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ROMA NUMISMATICS LIMITED AUCTION I 15 October 2010 Location: The Alto Room The Cavendish Hotel London 81 Jermyn Street, London SW1Y 6JF

10:00 Viewing: From September 15 – October 14: At our premises Monday – Friday, 09:30 – 18:00 By appointment only On October 15: The Cavendish London From 08:00

Roma Numismatics Limited 20 Hanover Square Mayfair London W1S 1JY United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 20 3178 2874 Fax: +44 (0) 20 3178 2456 www.romanumismatics.com email: info@romanumismatics.com 1


ASENTEE BIDDING If you are unable to attend the auction in person, you may submit an absentee bid that will be executed on your behalf by Roma Numismatics. Roma Numismatics will attempt to obtain the lot for you at the lowest possible price, and will not purchase the lot for you at a price higher than the maximum you specify. This service is free and confidential. To place absentee bids please submit your list of lots, together with your maximum bids, either by mail, fax, post using the form provided, or online using the www.sixbid.com service. You may also participate live at www.the-saleroom.com. Mail, fax or postal bids The customer is responsible for submitting these in good time and confirming that the bids have been received. Telephone bids Bids may be placed by telephone as the auction is in progress, but are accepted only at the discretion of Roma Numismatics Ltd and at the risk of the customer. Roma Numismatics will not be held responsible for any failure to execute bids by telephone during the auction. Any customer wishing to bid by telephone should inform Roma Numismatics no later than 72 hours before the auction of all the lots they wish to bid on. The telephone bidder should have a preconceived idea of their maximum bids. Internet Bids

Internet bids may be submitted on www.Sixbid.com or at www.The-SaleRoom.com Bids placed on www.Sixbid.com act as a mail bid; bids placed on www.theSaleRoom.com will be executed live on the floor. Roma Numismatics is not responsible for any missed lots or bids due to network speed or down-time. A 3% surcharge will apply to lots won through www.The-SaleRoom.com. Successful Bids Successful bidders will be notified and invoiced within a few days of the auction. Prices realized will be published around the same time.

Grades of preservation

Degrés de preservation

Gradi di conservazioni

Erhaltungsgrad

Grados de conservación

FDC Uncirculated

Fleur de coin (FDC)

Fior di conio

Stempelganz

FDC

Extremely fine Very fine

Superbe Très beau

Splendido Bellissimo

Vorzüglich Sehr schön

EBC MBC

Fine

Beau

Molto Bello

Schön

BC

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Conditions of Sale The following terms and conditions will apply to this auction: I.

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All estimates are in Pounds Sterling. The opening bids will be 80% of the estimate unless there are existing higher bids. There will be a 17.25% buyers fee added to the hammer price, VAT included. Absentee bids must be submitted and received by 20:00 on the day immediately before the auction. All grades and descriptions are the opinion of the cataloguer. Customers are encouraged to carefully examine all lots in person that they are interested in purchasing. If however the description is found to be incorrect, the item is returnable within 21 days after the sale. No other returns will be accepted except on the grounds of non-authenticity. All prospective bidders who exercise the opportunity to examine lots in hand shall assume all responsibility for any damage they cause in so doing. The auctioneer shall have sole discretion in determining the value of the damage caused, which shall be promptly paid by the prospective bidder. The auctioneer will have absolute discretion to accept or decline any bid, withdraw lots from sale at any time until such point as the purchaser takes physical possession, re-open any lot, even after the hammer has fallen, in which a bidding error has occurred, and to determine in the event of a dispute, the final winner of a lot or to rescind the sale and put the lot up for sale again. For the protection of mail or absentee bidders, no ‘unlimited’ or ‘buy’ bids will be accepted. When identical bids are received for the same lot, preference will be given to the bid received first. A mail bid will take preference over a floor bid. All lots may carry a reserve. The auctioneer reserves the right not to sell an item below the confidential price, or will repurchase the item on behalf of the consignor or for the account of Roma Numismatics Ltd. If a reserve exists the auctioneer reserves the right to bid on any lot on behalf of the consignor up to the amount of the reserve against any floor or mail bidders. The auctioneer also reserves the right to bid on any lot on behalf of Roma Numismatics Ltd. Title remains with the owner until such time as the customer has paid in full and taken physical possession of the item. Roma Numismatics Ltd. reserves the right to charge interest on invoices unpaid after one month at the rate of 2% per calendar month, except where prior agreement has been made with regards to payment arrangements. A 4% surcharge will be applied to credit card payments or payments made via Paypal. The customer is responsible for paying all bank charges and shipping and insurance costs. By making a bid the customer agrees to the above terms and conditions and accepts to be bound by them. These conditions shall take effect and be construed in accordance with the provisions of English Law.

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ITALY Calabria, Tarentum

1.

Calabria, Tarentum AR Nomos. 281-270 BC. Pacing horse right, crowned by rider; in left field, Σ A and below horse, AΡE ΘWN / TAPAΣ Dolphin rider left, holding tripod; below dolphin, PAΣ. Vlasto 666, SNG ANS 1046, SNG France 1870, Historia Numorum Italy 957. 7.95g, 22mm. EXTREMELY FINE A few traces of encrustation; attractive old toning.

2.

1000

Calabria, Tarentum AR Nomos. 272-240 BC. Aristokrates and Pi-, magistrates. Youth on horseback right, crowning horse and holding rein; behind, Nike flying right, crowning youth; APIΣTO KPATHΣ in two lines below / Phalanthos riding dolphin left, holding cornucopia and trident; ΠI to left, herm to right. Vlasto 908, HN Italy 1041. 6.59g, 20mm. EXTREMELY FINE Beautifully toned.

2400

Lucania, Hyele-Velia

3.

Lucania, Hyele-Velia AR Didrachm. 340-310 BC. Bust of Athena wearing Phrygian helm adorned with centauress on bowl / YEΛHTΩN, lion left, gnawing on prey, A above, KE monogram below. Williams 327 (O174/R243), SNG ANS 1337 (same obverse die). 7.52g, 21mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Attractively toned, beautiful obverse with complete crest.

3000

According to Herodotus, in 545 BC Ionian Greeks fled Phocaea, in modern Turkey, which was besieged by the Persians. After some wanderings (8 to 10 years) at sea, they stopped in Reggio Calabria where, probably, they were joined by Xenophanes who was at the time at Messina, and then moved North along the coast and founded the town of Hyele, later renamed Ele, and then, eventually, Elea. The location is nearly at the same latitude as Phocaea. Elea was not conquered by the Lucanians, but eventually joined Rome in 273 BC.

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4.

Lucania, Hyele-Velia AR Nomos. 300-280 BC. Laureate and helmeted bust of Athena right; Φ behind, Π before crest / Lion walking right; above, grape cluster flanked by Φ-I, YEΛHTΩN in exergue. Williams 492 (O246/R346), SNG ANS 1384 (these dies), HN 1311. 7.41g, 22mm. FLEUR DE COIN Beautifully toned with hints of iridescence around devices.

3750

Ex Aes Rude 13 (19 February 1988), lot 10 and A.D.M. collection. Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 25 (25 June 2003), lot 36 Ex CNG 66 (19 May 2004), lot 87.

Lucania, Metapontum

5.

Lucania, Metapontum AR Stater. Bust of Demeter left, wearing necklace, pendant earring and barley wreath, hair falling loosely under her shoulders AP behind / META, ear of barley with leaf to right, spindle in right field. SNG Cop 1221, SNG ANS 596. 7.82g, 22mm. FLEUR DE COIN Lightly toned, but with beautiful lustre.

2250

Historically speaking, there is no doubt that Metapontum was a Greek city founded by an Achaean colony; but various traditions assigned to it a much earlier origin. Strabo ascribes its foundation to a body of Pylians, a part of those who had followed Nestor to Troy; while Justin tells us it was founded by Epeius, the hero who constructed the wooden horse at Troy; in proof of which the inhabitants showed, in a temple of Minerva, the tools used by him on that occasion. Another tradition, reported by Ephorus, assigned to it a Phocian origin, and called Daulius, the tyrant of Crisa near Delphi, its founder. Other legends carried back its origin to a still more remote period. Antiochus of Syracuse said that it was originally called Metabus, from a hero of that name, who appears to have been identified with the Metapontus who figured in the Greek mythical story as the husband of Melanippe and father of Aeolus and Boeotus. Whether there may have really been a settlement on the spot more ancient than the Achaean colony, we have no means of determining. However, we are told that at the time of the foundation of this city the site was unoccupied; for which reason the Achaean settlers at Crotona and Sybaris were desirous to colonize it, in order to prevent the Tarentines from taking possession of it. With this view a colony was sent from the mother-country, under the command of a leader named Leucippus, to obtain the territory.

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6.

Lucania, Metapontum Æ16. 300-250 BC. Bust of Dionysos left, wearing ivy wreath / Barley ear; cross-torch to right. Johnston 47. 3.12g, 16mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Particularly sharp reverse.

300

Lucania, Thourioi

7.

Lucania, Thourioi AR Nomos. Circa 400-350 BC. Bust of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with Skylla / Bull butting right, fish right in exergue. HN Italy 1802, SNG ANS 1002. 7.86g, 20mm. EXTREMELY FINE 3000 A bold portrait; crisp detail on both obverse and reverse. Attractively toned. It is most unusual to find nomoi of Thourioi with such fine detail still remaining. An excellent example of the type.

8.

Lucania, Thourioi AR Nomos. Signed by Phry.. 385 - 360 BC. Bust of Athena right, wearing helmet decorated with olive wreath / ΘOYPIΩN, bull butting right, ΦPY on exergual line; fish right in exergue. SNG Ashmolean 903, SNG ANS 947 (these dies), HN Italy 1771. 7.98g, 21mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Of superb classical style, unusually complete and struck on a full flan.

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6500


Superb Distater of Thourioi

9.

Lucania, Thourioi AR Distater. 350-300 BC. Helmeted bust of Athena right, helmet decorated with Skylla pointing; B behind / Bull butting right; HPA above. Noe, Thurian, group N, 6 (same dies), HN Italy 1858, Jameson 386 (same dies), De Luynes 583 (same dies). 15.26g, 27mm. EXTREMELY FINE RARE

15000

A superb piece of exceptionally fine style, struck on what is an extremely broad flan for the type. No other examples with such a complete obverse have appeared on the market in recent years. Thourioi was one of the last Greek colonies to be established in this part of Italy, having been founded almost seventy years after the fall of Sybaris, a city of proverbial wealth and power. Sybaris itself had been destroyed by the Crotoniats in 510 BC, who had determined to destroy the place so utterly that it should never again be inhabited. For this purpose they turned the course of the river Crathis, so that it inundated the site of the city and buried the ruins under the deposits that it brought down. The site remained deserted for 58 years, until some surviving inhabitants and their descendants made an attempt to establish themselves anew on the ancient site. The settlement rose so rapidly to prosperity that it excited the envy and fear of Croton, who expelled the Sybarites from their colony little more than five years after its establishment. The refugees appealed to Sparta and Athens for aid, and the latter determined to send fresh colonists from Greece, who restored the Sybarites to their ancient home, though the colony was moved shortly afterwards (apparently in obedience to an oracle) to a spot a short distance away where there was a fountain named Thuria, from whence the new city derived its name.

