reverse depicts a horse with a bridled saddle and quiver, making reference to the infamous Parthian soldiers who were known for their accuracy and efficiency as horse archers. After Labienus was killed most of his coinage was melted down, making surviving examples very rare indeed.

642. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG IV across fields. Crawford 544/17; CRI 352; RSC 30; Sydenham 1219; BMCRR East 195. 3.61g, 17mm, 6h. Mint State.

211

1,000


643. Marc Antony and L. Pinarius Scarpus AR Denarius. Cyrene, 31 BC. M•ANTO•COS•[III•IMP•IIII], head of Jupiter Ammon right / Victory, naked to waist, walking right, holding wreath and palm; ANTONIO AVG before, SCARPVS IMP behind. Crawford 546/2a; Sydenham 1280; CRI 390; RSC 1. 3.72g, 18mm, 12h. Mint State. Rare.

750

644. Octavian AR Denarius. Italian mint (Rome?), autumn 32 - summer 31 BC. Head of Pax right, wearing stephane; olive branch before, cornucopiae behind / Octavian, in military attire, advancing right, raising right hand and holding spear over left shoulder; CAESAR DIVI•F across fields. RIC 253; CRI 400; RSC 72; BMCRE 611, 613-4 = BMCRR 4329, 4331-2; BN 6-11. 4.06g, 19mm, 10h. Near Mint State. Lustrous.

2,000

Ex Roma Numismatics XIII, 23 March 2017, lot 708.

An Outstanding Octavian Denarius

645. Octavian AR Denarius. Italian mint (Rome?), autumn 32 - summer 31 BC. Bare head right / Mercury (or Apollo), nude, seated to right on rock upon which is spread his cloak, petasus slung on his back, holding lyre with both hands; CAESAR DIVI•F across fields. RIC 257; CRI 401; RSC 61; BMCRE 596-8 = BMCRR Rome 4335-6; BN 73-6. 3.55g, 20mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine; light cabinet tone. In outstanding condition for the type; Extremely Rare thus, and certainly the finest example present on CoinArchives.

4,000

Ex Kallman Collection, Triton XX, 10 January 2017, lot 603 (cleaned and conserved since); Ex Prideaux Collection, Triton XI, 8 January 2008, lot 642; Ex Aufhäuser 12, 1 October 1996, lot 418; Ex Schweizerischer Kreditanstalt 5, 18 April 1986, lot 345.

646. Octavian AR Denarius. Italian mint (Rome?), autumn 31 - summer 30 BC. Bare head right / Victory standing left on globe, holding wreath and palm; CAESAR DIVI•F across fields. RIC 254a; CRI 406; BMCRE 602 = BMCRR Rome 4338; RSC 65; BN 35. 3.84g, 21mm, 1h. Extremely Fine; attractive old cabinet tone. Very Rare. Ex Dr. Walter F. Stoecklin Collection, acquired before 1975; lot sold with old collector’s ticket.

212

1,500


647. Octavian AR Denarius. Italian mint (Rome?), autumn 31 - summer 30 BC. Winged bust of Victory right / Octavian, as Neptune, standing left, foot set on globe, holding aplustre and sceptre; CAESAR DIVI•F across fields. RIC 256; CRI 409; RSC 60; BMCRE 615 = BMCRR Rome 4341; BN 12-17. 3.90g, 21mm, 9h. Near Mint State. Very rare in such high state of preservation.

1,500

648. Octavian AR Denarius. Rome, 29-27 BC. Helmeted head of Mars right; IMP below / Round shield with eight-pointed star in centre, lying over sword and spear in saltire; CAESAR on rim of shield. RIC 274; CRI 428; RSC 44. 3.67g, 20mm, 1h. Good Very Fine.

450

From the R.C. Vermeer Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics XII, 29 September 2016, lot 603; Ex Monnaies d’Antan Mail Bid Sale 7, 21 May 2010, lot 178.

COINS OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE

649. Augustus AR Denarius. Uncertain Spanish mint (Colonia Caesaraugusta?), 19-18 BC. CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head right / S•P•Q•R CL•V in two lines on round shield. RIC 42a; BMCRE 334; RSC 294; BN 1311. 3.85g, 21mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine.

2,000

Ex Mike Gasvoda Collection, Numismatica Ars Classica, 6 October 2016, lot 64; Ex Triton VI, 14 January 2003, lot 802. The Senate and people of Rome dedicated the clipeus votivus (votive shield) to Augustus on account of the virtues of bravery, clemency, justice and pietas which he held, all of which were highly important in Roman society. Thus, he proudly displays the clipeus as a reverse type on his coinage. At the same time as he received the clipeus Augustus was also awarded the corona civica, traditionally given to those who had saved the life of a citizen but bestowed on him for ending the strife of the civil wars and thus ‘saving’ the citizens of Rome.

213


The Return of the Standards and Captives

650.

Augustus AV Aureus. Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), 18-17 BC. S•P•Q•R•IMP•CAESARI•AVG•COS•X•TR•P OT•VI, bare head of Augustus right / CIVIB•ET•SIGN•MILIT•A•PART•RECVPER, triple triumphal arch, central arch surmounted by statue of Augustus driving a facing quadriga; figure on left arch holding a standard, figure on right arch holding an aquila and bow. RIC 133; C. -; BMCRE -; Calicó 194 (same dies); Thesaurus nummorum romanorum et byzantinorum iii (Vienna, 1980), 682; Banti & Simonetti IV, 58. 7.91g, 20mm, 7h. Near Extremely Fine. Of the greatest rarity - a very rare variety of an extremely rare type; only one example identified by Banti, and the only example present on CoinArchives.

25,000

This coin depicts the now ruined arch of Augustus which originally stood in the Forum Romanum, spanning the road between the Temple of Castor and Pollux and the Temple of Caesar. According to the literary evidence, two arches were erected in honour of Augustus in the Forum: one in 29 BC to commemorate his victory at Actium (see Cassius Dio 49.15), the other in 19 BC to celebrate the return of the legionary standards lost by Crassus to the Parthians in 53 BC (see Cassius Dio 51.19). This latter coup was of great importance to Augustus and was also commemorated on the famed Prima Porta statue found at the villa of Livia. It seems that Augustus belatedly understood that commemoration of his victory over fellow Romans at the battle at Actium was not well received by the people, but a victory over a foreign enemy which restored soldiers and standards lost in a disastrous stain upon the Roman military record would be a perfect opportunity for cementing his position as saviour of the nation. Indeed, in 1546/7 an inscription dated to 29 BC and dedicated to Augustus was found at the site of the ruins and has been linked to this triumphal arch; inscribed upon it is a clear message that Augustus through this victory was able to save the Republic - perhaps a highly exaggerated statement since the sources seem to suggest that the Parthians reacted meekly to Augustus’ show of force and chose to return the standards and captives rather than risk open war. The appearance of this arch is preserved solely through the numismatic record, as seen on this coin, without which the identification of the archaeological ruins found in the Forum would be uncertain. The remains indicate the presence of a triple arch at the spot where the ancient sources say there was an arch to Augustus, therefore this could not be the Actian Arch which was similarly preserved through numismatic representations (see RIC 267, CRI 422) as a single span arch. Since no remains of a second arch of Augustus have been found in the Forum, this has led many to conclude that this ‘Parthian Arch’ was an expansion or replacement of the old Actian Arch. This theory is problematic to some scholars since Augustus does not mention either arch in his Res Gestae, a list of his achievements which certainly did not withhold from self-aggrandizement, however the archaeological evidence seems clear. The present type is thus an important archaeological document, allowing for the reconstruction of an early Imperial monument which is otherwise survived only by partial travertine foundations and some marble fragments which have been set atop them in modern brick beds. The choice of imagery on the coin itself highlights the political position of Augustus at this time. He does not appear as a ruler, but bare-headed and without drapery or military attire, whereas the reverse depicts the monument dedicated to his glory with the statues atop the arch of equal height to the structure itself, allowing the recovered standards to be seen clearly and in detail as the pretext for this laudatory monument. The standards were later placed in the Temple of Mars Ultor in the Forum of Augustus which was inaugurated in 2 BC.

214


215


A Perfect Denarius of Augustus

651. Augustus AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 15-13 BC. AVGVSTVS DIVI•F, bare head right / Bull butting to right; IMP•X in exergue. RIC 167a; RSC 137; BMCRE 451. 3.88g, 20mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin.

2,500

652. Augustus AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 15-13 BC. AVGVSTVS DIVI•F, bare head right / Apollo Citharoedus of Actium, standing left, holding plectrum and lyre; IMP •X across fields, ACT in exergue. RIC 171a; RSC 144; BMCRE 461-2 = BMCRR Gaul 175-6. 3.92g, 19mm, 1h. Mint State.

2,000

Apollo Actius is honoured in this reverse type for ensuring Augustus’ victory at the Battle of Actium, where an ancient temple dedicated to Apollo overlooked the sea. Augustus also had the temple enlarged and renovated as an expression of his gratitude, and he similarly dedicated the Actian Games in further celebration.

653. Augustus AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 15 BC. AVGVSTVS DIVI•F, bare head right / Apollo Citharoedus of Actium, standing left, holding plectrum and lyre; IMP •X across fields, ACT• in exergue. RIC 171a; RSC 144; BMCRE 461-2 var. = BMCRR Gaul 175-6 var. (no pellet after ACT). 3.81g, 19mm, 6h. Near Mint State.

1,500

654. Augustus AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 15-13 BC. AVGVSTVS DIVI•F, bare head right / Apollo Citharoedus of Actium, standing left, holding plectrum and lyre; IMP •X across fields, ACT in exergue. RIC 171a; RSC 144; BMCRE 461-2 = BMCRR Gaul 175-6. 3.80g, 19mm, 6h. Near Mint State; light area of weak strike.

216

750


Ex Count René Philipon (1870-1936) Collection

655. Augustus AV Aureus. Lugdunum, 2 BC - AD 4. CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE, laureate head right / AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, Gaius and Lucius Caesars standing facing, two shields and two spears between them; above simpulum and lituus; CL CAESARES in exergue. RIC 206; BMCRE 515; C. 42, Calicó 176b. 7.78g, 21mm, 6h. Good Very Fine; edge filing at 4 o’clock obv.

3,000

Ex Count René Philipon (1870-1936) Collection, Joron-Derem, 23 March 2016, lot 48 (part of).

656. Augustus AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 2 BC - AD 12. CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE, laureate head right / AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, Gaius and Lucius Caesars standing facing, two shields and two spears between them; above simpulum and lituus; CL CAESARES in exergue. RIC 207; BMCRE 519-33; RSC 43. 3.69g, 19mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine; very well detailed for the issue.

500

Ex private Spanish collection.

657. Augustus AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 2 BC - AD 12. CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE, laureate head right / AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, Gaius and Lucius Caesars standing facing, two shields and two spears between them; above simpulum and lituus; CL CAESARES in exergue. RIC 207; RSC 43. 3.85g, 18mm, 1h. Extremely Fine; attractive old cabinet tone.

300

From the R.C. Vermeer Collection; Ex Elvira E. Clain-Stefanelli Collection.

658. Augustus AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 7-6 BC. CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE, laureate head right / AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, Gaius and Lucius Caesar standing facing, each togate and resting hand on shield; spear behind each shield, lituus and simpulum above, C L CAESARES in exergue. RIC 210. 3.85g, 19mm, 7h. Mint State. Highly lustrous surfaces. In exceptional condition for the issue. From a private northern European collection.

217

500


659. Augustus AR Denarius. Rome, 19-18 BC. M. Durmius, moneyer. M DVRMIVS III VIR HONORI, head of Honos to right / CAESAR AVGVSTVS, quadriga to right pulling modius shaped car, on top of which three corn ears; SC in exergue. RIC 313; C. 429; BMCRE 55. 3.89g, 20mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine; attractive old cabinet tone.

1,000

Very Fine. Very Rare. Ex private Spanish collection.

660. Augustus AR Denarius. C. Antistius Vetus, moneyer. Rome, 16 BC. C•ANTISTIVS VETVS•III•VIR, draped bust of Venus right, wearing stephane / COS IMP•CAESAR•AVGVS XI in three lines, simpulum and lituus above; tripod and patera below. RIC 367; RSC 348; BMCRE 98; BN 370. 3.79g, 20mm, 1h. Extremely Fine; rich old cabinet tone. Very Rare.

1,000

Ex Josiane Poindessault Collection; ticket included.

661. Augustus AR Denarius. Rome, 16 BC. C. Antistius Vetus, moneyer. C ANTISTIVS VETVS III VIR, draped bust of Venus right, wearing stephane / COS IMP CAESAR AVGVS XI in three lines, simpulum and lituus above; tripod and patera below. RIC 367; RSC 348; BMCRE 98; BN 370. 3.77g, 20mm, 2h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

750

From a private Anglo-Italian collection.

662. Augustus AR Denarius. Rome, 13 BC. CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head right / C•ANTISTIVS • REGINVS, simpulum and lituus above tripod and patera; III•VIR below. RIC 410; BMCRE 119-20 = BMCRR Rome 4661-2; RSC 347. 3.65g, 19mm, 2h. Extremely Fine; pleasant old cabinet tone. From the R.C. Vermeer Collection; Ex Fritz Rudolf Künker 288, 13 March 2017, lot 357.

218

500


663. Augustus AR Denarius. Samos, 21-20 BC. CAESAR, bare head right / AVGVSTVS, bull standing right. RIC 475; C. 28; BMCRE 663; Sutherland, “L’attribution des deniers augustéens aux types du temple, de la couronne et du jeune taureau” in RN 1974, 61f; BN 941. 2.94g, 20mm, 1h. About Good Extremely Fine; beautiful light cabinet tone with hints of iridescence.

4,000

Ex Gorny & Mosch 114, 4 March 2002, lot 209. Among the first coins to be struck bearing the new title Augustus, this denarius is of exceptional style and engraved with beautiful craftsmanship. Struck in Pergamum, the reverse type remains an enigma with scholarship as yet unable to settle on a definitive meaning, though various suggestions have been posed. Firstly, perhaps the bull is based on Myron’s bronze heifer, a statue much admired in antiquity and of which Augustus must have been aware: he is known to have restored Myron’s Apollo, which Marc Antony had taken, to Ephesus. However, an alternative statue has been proposed by Sutherland in RIC to be the basis for this reverse type. He links this issue with Augustus’ visit to Samos in winter 21/20 BC, where he would likely have seen a statue of Poseidon Taureos in the sanctuary, an event he later commemorated on the coinage. More personal to Augustus himself is the theory that what we see here is a reference to the famous ‘butting bull’ type seen on the coinage of Thurium. Born Gaius Octavius Thurinus in celebration of his father’s victory in battle against a Spartacist army, which took place outside the town, this reverse type would be a personal allegory to Augustus and the high regard in which his family was held by the townspeople of Thurium.

664. Tiberius AV Aureus. Lugdunum, AD 15-18. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / PONTIF MΛXIM, Livia as Pax seated right on chair with plain legs, holding sceptre in right hand and olive branch in left; double line below. RIC 25; Lyon 143; Calicó 305d; BMCRE 30-3; BN 14-5; Biaggi 169. 7.76g, 21mm, 3h. Extremely Fine; minor marks, some weakness. Centrally struck on a large flan.

5,000

From a private European collection.

665. Tiberius AR Denarius. Lugdunum, AD 36-37. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / PONTIF MAXIM, Livia as Pax seated right on chair with ornamented legs above a single exergual line, holding long vertical sceptre in right hand and branch in left. RIC 30; RSC 16a; BMCRE 48. 3.75g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Ex private Spanish collection.

219

400


Caligula Honours his Father

666.

Caligula AV Aureus. Rome, AD 40. C CAESAR AVG PON M TR POT III COS III, laureate head of Gaius ‘Caligula’ right / GERMANICVS CAES P C CAES AVG GERM, bare head of Germanicus right. RIC 25; C. 6; BMCRE 26; BN -; Calicó 324. 7.70g, 19mm, 7h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

25,000

Ex Monsieur Note (1910-1982) Collection, France. Much attention has been given over the years to the seemingly base character of Gaius, known to history as Caligula (meaning ‘little soldier’s boot) after the nickname he acquired as a child from his father Germanicus’ soldiers during their campaign in Germania. Though there are few surviving sources concerning his reign, he is generally described as noble and moderate in the first six months of his rule, after which time the sources focus upon his cruelty, sadism, extravagance and sexual perversion. All surviving sources, except Pliny the Elder, characterise Caligula as insane, but given his extreme unpopularity it is difficult to separate fact from fiction in the historical record. Recent studies have attempted to ascribe a medical reason for his unusual behaviour, citing encephalitis, epilepsy or meningitis as possibilities, however the question remains unanswered. Philo of Alexandria, Josephus and Seneca state that Caligula was insane, but describe this madness as a personality trait that came through experience. Certainly the experiences in the early years of his life would have been sufficient to leave an individual severely traumatised at the very least; born in AD 12 into the perilously dysfunctional Julio-Claudian family, his father Germanicus was allegedly poisoned by an agent of Tiberius (Germanicus’ uncle) when Caligula was only seven, and his mother Agrippina and eldest brother Nero were banished by the emperor on charges of treason in 29. His other older brother Drusus was imprisoned on similar charges in AD 30, and in the same year Nero was killed or committed suicide. His mother was mistreated in exile, losing an eye during a beating from a centurion, and died in AD 33. Tacitus (Annals, 6.25) speculates that she was starved to death as was Drusus, who died after having been reduced to chewing the stuffing of his bed. Meanwhile, Caligula and his sisters were “nothing more than prisoners of Tiberius, under the close watch of soldiers” according to Suetonius (Lives of the Caesars, III.64). All the while, Caligula was forced to act as though he bore Tiberius no ill-will, whom Caligula claimed to have planned to kill with a dagger in order to avenge his mother and brother (Lives of the Caesars, IV.12). The grief felt by Caligula at the loss of his murdered parents, Germanicus and Agrippina, and his murdered brothers, Nero Caesar and Drusus Caesar, is evident in his efforts to commemorate their memories, of which his coinage provides numerous examples including the present aureus. Struck at the beginning of Caligula’s reign, as part of a series honouring his dead father, mother and brothers, this particular coin pays homage to his father Germanicus. A talented military commander, Germanicus famously led eight legions in three campaigns against the Germanic tribes (AD 14-16), in the course of which he avenged the humiliating defeat suffered by Varus in the Teutoberg Forest and reclaimed two of the lost legionary eagles. He was awarded a Triumph upon his return to Rome in AD 17, and was subsequently dispatched to Asia to restructure the provinces and kingdoms of Asia, which were in such disarray that the direct attention of a senior member of the imperial family was considered necessary. In AD 19, in the midst of a feud with the governor of Syria Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, Germanicus was suddenly taken ill with suspected poisoning, and soon died. Piso was implicated in his death, with suspicions falling on the emperor’s chief advisor Sejanus, and even on Tiberius himself. Several historians of the time including Tacitus and Suetonius discuss how beloved Germanicus was by the people and how they regarded him as a model Roman. They took it upon themselves to commemorate Germanicus by honouring him with a Justitium (a suspension of public and private business) and the mourning was felt throughout the empire; “When the news of his death finally broke, neither edicts nor official expressions of sympathy could console the commons...” (Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars, p. 153). Caligula’s decision to include his fathers portrait on this coinage would no doubt have gone over well with the people of the Rome who remembered his father, and would certainly have helped endear him to them as he began his reign as emperor.

220


221


667. Claudius I AR Denarius. Rome, AD 41-42. TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P, laureate head right / EX• S•C OB CIVES SERVATOS in three lines within wreath. RIC 16; C. 35; BMCRE 18; BN 33. 3.71g, 20mm, 8h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

5,000

Ex Giessener Münzhandlung 96, 7 June 1999, lot 454.

A Fine Style Claudius Sestertius

668. Claudius I Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 41-42. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, laureate head right / EX SC OB CIVES SERVATOS in four lines within oak wreath. Von Kaenel type 54; C. 39; BMCRE 115; RIC 96; CBN 152. 29.60g, 35mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. A magnificent portrait of Claudius in the finest style.

15,000

Ex Roma Numismatics VII, 22 March 2014, lot 1001 (hammer: £16,000). Ex James Howard Collection. Struck for his accession, the reverse of this stunning sestertius bears a simple yet pleasing type that highlights Claudius’ familial ties to Augustus while at the same time bestowing upon him the honour of the corona civica, the award traditionally given to those who had saved the life of a citizen. A prerogative that was passed to each new emperor ‘by decree of the Senate’ (EX S C), the corona civica had originally been granted to Augustus for ending the strife of the civil wars and thus ‘saving’ the citizens of Rome.

669. Claudius I Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 41-42. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, laureate head right / SPES AVGVSTA, Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising hem of skirt; SC in exergue. RIC 99; C. 85; BMCRE 124. 28.61g, 34mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; light earthen concretions. Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 106, 9 May 2018, lot 1360.

222

2,000


670. Claudius I Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 41-42. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, laureate head right / SPES AVGVSTA, Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising hem of skirt; SC in exergue. RIC 99; C. 85; BMCRE 124. 25.98g, 35mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; well struck and engraved in fine style.

1,250

671. Claudius I AR Denarius. Rome, AD 50-51. TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG P M TR P VI IMP XI, laureate head right / S•P•Q•R P•P OB•C•S in three lines within oak-wreath. RIC 41; von Kaenel Type 26; BMCRE 45-7; RSC 87. 3.71g, 19mm, 4h. Near Extremely Fine.