Campania, Neapolis

10. Campania, Neapolis AR Didrachm. 275-250 BC. Diademed bust of Parthenope left, dolphin behind, ME below / Androcephalic bull to right being crowned by Nike flying right. Rutter, Historia Numorum 586, Sambon 492, SNG ANS 388, SNG München. 7.07g, 23mm. GOOD VERY FINE

1000

Struck on a very large flan for the type, with both complete reverse and obverse, dotted border included. Beautiful old tone with hints of iridescence. A hugely attractive coin, despite light wear. The obverse of this issue depicts the Siren Parthenope who was the local goddess of Neapolis. The man-headed bull reverse, with and without Victory, was a type shared by a number of Campanian cities and may have generally been understood as representing Acheloös, the father of Sirens. In addition he was also the eponymous deity for the greatest and, according to tradition, the most ancient among the rivers of Greece. This river rises in Mt. Pindus and, dividing Aitolia from Akarnania, falls into the Ionian Sea. The name of Archeloös appears in cults throughout the Greek world and in mythology as the archetypal river-god and may have been used in this context in Campania.

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Bruttium, Kaulonia

11. Bruttium, Kaulonia AR Nomos. 450-445 BC. KAVΛ, Apollo advancing right, holding branch in uplifted right hand while a small naked figure (daimon) runs on his outstretched left; in field right, stag right looking backward / KAVΛ (retrograde) Stag standing right; in field right, laurel branch. SNG Ashmolean 731, SNG Lockett 586, Noe 93. 8.15g, 22mm. EXTREMELY FINE A beautiful specimen; exceptionally well detailed and preserved for the type, perfectly centred and (very unusually) with a complete reverse border.

2000

Bruttium, Croton

12. Bruttium, Croton AR Stater. Circa 400-325 BC. Bust of Hera Lacinia three-quarters right, wearing stephane ornamented with palmette between two birds, ∆ (or raised triangle) in right field / KPOT, Herakles seated left on rock draped with lion skin, extended right hand holding cup above tripod, left arm behind him, in upper left field bow entwined with club, M∆ below. SNG ANS 382, HN 2164. 7.77g, 22mm. EXTREMELY FINE

2500

Beautiful facing bust with only light wear; attractive reverse in fine style with excellent realistic rendering of Herakles – this example displays uncommonly good facial detail, and more realistic posture and anatomical design than most other examples of the type. The worship of Herakles was long established at Croton. Even in the earliest days the city held the hero in particularly high regard. Indeed, according to Diodorus, when in 510 BC the armies of Croton and Sybaris met in battle, the legendary wrestler, six-time Olympic victor and associate of Pythagoras named Milo is said to have led the greatly outnumbered men of Croton into the fray wearing his Olympic crowns, draped in a lion skin and brandishing a club in the manner of Herakles.

13. Bruttium, Croton AR Nomos. Circa 350-340 BC. KPOTΩNIA – TAΣ, laureate bust of Apollo right / Infant Herakles strangling two snakes. Gulbenkian 133 (these dies), SNG ANS 386, Historia Numorum Italy 2157. 7.65g, 20mm. RARE EXTREMELY FINE Lightly toned with iridescent hues around the devices. A superb example, with enormous visual appeal.

7500

On the night that Herakles was to be born, Hera, conspired to prevent the birth of Herakles by forcing Ilithyia, goddess of childbirth, to sit cross-legged with her clothing tied in knots, causing Herakles to be trapped in the womb. She was foiled by Alcmene's servant who tricked Ilithyia into allowing the birth. Having thus failed, Hera sent two serpents to kill the baby Herakles as he lay in his cot. While his twin brother Iphicles screamed in terror, Herakles throttled the snakes, one in each hand and was found by his nurse playing with their limp bodies as if they were toys.

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SICILY Sicily, Entella. Siculo-Punic Issues

14. Sicily, Entella. Siculo-Punic AR Tetradrachm.300-289 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin / Horse’s head left; astragalos to left, palm tree to right, Punic MHSBM below. Jenkins, Punic 367-9 var (O115/R- [unlisted rev. die]), Gorny & Mosch 114, lot 37 (same dies). 16.93g, 24mm. NEAR EXTREMELY FINE Attractively toned.

2750

15. Sicily, Entella. Siculo-Punic AR Tetradrachm.300-289 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin / Horse’s head left; astragalos to left, palm tree to right, Punic MHSBM below. Jenkins, Punic 367-9 (O115/R- [unlisted rev. die]). 16.52g, 25mm. EXTREMELY FINE

4000

16. Sicily, Siculo-Punic AR Tetradrachm. Circa 320 BC. Head of Tanit-Persephone left, wearing barley wreath, earring and necklace; below chin, cockle shell; four dolphins around / Horse’s head left; behind, palm tree with date clusters, MMHNT in Punic characters below neck truncation. SNG Copenhagen 85 (these dies), SNG Fitzwilliam 1488 (these dies), Jenkins 163. 17.18g, 26mm. EXTREMELY FINE Lightly toned.

5500

Sicily, Himera

17. Sicily, Himera AR Didrachm. 483-472 BC. HIMEPA, Cockerel standing left / Crab. De Hirsch 416 (this obverse die). Westermark, Himera, 03 / R 61. 8.62g, 21mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

4000

The name of Himera became closely associated after 480 BC with the great defeat of the Carthaginians in that year, who had fielded an army of 300,000 commanded by Hamilcar Mago but who were soundly beaten in the battle of Himera outside the very gates of that city. Later, in 408 BC the city was razed to the ground and its population slaughtered by Hannibal Mago, apparently to utterly erase any trace of that place where his grandfather had been defeated and killed.

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Sicily, Messana

18. Sicily, Messana AR Tetradrachm. 420-413 BC. MEΣΣANA (retrograde) The Nymph Messana, wearing long chiton and holding whip and reins with both hands, driving biga of mules to right; two facing dolphins in exergue / MEΣΣANIΩN, Hare springing right; dolphin swimming to right below. Caltabiano 534. 17.35g, 27mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

11000

A truly superb example of the type. Well struck from fresh dies on a large flan, displaying almost complete borders; attractively toned and exceptionally pleasing to hold. According to Aristotle, Anaxilas placed these types on his coins to commemorate his victory in the mule biga event at the Olympic Games in 484 or 480 BC, and his introduction of the hare for the first time into Sicily. Founded by Greek colonists in the 8th century BCE, Messana was originally called Zancle, meaning 'scythe' because of the shape of its natural harbour (though a legend attributes the name to King Zanclus). Herodotus and Thucydides relate that In the early 5th century BC, Anaxilas of Rhegium encouraged the Samians and other Ionian refugees to seize Zancle, which was then under the rule of the tyrant Scythes, who had been appointed to that post in 494 BC by Hippocrates of Gela. Shortly afterwards Anaxilas himself besieged the city, drove out the Samians, peopled it with fresh inhabitants and renamed it Messana in honour of his native city of Messene, which was itself founded by Epaminondas after the battle of Leuctra.

19. Messana AR Tetradrachm. 420-413 BC. MEΣΣAN, Slow biga of mules driven left by nymph Messana, holding kentron and reins; two dolphins snout to snout in exergue / MEΣΣANIΩN Hare springing right, cicada below. Lockett 824 (these dies). Jameson 650 (these dies). Caltabiano 516. 17.22g, 27mm. EXTREMELY FINE

4000

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20. Sicily, Messana AR Tetradrachm. 412-408 BC. The Nymph Messana, wearing long chiton and holding goad and reins, driving mule-drawn biga to left; Nike flying right above to crown her; two opposing dolphins in exergue / MEÎŁÎŁANIâ„ŚN, Hare springing left above ear of grain, eagle flying left above. Caltabiano 622, Schefold, Meisterwerke griechischer Kunst, 479, SNG Lockett 831. 17.22g, 25mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

18500

Gorgeous, lustrous surfaces and beautifully toned. This masterpiece of ancient numismatic art hails from the golden age of coin production at Messana, shortly before the city was sacked by the Carthaginians under Himilco.

Sicily, Selinos

21. Sicily, Selinos AR Tetradrachm. 455-409 BC. Artemis, holding reins, driving quadriga left; beside her, Apollo standing left, drawing bow / Selinos standing left, holding palm frond and phiale over altar to left; before altar, cock standing left; to right, selinon leaf above bull standing left on basis. Schwabacher 7 (Q2/S7), SNG ANS 689, BMC 23, McClean 2575, Hunterian 4, Pozzi 539. 16.95g, 29mm. EXTREMELY FINE Rare, especially so in such good condition.

4000

Selinos was the most westerly of the Greek colonies in Sicily, having been founded, according to Thucydides, by a contingent from the Sicilian city of Megara. The name of this city is supposed to have been derived from the quantities of wild parsley that grew on the spot. Early in its history Selinos was brought into contact, and conflict, with the Carthaginians and native Sicilians in the west and northwest of the island. Through the assistance of the powerful city-state of Syracuse, which was well disposed to their cause, the Selinuntines maintained supremacy over their non-Greek neighbours, of which Segesta was the one with which Selinos was most frequently engaged in hostilities. In 413 BC an Athenian force arrived in Sicily to aid the Segestans, however their defeat by Syracuse left Segesta at the mercy of Selinos. In vain, they tried to appease Selinos by ceding without contest the frontier district that had been the original cause of dispute. The Selinuntines, however, were not satisfied with this concession, and continued to press Segesta with fresh hostilities. The Segestans then turned to Carthage for aid, whose people sent a small force, the assistance of which allowed the Segestans to defeat the Selinuntines in battle. The Carthaginians followed up their success the following spring in the year 409 BC by dispatching a vast army, amounting to some 100,000 men, with which Hannibal Mago landed at Lilybaeum and then proceeded directly to Selinos. The latter had not expected such an overwhelming attack, and were unprepared to resist this force. Although the Selinuntines fought desperately on the walls, and then house to house throughout the city, their forces were ultimately crushed and the inhabitants slain or taken as slaves. Hannibal destroyed the city walls, and though he gave permission for the surviving inhabitants to return and occupy the site, the city never again regained its prosperity or power.