1,000

From a private British collection.

672. Claudius I AV Aureus. Rome, AD 50-51. TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG P M TR P X IMP P P, laureate head right / PACI AVGVSTAE, Pax-Nemesis advancing right, pointing a winged caduceus towards a snake on the ground before her, and holding out a fold of drapery below her chin. RIC 51; C. 64; BMCRE 61; BN -; Calicó 371. 7.72g, 20mm, 7h. Very Fine.

3,500

673. Claudius I, with Agrippina II, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 50-51. TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG GERM [P M TRIB POT P P], laureate head of Claudius right / AGRIPPINAE AVGVSTAE, draped bust of Agrippina II right, wearing crown of corn ears, her hair in long plait behind. RIC 81; RSC 4; BMCRE 75. 3.61g, 19mm, 8h. Extremely Fine.

500

674. Claudius I Æ As. Rome, AD 50-54. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P, bare head left / Minerva right, helmeted and draped, hurling javelin and holding round shield on left arm; S-C across fields. RIC 116; C. 84; BMCRE 206. 11.73g, 30mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

223

500


675. Nero, as Caesar, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 51. NERONI CLAVDIO DRVSO GERM COS DESIGN, bare-headed and draped bust of Nero right / EQVESTER OR-DO PRINCIPI IVVENT in four lines on shield, behind which stands a spear. RIC 79 (Claudius); von Kaenel Type 53; BMCRE 93 (Claudius); RSC 97. 3.64g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; die shift on obv.

1,000

From a private British collection.

676. Nero AV Aureus. Rome, AD 57-58. NERO • CAESAR • AVG • IMP, youthful bare head right / TR•P•IIII•P•P•PONTIF•MAX• around wreath enclosing EX SC. RIC 14; BN 20; BMCRE 15; Calicó 424. 7.63g, 19mm, 5h. Good Very Fine.

4,000

Ex Monsieur Note (1910-1982) Collection, France.

677. Nero AV Aureus. Rome, AD 59-60. NERO • CAESAR • AVG • IMP, youthful bare head right / PONTIF•MAX•TR•P•VI•COS•IIII•P•P• around oak wreath enclosing EX SC. RIC 19; BMCRE 21; Calicó 426. 7.57g, 18mm, 4h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

4,000

On his accession at the death of Claudius in AD 54, the seventeen year old Nero became the youngest Emperor Rome had yet known. Heavily influenced during his first year on the throne by his mother Agrippina, he gradually resisted her interventions in favour of the advice given by his tutor Seneca and the Praetorian Prefect Burrus, eventually having her murdered in 59. When this aureus was struck in 60 Nero was fully under the power of Seneca and Burrus, a fact which the authors of RIC suggest is evidenced on the coinage by the single type employed to strike gold and silver alike. Coins from this issue such as the present piece featured simply Nero’s name and titles, with the corona civica and formula EX S C (by decree of the Senate), and continued to link the Emperor back through the Julio-Claudian line to Augustus. Issues of gold and silver in the name of Nero from before 64 are generally rare, and this is thought to be due to the recall and melting of as much as possible of this early coinage. The melted coins were replaced by new types on reduced weight standards, a policy enacted in order to defray the huge costs required by the rebuilding of Rome, which included the construction of Nero’s infamous Domus Aurea.

224


678. Nero AR Denarius. Rome, AD 64-65. NERO CAESAR, laureate head right / AVGVSTVS GERMANICVS, Nero, radiate and togate, standing facing, holding a branch in his right hand and Victory on globe in his left. RIC 47; BMCRE 60; RSC 45. 3.33g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

5,000

Ex European collection, Nomos 15, 22 October 2017, lot 223.

679. Nero AR Denarius. Rome, AD 64-65. NERO CAESAR AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / IVPPITER CVSTOS, Jupiter, bare to the waist, seated on a throne facing left, holding a thunderbolt in right hand and a long sceptre in left. RIC 53; BMCRE 74; RSC 119. 3.36g, 19mm, 7h. Extremely Fine; very attractive old cabinet tone. Exceptional for the issue.

4,000

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 59, 4 April 2011, lot 922.

680. Nero AV Aureus. Rome, AD 65-66. NERO CAESAR AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / Salus seated to left on throne, holding patera in left hand; SALVS in exergue. RIC 59; C. 313; BMCRE 87; BN 225; Calicรณ 443. 7.37g, 18mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine.

5,000

Ex H. D. Rauch 71, 28 April 2003, lot 527.

681. Nero AR Denarius. Rome, AD 65-66. CAESAR AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / Salus seated on throne to left, holding patera in right hand; SALVS in exergue. RIC 60; C. 314; BMCRE 90; BN 228. 3.56g, 17mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine. Beautiful old cabinet tone. Ex Helios 4, 14 October 2009, lot 264; Ex A. Tkalec, 17 May 2010, lot 168.

225

3,000


Nero’s Adlocutio

682. Nero Æ Sestertius. Lugdunum, AD 66. IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PONT MAX TR POT P P, laureate head right, globe at point of bust / Nero standing to left on low platform with praetorian prefect behind him, raising right hand and addressing three soldiers, the two in front carrying standards, the praetorian camp in the background; S-C across field, ADLOCVT COH in exergue. RIC 490; C -; BN -; Mazzini -. 24.90g, 34mm, 7h. Good Very Fine. Well detailed reverse scene.

3,000

683. Nero Æ Dupondius. Lugdunum (Lyon), AD 67. IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P, laureate head right; globe at point of bust / SECVRITAS AVGVSTI, Securitas seated right, resting right elbow on back of chair and hand on head, left holding sceptre; garlanded and lighted altar before, against which leans lighted torch, SC in exergue. RIC 596; Lyon 210; WCN 531. 13.29g, 28mm, 8h. Extremely Fine. A splendid portrait of Nero and a wonderfully detailed reverse scene, with a beautiful olive-green patina.

1,500

Ex Roma Numismatics E-Sale 9, 28 June 2014, lot 420.

Restoring Augustan Ideology

684. Civil War, Vindex AR Denarius. Uncertain mint in Gaul, AD 68. AVG DIVI•F, laureate head of the deified Augustus to right / S•P•Q•R within oak wreath, circular jewel in bezel at apex. Martin -; Nicolas -; BMCRE -; C. -; RIC -, cf. 104. 3.50g, 17mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Unpublished in the standard references and of the highest rarity.

2,500

Kraay noted the unusual presence of SPQR within a wreath on these coins of Vindex. He states: “it will have been noticed that the earlier formula of SPQR has replaced the Neronian EX SC. In strict Augustan usage SPQR never accompanied the corona, but always the clipeus virtutis of the inscription on which it formed the opening words. However, the choice of SPQR was probably deliberate and represented something more than the mere blurring of Augustan distinction. That broad basis of public and Senatorial support which the principate had had in the days of Augustus was to be restored to it.”

226


Second Known Example

685. Civil War, Vindex AR Denarius. Uncertain mint in Gaul, AD 68. AVGVSTVS DIVI F, laureate head of the deified Augustus to left / Victory standing to left, holding shield inscribed CL•V. Martin -, cf. 25 (same obverse die); RIC -, cf. 110; BMCRE -, cf. 57; Nicolas pl. XXII, A26BR. 3.17g, 17mm, 6h. About Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare – the second known example.

2,500

The Peace of Augustus

686. Civil War, Vindex AR Denarius. Uncertain mint in Gaul, AD 68. DIVVS AVG P P, laureate head of the deified Augustus to right / PAX, clasped hands holding winged caduceus flanked by two cornucopiae. Martin A23; C. 200 and 336 (Augustus); BMCRE 304; RIC 113. 3.66g, 18mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare – one of only five known examples.

2,500

Ex Roma Numismatics VII, 22 March 2014, lot 1015 (hammer £5,500). Often seen as a reaction to Nero’s tax policy and a campaign for Gallic independence, the numismatic evidence of the revolt suggests the contrary and demonstrates that rather than having an anti-Roman agenda, Vindex was specifically anti-Neronian and anti-tyrannical. His coinage employs consistently Augustan propaganda, the example seen on this reverse type recalling the great Pax inaugurated by Augustus following his defeat of Marc Antony.

Third Known Example

687. Galba AV Aureus. Tarraco, April-late AD 68. IMP GALBA, laureate head right, with globe at point of bust / DIVA AVGVSTA, Livia standing left, draped, holding patera and leaning on sceptre. C -, cf. 43 (denarius); BMCRE -, cf. 167 (denarius); RIC -, cf. 14 (denarius); BN -, cf. 8 (denarius); Calicó 470 = Biaggi 252 = Hess-Divo 320, 326 (hammer CHF 14,000). 7.61g, 18mm, 6h. Very Fine; faint hairline in rev. field. Extremely Rare - apparently only the third known example.

7,500

This type was known only in silver until as late as 1953, when part I of the Rashleigh collection (14-16 January, lot 19) was put up for auction. The type remained known only by that single example, which passed into the Biaggi collection, until 2009 when a further specimen came to light at NAC 52 (7 October, lot 357). The type remains an extremely rare example of Galba’s early coinage produced in the capital of his province and power base, Hispania Tarraconensis. The reverse advertises Galba’s association with the early Julio-Claudians, and Livia in particular - Galba had been a close personal friend of the imperial family, and Livia had made him her principal heir in her will, though Tiberius largely cancelled the generous bequests therein.

227


2x

2x

688. Galba AR Quinarius. Lugdunum, AD 68-69. SER GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG P M T P, laureate head right / VICTORIA GALBAE AVG, Victory, draped, standing to right on globe, holding wreath and palm. RIC 132; BMCRE 244; King 1; RSC 317. 1.51g, 14mm, 8h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

300

Ex Áureo & Calicó, 9 November 2017, lot 22.

689. Galba Æ As. Restitution under Titus. Rome, AD 80-81. SER GALBA IMP CAES AVG TR P, laureate bust right / IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG REST around large SC. RIC 444; C 351. 10.45g, 28mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

750

Ex H. D. Rauch 87, 8 December 2010, lot 383.

The Most Difficult of the Twelve Caesars to Obtain in Gold

690. Otho AV Aureus. Rome, January - April AD 69. IMP OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P, bare head of Otho right / SECVRITAS P R, Securitas standing left, holding wreath in right hand and cradling sceptre in left arm. RIC 7; C. 16; BMCRE 13; Calicó 531. 7.03g, 20mm, 6h. Very Fine; a bold portrait, struck on a very broad flan. Rare.

10,000

From a private European collection. According to the accounts of Plutarch and Suetonius, Otho was one of the most reckless and extravagant of the circle of young aristocrats whom Nero called his friends. This friendship ended abruptly in AD 58 however, when Otho introduced his beautiful wife Poppaea to the emperor at her insistence. Poppaea thereupon began an affair with Nero, and having securely established her position as the emperor’s mistress, she divorced Otho and had the Nero send him away as governor to the remote province of Lusitania (which is now parts of both modern Portugal and Extremadura, Spain). Otho’s bitterness at his estrangement from his wife, paired with his relocation to Hispania, made him a natural ally for Galba, the governor of neighbouring Tarraconensis, in his revolt against the emperor in 68. Support for Nero waned, and the emperor fled to the villa of his freedman Phaon where he ended his life, while Galba, accompanied by Otho, marched on Rome and was declared emperor. Otho expected to be named Galba’s heir as a result of his loyalty, but when Galba nominated L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus, Otho’s disappointment manifested itself as anger. He fomented a revolt amongst the Praetorians, who murdered Galba and hailed Otho as emperor in his place on 15 January AD 69. His reign was not destined to be lengthy. Whilst he had the support of Egypt, Africa and the legions of the Danube, the legions of the Rhine supported their commander Vitellius - conflict was inevitable. Otho committed to a battle before his reinforcements from Dalmatia were able to reach him, and he suffered a defeat at the Battle of Bedriacum. Ignoring the entreaties of his generals to await his reinforcements and offer battle once again, Otho took his own life, after just three months as emperor. In a dignified speech, he bade farewell to those about him, declaring: “It is far more just to perish one for all, than many for one”. His suicide was widely recognised by his contemporaries as an honourable act, and the poet Martial later wrote in his Epigrams VI. XXXII “Sit Cato, dum vivit, sane vel Caesare maior, dum moritur, numquid maior Othone fuit?” (“Cato while he lived, he was greater than Caesar himself, when he died, was he at all greater than Otho?”).

228


691. Otho AR Denarius. Rome, AD 69. IMP M OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P, bare head right / SECVRITAS P R, Securitas standing facing, head left, holding wreath in right hand and sceptre in left. RIC 8; BMCRE 18; RSC 17. 3.24g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Uncommonly well detailed, with clearly visible name.

2,000

692. Vitellius AR Denarius. Tarraco(?), January - June AD 69. A VITELLIVS IMP GERMAN, laureate head left, globe at point of bust; palm branch before / CONSENSVS EXERCITVVM, Mars advancing left, helmeted and nude but for cloak billowing behind, holding spear and vexillum surmounted by aquila. RIC 24; C. -, cf. 24; RSC 24c. 3.38g, 19mm, 7h. Near Mint State; metal somewhat porous. Very Rare.

1,000

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica, 24 May 2016, lot 2121; Ex CGB Numismatique 34, 30 April 2008, lot 444.

693. Vitellius AR Denarius. Rome, AD 69. A VITELLIVS GERMAN IMP AVG TR P, laureate head right / LIBERTAS RESTITVTA, Libertas standing facing, head right, holding pileus and long staff. RIC 81; C. 48; BMCRE 13. 3.09g, 20mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Rare, superbly detailed and well preserved for the type.

2,500

Privately purchased from Sovereign Rarities Ltd, London; Ex private English collection.

694. Vitellius AR Denarius. Rome, 19 April - 20 December AD 69. A VITELLIVS GERMAN IMP TR P, laureate head right / SACR FAC XV VIR, tripod-lebes surmounted with dolphin lying to right; raven standing to right below. RIC 86; C. 114. BMCRE 17; BN 48. 3.15g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Ex Gorny & Mosch 112, 17 October 2001, 4273.

229

2,000


Ex Giuseppe Mazzini (1883–1961) Collection

695. Vitellius AV Aureus. January - December AD 69. A VITELLIVS GERMAN IMP TR P, laureate head right / CONCORDIA P R, Concordia seated left, holding patera and cornucopiae. RIC 89; C. 17; BMCRE 8; Calicó 542; BN 51; Mazzini 17 (this coin). 7.30g, 19mm, 5h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

12,500

Ex Gorny & Mosch 224, 13 October 2014, lot 473 (hammer: EUR 20,000); Ex Giuseppe Mazzini (1883–1961) Collection, Vol. 1 (Milan 1957), p. 180, pl. LXIV, 17.

Cover Coin of The New York Sale XXXIX

696. Vespasian Æ Sestertius. Judaea Capta series. Rome, AD 71. IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M TR P P P COS III, laureate head right / IVDAEA CAPTA, Vespasian standing right, holding spear and parazonium, foot on helmet; before him, Jewess in attitude of mourning seated to right on cuirass beneath palm tree. RIC 167; BMCRE 543-4; BN 497-8; Hendin 1504. 19.71g, 31mm. Extremely Fine.

10,000

Privately purchased from B&H Kreindler; Ex Brody Family Collection, The New York Sale XXXIX, 10 January 2017, lot 236 (cover coin); Ex Abraham Bromberg Collection Part II, Superior Galleries, 10 December 1992, lot 611. Struck for 25 years by Vespasian and his sons Titus and Domitian, the Judaea Capta coins were issued in bronze, silver and gold by mints in Rome, throughout the Roman Empire, and in Judaea itself. They were issued in every denomination, and at least 48 different types are known. The present piece proudly displays imagery of this significant Roman victory, after which Vespasian boldly closed the gates of the Temple of Janus to signify that all of Rome’s wars were ended, and that the Pax Romana again prevailed. The obverse portrait of Vespasian shows him as strong, robust and in the prime of life; the reverse celebrates Rome and Vespasian’s triumph over the Jewish revolt in Judaea, which Titus had brought to a close the previous year with the capture of Jerusalem after a seven month siege and the destruction of the Second Temple. It had been a costly and devastating war which had cost the lives of twenty five thousand Roman soldiers and somewhere between two hundred and fifty thousand and one million Jewish civilians. The reverse design is simple, but contains powerful imagery: a Jewish woman is seated in an attitude of mourning beside a date palm; behind her looms large the figure of the victorious emperor. It has been occasionally suggested that the female figure represents Jerusalem, and it is sometimes noted that the reverse of this coin can be interpreted to reflect the prophecy of Isaiah 3:8, 25-26: ‘For Jerusalem is ruined, and Judah is fallen... Thy men shall fall by the sword and thy mighty in the war. And her gates shall lament and mourn, and she being desolate shall sit upon the ground’. It is also possible that the reverse is symbolic of the general enslavement of the Jewish population; Josephus reports that one of Titus’ freedmen “selected the tallest and most handsome of the youth and reserved each of them for the triumph; of the rest, those over seventeen years of age he sent in chains to the mines in Egypt, while multitudes were presented by Titus to the various provinces, to be destroyed in the theatres by the sword or by wild beasts; those under seventeen were sold”. The Arch of Titus in Rome, completed by his brother Domitian shortly after his death and in commemoration of this victory, depicts the Roman army carrying off the treasures from the Temple of Jerusalem, including the Menorah, after the siege of the city had ended. The spoils were used to fund the building of the Flavian Amphitheatre, more commonly known as the Colosseum, the great lasting monument of the Flavian dynasty.

230


Judaea Capta - Ex Sotheby’s 1935

697. Vespasian Æ Sestertius. Judaea Capta series. Rome, AD 71. IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M TR P P P COS III, laureate head right / VICTORIA AVGVSTI, Victory standing right, with left foot on helmet, inscribing shield set on palm tree, Judaea seated to right in attitude of mourning; SC in exergue. RIC 221; C. 624; BMCRE 582; Hendin 1508. 26.22g, 35mm, 5h. Extremely Fine; gentle smoothing on rev. A superb portrait preserved in fine detail, with a reverse design of sculptural quality.

10,000

Ex Christopher Corbally Browne Collection, Sotheby’s, 25 March 1935, lot 192.

Ex Dr. Meyer-Coloniensis Collection, 1988

698. Vespasian Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 71. IMP CAES VESPAS AVG P M TR P P P COS III, laureate head right / Mars advancing right holding spear and trophy; S-C across fields. RIC 247; C. 440; BMCRE 568. 27.49g, 33mm, 8h. Near Extremely Fine.

2,000

Ex Dr. F. R. Meyer-Coloniensis, Part III, Münz Zentrum 64, 15 April 1988, lot 158.

699

700

699. Vespasian AR Denarius. Ephesus, AD 74. IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS V TR P P P, laureate head right / PACI AVGVSTAE, Victory standing right, holding wreath in right hand and palm frond in left; star to lower right. RIC 1457; BMCRE 475; RPC II 853; RSC 277. 3.56g, 18mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. 500 Privately purchased from Numismatica Ars Classica. 700. Divus Vespasian AR Denarius. Struck under Titus. Rome, AD 80-81. DIVVS AVGVSTVS VESPASIANVS, laureate bust right / SC inscribed on shield supported by two capricorns, globe below. RIC 357; BMCRE 129; RSC 497. 3.31g, 18mm, 7h. Near Mint State; attractive old cabinet tone. 300 Ex collection of a Munich doctor, acquired c. 1960s-1990s.

701

702

701. Divus Vespasian AR Denarius. Struck under Titus. Rome, AD 80-81. DIVVS AVGVSTVS VESPASIANVS, laureate head right / Shield inscribed SC mounted on column flanked by two laurels; urn on top, E-X across. RIC 359; BMCRE 125; RSC 149. 3.44g, 19mm, 6h. Mint State. Attractive light cabinet tone. 500 Ex private German collection. 702. Divus Vespasian AR Denarius. Struck under Titus. Rome, AD 80-81. DIVVS AVGVSTVS VESPASIANVS, laureate head right / Empty quadriga advancing left, car ornamented with figures and surmounted by statuette of quadriga flanked by Victories holding palm fronds and wreaths; EX SC in exergue. RIC 361 (Titus); C. 146; BMCRE 119 (Titus); BN 94 (Titus). 3.40g, 20mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Rare. 500 Ex Gorny & Mosch 147, 6 March 2006, lot 2047.

231


The Temple of Vesta

703.

Titus, as Caesar, AV Aureus. Rome, AD 73. T CAES IMP VESP PON TR POT CENS, laureate head right / VESTA, tetrastyle circular Temple of Vesta, a statue of Vesta standing within, holding sceptre, two statues flanking outside. RIC 530 (Vespasian, Rome); BMCRE pg. 18, note † (Vespasian, Rome) & 411 (Vespasian, Lugdunum); Calicó 796 (same obv. die); C. 349. 7.37g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; only two other examples on CoinArchives.

12,500

Ex E. Bourgey, 10-12 March 1976, lot E. It is impossible to ignore the importance of the Temple of Vesta to the Roman state. Containing not a statue of Vesta but her sacred fire, the ancient sources tell us that its fate was entwined with the city so closely that if the fire were to be extinguished it would be interpreted as “an omen that portends the destruction of the city” (Dionysius of Halicarnassus 2.67). The Vestal Virgins thus devoted their lives to completing the rituals required to ensure the protection of the flame, and so the city. Their purity and dedication was seen to guard the city from danger, and as a consequence if ever they disregarded their duties or were proven to no longer be virgins, severe punishment was dispensed. Alongside the flame, the Vestal Virgins protected important state documents such as the emperor’s will and items of legendary fame, reportedly including the Palladium, brought from Troy by Aeneas. Although commonly called a temple today this building was not in fact a temple in the Roman sense of the word, being that it was not a space consecrated by augurs that could be used for meetings of Roman officials (and indeed, entry to the temple was restricted to the Vestals and the pontifex maximus). However, the sacred site had been in use since the seventh century BC, although the temple itself was destroyed and rebuilt many times over the centuries. One such occasion was after the fire of AD 64, which saw only four of the fourteen districts of Rome escape damage and the Temple of Vesta burnt to the ground. The final destruction occurred during the reign of Commodus in AD 191 after which it was rebuilt by Septimius Severus and Julia Domna. The version seen on this coin therefore is the Neronian structure, also featured on coins of that emperor (see RIC I, 61). Architecturally, the numismatic imagery corroborates the descriptions given in the ancient literature concerning this temple. Firstly, no matter how many times it was destroyed the temple was always reconstructed in circular form, just like the huts of the early settlers of Rome and a fitting form for the shrine of the goddess of the hearth, home and family as a symbolic representation of Vesta in her guise as Mother Earth. That this was her position in the Roman consciousness is attested by Dionysius of Halicarnassus who stated that the Romans regarded “ the fire as consecrated to Vesta, because that goddess, being the Earth and occupying the central position in the universe, kindles the celestial fires from herself “ (2.66.3), while Ovid noted that “Vesta is the same as the earth, both have the perennial fire: the Earth and the sacred Fire are both symbolic of home.” (Fasti, 6.269-70). The distinctive domed roof of the temple, clearly visible in the present depiction, featured an open oculus. This was perhaps designed in part to vent smoke from the sacred fire while allowing light into the cella, for the ancient sources tell us that in contrast to other temples the cella was fully enclosed to protect the sacred flame from wind and rain. These walls, which hid the sacred fire from the eyes of all except those permitted to enter, and the lack of a statue of the goddess in the temple is noted by the ancient sources such as Ovid: “there is no image of Vesta or of fire” (Fasti, 6.297). This therefore present us with a problem, as the temple seen in this reverse type clearly contains and is flanked by three statues. Philip Hill (The Monuments of Ancient Rome as Coin Types, Seaby, London, 1989) argues convincingly that what we are in fact being shown is the Aedicula Vestae on the Palatine Hill (pg. 32), which was constructed in 12 BC after Augustus gave part of his private house to the Vestals as public property and incorporated a new shrine of Vesta within it.

232


704. Domitian, as Caesar, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 80-81. CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII, laureate head right / PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, garlanded, lit altar. RIC 266 (Titus); BMCRE 92 (Titus); RSC 397a. 3.39g, 18mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

300

From a private British collection; Ex Bertolami Fine Arts 29, 22 March 2017, lot 463.

A Perfect Domitian Denarius

705. Domitian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 81. IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG PONT, laureate head right / TR P COS VII DES VIII P P, wreath on curule chair. RIC 46; BMCRE 18 var. (obv. legend); RSC 570/1 var. (same). 3.55g, 18mm, 5h. Fleur De Coin. Very Rare.

1,500

Ex H. D. Rauch 99, 8 December 2015, lot 128; Ex Gerhard Hirsch Nachf. 194, 19 February 1997, lot 474.

706. Domitian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 82. IMP CAESAR DOMITIANVS AVG P M, laureate head right / TR POT IMP II COS VIII DES VIIII P P Fortuna standing left, holding rudder in right hand and cornucopiae in left. RIC 141; BMCRE 34; RSC 610. 3.54g, 19mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Attractive light cabinet tone.

500

Ex Dr. Brandt Fixed Price List 3, Summer 2003, 309.

An Extremely Rare Aureus of Domitian

707. Domitian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 84. IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG GERMANIC, laureate bust right wearing aegis / P M TR POT III IMP V COS X P P, Minerva standing left, holding thunderbolt and spear; shield at her feet to right. RIC 187; C. 351 corr. (rev. legend); BMCRE note 48; Calicรณ 898. 7.72g, 20mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; no other examples on CoinArchives. Ex Monsieur Note (1910-1982) Collection, France.

233

7,500


708. Domitian Æ As. Rome, AD 85. IMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG GERM COS X, laureate bust right, wearing aegis / SALVTI AVGVSTI, square altar with double doors; SC in exergue. RIC 224; BMCRE 291; C. 414. 10.24g, 28mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

750

Ex Numismatik Lanz 146, 25 May 2009, lot 417.

709. Domitian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 92-93. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TR P XII, laureate head right / IMP XXII COS XVI CENS P P P, Minerva standing right on capital of rostral column, with spear and shield; owl to right. RIC 740; C. 281; BMCRE 202; RSC 281. 3.32g, 18mm, 6h. Mint State. Attractive old cabinet tone.

750

Ex private German collection.

710. Domitian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 93. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P XIII, laureate head right / IMP XXII COS XVI CENS P P P, Minerva standing right on capital of rostral column, holding spear and shield, owl to right. RIC 762; C. 284; BMCRE 216; RSC 284. 3.49g, 19mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin.

300

Ex collection of a Munich doctor, acquired c. 1960s-1990s.

711. Nerva AR Denarius. Rome, AD 96. IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P COS II P P, laureate head right / CONCORDIA EXERCITVVM, clasped hands before aquila resting on prow. RIC 3; BMCRE 8; RSC 25. 3.13g, 18mm, 6h. Near Mint State; extraordinarily lustrous with light tone.

500

Ex Áureo & Calicó, 9 November 2017, lot 47.

712. Nerva AR Denarius. Rome, AD 97. IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P COS III P P, laureate head right / SALVS PVBLICA, Salus seated facing left, holding ear of corn in outstretched right hand. RIC 20; BMCRE 48; RSC 134. 3.38g, 17mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; light iridescent tone. Ex H. D. Rauch 68, 5 November 2001, lot 322.

234

300


Ex Baron von Schennis and Ernst Herzfelder Collections

713.

Trajan AV Aureus. Rome, AD 101-102. IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM, laureate bust right, slight drapery on far shoulder / P•M•TR P• COS•IIII•P•P, Hercules standing facing on low base, holding club in right hand and lion skin in left. RIC 49 var. (bust type); C. 231 var.; BMCRE 84; Calicó 1053a (this coin); MIR 99b (this coin cited). 7.24g, 20mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare; only three other examples on CoinArchives.

15,000

This coin cited in B. Woytek, Moneta Imperii Romani 14 (2010); This coin published in X. Calicó, Los Aureos Romanos (2002); Ex Bank Leu Fixed Price List, December 1990, 5; Ex Hess-Leu 49, 27 April 1971, lot 354; Ex Baron Friedrich von Schennis Collection, J. Hirsch XXXIII, 17 November 1913, lot 1217; Ex Ernst Herzfelder Collection, J. Hirsch XXIX, 9 November 1910, lot 968. Trajan was the first of the Roman emperors to depict the figure and attributes of Hercules on his coinage. This was perhaps on account of Trajan having been born in Italica in southern Spain where Hercules was particularly venerated as Hercules Gaditanus (the name pertaining to the temple to Hercules outside the Phoenician city of Gadir on the southern coast of Spain). Strack argued that this type is a depiction of the cult-image of Hercules Gaditanus, and though the image is certainly suggestive of being a representation of a cult-statue, there is no corroborating evidence (Untersuchungen zur römischen Reichsprägung des zweiten Jahrhunderts. I. Die Reichsprägung des Traian, Stuttgart, 1931). Indeed, the reverse types of Hadrian make specific reference to Hercules Gaditanus and depict Hercules standing from an altogether different viewpoint, with the attribute of the apples of the Hesperides rather than the lion skin (see RIC 125). An equally likely source for the representation may have been the statue that stood near the Ara Maxima Herculis Invicti, the great altar to the hero in the Forum Boarium in Rome. This was a sacred spot which legend tells us was where Hercules killed the giant Cacus who had stolen some of the cattle of Geryon from him (for the full story see Livy 1.7). Despite this, the gilded bronze statue discovered on the site of the Forum Boarium, now housed by the Capitoline Museum of Rome, also lacks the attribute of the lion skin. Lacking a clear source for the representation, this rare aureus is best understood within the context of the close association Trajan cultivated between himself and Hercules. The orations addressed to Trajan by Dio Chrysostom directly identify the emperor with Hercules, a comparison also made by Pliny (see Dio Chrysostom, On Kingship A, 84 and Pliny, Panegyricus, 14.5). A series of quadrantes struck under Trajan make the same equation, depicting Hercules in the place of the emperor on the obverse, alongside his imperial titles (RIC 698, 700-2). In another numismatic representation, the column celebrating Trajan’s victory over the Dacians is depicted in the form of a club resting on a lionskin pedestal (see RIC 581, pl. XI, 202), likening the emperor’s triumph to a Herculean labour. A statue in the collection of the Palazzo Massimo alle Terme in Rome makes the association most clear, depicting Trajan as Hercules-Silvanus, draped with a lionskin in much the same manner as Hercules depicted on the aureus presented here (for further discussion, see O. J. Hekster, Propagating power: Hercules as an example for secondcentury emperors in Herakles and Hercules, 2003, pp. 20-35).

235


An Extremely Rare Aureus of Trajan

714.

Trajan AV Aureus. Rome, AD 103-111. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / COS V P P SPQR OPTIMO PRINC in four lines within oak wreath. RIC 148; Calicó 1013; Biaggi 481; C. 101; BMCRE 371. 7.20g, 20mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Extremely Rare, only four other examples on CoinArchives (all in very poor condition), and far superior to both the Calicó and Biaggi examples. Arguably perhaps the finest known example of the type, not to be confused with the more common reverse with a shorter legend in three lines within wreath. 12,500 Barely five years into his reign around AD 103, Trajan was accorded the title of ‘Optimus’ by the Senate. This singular honour, which had never before been bestowed and never would be again, was a result of Trajan’s enormous popularity among his peers, and in recognition of his role as a benefactor to the people of Rome. Pliny the younger, in his Panegyricus, considered Trajan an “optimum principem” because he himself approved or disapproved of that which the Senate would, and because though in reality Trajan was an autocrat, his deferential and humble behaviour towards his peers qualified him to be seen as virtuous, wielding power through moderation rather than insolence, leading by example rather than ruling through fear. The reverse of this coin proudly bears the title of ‘Optimus Princeps’, wreathed in a simple device, a corona civic (civic crown), which was a standard type often used by various emperors, but which deliberately links Trajan with the first emperor, Augustus, on whose coinage the corona civica was first displayed as the principle type. The obvious comparison between the two emperors long survived Trajan’s reign, as every new emperor after him was honoured by the Senate with the wish “felicior Augusto, melior Traiano” (may he be “luckier than Augustus and better than Trajan”).

236


Trajan’s Eastern Campaign

715. Trajan AV Aureus. Rome, AD 116-117. IMP CAES NER TRAIAN OPTIM AVG GERM DAC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / PARTHICO P M TR P P COS VI P P SPQR, radiate and draped bust of Sol right. RIC 329; Calicó 1038; BMCRE 621. 7.21g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Attractive lustre around the devices.

8,000

Ex Ambrose Collection; Ex Künker 193, 26 September 2011, lot 674. In AD 113, Trajan left Rome to embark upon his Parthian campaign. Osroes despatched an embassy from the Parthian court which finally met the emperor in Athens, by which point it was too late for him to turn back, and as R. P. Longden so eloquently writes, ‘their apprehensive humility would have no doubt only sharpened his zest for the enterprise’. (Cf. Longden, R.P., Notes on the Parthian Campaigns of Trajan, The Journal of Roman Studies 21, (1931), pp. 1-35). The following year, Trajan invaded Armenia, deposed its king Parthamasiris, and annexed it as a Roman province. In 115, Trajan also annexed Northern Mesopotamia, and later the same year he captured the Parthian capital of Ctesiphon. Following the conquest of Ctesiphon, Trajan accepted the title ‘Parthicus’ in 115-116, which features as the reverse legend on the types of this lot; the bust of Sol, who rises in the East, may symbolise Roman dominance over the region. Trajan’s glory was short-lived, however, since in late 116 revolts broke out in Armenia and Northern Mesopotamia, forcing Trajan to abandon his campaign to increase the territory of the Rome and consolidate that which he had already gained. Dio Cassius relates that on looking out towards India, Trajan lamented that his age prevented him from following in the footsteps of Alexander (LXVIII 28.1).

716. Trajan Æ As. Rome, AD 103-111. IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P, laureate head right, drapery on far shoulder / SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Pax standing left, right foot placed on Dacian, holding branch and cornucopiae. RIC 503; C. 408. 11.73g, 27mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

750

Ex Garrett and Bement Collections

717. Trajan Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 103-111. IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P COS V P P, laureate bust right, slight drapery on far shoulder / SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Trajan on horse riding right, spearing fallen Dacian; SC in exergue. RIC 534; C. 503; BMCRE 833; Woytek 203b. 27.07g, 34mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Ex John Work Garrett Collection, Numismatic Fine Arts/Bank Leu, 17 May 1984, lot 774; Ex Clarence S. Bement Collection, Naville VIII, 25 June 1924, lot 837.

237

2,500


718. Diva Marciana (sister of Trajan) AR Denarius. Rome, AD 112. DIVA AVGVSTA MARCIANA, draped bust right, wearing stephane / CONSECRATIO, eagle standing to right with wings spread, head to left. RIC 745 (Trajan); C. 8; BMCRE -; RSC 8. 3.01g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Considerably rarer than the eagle left variety.

5,000

From a private European collection.

Hadrian Invokes the Favour of Hercules

719. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 119-122. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P COS III, Hercules seated facing, on shield and cuirass, holding club and distaff, with lion’s skin below left arm. RIC 55; Calicó 1318; BMCRE 97. 7.15g, 19mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

8,000

Ex Ambrose Collection; Ex Robert O. Ebert Collection, Stack’s Bowers & Ponterio 174, 11 January 2013, lot 5012. Succeeding Trajan as emperor in AD 117 whilst on campaign in the east, Hadrian returned to Rome in 118. However, by 119 he was already planning his next foray abroad, as we see him invoking the favour of the gods on his coinage in advance of the journey. As seen on this reverse type, Hercules the great adventurer and traveller was one of those whose blessing was sought. That Hercules is present on the coinage of Hadrian is only natural after his appearance on types of his adoptive father Trajan, and his presence is further explained by Hadrian’s familial ties with southern Spain (he is thought to have been born in the city of Italica), where the cult of Hercules was prominent. Other reverse types struck under Hadrian explicitly mention the cult of Hercules Gaditanus, who enjoyed the highest honours in southern Spain. The present reverse shows Hercules in the style that many Roman citizens would have been familiar with, seated and resting after his toils in the manner of statues from Kroton and the south. The inclusion of the distaff in this image of Hercules is somewhat unusual. Rather than alluding to his masculinity and strength as shown through the Twelve Labours, it draws attention to the story of the period when Hercules, as penance for the murder of Iphitus, was remanded as a slave to Omphale for a year and was subjected to holding the yarn for her maids as they spun. This Greek myth, which survived through the writings of the early Roman writer Ovid among others, is not one we immediately associate with Hercules today, though it was a more common feature of his cult in antiquity.

720. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 119-125. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P COS III, Jupiter standing facing slightly right, wearing cloak on left shoulder, holding thunderbolt in right hand and sceptre in left. RIC 63; BMCRE 103; Calicó 1301; Biaggi 629. 7.39g, 19mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine.

238

4,000


721. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 119-122. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate head right / P M TR P COS III, Roma as Amazon standing left, right breast bared, holding Victory and spear. RIC 76; BMCRE 149; RSC 1108. 3.40g, 20mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin.

500

Ex collection of a Munich doctor, acquired c. 1960s-1990s.

Ex Walter Niggeler Collection

722. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 119-122. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate, draped bust of Hadrian right / P M TR P COS III, galley under oar to left. RIC 113; BMCRE 247; RSC 1174b. 3.51g, 19mm, 6h. Near Mint State; beautiful old cabinet tone.

1,500

Ex Sternberg I, 30 November 1973, lot 137; Ex Walter Niggeler Collection, Bank Leu - Münzen und Medaillen, 2-3 November 1967, lot 1246.

723. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 119-122. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate bust right with drapery on far shoulder / P M TR P COS III, Concordia seated left, holding patera, CONCORD in exergue. RIC 118b; RSC 255a. 3.49g, 19mm, 6h. Near Mint State.

500

Ex collection of a Munich doctor, acquired c. 1960s-1990s.

Ex collection of the MoneyMuseum, Zurich

724. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 125-128. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate head right, slight drapery on left shoulder / COS III, Roma standing left, holding Victory and spear. RIC 161; BMCRE 361-2; RSC 349. 3.45g, 19mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine; light cabinet tone.

500

From a private British collection; Ex collection of the MoneyMuseum, Zurich, Triton XVIII, 6 January 2015, lot 1089; Ex Numismatik Lanz 109, 27 May 2002, lot 422.

725. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 134-138. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, laureate head right / FIDES PVBLICA, Fides standing right, holding grain ears and plate of fruit. RIC 241a; BMCRE 627; RSC 716. 2.78g, 17mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. From a central European collection.

239

350


Reference to the Judaean Revolt

726. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 134-138. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, bare-headed bust right / SECVRITAS AVG, Securitas seated left on throne with cornucopiae as arms, bare to waist, leaning head on her hand. RIC 273; BMCRE 731 note; C. 1404; Calicó 1377. 6.85g, 19mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine; scuff on edge. Very Rare.

5,000

From a private British collection; Ex Editions V. Gadoury, 2 December 2017, lot 63. An important theme throughout the reign of Hadrian, whose consolidation and fortification of Trajan’s territorial gains was a main priority, Securitas nevertheless appears particularly prominently among the late issues struck c.134-138. Mattingly and Sydenham (RIC II, p. 327) suggest that the use of Securitas may refer, along with Pax, Victory and Pax-Nemesis, to the final subjection of the Jewish Bar Kochba revolt in AD 135. Certainly, from a Roman point of view the restoration of order after a four year long uprising that claimed the lives of a great many Romans would have gone a long way towards improving the perception of internal security within the empire. Indeed, the brutal suppression of the revolt, the devastation wrought on the Jewish population and the expulsion of all Jews from Jerusalem by this emperor otherwise characterised by his clemency and enlightened policies ensured that there would not be a fourth Jewish-Roman war. The representation of Securitas on the present type is unusual. This personification is most often depicted in the form of a woman in matronly costume, with dress and draperies after the traditional aristocratic fashion. Here however Securitas is portrayed in more provocative fashion, bare to the waist with only a drapery loosely covering her legs. As she sits on her throne of cornucopiae (denoting abundance and prosperity) with her right elbow resting on the back of her chair and supporting her head, the implication of her state of undress and posture suggests that she is perfectly at ease with nothing to fear.

727. Hadrian Æ As. Rome, AD 132-134. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate and draped bust right / FELICITATI • AVG, galley under oar to left, helmsman and rowers within, standard and aquila at stern; S-C across fields, COS III P P in exergue. RIC 719; C. 660; BMCRE 1458. 13.13g, 26mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine.

1,500

Ex Gorny & Mosch 240, 10 October 2016, lot 503.

728. Roman Æ Imperial Weight. Time of Hadrian, AD 113-138. Inverted phiale/patera shape. Top side displaying two inlaid pellets flanking central indentation / Underside concave, with central indentation inside whorl / Around, inlaid IMP CAESARIS TRAIANI HADRIANI AVG CCR. 55.14g, diameter 28mm x height 14mm. High state of preservation; condition as seen. From a private British collection.

240

1,000


729. Aelius, as Caesar, AV Aureus. Rome, AD 137. L•AELIVS CAESAR, bare-headed and draped bust right / TRIB POT COS II, Concordia seated left, holding patera and resting left elbow on cornucopiae; CONCORD in exergue. RIC 443b (Hadrian); C. 9; BMCRE 998 (Hadrian); Calicó 1443. 7.18g, 19mm, 6h. Good Very Fine; minor edge marks. Rare.

7,500

Ex Monsieur Note (1910-1982) Collection, France.

730. Antoninus Pius, as Caesar, AV Aureus. Rome, AD 138. IMP T AEL CAES ANTONINVS, bare-headed and draped bust right / TRI POT COS DES II, PIE-TAS across field, Pietas, veiled and draped, standing right, holding up right hand and holding acerrum in left; to right, lighted and filleted altar. RIC 454b (Hadrian); Strack 406ζο (Hadrian); Calicó 1597a (same dies); BMCRE p. 371, note 1017 (Hadrian); Biaggi -. 7.11g, 20mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

3,000

Ex Monsieur Note (1910-1982) Collection, France.

Ex Münzen und Medaillen 1977

731. Antoninus Pius AV Aureus. Rome, AD 145-161. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / TR POT COS IIII, Roma seated to left, holding palladium in right hand and spear in left; shield resting at side. RIC 147; C. 93;. BMCRE 558; Calicó 1657. 7.35g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

7,500

Ex Münzen und Medaillen Auctiones 7, 7-8 June 1977, lot 692.

732. Antoninus Pius AR Denarius. Rome, AD 148-149. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XII, laureate head right / COS IIII, Annona standing left, holding grain ears over modius and anchor. RIC 175; BMCRE 657; RSC 284. 3.85g, 18mm, 6h. Mint State. From a central European collection.