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Extremely Rare Didrachm of Selinos The Seventh Labour of Herakles

22. Sicily, Selinos AR Didrachm. Circa 409 BC. ΣEΛINONTION Herac1es standing right, pressing left knee against Cretan bull and grasping right horn with left hand; right hand wielding club, about to strike the bull; bow below / The river-god Hypsas standing left holding branch and patera, pouring libation over altar around which a serpent is entwined; at his side, a small Nike hands him a victory-ribbon. Rizzo pl. 33, 8 (these dies), AMB 412 (these dies). 8.68g, 22mm. EXTREMELY RARE EXTREMELY FINE Small area of flat strike; struck from dies of very fine style, attractively toned and extremely well preserved for the type.

3000

The seventh labour of Herakles was to capture the Cretan bull. King Minos had prayed to Poseidon to send him a snow white bull as a sign of approval, which Poseidon did. This bull was to be sacrificed in the god’s honour, but Minos reneged on his vow and decided to keep the bull instead. As punishment, Poseidon caused Minos’ wife Pasiphaë to fall in love with the bull. The offspring of this union was the Minotaur which Minos imprisoned in a labyrinth. King Minos gave Herakles permission to take the bull away, as it had been wreaking havoc on Crete. Herakles captured the bull by sneaking up on it from behind and taking it by surprise. He then had it shipped back to Athens; Eurystheus wanted to sacrifice the bull to Hera, who hated Herakles. She refused the sacrifice because it reflected glory on Herakles. The bull was promptly released and it wandered into Marathon, becoming known as the Marathonian bull.

Sicily, Syracuse The Second Democracy (466-406 BC)

23. Sicily, Syracuse. Second Democracy AR Tetradrachm. 474-450 BC. Charioteer driving biga right, Nike flying above; ketos right in exergue / ΣYPAKOΣION, diademed bust of Arethusa right, four dolphins around. Boehringer 530. 16.96g, 27mm. RARE GOOD VERY FINE Beautiful portrait; lightly toned.

3000

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First Master to Sign Dies at Syracuse Finest Known Example

24. Sicily, Syracuse. Second Democracy AR Tetradrachm. Signed by unknown master ‘A’. Circa 420 BC. Charioteer driving walking biga right; Nike flying above placing wreath on charioteer’s head / Bust of Arethusa right, wearing double-hook earrings and lion-head pendant, hair enveloped in sakkos drawn together at top and decorated with a meander pattern above chevrons; four dolphins around swimming. Boehringer 699. 18.02g, 24mm. VERY RARE GOOD EXTREMELY FINE, and nearly as struck.

25000

The finest specimen known of this very rare type. Though the obverse strike was not quite perfect, it is clear that the dies were fresh when this coin was minted as evidenced by the subtle yet crisp detail of the horses. The reverse displays a magnificent bust of Arethusa wearing a sakkos, a form of ornamental net, which is an intriguing indicator of the changing fashions of the time. This majestic portrait is rendered all the more sublime by the light tone of the piece and by the golden highlights that seem in this photograph to create an aura of divinity. The unknown individual who signed this reverse simply ‘A’ was the very first master engraver to sign his dies at Syracuse, around 15 years before other masters such as Eumenos, Kimon and Euainetos began signing theirs.

Time of Dionysios I (406-367 BC)

Finest Known Example

25. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. 405-400 BC. Fast quadriga driven left by chiton clad charioteer, holding kentron and reins; above, Nike flying right to crown him. In exergue, dolphin to left / ΣYPAKOSIΩN, bust of Arethusa left, wearing double earring and necklace, hair bound with sphendone over which several tresses fly back. Around, four dolphins: two swimming left downwards and two right, upwards. Boston 443 (these dies), Dewing 860, Tudeer 99. 16.94g, 28mm. RARE GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

30000

Probably the finest known example of this type. The dies are of masterly style, rendering both obverse and reverse with both flair and grace; struck on an exceptionally broad flan for the type, lightly toned with hints of iridescence. This magnificent coin depicts the goddess Arethusa in her natural environment, her hair gently drifting in the current while dolphins play around her. Arethusa, a Nereid and attendant of Artemis one day came upon a clear stream and began bathing, not knowing it was the river god Alpheus. He fell in love during their encounter, but she fled after discovering his presence and intentions, as she wished to remain a chaste attendant of the Goddess of the Hunt. After a long chase, she prayed to her goddess to ask for protection. Artemis hid her in a cloud, but Alpheus was persistent. She began to perspire profusely from fear, and soon transformed into a stream. Artemis then broke the ground allowing Arethusa another attempt to flee. Her stream travelled under the earth to the island of Ortygia in Syracuse, Sicily, but Alpheus flowed through the sea to reach her and mingle with her waters. Ex Star Collection. Ex NAC 18, 2000, lot 129.

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26. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Circa 405-400 BC. Fast quadriga driven left by chiton clad charioteer, holding kentron and reins; above, Nike flying right to crown him. In exergue, dolphin to left / ΣYPAKOSIΩN, bust of Arethusa left, wearing double earring and necklace, hair bound with sphendone over which several tresses fly back. Around, four dolphins: two swimming left downwards and two right, upwards. Boston 443, Dewing 860, Tudeer 99. 17.25g, 26mm. RARE GOOD VERY FINE

5000

Unusually complete, struck from fresh dies, and very attractively toned. Both obverse and reverse are composed in finest style, such that it is clearly evident that this piece is the work of a master engraver. A superb example of this beautiful type that displays Arethusa in her natural environment, her hair gently drifting in the current.

Time of Timoleon (344-336 BC)

27. Sicily, Syracuse AR Stater. Time of Timoleon, 344-336 AD. ΣYPAKOΣIΩN, Bust of Athena right, wearing Corinthian helm / Pegasus flying left. SNG ANS 502. 8.59g; 20mm. FLEUR DE COIN

3000

This beautiful coin is all the more magnificent in hand. It is only lightly toned, and still possesses a gorgeous lustre that is complemented by the golden highlights about the devices.

Time of Agathokles (317-289 BC)

28. Agathokles AR Tetradrachm. Syracuse, Sicily. Circa 317–310 BC. Head of Arethusa left, wearing triple pendant earring and pearl necklace, hair wreathed with grain leaves, NI below, three dolphins around / Fast quadriga left, triskeles in upper field, ΣYPAKOΣIΩN in exergue, AN monogram below. SNG Ashmolean 2067, SNG ANS 633, BMC 348. 17.24g, 27mm. FLEUR DE COIN

12500

An exceptional specimen of this type, being remarkably well preserved and struck in fine style on a full and complete flan.

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29. Agathokles AR Tetradrachm. Syracuse, Sicily. Circa 317–310 BC. Head of Arethusa left, wearing triple pendant earring and pearl necklace, hair wreathed with grain leaves, NI below, three dolphins around / Fast quadriga left, triskeles in upper field, ΣYPAKOΣIΩN in exergue, AN monogram below. Ierardi 29 (4/15), SNG Ashmolean 2067 (same obverse die), SNG ANS 633–635 (same obverse die). Dewing 943 (same obverse die). 17.06g, 25mm. FLEUR DE COIN

10000

Exceptional toning with beautiful iridescence on the obverse. An unusually finely detailed reverse without the usual weakness. Displayed at Cincinnati Art Museum, 1994–2008, no. 58.

30. Agathokles AR Tetradrachm. Syracuse, Sicily. Struck circa 310/08-306/5 BC. KOPAΣ, Head of Kore right, wearing grain ear wreath, single-pendant earring, and necklace / AΓAΘOKΛEOΣ, Nike standing right erecting trophy to right, monogram to lower left, triskeles to right. Ierardi 104 (O21/R65), BAR issue 23, SNG ANS -, SNG Lloyd 1489 (same obv. die), Dewing 947 (same rev. die), SNG Fabricius 259 (same dies). 17.02g, 25mm. CHOICE EXTREMELY FINE

12500

A beautiful even light grey toning contrasted with outstanding iridescent flashes that highlight the obverse and reverse detail. This exceptional piece is undoubtedly one of the very best of the type, being not only wonderfully preserved but also struck from dies that were masterfully engraved in the finest style of the period. Ex Paul H. Gerrie Collection

31. Sicily, Syracuse. Agathokles AR Stater. 304-289 BC. Bust of Athena right, wearing Corinthian helm, trident behind / Pegasus flying left, thunderbolt beneath. Calciati, Pegasi 24. 6.82g, 19mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Attractive old tone.

900

19


The Fifth Democracy (214-212 BC) The following issues belong to the series of silver coins that continued to be minted while Syracuse was under siege by the Roman general Marcus Claudius Marcellus. Syracuse had been ably and wisely ruled by Hieron II, who steadfastly maintained the city’s alliance with Rome. However, upon his death the throne passed to his grandson Hieronymos, who at the age of only fifteen allowed himself to be influenced by the pro-Carthaginian faction in Syracuse into renouncing the alliance his grandfather had so carefully preserved. This course of action resulted in revolution within the city, Hieronymos and his family were slain and democratic government was restored, but the following year a Roman army arrived to lay siege to the city. Though the defenders held out for three years, in part thanks to the engineering genius of Archimedes, the Romans finally stormed the city under cover of darkness. Much of the population fell back to the citadel, but this too fell after an eight month siege. As retribution for the city having changed its allegiance to Carthage at the height of the Second Punic War, and for having forced the Romans into a lengthy and costly siege while Italy and Rome herself remained in peril, the city was thoroughly sacked and the inhabitants put to the sword or enslaved. This extensive series of siege coinage reflects the last flourishing of Syracusan numismatic art; the diversity of the coinage is all the more impressive given that the city was being subjected to protracted warfare during this period. The series is special too for its depiction of so many deities, whose divine assistance the people clamoured for to deliver them from disaster.

32. Sicily, Syracuse AR 12 Litrae. 214-212 BC. Bust left of Athena, wearing crested Corinthian helmet ornamented with snake / ΣYPAKOΣIΩN Artemis standing left, discharging arrow from bow; at her feet, hound running left. SNG Cop 878, SNG ANS 1040. 10.17g, 25mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

2300

Signed by Lysid...

33. Sicily, Syracuse AR 8 Litrae signed by Lysid.... Circa 212 BC. Bust of Demeter left, wearing earring and necklace; curled hair rolled and bound in barley wreath; behind, owl / Biga galloping right, driven by Nike, wearing chiton, holding reins in left hand and kentron in right; above horses, monogram AKP; in field right AI. Double exergual line inscribed ΛU, beneath ΣYPAKOΣIΩN. Jameson 894 (this obverse die), De Luynes 1395. 6.76g, 21mm. EXTREMELY RARE EXTREMELY FINE

2500

Reverse struck from what appears to be a slightly clogged die, though most fine detail remains visible. Lightly toned with iridescent highlights around the devices.

20


ILLYRIA Illyria, Dyrrhachium

34. Illyricum, Dyrrhachium AR Stater. 350-300 BC. Pegasus flying right, Y beneath / Bust of Athena wearing Corinthian helm, club and ∆ behind. Calciati, Pegasi 33. 8.63g, 22mm. EXTREMELY FINE Struck on a broad flan in fine style. Attractive old tone.

800

Dyrrhachium was founded as Epidamnos in the ancient region of Illyria in 627 BC by Greek colonists from Corinth and Corcyra. Its geographical position was highly advantageous, being situated around a natural rocky harbour which was surrounded by inland swamps and high cliffs on the seaward side, making the city very difficult to attack from either land or sea. Dyrrhachium was noted for being a politically advanced society, prompting the ancient philosopher Aristotle to praise its political system in handling the barbarians. However, Corinth and Corcyra quarrelled over the city, helping to precipitate the Peloponnesian War in 431 BC. Dyrrhachium was seized by Glaukias, an Illyrian king, in 312 BC with the help of the Greek oligarchy.

THRACE Thrace, Ainos

35. Thrace, Ainos AR Tetradrachm. 412-365 BC. Bust of Hermes facing slightly left, wearing petasos ornamented with beads / Goat standing right; AINION above, eight-rayed star right; all within shallow incuse square. BMC 77.3 (same dies), AMNG II 1 341. 15.56g, 24mm. VERY RARE VERY FINE

6250

The city of Ainos began striking its first tetradrachms only after the expulsion of the Persians from northern Greece following Xerxes’ defeat at Salamis. Its early issue of coinage came to an end with the Athenian coinage decree of 449 BC, but the mint began to strike again around 435 BC, finally ending when Philip of Macedon conquered the city in 342 BC. The coinage of Ainos consistently displayed Hermes on one side and a goat on the other, the reasons for which are that the goat represented the source of Ainos' prosperity, and Hermes being the patron god of the city. According to a poem by Kallimachos, the sculptor Epeios (who constructed the Trojan Horse) also made a wooden statue (xoanon) of Hermes, which was washed out to sea and recovered by fishermen near the Hebros river. The fishermen, thinking it just a piece of driftwood, tried to burn it in their bonfire. When it failed to burn they took fright and threw it back into the sea, which promptly cast it back again. The natives accepted it as a relic of the gods, and erected the sanctuary of Hermes Perpheraios (the Wanderer) at the future site of Ainos. The later coins of Ainos, with their splendid facing head of Hermes as per this example, showcase some of the finest numismatic art of the Greek world.

21


22


Kings of Thrace One of The Very Finest Known Examples

36. Lysimachos AR Tetradrachm. 288-281 BC. Amphipolis mint. Diademed bust of Alexander right with horns of Ammon BAΣΙΛEΩΣ ΛYΣIMAXOY, Athena enthroned left, right hand supporting Nike who crowns royal name, left elbow resting on round shield propped against throne, on which gorgoneion, transverse spear in background. 17.10g, 33mm. FLEUR DE COIN

15000

An exemplary strike on a medallic flan, full borders visible. Engraved in finest Hellenistic style, this piece is reputed to be the second finest known tetradrachm of Lysimachos. In any case, it is certainly one of the very best both in terms of style and preservation, both of which are utterly flawless, and of course because of its extraordinary flan size and complete borders. Ex Lanz 50, 1989, lot 125.

A Portrait of Fine Style

37. Lysimachos AR Tetradrachm. 288-281 BC. Lampsakos mint. Head of deified Alexander right / BAΣΙΛEΩΣ ΛYΣIMAXOY, Athena seated left holding Nike, left arm leaning on her shield; monogram in inner left field, crescent in exergue. Müller 399, Thompson 49. 17.27g, 33mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

4000

A gorgeous portrait of Alexander with beautifully detailed features and gold iridescence about the devices. An exceptional piece.

23


THE PELOPPONESE Elis, Olympia The 98th Olympiad

38. Elis, Olympia AR Stater. 388 BC, struck for the 98th Olympiad. Eagle standing left, grasping the back of a ram with its talons and tearing at its neck with its beak; the whole on round shield with raised rim / F – A (incuse) thunderbolt with closed wings above and volutes below. BMC 37, Kraay-Himer 501-502 (these dies), Kunstfreund 155, Seltman 172, BCD Olympia 92. 11.67g, 25mm. VERY RARE GOOD VERY FINE

6500

Of the three other examples known to have been sold during the past ten years, this piece is vastly superior to two of those three, and a close second to the other, which attained a hammer price of 35,000 CHF. By the middle of the fourth century BC, bronze statues of Zeus (paid for by the fines for lying, bribery and cheating) lined the route to the Olympic stadium. The first six of these were established in the 98th Olympiad, for which occasion this coin was struck, when the boxer Eupolos of Thessaly bribed his opponents. An inscription on the base of one of the first statues declares that "an Olympic victory is to be won not by money but by swiftness of foot or strength of body". Inscriptions on other bases similarly urged piety and warned against violations.

Corinthia, Corinth A Superb Corinthian Stater

39. Corinthia, Corinth AR Stater. 375-300 BC. Pegasus flying left / Helmeted head of Athena left; ∆-I flanking; behind, Artemis Phosphoros advancing left. Ravel 1077, Pegasi 453, BCD Corinth -, cf. SNG Copenhagen 98. 8.69g, 23mm. FLEUR DE COIN Beautiful old tone with iridescent highlights around the devices. Engraved in finest style; a superb rendering of Pegasus.

2000

Pegasus was conceived from a liaison between Poseidon and Medusa, upon whose death he sprang forth from her neck (in the same manner that Athena was born from the head of Zeus). This divine creature aided the hero Bellerophon, son of the King of Corinth, in his quest against the Chimera and the Amazons. It was for this reason that the citizens of Corinth so honoured the legendary son of their city by depicting his winged steed on the coins of Corinth and her colonies.

24


Argolis, Hermione

40. Argolis, Hermione AR Triobol. 360-310 BC. Head of Demeter left, wearing barley wreath / EP (ligate) within barley wreath. BMC 1. Grandjean I 1A, D2 / R2. BCD Peloponnesos 1290 (these dies). 2.65g, 17mm. VERY RARE VERY FINE Ex Goekoop collection.

650

The site of Hermione has been continuously inhabited at least since the times of Homer. Long before classical times it was settled by Dryopians. The city was well known for its shipbuilders and also for the production of porphyra, a very important red dye. This dye was used for the colouring of the uniforms of many armies including that of Alexander the Great. Pausanias described the major temples and buildings, various festivities and games of the town.

ATTICA Attica, Athens An Exceptional Athenian Tetradrachm

41. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454–430 BC. Bust of Athena right, in crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, wearing round earring with central boss / AΘE, owl standing three-quarters right, head facing, olive sprig and crescent moon behind. Cf. Starr pl. xxii, 6', Cf. Svoronos pl. 12, 16; pl. 13, 5–9. 17. 17g, 24mm. FLEUR DE COIN

12500

High relief, exceptional detail in the finest style and simply outstanding toning. Displayed at Cincinnati Art Museum,

1994–2008, no. 25.

42. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 415-407 BC. Bust of Athena right, wearing earring and crested Attic helmet decorated with three leaves over visor and spiral palmette on bowl / AΘE, Owl standing right, with closed wings, head facing; in upper left field, crescent and olive twig with two leaves, all within incuse square. Svoronos pl. XIV, 3-6, SNG Berry 648, Dewing 1595. 17.03g, 25mm. EXTREMELY FINE Attractively toned with light blue iridescence around the devices.

2500

25


MACEDON Macedon, Olynthos

43. Macedon, Olynthos, Chalkidian League AR Tetradrachm. 420-355 BC. Laureate bust of Apollo right / Kithara with six strings, XAΛKI∆EΩN around, magistrate's name EΠI APIΣTΩNOΣ below. SNG ANS 496, Dewing 1071. 14.18g, 25mm. EXTREMELY FINE

6000

A beautiful piece with the original hoard patina intact. This example was likely part of the hoard recovered at Olynthos during excavations in the early 1930s. An outstanding example with a portrait of fine style. Olynthos took its name from the Greek olunthos – a fig which matures too early, for the area abounded with this fruit. Olynthus, son of Herakles, was according to tradition the founder of this city which rose to prominence as head of the Chalkidian League during the Peloponnesian War. Philip II of Macedon deprived the city of its League by both diplomacy and force, then undertook to besiege the city itself in 348 BC. Through the treachery of the city’s two leading citizens Euthycrates and Lasthenes, the city was betrayed to Philip, who sacked the city, razed it to the ground and sold all those within, including an Athenian garrison, into slavery.

Macedon, Neapolis A Hemidrachm of Outstanding Stlye

44. Macedon, Neapolis AR Hemidrachm. 411-348 BC. Gorgoneion with tongue protruding, NEOΠ around / Bust of Artemis Parthenos right, hair bound in cord. BMC 17; Dewing 1067. 1.85g, 15mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE An example of uncommon quality and style, this type usually being found either crudely engraved, poorly preserved or both.

26

1500


27


28


Kingdom of Macedon

45. Alexander III, the Great, AR Tetradrachm. Pella, circa 315-310 BC. Head of young Herakles right in lion skin headdress / AΛEΞAN∆POY, Zeus enthroned left, supporting eagle on extended right hand and holding sceptre with left, Boeotian shield in left field, coiled serpent under throne. Price 249, SNG Copenhagen 728, Muller 754. 17.12g, 28mm. FLEUR DE COIN Exceptionally beautiful toning. A portrait of great artistic merit already, this bust of Alexander as Herakles is rendered absolutely breathtaking by the incredible gold, blue and red hues that have developed around the devices. A one in a million coin.

12500

Displayed at Cincinnati Art Museum, 1994–2008, no. 99 (obverse illustrated in guide and on cover).