241

250


An Extremely Rare Antoninus Pius Gold Quinarius

2x

2x

733. Antoninus Pius AV Quinarius. Rome, AD 150-151. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XIIII, bare head right / COS IIII, Liberalitas standing left, holding account board and vexillum, LIB-VI across fields. RIC 198a. 3.57g, 15mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

5,000

Ex Ambrose Collection. Attested by the Historia Augusta (Life of Antonius Pius, IV, 9) as having been a generous and munificent emperor, Antoninus Pius is known to have given liberalities to coincide with major events in the Roman calendar such as the ninth centenary of the founding of the city of Rome in AD 148149, and his third quinquennalia in 151-152. However the sixth largesse that he gave, which is celebrated in this reverse type, appears not to have been for a specific event save perhaps being given at the same time as a donative to the army; the first appearance of the vexillum as an attribute of Liberalitas in this series might have been intended to signify the coupling of the civilian largesse and army donative into one. It is somewhat ironic to note that Antoninus Pius, while so generous with his largesse to the people and the games and events held to mark the ninth centenary of the city, did in fact devalue the Roman currency concurrently: the silver purity of the denarius was decreased from 89% to 83.5%, the actual silver weight dropping from 2.88 grams to 2.68 grams. Reverse types such as this one, associating the traditional Roman Virtues such as Liberalitas with the emperor, are therefore cast in a different light.

734. Antoninus Pius AR Denarius. Rome, AD 151-152. IMP CAES T AEL HADR ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate head right / TR POT XV COS IIII, Pietas standing right, holding forelegs of a hind and plate of fruit; altar to right; PIETAS in exergue. RIC 217; BMCRE 754; RSC 617. 3.44g, 18mm, 6h. Mint State.

250

From a central European collection.

735. Antoninus Pius AV Aureus. Rome, AD 155-156. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P IMP II, bare head right / TR POT XIX COS IIII, Antoninus Pius standing left, holding globe in outstretched right hand. RIC 256b; BMCRE 863; Calicรณ 1674. 7.39g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

5,500

Ex Archer M. Huntington (1870-1955) Collection (HSA 30005), Numismatica Ars Classica 67, 17 October 2012, lot 154 (hammer: CHF 8,500).

736. Divus Antoninus Pius AR Denarius. Struck under Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. Rome, after AD 161. DIVVS ANTONINVS, bare head right / CONSECRATIO, eagle standing right, head left, upon garlanded altar. RIC 431 (Aurelius); MIR 18, 24-4/10; BMCRE 48 and 50-4 (Aurelius and Verus); RSC 155-6. 3.15g, 19mm, 11h. Mint State. From a central European collection.

242

250


A Spectacular Diva Faustina Aureus

737. Diva Faustina I (wife of A. Pius) AV Aureus. Rome, after AD 141. DIVA FAVSTINA•, draped bust right / AETERNITAS, Fortuna standing left, holding patera and rudder. RIC 349a (Pius); BMCRE 368, pl. 9, 1 (Pius, same dies); Calicó 1743, cf. 1743a (same rev. die). 7.32g, 20mm, 12h. Fleur De Coin. A highly attractive example struck from rare dies.

10,000

Ex Monsieur Note (1910-1982) Collection, France; Privately purchased in Paris, March 1980. Annia Galeria Faustina was born into a distinguished and well connected family; her father Marcus Annius Verus was three times consul and prefect of Rome, and she counted Sabina and Matidia as her maternal aunts. Sometime between AD 110 and 115 she married Titus Aurelius Fulvius Boionius Arrius Antoninus (who would later gain favour with Hadrian, be adopted and succeed to the throne, and be known to history as Antoninus Pius). Her marriage to Antoninus was a happy one and she bore him two sons and two daughters; her namesake, the only one to survive to adulthood, would marry the future emperor Marcus Aurelius. Faustina was by all accounts a beautiful woman noted for her wisdom, though the Historia Augusta criticized her as having ‘excessive frankness’ and ‘levity’. Throughout her life, as a private citizen and as empress, Faustina was involved in assisting charities for the poor and sponsoring the education of Roman children, particularly girls. When she died in AD 140 shortly after her fortieth birthday her husband Antoninus was devastated. To honour her memory he had her deified, built a temple for her in the Forum and issued a prodigious coinage in her name as Diva Faustina. The most fitting and touching act of this grieving husband and emperor was to ensure her legacy of charitable work would be continued: he established an institution called Puellae Faustinianae (‘The Girls of Faustina’) to assist orphaned Roman girls, evidenced by the extremely rare aurei and denarii with the legend PVELLAE FAVSTINIANAE (cf. RIC 397-399 [Pius]) and he created a new alimenta or grain dole to feed the poor. Unusually, the posthumous coinage in her name was produced over a sustained period, though this is clearly linked to the significant role she played in the ideological theme of pietas that characterised the reign of Antoninus, and which Martin Beckmann (Diva Faustina: coinage and cult in Rome and the provinces, ANS, New York, 2012) suggests likely included a distribution of the issues with the reverse legends PIETAS and AETERNITAS, being evocative of “the ‘spiritual side’ of Faustina’s divinisation” (p. 19), at a public ceremony in her memory on the tenth anniversary of her deification.

738. Diva Faustina I (wife of A. Pius) AR Denarius. Rome, after AD 141. DIVA FAVSTINA, draped bust right / AETERNITAS, Aeternitas standing left, holding globe and billowing veil. RIC 351 (Pius); BMCRE 373 (Pius); RSC 32. 3.44g, 19mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin; minor cuprous adhesion. From a central European collection.

243

250


739. Diva Faustina I (wife of A. Pius) ร† As. Rome, after AD 141. DIVA AVGVSTA FAVSTINA, diademed and draped bust right / PIET AVG, garlanded and lighted altar with closed doors; SC in exergue. RIC 1191 (Pius); C. 256; BMCRE 1466 (Pius). 12.88g, 29mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Rare, and in excellent condition for the type.

500

From the inventory of a North American dealer.

740. Marcus Aurelius, as Caesar, AV Aureus. Rome, AD 145-147. AVRELIVS CAESAR AVG PII F COS II, bare-headed bust right, slight drapery / HILARITAS, Hilaritas standing left, holding long palm and cornucopiae. RIC 432 (Pius) var. (bust type); Calicรณ 1860a; Biaggi 850 var. (bust type, arrangement of rev. legend). 6.56g, 18mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

7,500

From a private British collection; Ex Triton XIX, 5 January 2016, lot 559.

An Apparently Unpublished Variety

741. Marcus Aurelius AR Denarius. Rome, AD 164. M ANTONINVS AVG ARMENIACVS, bare-headed and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P XVIII IMP II COS III, Armenia seated left, in mournful attitude, vexillum and shield before, hand on bow behind; ARMEN in exergue. RIC -, cf. 85-85a var. (different obv. legend and bust type); BMCRE -; RSC 6 var. (same). 3.27g, 18mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin. An apparently unpublished variety of this popular issue. From a central European collection.

244

300


Armenia Conquered

742. Marcus Aurelius AV Aureus. Rome, AD 164. •M•ANTONINVS AVG ARMEN P M, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / TR P XVIII•IMP II COS III, Armenia seated left in attitude of mourning, with one hand supporting head and the other resting on bow to right; trophy behind to right, ARMEN in exergue. RIC 86; MIR 18, 89-2/37; Calicó 1813 (same obv. die); BMCRE 278 corr. (COS II); Biaggi 838. 7.28g, 19mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

15,000

From the inventory of a North American dealer.

743. Marcus Aurelius AR Denarius. Rome, AD 163-64. M ANTONINVS AVG IMP II, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P XVIII COS III, Minerva standing left, holding branch and spear, left hand resting on shield. RIC 102; BMCRE 245; RSC 847. 3.38g, 18mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

250

From a central European collection.

744. Marcus Aurelius AR Denarius. Rome, AD 165-166. M ANTONINVS AVG ARMENIACVS, laureate head right / PIETAS AVG TR P XX COS III, Pietas standing left, dropping incense on altar and holding incense-box. RIC 148; BMCRE 397; RSC 463. 3.28g, 19mm, 12h. Mint State. From a central European collection.

245

250


745. Marcus Aurelius AR Denarius. Rome, AD 166. M ANTONINVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX, laureate head right / TR P XX IMP IIII COS III, Victory standing facing, head right, holding palm and fixing to a palm-tree a shield inscribed VIC PAR in two lines. RIC 163; BMCRE 406; RSC 878. 3.30g, 20mm, 6h. Mint State; minor cuprous adhesion.

250

From a central European collection.

746. Faustina II (wife of M. Aurelius) AR Denarius. Rome, AD 161-164. FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right / FECVNDITAS, Fecunditas standing facing, head right, holding sceptre and child. RIC 677 (Aurelius); RSC 99; BMCRE 92 (Aurelius). 3.44g, 19mm, 6h. Mint State.

300

From a central European collection.

Ex Vinchon 1976

747. Faustina II (wife of M. Aurelius) AV Aureus. Rome, AD 170-175/6. FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right / MATRI MAGNAE, Cybele, towered, draped, seated right on throne between two lions, holding drum balanced in left hand and on left knee. RIC 704 (Aurelius); C. 168; BMCRE 133 (Aurelius); Calicรณ 2071. 7.32g, 20mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine.

10,000

Ex J. Vinchon, 23-24 April 1976, lot 242.

748. Lucius Verus AR Denarius. AD 161-162. IMP L VERVS AVG, bare head right / PROV DEOR TR P II COS II, Providentia standing left, holding globe and cornucopiae. RIC 483 (Aurelius); BMCRE 207 (Aurelius); RSC 154. 3.26g, 18mm, 6h. Mint State; mirror-like lustre.

300

From a private British collection.

749. Lucius Verus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 164. L VERVS AVG ARMENIACVS, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right / TR P IIII IMP II COS II, Mars standing right, holding spear and shield set on ground. RIC 514 (Aurelius); BMCRE 289 (Aurelius); RSC 228. 3.46g, 18mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin. From a central European collection.

246

350


A Perfect Aureus of Lucius Verus

750.

Lucius Verus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 164. L VERVS AVG ARMENIACVS, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / TR P IIII IMP II COS II, Victory, naked to waist, standing right, holding writing instrument in right hand and with left hand steadying shield inscribed VIC AVG that is set atop palm tree. RIC 525 (Aurelius); BMCRE 296 (Aurelius); Calicó 2177. 7.26g, 19mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin.

15,000

Shortly after Lucius Verus succeeded to the position of co-emperor in AD 161, a position he shared with Marcus Aurelius, the peace Antoninus Pius had negotiated with the Parthians collapsed. The Parthian king Vologases IV invaded the Kingdom of Armenia, then a Roman client state, expelling the king and installing his own. Both initial attempts to recover the territory of Armenia by the Governor of Cappadocia, Marcus Sedatius Severianus, and the Governor of Syria, L. Attidius Cornelianus, were unsuccessful. Marcus Aurelius took the decision to send his imperial colleague Lucius Verus to defend the Eastern territories in person. This aureus was struck shortly following the successful invasion of Armenia and capture of Artaxata in AD 183 by M. Statius Priscus, the former Governor of Britain who had been sent to replace Severianus as the Governor of Cappadocia. The obverse proudly boasts the title of Armeniacus, which was granted to Verus despite him having never seen combat. Verus is believed to have spent the majority of the campaign in Antioch, where his contribution to military matters is one of historical dispute. Nevertheless, the recovery of Armenia into the empire as a subordinate client kingdom saw the end of the limited themes which had featured on the early gold issues of the two Augusti in favour of the new – Minerva, Felicitas, Pax – including Victory, who is depicted on the reverse of this coin.

247


751. Lucius Verus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 165-166. L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX, laureate head right / VICT AVG TR P VI COS II, turreted Victory flying left, holding diadem with both hands. RIC 553; BMCRE 425; MIR 134-14/30; RSC 339. 3.13g, 18mm, 12h. Mint State.

300

From a central European collection.

752. Lucius Verus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 166. L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX, laureate head right / TR P VI IMP IIII COS II, Pax standing left, holding branch and cornucopiae; PAX in exergue. RIC 561; BMCRE 428; RSC 126. 3.29g, 19mm, 6h. Mint State.

300

From a central European collection.

753. Lucius Verus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 168. L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX, laureate head right / [TR P V]III IMP V COS III, Aequitas seated left on throne, holding scales and cornucopiae. RIC 595; BMCRE 481; RSC 318. 3.20g, 18mm, 6h. Mint State; pleasant light cabinet tone.

250

From a private British collection; Ex A. Tkalec, 9 May 2005, lot 291

754. Lucilla (sister of Commodus) AR Denarius. Rome, AD 161-163. LVCILLAE AVG ANTONINI AVG F, draped bust right / CONCORDIA, Concordia seated left, holding patera and resting her elbow on a statue of Spes; cornucopiae under seat. RIC 757Â (Aurelius); BMCRE 305 (Aurelius); RSC 6. 3.37g, 19mm, 7h. Near Mint State. From a central European collection.

248

250


249


An Extremely Rare Aureus of Commodus as Caesar

755.

Commodus, as Caesar, AV Aureus. Rome, AD 175. COMMODO CAES AVG FIL GERM, bare-headed and draped bust right / LIBERALITAS • AVG, Commodus, togate, seated to left on curule chair set on platform, extending right hand; Liberalitas standing to left before, holding abacus and cornucopiae; togate citizen at base of platform standing to right, left foot on steps, holding out fold of toga in both hands. RIC 597 (Aurelius); MIR 18, 304-12/13, pl. 2 (same obv. die); Calicó 2274 (same dies); BMCRE 635 (Aurelius and Commodus), pl. 66, 4 (same rev. die); Biaggi -. 7.02g, 19.5mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, one of only two examples on CoinArchives, and the first issue to feature the portrait of Commodus. 25,000 Ex Classical Numismatic Group 100, 7 October 2015, lot 1907. In AD 175, Commodus entered the College of Pontiffs and thus begun his career in public life. In the same year, he gave a congiarium, as commemorated on this coin, this being a gift to the people usually from the emperor but here given by the teenaged heir. Congiaria were originally distributions of oil or wine (congius meaning a measure of liquids) but the emperors’ gifts grew more generous over time to include grain and money and thus the word congiarium disappeared from the numismatic legend to be replaced with liberalitas - the spirit of imperial generosity. We can date this liberalitas thanks to a comment in the Historia Augusta which states that before his departure to the East with his father in AD 175, Commodus “in his fourteenth year…even though still in the youth’s praetexta gave largess” (Historia Augusta 2.1). Therefore, this took place around June 175, during the time of the revolt of Avidius Cassius. Avidius Cassius had been appointed governor of Syria by Marcus Aurelius and had by AD 173 successfully quelled the revolt of the Bucoli in Egypt at the head of a large army, second only in power to Marcus Aurelius himself. Cassius remained in Egypt following the rebellion, ruling the East in the name of the emperor who was spending much of his time fighting the Germanic tribes away from Rome. It is said a rumour that Marcus Aurelius had died from an illness on the Danube reached Cassius, who then persuaded his legions to acclaim him emperor. Another report is that Faustina, fearing for her husband’s ill health and what this would mean for her young son Commodus, goaded Cassius to usurp Aurelius (see Historia Augusta, Avidius Cassius, 7). Whatever the case, Cassius, whether aware of Marcus Aurelius’ good health or not quickly gained support in the East, with Egypt, Syria and most of the Asian provinces declaring for him. He controlled much of the East for three months, during which time Aurelius, who had been forced to withdraw from the Marcomannic war to deal with the usurper, amassed troops and prepared to march east to depose Cassius. This rebellion proved to be the catalyst for a hastening of Commodus’ official entry into adulthood and assumption of imperial duties. He assumed his toga virilis on the Danubian front on 7 July 175 during preparations for the campaign against Cassius and, as this coin demonstrates, was also entrusted with performing deeds usually carried out by reigning emperors. Cassius’ rebellion lost momentum as soon as news reached the East that Aurelius was approaching with a greatly superior military force than Cassius had at his disposal. He was murdered by one of his centurions sometime in late July AD 175, as Egypt chose to recognise Aurelius again on July 28. Perhaps realising his need for a secure succession and reliable imperial colleague, two years later Marcus Aurelius made Commodus consul - the youngest consul in Roman history - and later in the same year Commodus was given the titles of Imperator and Augustus, elevating him to the position of co-emperor despite his being only sixteen years old.

250


251


Exceptional Metal Quality

756. Pescennius Niger AR Denarius. ‘Antioch’, AD 193-194. IM P CAES C PESCFN NIGER IVST AVG, laureate head right / MAPTI VICTORI, Mars standing left, holding Victory in outstretched right hand and reversed spear in left. RIC 55 var. (legends); RSC 51 var. (same); BMCRE 308 var. (same). 3.73g, 18mm, 1h. Mint State. Exceptional metal quality and preservation for a denarius of Pescennius Niger.

5,000

Ex Triton XVIII, 6 January 2015, lot 1149. The coinage of Pescennius Niger is scarce, and it is quite probable that following his death his coins were recalled and melted by Septimius Severus in so far as was practicable. Originally, scholars assigned all coinage of Pescennius Niger to a single mint: Mattingly and Sydenham (RIC IV, pp. 19) state that “Pescennius Niger’s coins are all of one general style, probably all of one mint”, naming Antioch as this mint largely due to the fact that Niger was governor of Syria and his territory while emperor was largely restricted to the East. However, some light has since been shed on the coinage of Pescennius Niger in the last eighty years. Buttrey’s “The President’s Address” (The Numismatic Chronicle Vol. 152,1992) summarises how uncertainty and ambiguity had previously hampered the study of this emperor’s coinage but that it is in fact apparent that he also struck coins at Alexandria, Caesarea in Cappadocia and Caesarea Germanice in Bithynia. Particular attention to coins minted at Antioch by Bartosz Awianowicz has suggested that the great number of misspelt and often erroneous legends, as exemplified by this coin, indicates an unfamiliarity with Latin on the part of the die engravers, meaning it is highly probable that they were produced by local workers previously responsible only for Greek legends with little intervention by literate Roman die engravers (see Peculiarities and Errors in the Legends Attributed to Antioch Denarii of Pescennius Niger and of Septimius Severus, Notae Numismaticae 2013).

Only Two Other Examples on CoinArchives

757. Septimius Severus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 194. L•SEPT•SEV•PERT•AVG•IMP II, laureate head right / VICT•AVG•TR P•II•COS II, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm branch. RIC 29; BMCRE 61; Calicó 2549. 7.14g, 20mm, 12h. Near Mint State. Extremely Rare; only 2 other examples on CoinArchives.

15,000

From a private French collection.

758. Septimius Severus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 205. SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right / P M TR P XIII COS III P P, Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and sceptre; eagle standing to left at his feet. RIC 196; BMCRE 469; C. 468; Hill 719; Calicó 2508; Biaggi 1090. 7.28g, 20mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Ex Monsieur Note (1910-1982) Collection, France; Privately purchased in Paris.

252

12,500


A Pleasing Dynastic Aureus

759. Septimius Severus, with Caracalla and Geta, AV Aureus. Rome, AD 202-210. SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right / CONCORDIA AVGVSTORVM, Caracalla and Geta, each laureate and togate, standing facing each other, jointly holding Victory standing left on globe with their right hands. RIC 255; Calicó 2435; BMCRE 312. 7.00g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

10,000

Ex Ambrose Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics VII, 22 March 2014, lot 1102. This reverse type neatly shows the hope Severus held for unity and amity between his two sons, and his wish for them to rule together following his death and thus continue the dynasty he had founded. Yet the brothers’ disdain for one another is well-attested; Dio Cassius relates that ‘the two pretended to love and commend each other, but in all that they did they were diametrically opposed, and anyone could see that something terrible was bound to result from the situation.’ Indeed after less than a year of joint rule, Caracalla had Geta murdered.

The Restoration of Rome

760. Septimius Severus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 207. SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right / RESTITVTOR VRBIS, Roma seated left on shield, holding palladium and sceptre. RIC 288; Calicó 2529; BMCRE 358; Hill 840. 6.76g, 21mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Lustrous metal. Rare.

15,000

Ex The New York Sale XXXIV, 6 January 2015, lot 619. Septimius Severus was credited with restoring stability to the Roman Empire after the turbulent reign of Commodus and the civil wars that erupted in the wake of the emperor’s murder, and by the time this coin was struck he had enlarged the empire in the East and strengthened the southern borders through the expansion of the Limes Tripolitanus, a frontier zone of defensive forts in north Africa that secured the agricultural base of the empire against raids from the desert nomads of the Sahara. The improved security of the empire enabled Severus to undertake restorative works in Rome itself, the theme of this reverse type. Roma, personification of Rome, is portrayed here as a direct reference to Severus’ having restored peace and prosperity to the city, which was marked in the landscape by the building of monuments such as the Triumphal Arch celebrating the successful conclusion of the war against Parthia, and the Septizodium, a building of no known practical purpose but which Ammianus Marcellinus (XV, 7, 3) is understood to have noted as ‘a popular place’, though the sentence is ambiguous.

Unpublished in the Standard References

761. Septimius Severus AV Aureus. Possibly struck in India, circa AD 193-211. IMPER AEL SEPTI SEVER PERT III, laureate head right / P M I PT II P VIII COS NI AV II, Victory advancing left, holding wreath in outstretched right hand, trophy over left shoulder. Unpublished in the standard references, but cf. Roma Numismatics XV, 587 (same dies); Roma XV, 586 (same obverse die); NAC 102, 531 (same obverse die). 6.91g, 18mm, 5h. Fleur De Coin. Apparently only the second known example.