46. Alexander III, the Great, AR Tetradrachm. Miletus, 300-280 BC. Bust of Herakles wearing lion skin, with features of Alexander right / AΛEΞAN∆POY, Zeus enthroned left, drapery about legs and waist, holding sceptre and eagle; double headed axe in left field. Price 2074, Müller 1128. 17.06g, 30mm. Slight scrape on Zeus' torso, otherwise as struck and near FLEUR DE COIN

12500

Of exceptional style, bearing one of the finest known portraits on an Alexander tetradrachm and a reverse that is equally well conceived and executed. It is often suggested that certain posthumous issues in the name of Alexander were intended to display his features in the guise of Herakles, and whether one accepts the idea or not, the similarities here to other known profiles are undeniable. Regardless, it is patently clear that this particular example is no ordinary tetradrachm, certainly being the work of a master engraver. Shortly after arriving at Ephesus Alexander visited and offered sacrifices at the Great Temple of Artemis, also offering donations to rebuild the structure which had burned down on the night Alexander was born because, it was alleged by Plutarch, the goddess was too preoccupied with Alexander's delivery to save her temple. The proud Ephesians refused on the basis that it was not appropriate for one god to make donations to another. Shortly thereafter Alexander marched on Miletus which under the rule of the Persian satrap Hegesistratus offered resistance against his forces. Alexander immediately captured the part of Miletus which remained outside the walls, and undertook to besiege the city. Though a Persian fleet attempted to relieve the besieged defenders, it was prevented from landing by Alexander's naval forces. Miletus ultimately could not resist the strength of Alexander's army, and surrendered after only a short while, though not without considerable damage to its walls. Despite their resistance, Alexander forgave the people rather than sack the city, in recognition of their ancestors' doomed efforts against the Persians in the Ionian revolt over a century and a half before. Under Alexander's protection Miletus experienced a revival of fortunes and increased commercial importance through its colonies and new markets in the east.

29


47. Alexander III, the Great, AR Tetradrachm. Pella mint, 280-275 BC. Head of Herakles right, in lion skin / Zeus enthroned left; monogram to left. Price 586. 16.97g, 30mm. EXTREMELY FINE Of good style, struck on a broad flan and well preserved.

3500

Three Atrractive Lifetime Issue Staters

48. Alexander III, the Great, AV Stater. Memphis, 332 BC. Bust of Athena right, wearing plumed Corinthian helm / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis, Rose in left field, ∆I below. Price 3969. 8.60g, 18mm. FLEUR DE COIN

5000

A beautiful piece, exceptional for an Alexander stater. The coin was clearly deposited shortly after being stuck, as it has seen little if any circulation. Engraved in superb style that displays both Athena and Nike in very feminine forms. Gorgeous, lustrous metal. Ex Münzen und Medaillen AG 583, Basel 1995, Nr. 5. It wasn't until Alexander's victory at Tyre in 332 BC that he began issuing his Athena gold staters, with the stylis on the reverse referring to Alexander's new mastery of the seas.

49. Alexander III, the Great, AV Stater. Sidon, 336-323 BC. Bust of Athena right, wearing Corinthian helmet decorated with snake / AΛEΞAN∆POY, Nike standing left, holding stylus in left hand and wreath in right; monogram and palm branch in left field, ΣI below. Price 3482. 8.66g, 18mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

3500

One of the more unusual styles of portraiture for Athena – here her hair is long and dishevelled, flowing wildly from beneath her helmet.

30


50. Alexander III, the Great, AV Stater. Amphipolis, 330-320 BC. Bust of Athena right, wearing Corinthian helmet decorated with snake / AΛEΞAN∆POY, Nike standing left, holding stylus in left hand and wreath in right; trident-head pointing downward in left field. SNG Sweden II 993, Price 172d (this obverse die). 8.58g, 19mm. FLEUR DE COIN

3500

An extremely attractive example of this ever-popular type. Not only is this piece in exceptional state of preservation, it moreover displays an uncharacteristically young and feminine bust of Athena, in contrast to her usually mature, robust visage. Her features are slender and delicate; her eyes expressive and compassionate.

An Attractively Toned Posthumous Issue

51. Alexander III, the Great, AV Stater. Alexandria mint, 312-310 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing Corinthian helmet / AΛEΞAN∆POY to right of Nike, standing left, wings open, holding wreath in right hand, stylis in left. EY in left field. Price 3980, Larnaca 118. 8.41g, 18mm. GOOD VERY FINE

3000

A portrait of superb style - Athena's features are delicate and feminine, unlike so many of the contemporary dies; the piece itself displays a beautiful contrast - the metal is lightly toned in the fields but brilliant and lustrous around the devices. A coin that has to be held to be fully appreciated.

EUBOIA

52. Euboia, Euboian League AR Stater. 375-357 BC. Bust of the nymph Euboia right, hair rolled in, wearing crescent shaped earring / bull recumbent right, EYB below, grape bunch on vine above. Weber 3389. 12.11g, 22mm. RARE GOOD VERY FINE

7000

An excellent example of this issue, struck in fine style and well preserved. These coins are very difficult to find in such good condition.

31


CRETE Crete, Itanos

53. Crete, Itanos AR Stater. Bust of Athena left wearing crested Attic helmet / Eagle standing left, head right, in the right field a figure of Triton (upwards) holding trident, ITANIΩN to left; all in shallow incuse square. Svor. Numismatique 35, le Rider Pl.VIII.15. 10.57g, 23mm. GOOD VERY FINE Very rare denomination.

4500

The eagle displayed on the reverse undoubtedly refers to Zeus Diktaios whose cult was worshipped at Itanos.

54. Crete, Gortyna AR Drachm. 250-230 BC. Laureate bust of Zeus right [countermark: bull butting right] / ΓOPTINIΩN, Europa seated on bull right, AR (ligate) below; [countermark: bust of Apollo right] Svoronos 116. 5.19g, 21mm. RARE EXTREMELY FINE The last comparable example sold for EUR 1350 plus buyers fees in 2008 at Gerhard Hirsch 257-258. This coin is much finer.

1200

IONIA Ionia, Herakleia ad Latmon

55. Ionia, Herakleia ad Latmon AR Tetradrachm. Circa 165-140 BC. Bust of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with Pegasus above the foreparts of five galloping horses / HPAKΛEΩTΩN, club; below, ΣK> monogram to left & Ω∆PI monogram to right of Nike walking left holding wreath, all within oak wreath. SNG Lockett 2823, SNG Kayhan 330, Pozzi 2452. 16.84g, 32mm. EXTREMELY FINE Lightly Toned. A superb piece.

4500

56. Ionia, Herakleia ad Latmon AR Tetradrachm. Circa 165-140 BC. Bust of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with Pegasus above the foreparts of five galloping horses / HPAKΛEΩTΩN, club; below, owl below between two monograms; all within oak wreath. SNG von Aulock 1976, SNG Lockett 2824. 16.77g, 34mm. RARE GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Attractive hints of iridescent toning.

4000

32


PAMPHYLIA Pamphylia, Aspendos

57. Pamphylia, Aspendos AR Stater. 370-333 BC. Two athletes wrestling, grasping each other's arms, KI between / Slinger advancing right, about to discharge his shot; in right field, triskelion. SNG von Aulock 4557 (this obverse die), SNG Cop 226. 11.01g, 24mm. EXTREMELY FINE Attractively toned with hints of gold iridescence around the devices.

1100

Pamphylia, Side

58. Pamphylia, Side AR Tetradrachm. 205-155 BC. Head of Athena right, in crested Corinthian helmet / Nike advancing left, holding wreath; pomegranate in left field, magistrate monogram ∆EI-N. SNG BN 675ff (Var.) 17.20g, 29mm. CHOICE EXTREMELY FINE Well centred and with an attractive old tone.

3500

PAPHLAGONIA Paphlagonia, Kromna

59. Paphlagonia, Kromna AR Drachm. Circa 340 BC. Laureate bust of Zeus left / KPâ„ŚMNA Bust of Hera left, wearing stephane, leaf above. SNG von Aulock 183, Recueil pl. 21, 23, cf. Dewing 2126. 3.55g, 11mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

1350

Ex Malter Auction 72 (23 XI 97), lot 47. The coinage of Kromna consists almost entirely of silver pieces that are usually referred to today as drachms, but which are more likely to have been issued on the Persic standard, thus they are actually more likely to be triobols, and a single series of bronze. They were all issued around the middle of the 4th Century BC, after which time the city joined with the other colonies of Sesamos, Cytoros, and Tion to form the new community of Amastris. The tyrant of Amastris in circa 265-260 BC presented the city to Ariobarzanes of Pontus, rather than submit to domination by Heraclea, and it remained in the Pontic kingdom until its capture by Lucius Lucullus in the Second Mithridatic War.

33


CILICIA Cilicia, Kelenderis

60. Cilicia, Kelenderis AR Stater. 450-400 BC. Nude youth, holding whip, dismounting from horse rearing right / Goat kneeling right, head left, KEΛEN∆EPITIKΩN around, all within incuse square. Traite’ pl. II, 140,8, pozzi coll. 2817 and Walter Nieggeler Coll., Bank Leu/Muenzen & Medaillen AG Auction, 3 Dec 1965, lot 433 (same dies). 10.77g, 23mm. EXTREMELY RARE GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

12000

A very rare and exceptional coin that displays the complete ethnikon of Kelenderis. Of the known dies for this issue, these are unquestionably the finest in terms of artistry; all the details display a supreme elegance in style, flawlessly executed and struck on a very thick module. The finest example known of the type. Lightly toned, with golden iridescence within incuse square fields.

THE SELEUCID KINGDOM Seleucos I, in the Name of Alexander

61. Seleucos I AV Stater. Struck in the name of Alexander III, the Great. Babylon, 317-311 BC. Bust of Athena right, wearing Corinthian helm decorated with snake / AΛEΞAN∆ΡOY BAΣIΛEΩΣ, Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis, bust of Silenos in left field, monogram within wreath to right. Price 3735. 8.53g, 19mm. FLEUR DE COIN

8000

A truly exceptional example of the type, in perfect condition and engraved in uncommonly fine style. Beautiful, lustrous metal. Seleucos was appointed satrap of Babylon in 320 BC, and continued striking coinage in the name of Alexander long after the King's death until he, like the rest of Alexander’s successors the Diadochi, proclaimed themselves kings in their own right and began issuing currency in their own names.

34


Seleucos I, as King

62. Seleucid Kingdom. Seleucos I Nikator AR Tetradrachm. Susa, circa 305-295. Bust of Alexander right in Dionysian helmet covered with panther’s skin and adorned with bull’s ear and horns; panther skin tied around neck / BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΣEΛEYKOY, Nike standing right, crowning trophy; in lower left field, monogram; in lower central field, monogram. Kraay-Hirmer pl. 204, 720, ESM 424, Seleucid Coins 173.5. 17.07g, 27mm. RARE EXTREMELY FINE A superb portrait of Alexander in finest Hellenistic style. Struck on a large flan and in excellent state of preservation for the type.

15000

The trophy series of Seleucos was issued throughout an extended period, and used 67 obverse dies and at least 93 reverses that we are aware of. The type commemorates the victories of Seleucos as he pushed eastwards into India, occupying territory as far as the Indus, and eventually waging war against the Mauryan Empire. This campaign against Chandragupta Maurya was however a failure. While there is no record of what transpired to prevent Seleucos achieving his aims, the two leaders eventually reached an accord whereby Seleucos ceded some of his easternmost territory in exchange for a gift of 500 war elephants. The massive beasts were to play a significant role in the coming wars of the Diadochi, in particular at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC.

BACTRIA Eukratides I

63. Eukratides I of Bactria AR Tetradrachm. 171-145 BC. Draped and diademed bust right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ above, EYKPATI∆OY below the Dioskouroi on rearing horses right; delta to left. Mitchiner 169. SNG ANS 441. 4.14g, 21mm. EXTREMELY FINE

500

PTOLEMAIC EGYPT Ptolemy III

64. Ptolemaic Kingdom. Ptolemy III Æ Diobol. 285-246 BC. Head of Zeus Ammon right / ΠTOΛEMAIOY BAΣILEΩS, eagle with closed wings standing left on thunderbolt, monogram between legs, cornucopiae in left field. Svoronos 975. 18.30g, 30mm. VERY FINE

300

35


THE ROMAN REPUBLIC

65. Anonymous AR Didrachm. 241-235 BC. Helmeted bust of Mars right / Horse’s head right, sickle behind; ROMA below. Sydenham 24, Crawford 25/1. 6.64g, 19mm. VERY RARE GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

10000

An exceptional example of this very rare issue. Centrally struck in high relief and in excellent state of preservation. This issue dates to the period between the close of the First Punic War in 241 BC and the closing of the doors of the Temple of Janus for the second time in Roman history in 235 BC, signifying that the Republic was again at peace. Ex NAC Sale 25, 2003, lot 237

66. Anonymous AR Didrachm. Rome, 225-212 BC. Janiform bust of Janus / Jupiter holding sceptre and hurling thunderbolt, standing in chariot driven right by Victory, ROMA incuse on tablet below. Crawford 28/3. 6.60g, 26mm. FLEUR DE COIN

4000

A wonderful example of the always sought after 'Quadrigatus'. Struck on a medallic flan with a gorgeous old cabinet tone displaying beautiful iridescent qualities.

67. Anonymous AR Didrachm (Quadrigatus). 225-212 BC. Laureate bust of Janus / Jupiter holding sceptre and hurling thunderbolt, standing in chariot driven right by Victory, ROMA on tablet below. Crawford 29/3, Sydenham 64d. 6.70g, 23mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Ex Dr. E. Merzbacher Nachf. Auction, Munich 15 November 1910, lot 960.

3500

A beautiful piece, all the more so for the well centred strike on a large flan, the medallic appearance of the reverse and the excellent preservation of all fine detail. Apart from a few minor scratches on the obverse, the piece is practically as struck. A stunning coin with an excellent provenance stretching back one hundred years.

36


37


Three Attractive Republic Bronzes

68. Anonymous AE Sextans. 217-215 BC. Bust of Mercury right wearing winged petasos; •• above / Prow of galley right; ROMA above, •• below. Crawford 38/5, Sydenham 85, BMCRR 59. 13.45g, 27mm. EXTREMELY FINE Rarely found so well preserved.

500

69. Anonymous AE Uncia. 217-215 BC. Semi-Libral standard. Rome mint. Helmeted bust of Roma left; • behind / Prow of galley right, ROMA above, • below. Crawford 38/6, Sydenham 86. 11.53 g, 26mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE A remarkable specimen, perfectly centred and struck on a broad flan. Of finest style, with all of the original details preserved.

1500

This issue, in a reduced weight standard to its predecessors, consisted of 8 denominations; the as, semis, triens, and quadrans were cast while the sextans, uncia, semuncia, and quartuncia were struck. As the weight standard for the as declined (at this time an as weighed about 132g.), it became possible for the smaller denominations to be struck due to their decreasing size.

70. Anonymous AE Uncia. 217-215 BC. Semi-Libral standard. Rome mint. Helmeted bust of Roma left; • behind / Prow of galley right, ROMA above, • below. Crawford 38/6, Sydenham 86. 12.17g, 24mm. EXTREMELY FINE

500

38


The Dioscuri on Roman Coinage The Dioscuri Castor and Pollux were accorded a special place in the Roman collective consciousness and were honoured on the city’s coinage for their legendary assistance to the Romans against the Latins and Tarquinius Superbus, the former King of Rome. It was said that at the height of the Battle of Lake Regillus (circa 496 BC) Castor and Pollux were seen armed and mounted, fighting at the head of the legions, and that afterwards had carried news of the victory to Rome with far greater alacrity than was possible for any ordinary man. The well at which they had alighted to water their horses was pointed out, and it was on this spot that Aulus Postumius Albinus, dictator for that year and commander of the Roman army, built his avowed temple to the Dioscuri. A great festival was kept to their honour on the Ides of Quintilis, supposed to be the anniversary of the battle, and on that day sumptuous sacrifices were offered to them at the public expense. One spot on the margin of Lake Regillus was regarded throughout many ages with superstitious awe; a mark resembling in shape a horse’s hoof was discernible in the volcanic rock, and this mark was believed to have been made by one of the celestial chargers.

71. Anonymous AR Quinarius. 211-208 BC. Helmeted bust of Roma right, V behind / The Dioscuri galloping right, ROMA in linear frame below. BMC 195 ff, Crawford 44/6, King 1, Sydenham 192. 2.20g, 16mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Beautifully toned; an excellent example of the type.

550

72. Anonymous AR Quinarius. 211-208 BC. Helmeted bust of Roma right, V behind / The Dioscuri galloping right, ROMA in linear frame below. BMC 92 (Italy), Crawford. 44/6, King 1, Sydenham 192. 2.16g, 17mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

450

73. Anonymous AR Denarius. South East Italy, Circa 209 BC. Helmeted bust of Roma right, mark of value X behind. / The Dioscuri galloping right, ROMA in exergue. Cf. Crawford 88/2b and pl. 16, 17. 3.78g, 20mm. FLEUR DE COIN Beautifully toned.

1000

Ex NAC sale 25, 2003, lot 253.

74. Anonymous AR Denarius. Rome, Circa 207 BC. Helmeted bust of Roma right, mark of value X behind. / The Dioscuri galloping right, cornucopiae below; ROMA within linear frame. Crawford 58/2, Sydenham 216 cf. 3.74g, 20mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

900

39


75. Anonymous AE As. Luceria, 211-208 BC. Laureate bust of Janus / Prow of galley right, ROMA below. Crawford 97/22a, BMC Italy 168. 27.67g, 37mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

1500

A superb example of this rare type, in exceptional condition and displaying an attractive, evenly toned patina. Struck on a broad flan with nearly all fine detail surviving.

A Very Rare Juventius Thalna Denarius

76. Juventius Thalna AR Denarius. Rome, 179-170 BC. Helmeted bust of Roma right, X behind / Diana in biga right, crescent above, TAL monogram below, ROMA in exergue. Sydenham 328, Crawford 161/1, BMC 386-7. 4.02g, 20mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

1750

The coinage of the Juventia gens is very rare. Two types are known, of which this is by far the rarest. Of the other, which depicts Victory in biga, only four recent examples are recorded as having been sold at auction in the past ten years. Of this type none are publicly recorded as having been sold since at least September of 2000. This specimen is far superior.

77. S. Afranius AR Denarius. 154-141 BC. Helmeted bust of Roma right, X behind / Victory in galloping biga right, SAFRA below; ROMA in linear frame. Babelon Afrania 1, Sydenham 388, Crawford 206/1. 3.99g, 18mm. GOOD VERY FINE Attractive light toning.

200

78. L. Saufeius AR Denarius. 152 BC. Helmeted but of Roma right, X behind / Victory in galloping biga right, L. SAVF below horses, ROMA in ex. Babelon Saufeia 1, Sydenham 384. 3.76g, 20mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Pleasing golden tones around the devices.

400

40


79. L. Cupiennius AR Denarius. Circa 149 BC. Helmeted bust of Roma right, X before, cornucopiae behind / The Dioscuri galloping right, L. CVP below, ROMA in ex. Crawford 218/1, Sydenham 404. 3.71g, 21mm. FLEUR DE COIN Beautiful mirror lustre, struck on a full flan.

800

The Gens Junia The most noble and celebrated gens Junia took its name from Junius, the companion of Aeneas, from whom, as Dionysius of Halicarnassus writes, this family derived its origin. It took the cognomen of Brutus on account of the slow-wittedness (in Latin brutus translates to dullard) feigned by Lucius Junius Brutus in order to gain the trust of Tarquinius Superbus, thereby allowing him to escape notice as a potential threat.

80. C. Junius C. f. AR Denarius. Circa 149 BC. Helmeted bust of Roma right, X behind / The Dioscuri galloping right; C·IVNI·C·F below, ROMA in exergue. Babelon Junia 1, Sydenham 392, Crawford 210/1. 3.70g, 18mm. FLEUR DE COIN Old cabinet tone.

700

81. C. Junius C. f. AR Denarius. Circa 149 BC. Helmeted bust of Roma right, X behind / The Dioscuri galloping right; C·IVNI·C·F below, ROMA in exergue. Babelon Junia 1, Sydenham 392, Crawford 210/1. 3.90g, 19mm. FLEUR DE COIN Beautiful iridescent toning.

750

82. Pinarius Natta AR Denarius. Circa 149 BC. Helmeted bust of Roma right, X behind / Victory in biga right, NAT below, ROMA in exergue. Crawford 300/1, Sydenham 382, BMC 756. 3.95g, 20mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

600

Old cabinet tone; exceptionally beautiful reverse toning with blue and golden hues. The gens Pinaria was a most ancient Roman family of the patrician order. It was already a race of great renown in the times of the monarchy. According to Livy, the Pinarii, along with the Potitii, had been appointed by Evander to the ministration of sacred rights paid to Hercules.

41


83. Pinarius Natta AR Denarius. Circa 149 BC. Helmeted bust of Roma right, * behind / Victory in biga right, NATTA (ligate) below, ROMA in exergue. Crawford 208/1, Sydenham 390. 3.61g, 18mm. FLEUR DE COIN A splendid example of this issue, preserved in lustrous mint state.

500

84. L Sempronius Pitio AR Denarius. 148 BC. Helmeted bust of Roma, right / The Dioscuri riding right with spears, L SEMP below, ROMA in ex. Crawford 216/1. 4.11g, 20mm. FLEUR DE COIN 800 A few light encrustations do not detract from the beauty of this piece. Perfect preservation of detail, and struck on a full flan. Pleasing iridescent tones on obverse and reverse.