253

18,000


762. Divus Septimius Severus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 211. DIVO SEVERO PIO, bare head right / CONSECRATIO, funeral pyre of five levels surmounted by the emperor in a quadriga. RIC 191f (Caracalla); BMCRE 27; RSC 89. 3.14g, 20mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine.

400

Ex collection of a Munich doctor, acquired c. 1960s-1990s.

Julia Domna, The Imperial Mother-figure

763. Julia Domna (wife of S. Severus) AV Aureus. Rome, AD 196-211. IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right / MATER DEVM, Cybele seated left on throne, towered, holding branch in right hand and resting left elbow on drum; on either side of throne, a lion crouching left. RIC 565 (Severus); C. 126; BMCRE 50; Calicó 2629 (same dies). 7.28g, 21mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

12,500

From the property of B.R.S., United Kingdom. Of the many titles conferred on his wife by the emperor Septimius Severus, included are Mater Senatus et Patriae (mother of the Senate and Rome), the unique title of Mater Augustorum (mother of the Augusti) and, on account of her companionship in the field, Mater Castrorum (mother of the camp). The emphasis is on Julia Domna as imperial mother not only to the two heirs Caracalla and Geta but also to segments of Roman society. This coin associates the empress with Cybele, the MATER DEVM (mother of gods), perhaps extending the reach of the imperial mother by association with the mother of the gods; as Cybele is the supreme divine mother, so Julia Domna is the supreme mother to mortals.

Ex Münzen & Medaillen 1979

764. Caracalla AV Aureus. Rome, AD 198. IMP CAES M AVR ANT AVG P TR P, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / SPES PVBLICA, Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising hem of skirt. RIC 26b; C. 598; BMCRE -; Calicó 2820. 7.19g, 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

12,500

Ex Münzen & Medaillen 53, 29 November 1977, lot 279. With the defeat of Clodius Albinus in AD 197, Septimius Severus was free to pursue his dynastic ambitions. The position of Caracalla, much the cause of the dispute between his father and Albinus, was now advanced to that of co-emperor in 198 and confirmed Severus’ intentions to follow the principle of succession by birth, rather than adoption. The execution of a large number of Senators on charges of conspiracy after the death of Albinus led to the estrangement of the Senate and so the Severan dynasty’s dependency on the support of the army and people increased. The reverse of this aureus invokes the personification Spes (Hope) to bring good fortune to the Roman citizenry and so ensure their continued support.

254


Ex Ponton d’Amécourt Collection

765.

Caracalla AV Aureus. Rome, AD 204. ANTON P AVG PON TR P VII, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICT PART MAX, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. RIC 78 (this coin cited); BMCRE p. 249, note * (same); Calicó 2843a (same dies). 7.55g, 20mm, 6h. Mint State.

20,000

This coin cited in H. Mattingly & E. A. Sydenham, The Roman Imperial Coinage Vol. IV, Part I (1936); This coin cited in H. Mattingly, Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum Vol. 5 (1950); Ex Vicomte Gustave Ponton d’Amécourt Collection, Rollin & Feuardent, 25 April 1887, lot 416, sold with old collector’s ticket. Septimius Severus’ Parthian campaign was concluded in 198 with the capture of the Parthian capital of Ctesiphon. On this occasion Septimius was acclaimed imperator for the eleventh time, and he received the title Parthicus Maximus. This victory was celebrated on the Roman coinage over the next few years, and a triumphal arch built in Rome in commemoration of the event that was dedicated in 203. In the wake of his great success, Septimius elevated Caracalla, who had accompanied him on campaign in the east, to co-augustus. In 204 when this aureus was struck the Imperial family had recently returned from the province of Africa, where Septimius had dramatically expanded and re-fortified the entire southern frontier of the empire along the Limes Tripolitanus. Now focussing on matters other than war, the great event of this year was the celebration of the ancient Etruscan festival, the Saecular Games, which recurred at intervals of 110 years and was commemorated on the coinage struck for both augusti. This event saw Caracalla and Geta associated with the Di Patrii, Hercules and Liber Pater, who were themselves equated with the Phoenician gods Shadaphra and Melqart, the tutelary deities of Septimius’ home city of Leptis Magna in Roman Libya (cf. Roma XV, lot 585 for a full discussion of the importance of the Di Patrii to the ideology of Septimius’ reign). Struck at the same time as coinage emphasising the important ideological connection of his sons to the tutelary deities of his regime, the reverse of this stunning aureus attests that Caracalla shared in the celebration of his father’s Parthian victory as co-augustu: we find Caracalla bearing the title given to his father, Parthicus Maximus, and a traditional representation of Victory. As Caracalla neither gained the military victory as Emperor or as a military leader, this aureus demonstrates that victory was also an abstract attribute associated with the princeps. The willingness of Septimius to share his victory titles with his son reflects his desire to create a strong and lasting dynasty following the principle of succession by birth, a theme repeated often on the coinage.

255


A Spectacular Caracalla Aureus

766. Caracalla AV Aureus. Rome, AD 205. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PONTIF TR P VIII COS II, Mars standing left, right foot on helmet, holding olive branch and reversed spear. RIC 80a; BMCRE 476; C. 419; CalicĂł 2777. 7.16g, 20mm, 5h. Fleur De Coin. A bold portrait, struck on a broad flan. Lustrous metal and perfect surfaces. Rare.

17,500

Ex Hermann-Joseph LĂźckger Collection, Dr. Busso Peus Nachf. 417, 2 November 2016, lot 409; Ex Getrudenstrasse Hoard, found in Cologne in 1909. The Getrudenstrasse Hoard was found by workmen digging the foundation of a building. It consisted of approximately 15,000 denarii and 150 or so aurei - a sizeable accumulation. Many of the coins of that hoard bear a distinctive colouration similar to that of the Boscoreale Hoard, derived from the decomposition of the original container.

767. Diadumenian, as Caesar, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 217-218. M OPEL ANT DIADVMENIANVS CAES, bare-headed and draped bust right / PRINC IVVENTVTIS, Diadumenian standing facing, head right, holding standard and sceptre; two more standards to right. RIC 102; BMCRE 87; RSC 3. 2.72g, 19mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. An unusual and pleasing portrait style.

350

Ex Leu Numismatik Web Auction 2, 3 December 2017, lot 694.

768. Severus Alexander AR Denarius. Rome, AD 223. IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate and draped bust right / P M TR P II COS P P, Mars standing left, holding branch and spear; star in left field. RIC 23; BMCRE 92; RSC 231. 3.55g, 20mm, 12h. Fleur De Coin.

256

200


769. Julia Mamaea (mother of S. Alexander) Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 222-235. IVLIA MAMAEA AVGVSTA, diademed and draped bust right / FELICITAS PVBLICA, Felicitas seated left, holding caduceus and cornucopiae; SC in exergue. RIC 679 (Alexander); C. 26; BMCRE 661 (Alexander). 24.94g, 32mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine; untouched light green patina.

750

From a central European collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 100, 29 May 2017, lot 566.

770. Maximus, as Caesar, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 235-236. IVL VERVS MAXIMVS CAES, draped bust right / PIETAS AVG, Priestly emblems, sacrificial implements: lituus, knife, jug, simpulum and sprinkler. RIC 1; BMCRE 118; RSC 1. 3.18g, 19mm, 12h. Mint State.

500

Ex collection of a Munich doctor, acquired c. 1960s-1990s.

771. Gordian III AV Aureus. Rome, AD 239. IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P II COS P P, Jupiter standing facing, holding thunderbolt and sceptre over Gordian, standing facing to left. RIC 21; Calicó 3211. 4.89g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare.

5,000

Ex Roma Numismatics VII, 22 March 2014, lot 1189 (hammer: £6,500).

772. Gordian III Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 241-243. IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / IOVI STATORI, Jupiter, naked, standing facing, head right, holding thunderbolt and sceptre; S-C across fields. RIC 298a; C. 111; Hunter 134. 16.88g, 31mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. From a private British collection; Ex Jesus Vico S.A. 145, 2 June 2016, lot 332.

257

500


773. Balbinus AR Denarius. Rome, circa April-June AD 238. IMP C D CAEL BALBINVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VOTIS DECENNA-LIBVS in three lines within wreath. RIC -; BMCRE 6; RSC 32. 3.32g, 21mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

750

Ex Triton II, 2 December 1998, lot 987.

774. Balbinus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 238. IMP C D CAEL BALBINVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P COS II P P, togate emperor standing left, holding branch and parazonium. RIC 5; BMCRE 26; RSC 20. 2.78g, 20mm, 7h. Mint State.

750

Ex collection of a Munich doctor, acquired c. 1960s-1990s.

775. Balbinus AR Antoninianus. Rome, AD 238. IMP CAES D CAEL BALBINVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / FIDES MVTVA AVGG, clasped right hands. RIC 11; BMCRE 71-73; RSC 6. 4.63g, 23mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine.

500

776. Balbinus AR Antoninianus. Rome, AD 238. IMP CAES D CAEL BALBINVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PIETAS MVTVA AVGG, clasped hands. RIC 12; BMCRE 74-76; RSC 17. 4.70g, 22mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

258

500


777. Pupienus Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 238. IMP CAES M CLOD PVPIENVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA AVGG, Concordia seated left, holding patera and double cornucopiae; SC in exergue. RIC 20; BMCRE 43. 21.79g, 31mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine.

2,500

Ex Gerhard Hirsch Nachfolger 298, 7 May 2014, lot 727. Pupienus was born around AD 164 into humble origins. He is remembered mainly for the brevity of his rule, a mere three months, but he in fact had an impressive military and political record behind him. He worked his way up the cursus honorum and held the consulship in 217 and 234. He was governor of both Germania and Asia during his career, as well as the city prefect of Rome. Much of Pupienus’s energy was put towards the effort against Maximinus following the deaths of the two Gordians. His high political standing had meant he was placed among 20 senators appointed to defend Italy against Maximinus. Out of this group, he and Balbinus were selected as successors to the purple in AD 238. Pupienus was 72 years old. Although the concept of co-emperors was not new, what was revolutionary was the fact that both men were entirely equal, for example in the way they were both Pontifex Maximus. However, Pupienus’s harsh style of ruling meant he was unpopular with the people. The demands from the public of putting another Gordian on the throne were sated by making the young Gordian III Caesar. In spite of this, the anger of the Praetorian Guard against the turmoil of the imperial court only increased as the cracks between Pupienus and Balbinus became more apparent. The Praetorian Guard eventually stormed the imperial palace, and stripped, paraded, and finally tortured to death the two emperors. They had ruled for 99 days.

Extremely Rare Aureus of Valerian I

778. Valerian I AV Aureus. Rome, AD 254-256. IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, laureate and draped bust right / VIRTVS AVGG, Virtus advancing right, holding spear in right hand and trophy over left shoulder. RIC -; C. -; MIR 84a (same dies); Calicó 3454b (same dies). 3.07g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

10,000

From a central European collection. Valerian was one of the last aristocratic emperors; from a noble senatorial family, he had previously held the posts of consul, princeps senatus, and dux of an army under Trebonianus Gallus. Following the assassination of Gallus by his own troops who deserted while he was attempting to quash the revolt of Aemilian, Valerian was proclaimed emperor. Ironically, Aemilian’s troops deserted and murdered him too, thus avoiding significant bloodshed. Valerian’s first official act was to appoint his son Gallienus co-emperor, in order that together father and son might tackle the myriad of threats both internal and external that were then assailing the empire. However the turmoil of the period and the excessive strain placed on the Roman economy is evidenced by the beginning of a massive decline in the Roman monetary system. The antoninianus became so heavily debased as to effectively be no more than bronze with a silver wash, and aurei of his reign were struck on several standards, all lighter than those of his predecessors. Indeed, the Historiae Augustae Scriptores contains rescripts attributed to Valerian in which the differet aurei in circulation were referred to variously as ‘Philippeos nostri vultus’ (Philips bearing our likeness) for the common aureus (use of the same term is ascribed to Aurelian for those aurei which he had restored in weight), ‘third-Philips’ for lighter-weight gold coins, ‘aurei Antoniniani’ for coins of the Antonines and Caracalla (superior to any coined since); Gallienus meanwhile is purported to refer to his father’s gold coinage as ‘aurei Valeriani’. Although much within the Historiae Augustae Scriptores is considered to be of quite questionable accuracy insofar as historical documents were actually written by those claimed to have authored them, it is nonetheless a valuable source where as our present line of questioning is concerned. Written during the reigns of Diocletian and Constantine I, it is evidence firstly of a general awareness that the aureus in the time of Valerian was not of its former weight and quality, and moreover demonstrates that rather than all being referred to as simply ‘aurei’, the different weights of the coins in circulation had inevitably required that they be treated as different denominations, and so more colloquial names found their way into common parlance, as well as perhaps official usage.

259


An Extremely Rare Aureus of Gallienus

779. Gallienus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 255. IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS P F AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / LIBERALITAS AVGG III, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus and cornucopiae. RIC 83; C. 578; MIR 69 I; Calicó 3545 (same dies). 3.53g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare - only three examples on CoinArchives.

7,500

According to Göbl the occasion for the third Liberalitas of Gallienus was the elevation of Valerian II to Caesar in AD 255. Valerian was the eldest son of Gallienus and his wife Salonina, and his appointment as Caesar likely came at the instigation of his grandfather Valerian, co-emperor with Gallienus, in order to quickly cultivate the appearance and function of an imperial dynasty. However because of his youth, and despite reports that Salonina was unhappy with the arrangement, Valerian was placed under the guardianship of Ingenuus, who seems to have held an extraordinary command as governor of the Illyrian provinces. Valerian died in suspicious circumstances in AD 257 or 258, perhaps murdered by his guardian Ingenuus who after his demotion by Gallienus launched an unsuccessful rebellion.

Third Known Example

780. Gallienus BI Antoninianus. Mediolanum, AD 260-261. GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, helmeted, draped and cuirassed bust to left, holding spear and shield decorated with gorgoneion / LEG I ADI VII P VII F, capricorn to right. RIC 318 var. (bust type); C. -; MIR 983l (2 specimens). 3.42g, 22mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; apparently only the third known example.

1,000

Ex Leu Numismatik 1, 25 October 2017, lot 332.

Superb Antoninianus of Quietus

781. Quietus BI Antoninianus. Samosata, AD 260-261. IMP C FVL QVIETVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / INDVLGENTIAE AVG, Indulgentia seated left, holding patera and sceptre. RIC 5; MIR 44, 1732f; RSC 6b. 4.05g, 22mm, 5h. Near Mint State; preserved with complete silvering - Very Rare thus. Privately purchased from Lodge Antiquities; lot sold with old collector’s ticket.

260

750


A Unique Denarius of Carausius

782.

Carausius AR Denarius. London, circa AD 289-290. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS SAEC C, radiate lion walking to left with thunderbolt held in mouth; RSR in exergue. PAS HAMP-2E6A12 (this coin); RIC -, cf. 591-2 for type with different rev. legend; Shiel -; Webb -; RSC -; cf. PAS BMB49CF4 (obv. bust type var.) = Timeline Auctions, 30 May 2015, lot 2221 (sold for £17,360). 3.66g, 22mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine; attractive original tone, as excavated. One of the very finest denarii of Carausius in private hands. Unique. 10,000 Found in the parish of Itchen Stoke and Ovington near Winchester, Hampshire, United Kingdom, on Sunday 5 November 2017 and registered with the Portable Antiquities Scheme: HAMP-2E6A12. When Carausius settled in Britain in 286 the Roman currency was in a degenerate state, made up almost exclusively of base-metal issues; he saw an opportunity to use the platform of coinage as a means to present himself, his regime and his new ideology for the breakaway ‘British Empire’, and gold and silver issues superior to those made by the legitimate empire were the principal manifestation of his traditional standards and virtues. It is in the exergual mark of RSR that Carausius’ use of classical allusion as propaganda can be seen: G. de la Bédoyère, in his paper for the Numismatic Chronicle (158, 1998, 79-88), made a strong case for a Virgilian reading of the RSR mark, based on its use on a bronze medallion of Carausius (BM 1972-7-17-1), very similar in style to a second bronze medallion with the exergual mark of INPCDA (BM 1967 9-1-1), and the reverse legend employed by Carausius of EXPECTATE VENI, ‘Come, long awaited one’ (cf. RIC 554-8, 439-40 and Aeneid ii, 283), which usually appears on the silver coinage. He suggests that the RSR mark is an abbreviation of “redeunt Saturnia regna” (the Saturnian kingdoms return), from Virgil’s Eclogues IV, from which the following line is “iam nova progenies caelo demittitur alto” (INPCDA, now a generation is let down from heaven above). Virgil’s Eclogues text is entirely appropriate for the image that Carausius was trying to promote of the ‘British Empire’ as a haven of traditional Roman values, and the Saturnian age was a commonly used theme of Roman literature to symbolise a lost paradise, both of which are employed here to legitimise Carausius’ rule and appeal to the Romano-British inhabitants of his new empire to support him in his desire to uphold the Roman ideal. The device of a lion bearing a thunderbolt currently defies logical explanation. As a type, it was previously used under the emperors Caracalla, Philip I, Aurelian and Probus who all variously claimed mastery over the East, however in the context of Carausius’ reign its significance cannot be the same unless we allow for gross hubris on Carausius’ part, having ‘defeated’ an invasion fleet of Maximianus’ in 289 (a panegyric delivered to Constantius Chlorus attributes this failure to bad weather, but notes that Carausius claimed a military victory). The type may be in reference to one of Carausius’ military units, Legio IIII Flavia Felix (or a detachment thereof), whose lion insignia was depicted on other contemporary issues.

261


262


The Last Elected Emperor

783. Tacitus AV Aureus. Antioch, November AD 275 - June AD 276. IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated left on a shield, holding Victory on globe and sceptre; SC in exergue. RIC 209; Calicó 4096; C. 116. 4.27g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Mount mark at 12 o’clock skilfully removed. Rare.

10,000

Ex New York Sale XXXIV, 6 January 2015, lot 670. Although an ageing man when he became the last emperor to be elected to the purple by the Senate on the 25th September AD 275, Tacitus was a Roman by birth and a Senator, and accepted the burden that was thrust on his shoulders out of a sense of duty for his country. The reverse type that we see on this rare aureus - Romae Aeternae, the Eternal Rome, coupled with the the restoration of the old senatorial letters SC (Senatus Consulto) in the exergue - is indicative of this. Once his ascension to the purple had been ratified by the army he arrived for a short stay in Rome, before he was obliged to travel east to Asia Minor to quell troubles arising from the auxiliary troops gathered by his predecessor Aurelian, who had enlisted Scythian and Gothic soldiers to aid him in a campaign against Persia. With the campaign no longer expected to go ahead, the gathered men were restless and had plundered several towns in the Eastern Roman provinces. Tacitus, with the aid of his half-brother the Praetorian Prefect Florian, pacified some and defeated others, but was overcome by fatigue, old-age and the hardships of campaign and died at Tyana in Cappadocia in April 276. Following the monetary reforms introduced by Aurelian, coins produced under Tacitus are remarkable for their uniformity and careful adherence to a regular standard. Although no gold quinarii were struck for Tacitus, so far as we know, there have been two separate weight standards noted for the aurei. The present example falls into the lighter category, being between four and five grammes, and was likely struck at 72 to the pound. The heavier examples, usually between six and seven grammes, were struck at 50 to the pound.

784. Tacitus AV Aureus. Siscia, November AD 275 - June AD 276. IMP C M CLA TACITVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated left on shield, holding globe and sceptre. RIC -; BN pl. 93, 391; Calicó 4110 (same dies). 5.06g, 21mm, 11h. Extremely Fine, some areas of smoothing and tooling. Rare. Ex Classical Numismatic Group 88, 14 September 2011, lot 1401 (hammer: $9,500).

263

4,000


Calicó Plate Coin

785.

Probus AV Aureus. Lugdunum, AD 276. IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS AVGVSTI, Probus standing left, holding sceptre and crowning trophy at base of which are two seated captives. RIC 12; Calicó 4245 (this coin); C. 863 var. (not cuirassed); Bastien 160a, c. 4.73g, 22mm, 7h. Mint State. Extremely Rare.

20,000

This coin published in X. Calicó, Los Aureos Romanos (2002); Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 25, 25 June 2003, lot 565. Probus’ ascension to the throne in AD 276 occurred at an unstable time for the Roman Empire: three emperors had died over the last year, two of whom were assassinated and the third is rumoured to have been; the security of the empire was threatened by foreign invasion and Florian, the brother of the previous emperor Tacitus, had been declared emperor by the senate and army in the West in opposition to Probus in the East. Probus therefore had a difficult task ahead of him to defeat his rival for the throne and restore order to a destabilised empire. Probus had employed a Fabian strategy to defeat Florian, avoiding an outright battle and instead relying on skirmishes, the intensity of the summer heat and the discontent this caused among Florian’s army to weaken his enemy’s position. Florian was soon killed by his own forces, and Probus was confirmed as emperor by the Senate with a minimum of bloodshed. Despite the calamitous state of the Empire when Probus ascended the throne, he proved himself to be an efficient and productive emperor, defeating numerous foreign enemies and improving some parts of the areas devastated by war through engaging the army during peacetime in building projects such as growing vines in Gaul, Pannonia and Moesia. Though his rule is covered to an extent by ancient historiographers, the stories often do not match up and the picture we receive of Probus’ rule is somewhat broad and lacking in detail. However, what the sources agree on are the great military achievements of this emperor and the respect he earned both from the conquered and his own people. Unfortunately for numismatists, Probus’ coinage is more focused on emphasising the emperor’s virtus than recording specific achievements, thus making it difficult to establish a chronology or associate types with particular events. This coin, for example, celebrates the emperor’s victory over enemies unspecified. Struck in the early months of his reign, it does however depict Probus in a far more individualistic manner than his later coinage, which often tends towards being highly stylised and showing the emperor in military attire, armed and helmeted - far more so than ever before seen on imperial coinage. Though this portrait is not so militarised as later issues, the origin of this emperor and the nature of his reign is still very much explicit in the combination of a familiar trophy reverse type with the laureate and simply cuirassed bust suggestive of an emperor predisposed to war. Despite his virtues, there was little security to be found in wearing the purple during this period. A long series of civil wars had created a penchant for general-emperors, elected by the army and thereby required to repay the soldiers for their support. Further, internal divisions had left Rome vulnerable to foreign enemies with Germanic tribes attacking the upper Rhine and Danube regions and Aurelian’s Persian campaign still unresolved. Finally, the threat of usurpation was ever present; over the six years Probus was emperor, he successfully put down three revolts but was ultimately assassinated by his own soldiers in AD 282 and replaced by the commander of the Praetorian Guard, Carus.

264


265


A Unique Aureus of Probus

786. Probus AV Aureus. Antioch, AD 281-282. IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left / CONSERVAT AVG, Sol entering quadriga to left, holding reins in raised right hand, whip in left; VOT X in exergue. RIC -; BMCRE -; C -; Calicó -, cf. 4154a = NFA XXV, 29 November 1990, 461 (bust right). 6.71g, 21mm, 11h. Extremely Fine, reverse field smoothed below quadriga. Unique and unpublished.

10,000

This unusual aureus bears the formula VOT X on the reverse; while it appears in various similar formats on aurei and antoniniani, it of course cannot refer to the celebration of a Decennalia by Probus, who reigned for only six years. Its employment here therefore is not the usual “vows (prayers) on the tenth anniversary of the emperor’s rule” but rather its intended meaning is “vows for his hoped-for tenth anniversary”. The almost surreptitious placement of the formula and its variants on the shields of busts and in other obscure places is perhaps indicative of the tenuous and often swiftly fatal nature of the job Probus now found himself in. Probus himself, though aged only forty four at his accession, had lived through the reigns of no fewer than twenty five emperors of whom only two ruled for longer than ten years, nine ruled for less than a year, and none of whom died a peaceful death.

Calicó and Sear Plate Coin

787. Carinus, as Caesar, AV Aureus. Siscia, AD 282. M AVR CARINVS NOB CAES, laureate and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVG, Victory standing left on banded globe, holding laurel wreath in outstretched right hand and palm frond over left shoulder. RIC -, cf. 190E (Victory carrying trophy); cf. C. 139 (same); Sear 12287 (this coin); Calicó 4372 (this coin). 4.84g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare.

20,000

Ex Ambrose Collection; This coin published in X. Calicó, Los Aureos Romanos (2002); This coin published in D. Sear, Roman Coins and Their Values (2000); Ex Andre Constantine Dimitriadis Collection; Heritage 3032, 10 April 2014, lot 23642; Ex McLendon Collection, Christie’s New York, 12 June 1993, lot 191. Raised to the rank of Caesar in the West in AD 282 under his father Carus, who had been proclaimed emperor after the assassination of the emperor Probus, Carinus immediately set out on campaign against the Germanic Quadi tribes whom he met with some success. Returning to Rome in early 283, he celebrated a triumph and was proclaimed Augustus, and thus began his joint rule with his father. Meanwhile his brother Numerian, also Caesar, was on campaign with their father against the Sassanid Persians in the East. It was here that Carus died in July or August 283, but not before having made significant gains against the Sassanids under Bahram II: he had taken the capital Ctesiphon, crossed the River Tigris and was marching his troops further into Mesopotamia.

266


Attractive Nigrinian Antoninianus

788. Divus Nigrinian (son of Carinus) BI Antoninianus. Rome, AD 284. DIVO NIGRINIANO, radiate, youthful head right / CONSECRATIO, eagle standing facing with wings spread, head turned to left; KA(pellet in crescent)A in exergue. RIC 472 (Carinus); C. 2. 3.42g, 25mm, 11h. About Extremely Fine; much silvering remaining. Rare.

1,500

From a central European collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 92, 24 May 2016, lot 2425.

Extremely Rare Numerian Aureus

789. Numerian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 284. IMP NVME[RI]ANVS P F AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS AVGG, Hercules standing right, leaning on club with his left hand and resting his right on his hip. RIC 407; C. -; Calicó 4334. 4.66g, 20mm, 5h. Extremely Fine - Good Extremely Fine; pierced in antiquity. Extremely Rare, no other examples on CoinArchives.

5,000

From the collection of D.I., Germany, purchased before 1992. The great rarity of this coin is in large part due to the brevity of Numerian’s reign. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube in Raetia and Noricum rebelled and proclaimed the praetorian prefect Marcus Aurelius Carus emperor in opposition to Probus. Probus’ army, stationed in Sirmium, decided they did not wish to fight Carus and assassinated Probus instead. Carus, already sixty, immediately elevated his sons Carinus and Numerian to the rank of Caesar. In 283 Carus determined to take advantage of a succession crisis within the Sassanid empire, and marched east at the head of an army along with Numerian, while Carinus was left in charge in the West. The invasion met with great success, and the army was able to make huge incursions into Persian lands, and even capture the capital Ctesiphon. The campaign came to a premature end when Carus died suddenly (according to some sources, from a lightning strike). Numerian made an orderly retreat from Persia, and subsequently died in mysterious circumstances during the journey west. Amid rumours of murder, the prefect Aper was executed by the man who went on to become emperor. Diocletian, previously an officer under Carus, was acclaimed by the army and proceeded to continue the march west, meeting Carinus’ army in battle in Moesia and emerging as victor and emperor. The reverse of this stunning aureus typifies the propagandist nature of Roman coinage, and bestows on Numerian the quality of ‘virtus’, which encompassed valour, manliness, excellence, courage, character, and worth - the necessary attributes of a Roman and especially of an emperor. Coupled with the standing figure of Hercules, with his usual attributes of club and lion’s skin, this reverse references the military victories that Numerian and Carus achieved in the east and likens them to the completion of Hercules’ labours.

267


Calicó Plate Coin

790. Diocletian AV Aureus. Rome or Cyzicus, AD 286. IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front / IOVI CONSERVAT AVGG, Jupiter standing left, nude but for chlamys, holding thunderbolt in right hand and grounded sceptre in left. RIC 134d (Rome); C. 216; Calicó 4463a (this coin). 5.36g, 22mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Perfectly centered, with medallic quality.

20,000

This coin published in X. Calicó, Los Aureos Romanos (2002); Ex Dreesmann Collection, Spink & Son Ltd, 13 April 2000, lot 67; Ex Numismatik Lanz 44, Munich, 16 May 1988, lot 808.

Ex Arras Hoard

791. Diocletian AV Aureus. Aquileia, AD 294-303. DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right / VOT XX AVGG in three lines within wreath with jewel at apex and closed at base with eagle. RIC 7a; C. 540; Depeyrot 2/1; Beaurains 37 (this coin); Baldwin-Brett, NC 1933, 62.3 (this coin); Calicó 4585. 5.49g, 18mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; ΛΛ Λ grafitto on obv, rich golden-red tone. Very Rare; one of only 3 examples on CoinArchives. This coin published in P. Bastien & C. Metzger, Le Trésor de Beaurains (1977); This coin published in Agnes Baldwin Brett, The Aurei and Solidi of the Arras Hoard (Numismatic Chronicle 52, 1933); Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 78, 26 May 2014, lot 1120 (hammer: CHF 15,000); Ex ‘The property of a foreign collector’, Glendining & Co, 27-28 May 1936, lot 224; Ex R. Ratto FPL, April 1933, lot 391; Ex Pompeo Bonazzi Collection, R. Ratto, 7 June 1926, lot 2307; Ex ‘Arras Hoard’: found in a field in Pouvoir Dhée, near Beaurains lès Arras, on 21 September 1922.

268

10,000


269


792. Diocletian AR Argenteus. Nicomedia, AD 295-296. DIOCLETIANVS AVG, laureate head right / VICTORIAE SARMATICAE, four-turreted camp gate with doors thrown open; star above arch; SMNΓ in exergue. RIC 25a; RSC 492b. 3.33g, 20mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine.

500

793. Diocletian AR Argenteus. Thessalonica, AD 302. DIOCLETIANVS AVG, laureate head right / VIRTVS MILITVM, four-turreted camp gate with doors thrown open; star above arch, TS•A• in exergue. RIC 11a; RSC 521b. 3.23g, 20mm, 12h. Near Mint State. Very Rare.

500

794. Diocletian AR Argenteus. Thessalonica, AD 302. DIOCLETIANVS AVG, laureate head right / VIRTVS MILITVM, four-turreted camp gate with doors thrown open; star above arch, TS•A• in exergue. RIC 11a; RSC 521b. 3.53g, 21mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

500

Domitius Domitianus, Usurper

795. Domitius Domitianus Æ Nummus. Alexandria, AD 298. IMP C L DOMITIVS DOMITIANVS AVG, laureate head right / GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding cornucopiae and sacrificing with patera; to left, eagle standing left, head right, wreath in beak; A to right, ALE in exergue. RIC 20; C. 1. 9.24g, 27mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; earthen repatination. Sold with export licence issued by The Israel Antiquities Authority.

270

1,500


271


Hercules and the Hydra

796. Maximian AV Aureus. Treveri, AD 293-294. MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right / HERCVLI DEBELLAT, Hercules standing left, holding club in raised right arm, preparing to strike Hydra coiled around his right leg, which he grips with left hand; PT in exergue. RIC 9; Calicó 4658. 5.42g, 18mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; only this example on CoinArchives.

20,000

Ex Fritz Rudolf Künker 216, 8 October 2012, lot 1259. This coin was struck as a donative on the occasion of the first consulates of the new Caesars Constantius and Galerius; Diocletian well understood the necessity of sharing power and dividing responsibility for the empire among capable leaders who could defend it from the multitude of enemies, both internal and external, that it faced. Maximian’s Caesar, Constantius, was immediately tasked with the recovery of the lands ruled over by the rebel Carausius who had revolted in late 286 or early 287. By the end of 293 all of the usurper’s continental possessions had been captured, and Britannia was finally retaken in 296. The reverse type of this coin may be seen as an allegorical reference to the emperors’ constant struggle against the many enemies of Rome, symbolised by the Hydra - and most especially Carausius, who had proven to be such an embarrassment for Maximian after the failed campaign of 289.

A Very Rare Argenteus of Carthage

797. Maximian AR Argenteus. Carthage, AD 296-298. MAXIMIANVS AVG, laureate head right / FE ADVENT AVGG NN, Africa standing facing with head to left, holding standard and tusk, lion seated to left with head right at her feet, with bucranium to left; S in exergue. RIC 13b; RSC 92. 3.24g, 18mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare. From a private South American collection.

272

750


273


One of Very Few Known

798. Maximianus AV Aureus. Carthage, AD 296-305. MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right / HERCVLI COMITI AVGG ET CAESS NN, Hercules standing to right, nude, resting right hand on grounded club, holding a large apple of the Hesperides in left hand with lion skin draped over forearm; PK in exergue. RIC 3; Calicó 4648. 5.32g, 18mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; a couple of minor marks. Extremely Rare; one of as few as perhaps two or three known specimens (Calicó could not find an example to photograph). 17,500 From a private British collection; Ex Fritz Rudolf Künker 280, 26 September 2016, lot 847. Given the title ‘Herculius’ by Diocletian, Maximianus’ role was always that of the military might to Diocletian’s strategic planning, hence the rich and varied series of depictions of Hercules that we see on his coinage. This reverse depicts Hercules after the completion of his eleventh labour - to steal the apples of the Hesperides. The garden of the Hesperides, nymphs of the evening and golden light of sunset, is Hera’s garden in the west, where an apple tree grows which produces golden apples conferring immortality when eaten. Planted from the fruited branches that Gaia gave to Hera as a wedding gift when she wed Zeus, the garden and tree were tended by the Hesperides. After Hercules had completed his ten labours, Eurystheus gave him two more, claiming that neither the Hydra counted (because Iolaus helped him) nor the Augean stables either (because he received payment for the job or because the rivers did the work). Thus the first of these two additional labours was to steal the apples from the garden of the Hesperides. During this labour, Hercules had to take the vault of the heavens on his shoulders to relieve Atlas, who was the father of the Hesperides and could therefore persuade them to give up the apples. Having obtained the apples Atlas, relieved of his burden, was unwilling to take it back and offered to deliver the apples in Hercules’ stead. Hercules however tricked him by agreeing to take his place on condition that Atlas relieve him temporarily so that he could make his cloak more comfortable. Hercules was thus able to complete the task; as for the apples, as property of the gods, they had to be returned to the garden from which they had been removed, a task that Athena completed on Hercules’ behalf. In later years it was thought that the ‘golden apples’ might have actually been oranges, a fruit unknown to Europe and the Mediterranean before the Middle Ages. Under this assumption, the Greek botanical name chosen for all citrus species was Hesperidoeide (‘hesperidoids’) and even today the Greek word for the orange fruit is ‘Portokali’ after the country of Portugal in Iberia near where the Garden of the Hesperides was thought to grow.

799. Maximianus AR Argenteus. Thessalonica, AD 302. MAXIMIANVS AVG, laureate head right / VIRTVS MILITVM, four-turreted camp gate with doors thrown open; star above arch, TS•B• in exergue. RIC 11b; 11b var. (officina unrecorded, R5); RSC 631†a. 3.42g, 20mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

274

500


800. Constantius I, as Caesar, AR Argenteus. Rome, AD 300. CONSTANTIVS CAES, laureate head right / XC • VI in two lines; all within laurel wreath. RIC 16a (Carthage); C. 345; RSC 345. 2.29g, 18mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare.

500

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 92, 24 May 2016, lot 2451.

801. Galerius, as Caesar, AR Argenteus. Thessalonica, AD 302. MAXIMIANVS NOB C, laureate head right / CONCORDIA MILITVM, four-turreted camp gate with doors thrown open, star above arch; TS•Γ• in exergue. RIC 8; RSC 22a. 3.55g, 20mm, 5h. Mint State. Very Rare.

500

802. Galerius, as Caesar, AR Argenteus. Thessalonica, AD 302. MAXIMIANVS NOB C, laureate head right / VIRTVS MILITVM, four-turreted camp gate with doors thrown open, star above arch; TS•Γ• in exergue. RIC 12b; RSC 227. 3.30g, 20mm, 11h. Near Mint State. Very Rare.

500

803. Galerius, as Caesar, AR Argenteus. Thessalonica, AD 302. MAXIMIANVS NOB C, laureate head right / VIRTVS MILITVM, four-turreted camp gate with doors thrown open, star above arch; TS•Γ• in exergue. RIC 12b; RSC 227. 3.53g, 19mm, 5h. Near Mint State. Very Rare.

500

804. Galerius, as Caesar, AR Argenteus. Thessalonica, AD 302. MAXIMIANVS NOB C, laureate bust right / VIRTVS MILITVM, four-turreted camp gate with doors thrown open, star above arch; TS•Γ• in exergue. RIC 12b; RSC 227. 3.60g, 19mm, 12h. Mint State.

275

500


805. Galerius AR Argenteus. Serdica, AD 305-306. MAXIMIANVS AVG, laureate head right / VIRTVS MILITVM, three-turreted camp-gate, •SM•SDA• in exergue. RIC 2b; RSC 223b. 3.38g, 20mm, 12h. Near Mint State.

500

806. Galerius AR Argenteus. Serdica, AD 305-306. MAXIMIANVS AVG, laureate head right / VIRTVS MILITVM, three-turreted camp-gate, •SM•SDA• in exergue. RIC 11b; RSC 228†a. 3.38g, 20mm, 12h. Near Mint State.

500

807. Maximinus II, as Caesar, AR Argenteus. Serdica, AD 305-307. MAXIMINVS NOB C, laureate head right / VIRTVS MILITVM, three-turreted camp gate; no doors; •SM•SDA• in exergue. RIC 22; RSC 206. 3.18g, 20mm, 6h. Near Mint State; light cabinet tone. Very Rare.

2,000

Ex H. D. Rauch 99, 8 December 2015, lot 293; Ex Numismatik Lanz 144, 24 November 2008, lot 680.

Ex Bourgey 1976

808. Licinius I AV Aureus. Siscia, AD 316. LICINIVS AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / IOVI CONSERVATORI AVG, Jupiter standing left, chlamys hanging from left shoulder, holding Victory on globe in right hand, leaning on sceptre, eagle with wreath at feet, X in right field; SIS in exergue. RIC 20; C. -; Calicó 5119; Biaggi 1937. 5.36g, 20mm, 6h. About Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; one of very few known specimens. Ex E. Bourgey, 10-12 March 1976, lot Q.

276

7,500


The Decennalia of 317

809.

Licinius I AV Aureus. Nicomedia, AD 317. Celebrating the Decennalia of November 11. LICINIVS AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / IOVI CONS LICINI AVG, laureate and bearded Jupiter, nude to waist, enthroned to left, holding sceptre in left hand and Victoriola with palm and wreath in right; at his feet, eagle to left with head reverted and wreath in beak; all on high podium inscribed on frontispiece SIC X SIC XX in two lines; SMNΔ in exergue. C. 130 var. (Jupiter facing); Bastien, Donativa 126, 14 and pl. 14, 14 (same obverse die, but attributed to Licinius II, in error?); Depeyrot, 25B/1 (this coin cited); RIC 20 (wrong obverse legend by error); Calicó 5100 var. (off. Γ). 5.23g, 20mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare.

12,500

Ex Ambrose Collection; This coin cited in G. Depeyrot, Les monnaies d’or de Diocletien á Constantin I (1995); Ex Münzen & Medaillen Basel 92, 22 November 2002, lot 297; Ex Auctiones 22, 16 June 1992, lot 815. Struck to celebrate his decennalia in AD 317 this beautifully detailed aureus was minted during a period of peace between Licinius and his co-emperor Constantine. The reverse, marked on the platform with SIC X SIC XX, gives thanks for ten years of rule and seeks the gods’ favour for a further ten such years, that they might be enjoyed in health and prosperity. Licinius may well have held such hopes, for 317 marked a high point of peace and stability, and it was in this year that he elevated his young son to the rank of Caesar, despite his being only two years old. Alas, it was not to be. After 317 the uneasy truce the two Augusti maintained after their previous conflicts quickly soured again; Licinius reneged on the jointly issued Edict of Milan in 320, beginning a new persecution of Christians in the Eastern Roman Empire - an act that further alienated him from his colleague. Then in 321 tempers rose when Constantine pursued a band of Sarmatians that had been ravaging his territory across the Danube into Licinius’ realm. When this was repeated in 323 Licinius accused Constantine of breaking the treaty between them. Constantine wasted no time in invading Licinius’ lands, defeating his fleet in 323 and routing his army at the Battle of Adrianople. By 325, having been defeated again at sea at the Battle of the Hellespont and on land at the final pitched Battle of Chrysopolis, Licinius and his son were prisoners of Constantine who, despite promising clemency, soon found cause to have both father and son executed. The reverse design of this aureus featuring Jupiter atop a platform, at first standing and later seated, was an innovation in design that became a standard type at Nicomedia with little variation until the Battle of Chrysopolis in AD 324. That he should use Jupiter so prominently on his coinage is not surprising given the opposing beliefs of Licinius and Constantine. The latter had taken readily to Christianity, using the Chi-Rho symbol as his talisman, emblazoning it on the shields and standards of his army, while placing the worship of Sol Invictus first and foremost among the religions of his territory. Licinius on the other hand might have seen himself as being the bastion of traditional Roman religious beliefs, taking Jupiter as his patron and protector, as seen here in the legends of his coins. This religious rivalry was borne out at the Battle of Chrysopolis, where Licinius drew up his battle line with images of the Roman gods prominently displayed in the ranks; this was mirrored by a multitude of Chi-Rho symbols in the opposing army of Constantine. Apparently, Licinius had developed a superstitious dread of the symbol which he allowed to infect the morale of his soldiers. The resulting slaughter of his army was viewed by Christians throughout the empire as a triumph of their god over the old pagan deities, further hastening the decline of traditional Roman religious beliefs.

277


Martinian, Short-Lived Deputy to Licinius I

810. Martinian Æ Nummus. Nicomedia, AD 324. D N M MARTINIANO P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe in right hand and eagle-tipped sceptre in left, captive on ground to right, X-IIΓ above, eagle to left holding wreath in beak; SMNA in exergue. RIC 46; C.4; Ars Classica XVIII, 503. 3.03g, 20mm, 6h. About Extremely Fine; attractive ‘desert’ patina.

3,000

From the inventory of a North American dealer.

811. Constantine I AV Solidus. Treveri, late AD 313 - July 315. CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right / VIRTVS AVGVSTI N, Constantine in military dress, mounted, galloping to right, shield on left arm, charging enemy with spear, a second fallen enemy beneath; PTR in exergue. RIC 34; C. 683; Depeyrot 20/10. 4.43g, 19mm, 6h. About Extremely Fine; areas of smoothing/repair; some minor marks. Extremely Rare.