85. C. Terentius Lucanus AR Denarius. Circa 147 BC. Helmeted bust of Roma right being crowned by Victory behind, standing on X / The Dioscuri riding right, C•TER•LVC below, ROMA in ex. Crawford 217/1, Terentia 10. 4.23g, 20mm. EXTREMELY FINE

400

86. C. Terentius Lucanus AR Denarius. Circa 147 BC. Helmeted bust of Roma right being crowned by Victory behind, standing on X / The Dioscuri riding right, C•TER•LVC below, ROMA in ex. Crawford 217/1, Terentia 10. 3.83g, 21mm. GOOD VERY FINE

400

An Exceptional C. Titinius

87. C. Titinius AR Denarius. Circa 141 BC. Helmeted bust of Roma right, wearing necklace of pendants; control numeral behind / Victory in biga right, holding whip and reins, C·TITINI below; ROMA in ex. Babelon Titinia 7, Sydenham 445, Crawford 226/1b. 3.94g, 19mm. FLEUR DE COIN

800

The denarii of C. Titinius may be considered to be scarce, as they do not appear in great numbers though examples do appear at auction from time to time, perhaps even as many as one or two per year on average. This coin however is special in that it is a perfectly preserved example of the type, and centrally struck, displaying an attractive tone; this specimen is certainly the finest to be offered in the last decade.

42


Excellent Ti. Veturius

88. Ti. Veturius AR Denarius. 137 BC. Helmeted and draped beardless bust of Mars right, TI VET (ligate) behind / Youth kneeling left, between two warriors who touch with their swords a sow which he holds; ROMA in ex. Crawford 234/1, Sydenham 527. 3.96g, 20mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE An excellent example of this issue, which is usually heavily worn.

600

The Veturia gens was one of the most ancient of Rome. It was patrician and plebeian, and is said to have been of Sabine origin. According to tradition one member of this family, Mamurius Veturius, lived in the time of King Numa and was the armourer who made the eleven ancilia, or sacred shields, like the one sent from heaven that stayed a deadly plague that was then devastating the city. The reverse type represents the mode of forging an alliance amongst the inhabitants of the Italian states, by which the leaders of two peoples would take their stand, fully armed beside the altar of Jupiter and having sacrificed a sow, ratified a solemn treaty. It may refer to an ancestor who took an active part in the close of the Third Samnite War in 290 BC. The same design was used on gold coinage during the Second Punic War during the darkest days of Rome’s struggle against Hannibal, imploring her allies to remain faithful to their oaths of allegiance. The type was used again by C. Sulpicius Galba (see Lot 97), and then again extensively (and for the last time), on coinage struck by the Marsic Confederation during the Social War of 91-88 BC.

89. Cn. Lucretius Trio AR Denarius. 136 BC. TRIO behind helmeted bust of Roma right, X before / The Dioscuri galloping right; below, CN. LVCR.; ROMA in ex. Sydenham 450, Crawford 237/1. 3.93g, 20mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Mint lustre.

600

The Lucretia gens was one of the most ancient in Rome, and it featured prominently in the early history of Rome. The wife of Numa Pompilius, second King of Rome, was Lucretia, and another woman of the same name and family was the Lucretia whose rape at the hands of Sextus Tarquinius caused the monarchy to be overthrown and the Republic established with her father, Spurius Lucretius Triciptinus as one of the first two consuls in 509 BC. 90. P. Maenius Antiaticus M. f. AR Denarius. 132 BC. Helmeted bust of Roma right, X behind / Victory in quadriga right, P MAE ANT (ligate) below, ROMA in ex. Crawford 249/1, Sydenham 492. 3.89g, 19mm. FLEUR DE COIN Beautiful mint lustre.

850

43


91. M. Furius L. f. Philus AR Denarius. 119 BC. Laureate bust of Janus; M•FOVRI•L•F around / Roma standing left erecting trophy, Gallic arms around, ROMA to right, PHILI (ligate) in ex. Crawford 281/1, Sydenham 529, BMCRR (Italy) 555. 4.00g, 19mm. GOOD VERY FINE

250

92. C. Fonteius AR Denarius. 114-113 BC. Janiform bust of the Dioscuri, control letter left, * right / C. FONT, galley with pilot and three oarsman, ROMA in ex. Crawford 290, Sydenham 555. 3.98g, 21mm. EXTREMELY FINE

500

This type refers to the naval exploits of P. Fonteius Capito, who was Praetor in Sardinia in 169 BC. The obverse relates to the origin of the Fonteia gens, which claimed as its founder Fons or Fontus, the son of Janus, in whose honour the Fontinalia was held on October 13.

93. P. Licinius Nerva AR Denarius. 113-112 BC. Helmeted bust of Roma left, star before and crescent moon above; ROMA behind / P NERVA, three citizens voting in the comitia. Crawford 292/1, Sydenham 548. 3.91g, 18mm. NEAR EXTREMELY FINE

450

It was C. Licinius Crassus, the tribune, who in 145 BC first brought together the tribes into separate enclosures to vote in the comitia, and in 139 BC the ballot was introduced for the election of magistrates. The moneyer here depicts the mode of voting in the comitia. 94. Cn. Cornelius Blasio Cn. f. AR Denarius, 112-111 BC. Helmeted bust of Scipio Africanus right, CN. BLASIO CN.F. before, palm behind / Juno, Jupiter being crowned by Minerva; BLA monogram in field, ROMA in ex. Crawford 296/1. VERY FINE

250

A superb portrait of the great general who brought the Second Punic War with Carthage to an end with his defeat of Hannibal.

95. Appius Claudius Pulcher, T. Manlius Mancinus & Q. Urbinus AR Denarius. 111-110 BC. Helmeted bust of Roma right, square behind / Victory in triga right, one horse looking back, T MANL AP CL Q VR in ex. Crawford 299/1a, Sydenham. 570. 3.95g, 18mm. GOOD EXTRMELY FINE

450

96. Appius Claudius Pulcher, T Manlius Mancinus & Q Urbinus AR Denarius. 111-110 BC. Helmeted bust of Roma right, square behind / Victory in triga right, one horse looking back, T MANL AP CL Q VR in ex. Crawford 299/1a, Sydenham 570. 3.87g, 17mm. GOOD VERY FINE

150

44


97. C. Sulpicius C. f. Galba AR Serrate Denarius. 106 BC. Conjoined laureate busts of the Dei Penates left / Two soldiers swearing oath over a sow; N above, C.SVLPICI.C.F in ex. Crawford 312/1, Sydenham 572, Babelon Sulpicia 1. 3.93g, 19mm. EXTREMELY FINE A superior example of this type that is so difficult to find in higher grades.

1200

This type alludes to Lavinium, the birthplace of this gens, where Aeneas is said to have brought the Penates from Troy. The reverse bears a portrayal of the supposed founding of the gens, when one of Aeneas' companions, being the first to behold, beneath an oak, the sow lying with her litter of thirty on the spot pointed out by the oracle, and on which point the city of Lavinium was built. Hence, we are told, this fortunate sow-finder was called suispicius, which word was changed by posterity into Sulpicius. The sow and the whole litter were offered in sacrifice by Aeneas to the Dei Penates, and it was held as a great point of religion among the Romans that the worship of the Penates should always be properly celebrated at Lavinium. 98. L. Scipio Asiagenus AR Serrate Denarius. 106 BC. Laureate bust of Jupiter left / Jupiter in quadriga right, I above, L. SCIP ASIAG below. Crawford 311/1b, Sydenham 576a. 3.93g, 19mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Beautifully toned; dark on obverse and light gold iridescence on reverse.

450

This issue commemorates the victory of the moneyer’s ancestor L. Cornelius Scipio, son of the great Africanus, who in 190 BC defeated Antiochus at Mount Sipylus and assumed the surname Asiaticus. L. Scipio Asiagenus himself went on to become consul in 83 BC.

99. Lucius Appuleius Saturninus AR Denarius. 104 BC. Helmeted bust of Roma left / Saturn in quadriga right; S below, L SATVRN in ex. Crawford 317/3b, Sydenham 578a. 4.09g, 20mm. FLEUR DE COIN

600

100. Lucius Appuleius Saturninus AR Denarius. 104 BC. Helmeted bust of Roma left / L SATVRN, Saturn in quadriga right; letter and dot above. Crawford 317/3a, Sydenham 578. 4.00g, 19mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

400

45


46


47


101. Q. Minucius Thermus M. f. AR Denarius. 103 BC. Helmeted bust of Mars left / Q*TERM*MF below two warriors in combat, one on left protecting a fallen man. Sydenham 592, Crawford 319/1. 3.86g, 20mm. FLEUR DE COIN

500

This coin records the brave deeds of the moneyer's ancestor and namesake, Quintus Minucius Q. f. L. n. Thermus who was elected consul in 193 and assigned Liguria as his province. From his base in Pisa, he waged war against the Ligurians. His command was extended for the following year, during which time he defeated the Ligurian forces near Pisa. He remained as proconsul in Liguria for 191–190. During this time it appears that he may have won the distinction of the corona civica, the second highest military award to which a Roman could aspire, by saving the life of a fellow citizen in battle through slaying an enemy on a spot not further held by the enemy army that day - this act being depicted on the reverse. He may also have been the same Thermus who served as military tribune under Scipio in North Africa in 202 BC. Appian relates that about this time there was a cavalry engagement between the forces of Hannibal and those of Scipio near Zama, in which the latter had the advantage. On the succeeding days they had sundry skirmishes until Scipio, learning that Hannibal was very short of supplies and was expecting a convoy, sent the military tribune, [Quintus Minucius] Thermus, by night to attack the supply train. Thermus took a position on the crest of a hill at a narrow pass, where he killed 4,000 Africans, took as many more prisoners, and brought the supplies to Scipio.

102. M. Lucilius Rufus AR Denarius. 101 BC. Helmeted bust of Roma right within laurel wreath; PV behind / Victory in biga right; RVF above, M LVCILI in exergue. Crawford 324/1, Sydenham 599. 3.89g, 20mm. EXTREMELY FINE

400

103. T. Cloulius AR Quinarius. 98 B.C. Laureate bust of Jupiter right; A below chin / T¡CLOVLI, Victory standing right, crowning trophy at feet of which captive with hands tied behind the back; in exergue, Q. Cloulia 2. Sydenham 586b, Crawford 332/1c. 1.98g, 15mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Exceptional condition for the issue.