7,500

Ex Monsieur Note (1910-1982) Collection, France.

The Army of Gaul

812. Constantine I AV Solidus. Thessalonica, AD 317. CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right / VIRTVS EXERCITVS GALL, Mars walking to right, carrying spear and trophy, chlamys over left shoulder; two captives seated at base, •SM•TS• in exergue. RIC 18; Depeyrot 8/10. 4.65g, 20mm, 5h. Extremely Fine; rev. left field lightly smoothed. Extremely Rare, Depeyrot notes only one example.

12,500

From a private British collection. The reverse of this coin honours the army of Gaul which was responsible for supporting Constantine’s (illegal) elevation to the purple upon the death of his father at Eboracum (York) in AD 306, fought under him against the Frankish and Germanic tribes in several campaigns between 306 and 310, and which ultimately delivered him Rome and sole rule of the West in 312. The army of Gaul was a battle-hardened and effective force, regularly tested against the barbarian tribes which at this time made frequent incursions into Roman lands. They had also demonstrated a strong sense of loyalty to Constantine in 308 when the former emperor Maximian, then an exile in his realm, attempted to subvert a contingent of the army by declaring that Constantine was dead, taking the purple and pledging a large donative to any who would support him. Maximian failed to win them over and was forced to flee, and then commit suicide. It was on account of this devoted and veteran army that Constantine was able to win a crushing victory over the numerically superior force of Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge. The army of Gaul was drawn up in two lines, according to their customary tactics, but Constantine, perceiving that the opposing force outnumbered him and could envelop his line, suddenly reduced the second line and extended the front of his first to match that of Maxentius. Such manoeuvres in the moment of danger can only be executed without confusion by experienced troops, and commonly prove decisive. Yet because the battle was begun towards the end of the day and was contested with great obstinacy throughout the night there was, in the words of E. Gibbon, ‘less room for the conduct of the generals than for the courage of the soldiers’ (Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Vol. 1, Ch. XIV, 150). Maxentius’ units were forced back until he had no choice but to attempt a desperate retreat over the wooden pontoon bridge he had hastily built across the Tiber, the stone one having been destroyed in the course of siege preparations. This bridge collapsed, trapping Maxentius’ soldiers who either surrendered or, like his Praetorian cohorts, were killed to a man. Maxentius himself drowned while trying to swim across the river in desperation for escape. Thus from the very moment he had defeated Maxentius, gold, silver and bronze coins were struck at Constantine’s former capital and stronghold of Augusta Treverorum (Trier) celebrating the glory and heroism of the Gallic Army (‘GLORIA EXERCITVS GALL’ and ‘VIRTVS EXERCITVS GALL’), with the type later promulgated to other mints.

278


Ex Münzen & Medaillen 1954

813.

Constantine I AV Solidus. Antioch, AD 324-325. CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right / ADVENTVS AVGVSTI N, Constantine on horseback to left, cloak flying, raising right hand and holding spear in left; SMAN* in exergue. RIC 48 (this coin cited); C. 11; Alföldi 5; Depeyrot 41/1. 4.42g, 20mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine; light marks on reverse. Extremely Rare.

15,000

This coin cited in H. Mattingly, et al, The Roman Imperial Coinage Vol. VII (1966); Ex Leu 91, 10 May 2004, lot 689; Ex Hess-Leu 45, 12 May 1970, lot 645; Ex Hess-Leu 24, 16 April 1964, lot 356; Ex Münzen & Medaillen 13, 17-19 June 1954, lot 762. The tetrarchy that had effectively governed the affairs of the empire since the reign of Diocletian broke down irretrievably in its third generation and culminated in the civil war between Licinius in the East and Constantine in the West. With Constantine victorious following the Battle of Chrysopolis on 18 September 324, he became the first sole emperor to rule over the Roman territories since the institution of the tetrarchy in AD 293. This coin commemorates the planned adventus (arrival) of the emperor Constantine I into the Eastern city of Antioch formerly under the dominion of Licinius - an event for which the mint of Antioch clearly made preparations, but which was cancelled by Constantine who blamed the controversy between the bishop of Alexandria and Arius regarding the nature of Christ’s personhood as the reason for his decision not to go East as planned. This coin therefore stands as an unusual record of a celebration that never took place, which may perhaps explain its extreme rarity - the issue having either been prematurely aborted, or recalled. The adventus coin type with an emperor on horseback was first introduced by Trajan, although precursors can be found in earlier coinage. This coin follows the traditional adventus design, showing the emperor mounted and riding forward with his cloak billowing and his arm raised in a gesture of greeting with the reverse legend explicitly highlighting “the arrival of our emperor”. The adventus of an emperor was marked with great ceremony by the inhabitants of a city and normally involved processions, honours, speeches and gifts in addition to possible benefits to the city itself such as when Constantine I gave tax relief to the city of Augustodunum (modern Autun).

279


2x

2x

814. Commemorative Series AR Third Siliqua. Struck under Constantine I. Constantinople, circa AD 330. Helmeted and draped bust of Roma right / Large P. Bendall Type 2; RIC -; J.P.C. Kent, Urbs Roma and Constantinopolis Medallions at the mint of Rome, Essays Sutherland, p. 112, pl. 13, 29; RSC -; Vagi 3039; cf. Roma VII, 1299. 1.11g, 11mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine; an excellent example of the type.

500

Privately purchased from Numismatica Ars Classica; Ex H. D. Rauch 99, 8 December 2015, lot 320; Ex Numismatik Lanz 117, 24 November 2003, lot 1248.

Second Known Example

815. Crispus, as caesar AV 1 1/2 Scripulum. Ticinum, AD 321. D N CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Crispus, in military attire, standing right, holding spear in right hand and globus in left. Cf. RIC 112; cf. Depeyrot 20/5; C. 89. cf. Alfรถldi 345-346; Triton XVI, 1159 = NAC 106, 1060 (same dies). 1.70g, 16mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare - the second known example.

7,500

A Rare Solidus of Crispus

816. Crispus, as Caesar, AV Solidus. Sirmium, AD 325-326. Diademed head right, with uplifted gaze / CRISPVS CAESAR, Victory, draped, advancing left, holding up wreath in right hand and palm frond in left; SIRM in exergue. RIC 63; Depeyrot 10/2; Biaggi 2054. 4.34g, 19mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare. From a private European collection.

280

10,000


817. Constantine II, as Caesar, AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 336-337. CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB CAES, laureate and cuirassed bust right / PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Constantine standing left, in military dress, holding vexillum with right hand and long sceptre with left hand; two standards behind, CONS in exergue. RIC 109. 4.61g, 22mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Minor surface marks on reverse. Very Rare.

7,500

Ex Ambrose Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics IV, 30 September 2012, lot 677.

818. Constantine II AV Solidus. Thessalonica, AD 337-340. CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA DD NN AVGG, Victory advancing left, holding palm and trophy; TSE in exergue. RIC 2; C -; Depeyrot 1/1; Biaggi 2099. 4.43g, 21mm, 12h. About Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

3,000

An Attractive Solidus of Constantius II as Caesar

819. Constantius II, as Caesar, AV Solidus. Siscia, AD 334. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate and cuirassed bust right / PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Constantius in military attire standing left, holding vexillum in right hand and sceptre in left, two standards in right field; SIS in exergue. RIC - (227 var.); C. -; Depeyrot - (22/3 var.); NGSA 4, 268 = Tkalec 2002, 251; NAC 78, 1169 (correction). 4.56g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine, pleasant light reddish tone. Very Rare; only two other examples on CoinArchives.

10,000

Ex Ambrose Collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 78, 26 May 2014, lot 1169. After the defeat of Licinius in 324, Constantine I finally secured sole rule over the empire and sought to begin securing the succession of his three sons: Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans. The second eldest son of Constantine, Constantius II, was raised to the rank of Caesar that same year and would later be given control over the eastern territories of the empire. After 324, the reverse types of Constantinian solidi become increasing dominated by images of the emperor and his family; Constantius II, like his brothers Constantine II, Constans, and their half-brother Crispus before them, is portrayed as the Prince of Youth; a title of great honour even in the days of the republic that since the reign of Augustus had been conferred on those who were intended to succeed to the throne. By this time, the role was a highly militaristic one (as necessity demanded), and the confidence placed in the heirs to the empire by entrusting them with important commands demonstrated the security of the imperial succession.

281


An Extremely Rare and Impressive Solidus of Constantius II

820. Constantius II AV Solidus. Antioch, AD 350. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS PERP AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / GLORIA REIPVBLICAE, Constantius on horseback to right, turreted figure kneeling to left before him, holding torch in left hand; SMANΔ in exergue. RIC 80; C 107; Depeyrot 6/2. 4.40g, 21mm, 11h. Near Mint State. Extremely Rare; in exceptional condition for the issue, certainly one of the finest of very few specimens known and far superior to the only other example on CoinArchives (H. D. Rauch 98, 21 September 2015, lot 677 [hammer: EUR 28,000]). 15,000 It should be noted that the scene depicted on the reverse of this coin does not represent a formal adventus, since the raised hand, the signal gesture of the emperor’s greeting and the extension of his benevolence is absent here. The kneeling figure is not that of the Tyche of Antioch, for she carries not a cornucopiae but a torch, and the legend clearly indicates that we are to perceive this figure as a personification of the Res Publica. Thus, Kent, Sutherland and Carson (RIC VIII p. 505) advocate that the intended meaning should be seen as the ‘liberation’ or ‘deliverance’ of the Republic, similar to the LIBERATOR REI PVBLICAE multiples struck for Magnentius at Aquileia. Viewed in this context, the issue must refer to Constantius’ imminent departure to the West to ‘liberate’ it from the usurper Magnentius, whose agents had assassinated Constantius II’s brother and Imperial colleague Constans as he tried to flee to safety.

821. Constantius II AR Siliqua. Sirmium, AD 355-361. D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VOTIS XXX MVLTIS XXXX in wreath, •SIRM• in exergue. RIC 66; RSC 342-3i. 3.16g, 21mm, 1h. Extremely Fine.

282

200


822. Magnentius AV Solidus. Trier, AD 351. D N MAGNENTIVS P F AVG, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVG LIB ROMANOR, Victory, standing right, and Libertas, holding sceptre in left hand, standing left, both supporting trophy on shaft between them; TR in exergue. RIC 252; C. 48; Depeyrot 10/1. 3.86g, 22mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Very rare earlier variety without crossbar on trophy.

7,500

Ex Monsieur Note (1910-1982) Collection, France; Private purchased in Paris, 8 October 1968.

Julian’s Gallic Army Campaigns Against Constantius II

823. Julian II AV Solidus. Lugdunum, AD 360-361. FL CL IVLIANVS P P AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS EXERC GALL, soldier standing right, head left, holding trophy over shoulder and placing hand on head of kneeling captive; star to left, LVG in exergue. RIC 226; Depeyrot 6/1. 4.58g, 21mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; only one other example in CoinArchives.

5,000

From a scattered hoard found in West Norfolk, Wednesday 12th April 2017 - Monday 8th May 2017. Submitted for consideration as Treasure, and returned to the finders. PAS ID: NMS-1A6962. In AD 355 Julian was appointed Caesar by his cousin Constantius II, and was entrusted with the defence of Gaul against Germanic invasion. Perhaps remembering their role as king-makers, the Gallic Army elevated Julian II to the rank of Augustus in AD 360 in defiance of Constantius II’s order for them to march east to counter a Sasanid invasion of Mesopotamia. This issue, with its reverse type explicitly referencing the Gallic Army, recalls the similar types of Constantine I. The Gallic Army had then been responsible for supporting Constantine’s illegal elevation to the purple upon the death of his father at Eboracum (York) in AD 306, and fought under him against the Frankish and Germanic tribes in several campaigns between 306 and 310, and which ultimately delivered him Rome and sole rule of the West in 312. It was a battle-hardened and effective force, regularly tested against the barbarian tribes which at this time made frequent incursions into Roman lands, and it was on account of this devoted and veteran army that Constantine was able to win a crushing victory over the numerically superior force of Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge. Thus it was with this army that the reluctant Julian set about retracing the footsteps of his uncle, first dealing with the Franks and Alamanni, and then marching on Italy and Illyricum. Unlike Constantine though, no great slaughter was necessary for Julian to take the throne - Constantius II died of illness, leaving Julian as sole emperor of East and West.

824. Julian II AV Solidus. Antioch, AD 361-363. FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS EXERCITVS ROMANORVM, soldier standing right, head left, holding trophy in left hand and dragging bound captive with right; ANTZ in exergue. RIC 199; Depeyrot 15/2. 4.40g, 21mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Ex Bernard Poindessault (1935-2014) legacy; ticket included.

283

4,000


825. Jovian AV Solidus. Sirmium, AD 363-4. D N IOVIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Jovian, diademed and in military attire, standing facing with head left, holding labarum in right hand, bound captive to left with head reverted; *SIRM• in exergue. RIC 110; Depeyrot 6/4; Biaggi 2228. 4.43g, 20mm, 7h. Fleur De Coin. Very Rare.

7,500

Ex Bernard Poindessault (1935-2014) legacy; Privately purchased from Nomisma, Paris; ticket included.

826. Jovian AV Solidus. Constantinople, June AD 363 - February AD 364. D N IOVIANVS P F PERP AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Roma, seated facing on left, and Constantinopolis, seated left on right with foot on prow, supporting between them round shield inscribed VOT V MVL X in four lines; CONSP in exergue. RIC 169; Depeyrot 9/2. 4.49g, 21mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; minor marks. Very Rare.

3,000

From a scattered hoard found in West Norfolk, Thursday 1st October 2015 - Friday 23rd October 2015. Submitted for consideration as Treasure, and returned to the finders. PAS ID: NMS-102704.

827. Valentinian I AV Solidus. Sirmium, AD 364. D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE, Emperor standing facing, head right, holding labarum inscribed with a Christogram and Victory on globe; *SIRM in exergue. RIC 1; Depeyrot 27/1. 4.50g, 21mm, 7h. Near Mint State; minor marks.

1,250

From a scattered hoard found in West Norfolk, Thursday 1st October 2015 - Friday 23rd October 2015. Submitted for consideration as Treasure, and returned to the finders. PAS ID: NMS-102704.

828. Valentinian I AV Solidus. Nicomedia, AD 364. D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE, Valentinian standing facing, head right, holding labarum and Victory on globe; SMNI in exergue. RIC 2a.6; Depeyrot 10/1. 4.47g, 22mm, 12h. Near Mint State; minor marks. Rare.

1,000

From a scattered hoard found in West Norfolk, Wednesday 12th April 2017 - Monday 8th May 2017. Submitted for consideration as Treasure, and returned to the finders. PAS ID: NMS-1A6962.

284


829. Valentinian I AV Solidus. Thessalonica, AD 364-367. D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE, Valentinian standing facing, head right, holding labarum and Victory on globe; SMTES in exergue. RIC 2a; Depeyrot 24/1. 4.39g, 21mm, 7h. Near Mint State; minor marks. Very Rare.

1,250

From a scattered hoard found in West Norfolk, Thursday 1st October 2015 - Friday 23rd October 2015. Submitted for consideration as Treasure, and returned to the finders. PAS ID: NMS-102704.

830. Gratian AV Solidus. Treveri, AD 367-375. D N GRATIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGG, two emperors seated facing, jointly holding globe; Victory above, wings spread; palm branch below; TR•OB• in exergue. RIC 17f. 4.47g, 22mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine.

2,000

Ex Ambrose Collection; Ex Fritz Rudolf Künker 204, 12 March 2012, lot 866.

831. Gratian AV Solidus. Treveri, AD 367-375. D N GRATIANVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGG, two emperors seated facing, jointly holding globe; Victory above, wings spread; palm branch below; TROBT in exergue. RIC 17g; Depeyrot 43/3. 4.50g, 21mm, 7h. Near Mint State.

2,500

Ex Ambrose Collection; Ex Gemini VIII - Heritage, 14 April 2011, lot 458; Ex H. D. Rauch 80, 1 June 2007, lot 287.

832. Gratian AR Miliarense. Treveri, AD 375-383. D N GRATIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS EXERCITVS, Gratian standing facing, head left, holding standard in right hand, leaning against shield in left; TRPS in exergue. RIC 42b.2 or 53a; RSC 52c. 4.49g, 22mm, 1h. Near Mint State. From a private British collection.

285

2,000


833. Valentinian II AV Solidus. Trier, AD 378-383. D N VALENTINIANVS IVN P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGG, two emperors, the one to the right smaller and both with their legs draped, seated facing on throne and together holding globe; Victory standing behind with wings spread over their heads; palm branch below, TROBS in exergue. RIC 49c; Depeyrot 47/3. 4.47g, 21mm, 5h. Extremely Fine.

1,500

Ex MĂźnzen und Medaillen FPL 417, December 1979, lot 34.

834. Theodosius I AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 383-388. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA AVGGG A, Constantinopolis, helmeted and with head right, seated facing, right foot on prow, holding sceptre and shield inscribed VOT X MVLT XV in four lines; CONOB in exergue. RIC 71b1; Depeyrot 47/1. 4.52g, 21mm, 6h. Mint State.

1,000

From a central European collection.

835. Arcadius AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 383-388. D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA AVGGGG Θ, Constantinopolis, helmeted, seated facing with head right on throne ornamented with lion heads, placing right foot on prow and holding Victory on globe and spear; CONOB in exergue. RIC 47c var. (this officina unrecorded); Depeyrot 38/6. 4.49g, 21mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

1,000

From a central European collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 56, 8 October 2010, lot 482 (hammer: CHF 4,250); Ex Leu Numismatik - Numismatica Ars Classica, 26 May 1993, lot 1.

836. Arcadius AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 388-392. D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA AVGGG H, Constantinopolis, helmeted, seated facing, head right, holding sceptre and shield inscribed VOT V MVL X; CONOB in exergue. RIC 70c var. (rosette-diademed); Depeyrot 48/3. 4.49g, 20mm, 7h. Fleur De Coin. Highly lustrous. Rare type with pearl-diadem. Ex Roma Numismatics E-Sale 43, 3 February 2018, lot 855.

286

1,000


837. Arcadius AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 388-392. D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA AVGGG H, Constantinopolis, helmeted, seated facing, head right, holding sceptre and shield inscribed VOT V MVL X; CONOB in exergue. RIC 70c4; Depeyrot 46/3. 4.48g, 20mm, 12h. Mint State.

1,000

From a central European collection.

2x

2x

838. Theodosius II AV Tremissis. Constantinople, AD 408-420. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGVSTORVM, Victory walking right, her head turned left, holding wreath in her right hand and globus cruciger in her left; star in right field, CONOB in exergue. RIC 213 and 249; Depeyrot 70/1. 1.39g, 14mm, 12h. Near Mint State.

500

839. Aelia Eudocia (wife of Theodosius II) AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 422-428. AEL EVDOCIA AVG, rosette-diademed and draped bust right; manus Dei above, crowning her / VOT XX MVLT XXX, Victory standing left, holding long cross; star in upper left field, CONOB in exergue. RIC 228 (Theodosius II); Depeyrot 75/2. 4.13g, 21mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine; slightly clipped, a few marks.

2,000

Sold with export licence issued by The Israel Antiquities Authority; Ex Gorny & Mosch 199, 10 October 2011, lot 767; Ex Triton XIV, 4 January 2011, lot 874 (hammer: $6,500).

840. Aelia Pulcheria (sister of Theodosius II) AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 423-429. AEL PVLCHERIA AVG, diademed and draped bust right, wearing necklace and earring, and being crowned by manus Dei above / VOT XX MVLT XXX B, Victory standing left, holding long jewelled cross; CONOB in exergue. RIC 220 (Theodosius II); Depeyrot 74/3; MIRB 17b. 4.47g, 22mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; a superb example of the type.

287

8,000


841. Aelia Pulcheria (sister of Theodosius II) AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 423-429. AEL PVLCHERIA AVG, pearl-diademed and draped bust right, wearing necklace and earring; and being crowned by manus Dei above / VOT XX MVLT XXX Đ„, Victory standing left, holding long jewelled cross; CONOB in exergue. RIC 220 (Theodosius II); Depeyrot 74/3. 4.40g, 22mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

6,000

842. Galla Placidia (mother of Valentinian III) AV Solidus. Ravenna, AD 426-430. D N GALLA PLACIDIA P F AVG, pearl-diademed and draped bust right, wearing necklace and crowned above by manus Dei above, Christogram on shoulder / VOT XX MVLT XXX, Victory standing left, holding long jewelled cross; star above, R-V across fields, COMOB in exergue. RIC 2012; C. 13; Depeyrot 16/13. 4.44g, 21mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

7,500

From a private British collection; Ex H. D. Rauch 102, 7 November 2016, lot 603.

843. Galla Placidia (mother of Valentinian III) AV Solidus. Ravenna, AD 444-445. D N GALLA PLACIDIA P F AVG, pearl-diademed and draped bust right, wearing earring and two pearl necklaces, cross on right shoulder; crowned by manus Dei above / VOT XX MVLT XXX, Victory standing left, holding long jewelled cross with right hand; star above, R-V across fields, COMOB in exergue. RIC 2020; Ranieri 76; Depeyrot 16/3; DOCLR 828. 4.48g, 21mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

8,000

844. Leo I AR Siliqua. Constantinople, AD 474. D N LEO PERPET AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / SAL REI PYI within wreath; CONS* in exergue. RIC 646; RSC 12a. 1.07g, 17mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Light cabinet tone. Rare. From a private Swiss collection.

288

500


A Very Rare Half Siliqua of Libius Severus

2x

2x

845. Libius Severus AR Half Siliqua. Rome, AD 461-465. D N LIB SEVERVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / Chi-rho within wreath; RM in exergue. RIC 2713; RSC 16†a; DOCLR 899 corr. (obv. legend). 0.94g, 13mm, 5h. About Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

3,000

From a private Anglo-Italian collection.

An Extremely Rare Majorian Half-Siliqua

2x

2x

846. Majorian AR Half-Siliqua. Uncertain mint in Northern Gaul, AD 457-461. D N MAIORIANIV, helmeted, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, holding spear pointing forward / C C TIVV, Victory standing facing, holding long cross; star in exergue. RIC 2653 var.; C. 8 var.; King p. 207 and pl. A, 9-10. 0.51g, 11mm, 6h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

1,750

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 84, 20 May 2015, lot 1304.

COINS OF THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE The Second and Finest Known

847. Justinian I AR Half Miliaresion or Siliqua. Constantinople or Sicily, circa AD 527-565. D N IVSTININIANVS P P AVG, helmeted, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / GLORI ROMANORVM, Justinian in military dress standing facing, head left, holding spear and globus cruciger; SILOI in exergue. A.U. Sommer, ‘Nueue Münzen des Byzantinischen Reiches I’, in NBB 10/16, pp. 401-2; otherwise unpublished - for type cf. MIB 49 and Sear 150. 2.06g, 19mm, 5h. Good Very Fine. Of the greatest rarity; the second (and finest) known example.

5,000

From a private British collection. The only other recorded specimen was published by A. U. Sommer (Nueue Münzen des Byzantinischen Reiches I’, in NBB 10/16, pp. 401-2), where it was considered as a possible new issue of Sicily during the reconquest period of the island by Justinian’s great general Belisarius from AD 541. The exergual legend SILOI almost certainly implies that the new silver denomination, which we call a half-miliaresion, was the equivalent of a siliqua of gold (1/24 of a gold solidus).

289


848. Justinian I Æ Follis (40 Nummi). Theoupolis (Antioch) mint, dated RY 13 = AD 539/40. D N IVSTINIANVS P P AVG, helmeted and cuirassed facing bust, holding globus cruciger and shield with horseman motif; cross to right / Large M, cross above; ANNO XIII (date) across fields, A below, ΘVΠO in exergue. DOC 215a; MIB I 143; Sear 218. 20.49g, 41mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

500

Sold with export licence issued by The Israel Antiquities Authority.

An Extremely Rare Jerusalem(?) Mint Solidus of Heraclius

849. Heraclius AV Solidus. Uncertain eastern mint (Jerusalem or a mint in Syria?), late AD 610-611. ∂ N ҺERACLIVS P P AVI, crowned and cuirassed bust facing (which resembles Phocas), holding globus cruciger / VICTORIA AVGV IΠ, angel standing facing, holding long staff surmounted by staurogram and globus cruciger; CONOB in exergue. DOC 186 (Alexandria); MIB 76 (Cyprus?); Bendall, Jerusalem 3 (Jerusalem?); Sear 850 (Jerusalem). 4.46g, 22mm, 7h. Mint State. Struck on a broad flan and with lustrous, mirror-like surfaces. Extremely Rare.

3,000

From the inventory of a North American dealer. After two years of fuelling discontent at the tyranny of Phocas, at last the younger Heraclius felt confident to challenge the emperor in his capital and was successful in deposing him. Struck at an uncertain eastern mint that still has yet to be definitively located, this extremely rare solidus represents one of the first issues for Heraclius as sole emperor and clearly depicts the new emperor with the likeness of Phocas, as a new imperial image had not yet been received at the mint. Originally attributed to Jerusalem, more recent scholarship has cast doubt on this without giving a definite alternative, though a date of late 610-611 is certain. Issues with the IΠ, I and IX mintmark were likely struck to pay soldiers who had been loyal to the Heraclii rather than being regular issues and, disappearing shortly after the Sasanian invasion of the eastern provinces in 614, may even have been the product of a military mint.

A Rare Solidus of Anastasius II Artemius

850. Anastasius II Artemius AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 713-715. ∂ N ARTЄMIЧS ANASTASIЧS MЧL, crowned and draped bust facing, holding globus cruciger in right hand, akakia in left / VICTORIA AVςЧ H, cross potent set on three steps; CONOB in exergue. DOC 2g; MIB 2; Sear 1463. 4.46g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare. From a private Swiss collection.

290

1,500


851. Leo III the Isaurian, with Constantine V, AV Tremissis. Rome, dated RY 6 (AD 722/3 or 726/7?). D NO LЄ P A MЧL, crowned bust facing, wearing chlamys, holding globus cruciger in right hand / D NO CONSTANTI, crowned bust facing, wearing chlamys, holding globus cruciger in right hand; star to left, Γ to right. DOC 80; Sear 1534. 1.31g, 15mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

1,500

From a private British collection.

852. Constantine V Copronymus, with Leo IV, AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 741-755. B CONSTANTINЧ NC, crowned and draped bust of Constantine facing, holding cross potent and akakia / C LЄON P A MЧL, crowned and draped bust of Leo facing, holding cross potent and akakia. DOC 1; Sear 1550. 4.42g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; double-struck.

750

From a private Swiss collection.

853. Constantine V Copronymus, with Leo IV and Leo III, AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 741-755. COҺSTAҺTIҺOS S LЄOҺ O ҺЄOS, crowned facing busts of Constantine V and Leo IV, each wearing chlamys; cross above, pellet between / C LЄON P A MЧL, crowned facing bust of Leo III wearing loros, holding cross potent in right hand. DOC 2; Sear 1551. 4.43g, 22mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

750

From a private Swiss collection.

854. Leo IV the Khazar, with Constantine VI, Leo III, and Constantine V AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 778-780. LЄOҺ VS S ЄςςOҺ COҺSTAҺTIҺOS O ҺЄ[OS Ө], crowned facing busts of Leo IV and Constantine VI, each wearing chlamys; cross above, • between / LЄOҺ PAP’ COҺSTAҺTIҺOS PATHR, crowned facing busts of Leo III and Constantine V, each wearing loros; cross above, • between. DOC 1b; Sear 1583. 4.40g, 19mm, 6h. Near Mint State. From a private Swiss collection.

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855. Leo IV the Khazar, with Constantine VI, Leo III, and Constantine V AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 778-780. LЄOҺ VS S Єς[ςOҺ COҺSTAҺTIҺOS] O ҺЄOS Ө, crowned facing busts of Leo IV and Constantine VI, each wearing chlamys; cross above, • between / LЄOҺ PAP’ COҺSTAҺTIҺOS PATHR, crowned facing busts of Leo III and Constantine V, each wearing loros; cross above, • between. DOC 1b; Sear 1583. 4.48g, 22mm, 6h. Mint State.

1,250

From a private Swiss collection.

856. Constantine VI, with Leo III, Constantine V, and Leo IV AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 780-787. LЄOҺ VS S ЄςςOҺ COҺSTAҺTIҺOS O ҺЄOS, Leo IV and Constantine VI enthroned facing, each wearing crown and chlamys; cross above / LЄOҺ PAP’ COҺSTAҺTIҺOS PATHR, crowned facing busts of Leo III and Constantine V, each wearing loros; cross above, pellet between. DOC 2 (Leo IV); Sear 1584 (Leo IV). 4.43g, 21mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

750

From a private Swiss collection.

857. Constantine VI and Irene, with Leo III, Constantine V, and Leo IV AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 792-793. S IRIҺI AVΓ’ ΜΙΤΗR, crowned facing busts of Constantine IV, draped and holding globus cruciger, and Irene, wearing loros and holding globus cruciger and cruciform sceptre; cross above, • between / COҺSTAҺTIҺOS C’ Ь’ Ь’, Constantine V, Leo III, and Leo IV seated facing, each crowned and draped. DOC 1; Sear 1593. 4.43g, 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

1,250

From a private Swiss collection.

858. Constantine VI and Irene, with Leo III, Constantine V, and Leo IV AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 792-793. S [IRIҺI AVΓ’ ΜΙΤΗR], crowned facing busts of Constantine IV, draped and holding globus cruciger, and Irene, wearing loros and holding globus cruciger and cruciform sceptre; cross above, • between / COҺSTAҺTIҺOS C’ Ь’ Ь’, Constantine V, Leo III, and Leo IV seated facing, each crowned and draped. DOC 1; Sear 1593. 4.35g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; clipped. Rare. Ex Classical Numismatic Group 99, 13 May 2015, lot 834.

292

1,000


859. Irene and Constantine VI AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 792-797. IRIҺH AΓOVSTI, crowned facing bust of Irene, wearing loros, holding globus cruciger in right hand, cruciform sceptre in left / COҺSTAҺTINOS bAS’ Θ, crowned and draped facing bust of Constantine, wearing chlamys, holding globus cruciger and akakia. DOC 3a; Sear 1594. 4.43g, 20mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Very Rare.

5,000

From a private Swiss collection.

The Sole Reign of Irene

860. Irene AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 797-802. ЄIPIҺH ЬASILISSH, crowned facing bust of Irene, wearing loros, holding globus cruciger in right hand, cruciform sceptre in left / •ЄIPIҺH ЬASILISSH Θ, crowned facing bust of Irene, wearing loros, holding globus cruciger and cruciform sceptre. DOC 1b; Sear 1599. 4.37g, 21mm, 6h. Near Mint State.

7,500

From a private Swiss collection. Struck after AD 797, when Irene had had her son Constantine VI deposed and murdered, this solidus depicts Irene on both the obverse and reverse, and marks a distinct shift from the types of her predecessors. Gone is the cross-on-steps reverse type, or figures of deceased members of the dynasty, to be replaced by two facing busts of Irene. Here we have Irene proclaiming herself Empress and sole ruler in the most public way possible. However, after just five years on the throne she herself was deposed and replaced by her Minister of Finance, Nicephorus, and thus ended the first period in the history of the empire during which the throne was occupied by a woman exercising power in her own right. Beginning during the time she ruled as regent for her son, Irene severely depleted the state treasuries with her policy of reducing taxation and making generous gifts to buy popularity, leaving the empire weak and unable to offer effective resistance to foreign aggressors. Having had to accept terms from the Arab Caliphs both in 792 and 798 in order to protect the fragile security, and being harried by the Bulgarians simultaneously, Irene was powerless to stop the formation of a new empire in the west under Charlemagne, who in AD 800 was crowned in Rome by Pope Leo III as Holy Roman Emperor due to his belief that the Imperial position was vacant, as it could not be filled by a woman.

861. Nicephorus I, with Stauracius, AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 803-811. ҺICIFOROS ЬASILЄI, crowned facing bust of Nicephorus, wearing chlamys, holding cross potent in right hand and akakia in left / STAVRACIS ∂ЄSPOI X, crowned facing bust of Stauracius, wearing chlamys, holding cross potent in right hand and akakia in left. DOC 2c.2; Sear 1604. 4.44g, 21mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. From a private Swiss collection.

293

1,000


862. Romanus III AV Histamenon Nomisma. Constantinople, AD 1028-1034. +IҺS XIS RЄX RЄςNANTINM, Christ enthroned facing, wearing nimbus crown, pallium and colobium, and holding book of Gospels / ΘCЄ bOHΘ RƜMAҺƜ, the Virgin on right, and Romanus, bearded to left, both standing facing; the Virgin wears pallium and maphorium, and with her right hand crowns the emperor, who wears saccos and loros, and holds globus cruciger in left hand; MΘ between their heads. DOC 1a; Sear 1820. 4.30g, 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Rare variant showing the Virgin without nimbus.

750

Ex ACR Auctions 15, 27 April 2015, lot 840.

863. Basil II Bulgaroktonos and Constantine VIII AV Tetarteron Nomisma. Constantinople, AD 977-989. + IҺS XIS REX REGNANTIҺM, bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus crown ornamented with pellets, pallium, and colobium, raising right hand in benediction, codex in left hand / + bASIL C CONSTAN TIb R, facing busts of Basil II, wearing loros, and Constantine VIII, wearing chlamys, holding patriarchal cross between them. DOC 12; Sear 1802. 4.19g, 21mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; centrally struck on a broad flan.

750

From a private Swiss collection.

864. Michael VII Ducas, with Maria, AV Tetarteron Nomisma. Constantinople, AD 1071-1078. +ΘKE RO-HΘEI+, facing bust of the Virgin Mary, holding medallion containing facing bust of the Holy Infant; MHTP ligate – ΘV across fields / +MIXAHΛ S MAPIA, Crowned facing busts of Michael and Maria, each wearing loros, holding between them long cross with X and pellet-in-crescent on shaft. DOC 5; Morgan Fitts p. 30 (this coin illustrated [rev. only]); Sear 1872. 4.08g, 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; clipped.

500

This coin published in P. Morgan Fitts, The Beginner’s Guide to Identifying Byzantine Coins (2015); Ex Prue Morgan Fitts Collection, Classical Numismatic Group 99, 13 May 2015, lot 856.

865. Andronicus II Palaeologus AV Hyperpyron. Constantinople, struck AD 1282-1295. Nimbate and draped bust of the Virgin, orans, within the walls of Constantinople; B and X above; diamond pattern of pellets below on either side / Andronicus kneeling right at the feet of Christ, who stands facing, lays hand on Andronicus’ head, and holds Gospels. DOC V 231; Bendall 91A (sigla 27); Sear 2326. 4.10g, 25mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Well detailed. From a private European collection.

294

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ISLAMIC COINS The First Islamic Issue of Spain

2x

2x

866. Spain, Umayyad Caliphate AV Solidus. Time of al-Walid I ibn ‘Abd al-Malik. Spanish mint, dated AH 92/3, indiction 9 (AD 710/11). H SLD FRT IN SPN ANNXCII (= Hic SoLiDus FeRiTus IN SPaNia ANNo XCII), IND CIX across field / INNSNDNDNNSNSNS, eight pointed star. Unpublished in the standard references, for type cf. Album 122; Walker p. 77, P. 47 and 183 (AH 93) = Bernardi AGCC I, 28 (AH 93) = T. Goodwin. Arab-Byzantine Coins and History, London 2012, 92; cf. Spink 17007, 2017, 601 (same dies); cf. Aureo & Calicó 293, 2017, 2123; cf. Roma Numismatics XV, 2017, 740. 3.84g, 12mm. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare - the fourth example recorded.

10,000

From a private British collection. This is earliest Islamic issue struck in Spain, produced in the same year as the invasion of the Visigothic Kingdom. Encouraged by the governor Musa Ibn Nusayr, who had pacified the Berbers in 708, the Moorish leader, chief Tariq invaded the Iberian peninsula, landing near Gibraltar (the mount of Tariq, Gibraltar) and at the Battle of Guadalete decisively defeated Roderic, the last Visigothic king of Spain. Musa, learning of Tariq’s successes, landed with a further army of 18,000 Berbers and Arabs and together Musa and Tariq completed the conquest of the peninsula. This coin clearly displays the indiction year IX, being the earliest known for this series; the date is further given as the Hijra year XCII across the obverse in Latin numerals (= AD711), making this the earliest known Spanish Umayyad coin, struck in the first year of Muslim influence, soon after Musa Ibn Nusayr had arrived in Spain.

An Extremely Rare Bilingual AH 98 Solidus

2x

2x

867. Spain, Umayyad Caliphate AV Solidus. Time of Suleiman ibn ‘Abd al-Malik. Spanish mint, dated AH 98 (AD 716/7). “This dinar is coined in Al-Andalus in the year eight and ninety” around second half of the shahada (“Muhammad is the messenger of Allah”) in two lines across field / FERITOS SOLI IN SPAN AN (retrograde) around star of eight points. Bernardi 35Aa, C.0003 (same dies); Balaguer 42 = Walker p.79, C.18 (same rev. die); Morton & Eden 69, 6 (same dies). 4.08g, 14mm. Near Mint State. Extremely Rare. From a private European collection.

10,000

This extremely rare, one year bilingual type is the first appearance of the Arabic script on a coin struck in Muslim Spain. The Arabic legends are correctly engraved, whereas the Latin inscriptions are abbreviated and the Roman numeral date is entirely missing from this die, clearly indicating that the Arabic version took precedence over the Latin.

MEDEIVAL AND MODERN COINS

2x

2x

868. Carolingians. Pépin le Bref (751-768), AR Denier. Reims mint. RPI monogram (Rex Pipinus), pellets around / Large R between two crosses; pellets around. Cf. Elsen 94, 15 December 2007, lot 937; Prou 926; Depeyrot 825. 1.17g, 18mm, 4h. Good Very Fine; lightly wavy flan.

295

2,000


869. Chile. Fernando VI, King of Spain (1746-1759) AV 8 Escudos. Santiago, dated 1751 SO J. FERDINANDVS • VI • D • G • HIS • REX, draped and armoured bust right / NOMINA MAGNA SEQUOR, crowned and collared coat-of-arms. KM 3; Friedberg 5. 27.02g, 36mm, 12h. Mint State; in exceptional condition for the type.

5,000

870. Crusaders. Cyprus, Richard I ‘the Lionheart’ Æ Tetarteron. King of England, 1189-1199. Crowned facing bust, holding cross-tipped sceptre and globus cruciger / Cross on three steps; arms ending in R E X. Metcalf, Lusignan p. 2; Bendall, A Cypriot Coin of Richard I Lion-heart?”, NumCirc April 2002, pp. 62-63; Schultze, A Cypriot Coin of Richard I Lion-heart”, NumCirc February 2003, pp. 6-7; Bendall, “Richard I in Cyprus Again”, NumCirc April 2004, pp. 85-86. 0.85g, 16mm, 6h. Very Fine. Very Rare, and in excellent condition for the type.

1,000

From a private North American collection.

Beautiful Anglo-Saxon Sceatta

2x

2x

871. Great Britain. Anglo-Saxon AR Sceatta. Secondary phase, series S, type 47. Mint in Essex, circa AD 730-740. Centauress standing left, head right, holding palm frond in each hand / Four heads of wolves in clockwise circle, each with tongue forming whorl. Abramson S100; Metcalf p. 540; North 121; SCBC 831. 1.12g, 12mm. Good Extremely Fine. Rare; an excellent example of the type. Ex Fritz Rudolf Künker 246, 11 March 2014, lot 2

296

1,000


872. Italy, Rome, Beatus Innocentius XI (1676-1689, Benedetto Odescalchi) AR Piastra. Regnal year III (1678). INNOCEN XI PONT MAX A III, bust right, wearing camauro, mozzetta, and pallium / VENTI ET MARE OBEDIVNT EI (Christ rebuking the wind and the waves, Matthew 8:23-27), Christ, calming the storm, standing with apostles within capsizing galley under sail slightly left upon tempestuous sea; coat-of-arms below. Muntoni 43; CNI XVI, 25; Serafini 55-6; Berman 2093; Davenport 4089. 32.17gg, 45mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

2,500

Pope Innocent XI, (Benedetto Odescalchi) was born on May 16, 1611, into a family of minor nobility in Como, northern Italy. Early in his career within the Church Benedetto became known as a champion of the unfortunate; he was made a Cardinal-Deacon by Innocent X in 1645, and subsequently became legate to Ferrara, where he was sent to assist the people stricken with a severe famine. There, Pope Innocent X introduced him to the people as the ‘father of the poor’. As Bishop of Novara from 1650, he spent all the revenues of his see to relieve the suffering of the poor and sick in his diocese. Strongly favoured to succeed Pope Clement IX after his death in 1669, Benedetto was rejected by the French government using the now abolished power of veto. Following the death of Clement X in 1676 however, Louis XIV of France reluctantly acquiesced to Benedetto’s candidacy, and he was chosen to succeed Clement X as Innocent XI, taking this name in honour of Pope Innocent X. A firm proponent of reform, Innocent XI turned his attention to reducing the expenses of the Curia, passing strict ordinances to reduce nepotism, and by way of example to others he lived a frugal life, expecting those around him to follow suit. Seeking to raise moral standards among the general populace, he closed all of the theatres in Rome and famously suspended the Roman opera. Innocent XI’s time as Pope was characterised by an antagonistic relationship with Louis XIV of France, whose absolutist and hegemonic intentions were at direct odds with Innocent XI’s efforts to ensure the primacy of the Church. More successful elsewhere in his foreign relations, Innocent XI was one of the chief proponents of the Holy League formed in 1864 that brought together the Papal States, Holy Roman Empire, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Venetian Republic (later also joined by the Tsardom of Russia in 1686) to oppose the Ottoman Empire in the Great Turkish War (1683-99), a war to which he contributed millions of scudi in financial support. Innocent XI died on 12 August 1689, leaving behind a legacy as a Servant of God, for which Pope Innocent XII commenced a process of beatification. This was continued by Clement XI and XII, suspended through French influence in 1744 by Benedict XIV, but finally taken up again by Pope Pius XII, by whom he was beatified in 1956.

2x

2x

873. Kingdom of Spain, Felipe IV (1605-1665) AR Quarter Real. Madrid(?), 1643(?). [PHILIPP]VS•IIII•D[•G], bust right, between mintmark to left and value to right / [HISPA]NIA•REX [1643], arms of Castile and Leon, divided by a plain cross. 0.77g, 12mm, 2h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

END OF SALE

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Profile for Richard Beale

Roma Numismatics Auction XVI  

Roma Numismatics Auction XVI

Roma Numismatics Auction XVI  

Roma Numismatics Auction XVI