350

According to Festus, this gens was named for its progenitor, Cloelius, the companion of Aeneas. It was one of the Alban families whom Tullius Hostilius, after the ruin of Alba, attracted to Rome and united to the patricians. This coin is attributed to T. Cloulius of whom Cicero speaks, and who later became one of Caesar's senators

48


104. L. Pomponius Molo AR Denarius. 97 BC. Laureate bust of Apollo right; L POMPON MOLO around / Numa Pompilius standing right, holding lituus before lighted altar at which he is about to sacrifice a goat held by a youth; NVMA POMPIL in exergue. Crawford 334/1, Sydenham 607. 3.83g, 19mm. EXTREMELY FINE Seldom found so well preserved.

500

L. Pomponius Molo and his family the Molones are unknown to history except for this type, which is an allusion to the supposed descent of the gens Pomponia from Pompo, one of the sons of Numa Pompilius, who is here represented as sacrificing to Apollo. Although it aspired to derive its name from this illustrious lineage, the gens was nevertheless of the plebeian order, as evidenced by the tribunes of the people who belonged to it.

105. D. Junius Silanus AR Denarius. 91 BC. Helmeted bust of Roma right, control mark behind / Victory in biga right, holding reins in both hands, number above, D SILANVS L F below, ROMA in ex. Sydenham 646, Crawford 337/3. 3.91g, 20mm. EXTREMELY FINE Beautifully toned; superb obverse strike and well centred.

500

106. Q. Titius AR Denarius. 90 BC. Bust of Mutinus Titinus (Priapus) right, wearing winged diadem / Pegasus springing right, Q TITI on base. Crawford 341/1, Sydenham 691. 3.97g, 20mm. EXTREMELY FINE A well centred and preserved example of the type, struck on a very broad flan.

550

The God Mutinus Titinus is the same as Priapus, who had a temple in Rome, and who was especially worshipped by young married women.

107. L Calpurnius Piso Frugi AR Denarius. 90 BC. Laureate bust of Apollo right, helmet behind / L PISO FRVGI below horseman galloping right, holding palm. CVIII in ex. Crawford 340/1, Sydenham 669a. 4.02g, 20mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Stunning iridescent toning around the devices.

400

49


108. L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi AR Denarius. 90 BC. Laureate bust of Apollo right, three dots behind / L PISO FRVGI below horseman galloping right, holding palm, symbol above. Crawford 340/1, Sydenham 669a. 4.04g, 17mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

350

109. L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi AR Denarius. Rome, 90 BC. Laureate bust of Apollo right, anchor behind, letter before / Horseman galloping right, holding palm branch; staff and L PISO FRVGI below, letter above. Crawford 340/1, Sydenham 669b. 4.15g, 20mm. FLEUR DE COIN Attractive iridescent blue/red tones on lustrous metal.

450

110. Anonymous AR Quinarius. Circa 81 BC. Laureate bust of Apollo right / Victory erecting trophy; pellet and L between. RSC 227a, Sydenham 609a, Crawford 373/1b. 1.96g, 15mm. FLEUR DE COIN

500

It is highly unusual to find this type in such a good state of preservation. This piece displays an attractive light tone, while retaining much of its lustre. 111. Anonymous AR Quinarius. Circa 81 BC. Laureate bust of Apollo right / Victory erecting trophy; unknown monogram between. Sydenham 609a, Crawford 373/1b. VERY FINE Lightly toned; insignificant graffito on obverse.

175

Cato the Younger Stoic, Statesman and Enemy of Caesar

112. M. Porcius Cato AR Quinarius. 89 BC. Bust of Liber right, crowned with an ivy wreath, M•CATO behind / Victory seated right, holding palm and patera. VICTRIX in ex. Sydenham 597c, Crawford 343/2b. EXTREMELY FINE

175

50


The Story of Tarpeia Tarpeia, a virgin of the period of Romulus' war with Tatius and the Sabines, was supposed to have sacrificed her country for her love of gold. She opened the gate, the price of her treason being 'those things which they wore on their arms' - the bracelets of gold with which the Sabines adorned themselves. However the enemy soldiers were so disgusted at her treachery that instead of giving her their gold bracelets they gave her their shields and buried her in a pile of them which they threw at her.

113. L. Titurius L. f. Sabinus AR Denarius. 89 BC. Bust of Tatius right, palm below chin; SABIN behind / L TITVRI in exergue, Tarpeia buried to her waist in shields, fending off two soldiers about to throw their shields on her, moon and star above. Crawford 344/2c, Sydenham 699a. 4.05g, 19mm. EXTREMELY FINE Ex A. Lynn collection

500

114. L. Titurius L. f. Sabinus AR Denarius. 89 BC. Bust of Tatius right, palm below chin; SABIN behind / L TITVRI in exergue, Tarpeia buried to her waist in shields, fending off two soldiers about to throw their shields on her, moon and star above. Crawford 344/2c, Sydenham 699a. 3.97g, 18mm. EXTREMELY FINE

500

115. Mn. Fonteius C. f. AR Denarius. 85 BC. Laureate bust of Apollo Vejovis right, M FONTEI CF behind, thunderbolt below, ROMA monogram below chin / infant Genius riding goat right, caps of the Dioscuri above, filleted thyrsos below. Crawford 353/1a, Sydenham 724. 3.72g, 22mm. NEAR EXTREMELY FINE Struck on a very broad flan and nicely toned.

400

116. P. Furius Crassipes AR Denarius. 84 BC. AED CVR, Turreted bust of city goddess right, foot behind / P FOVRIVS on curule chair, CRASSIPES in exergue. Sydenham 735, Crawford 356/1a. 4.11g, 20mm. EXTREMELY FINE

400

It is clear from the type whence this branch of the Furia gens derived its peculiar surname. The thick foot is a type parlant of the name Crassipes. This coin was struck by Crassipes in virtue of his office of curule aedile and probably to meet some extraordinary expenditure connected with a largesse of corn. The head of the city no doubt refers to his urban duties which included the superintendence of the public baths, fountains, aqueducts, etc.

117. C. Norbanus AR Denarius. 83 BC. Number behind, C NORBANVS below, diademed bust of Venus right / Corn ear, fasces and caduceus. Sydenham 739, Crawford 357/1b. 3.94g, 20mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

750

The reverse type is probably an allusion to the moneyer's father and the part he played in Sicily during the Social War, when he raised troops, organised a fleet, and provisioned the town of Rhegium. It must have been a very large issue, as the numbers run from I to over CCXX.

51


118. L. Marcius Censorinus, C. Mamilius Limetanus and P. Crepusius AR Denarius. 82 BC. L CENSORIN, Veiled bust of Venus right. / Venus in biga right, C LIMETA below, P CREPVSI in exergue. Sydenham 736a, Crawford 360/1b. 3.85g, 18mm. EXTREMELY FINE A difficult issue to find in good condition; much nicer in hand.

500

119. C. Mamilius Limetanus AR Denarius Serratus. Circa 82 BC. Bust of Mercury right, caduceus behind. / C MAMIL LIMETAN, Ulysses walking right, his dog Argus before. Sydenham 741, Crawford 362/1. 4.08g, 21mm. FLEUR DE COIN Attractive old toning.

1250

The reverse shows Ulysses, after an absence of many years, returning in a mean and humble dress to the island of Ithaca, where he was at once recognised by his old dog Argus, who died of joy at finally seeing his master again.

120. L. Marcius Censorinus AR Denarius. 82 BC. Laureate bust of Apollo right / L CENSOR, the satyr, Marsyas, standing left with wineskin over shoulder; behind him, column surmounted by draped figure (Minerva?). Sydenham 737, Crawford 363/1d. 3.65g, 18mm. GOOD VERY FINE

300

121. L. Marcius Censorinus AR Denarius. 82 BC. Laureate bust of Apollo right / L CENSOR, the satyr, Marsyas, standing left with wineskin over shoulder; behind him, column surmounted by draped figure (Minerva?). Sydenham 737, Crawford 363/1d. 3.82g, 18mm. GOOD VERY FINE

375

122. Pub. Crepusius AR Denarius. 82 BC. Laureate bust of Apollo right, control symbols before and behind / Horseman right, brandishing spear; P CREPVSI in ex, control-numeral behind. Sydenham 738a, Crawford 361/1c. 4.05g, 18mm. FLEUR DE COIN

1000

The gens Crepusia figures little in Roman history; even its order is unknown. This moneyer is known only from his coins, and the reverse appears to depict some unknown act of bravery on the part on an ancestor. 123. Pub. Crepusius AR Denarius. 82 BC. Laureate bust of Apollo right, control symbols before and behind / Horseman right, brandishing spear; P CREPVSI in ex, control-numeral behind. Sydenham 738a, Crawford 361/1c. 3.93g, 18mm. EXTREMELY FINE

375

52


124. Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius AR Denarius. 81 BC. Spanish mint. Diademed bust of Pietas right, stork before / IMPER below jug & lituus, all in wreath. Crawford 374/2, Sydenham 751. 4.00g, 20mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

1200

In 79 BC Metellus was sent to Spain as Proconsul. After repeated failures he defeated Sertorius and was hailed 'Imperator' by the army. He celebrated his victory with magnificent entertainments and it is probably on this occasion that this denarius was struck. The type of the head of Piety was selected in recognition of his title of Pius that he received when he besought the people of Rome to recall his father from banishment. 125. L. Procilius AR Denarius. 80 BC. Bust of Jupiter right, SC behind / L PROCILI F, Juno Sospita advancing right with shield, spear aloft and serpent before. Sydenham 771, Crawford 379/1. 4.00g, 19mm. FLEUR DE COIN

550

This denarius was struck by L. Procilius whilst serving in his capacity as monetal triumvir. The type is a clear reference to this family which was originally of Lanuvium, where the cult of Juno Sospita flourished. She is represented on the reverse in her militant character as the protectress against the dangers of war.

126. C. Poblicius Q. f. AR Denarius Serratus. 80 BC. ROMA, draped bust of Roma right, helmeted & decorated with corn ears, control mark letter above / C•POBLICI•Q•F, Hercules strangling the Nemean lion, club at his feet, bow and arrow in quiver on left, control mark letter to left. Crawford 380/1, Sydenham 768. 3.89g, 19mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

350

127. L. Papius AR Denarius. 79 BC, Bust of Juno Sospita right, wearing goatskin, sword in sheath behind / Gryphon dancing right, carnyx below, L PAPI in ex. Sydenham 773, Crawford 384/1, Babelon 143, BMCRR 100. 3.91g, 20mm. GOOD VERY FINE

450

Attractively toned. Very rare pair of symbols - sheathed sword with belts attached and a highly detailed depiction of a carnyx. The carnyx was a wind instrument of the Iron Age Celts - a species of bronze trumpet, held vertically, the mouth styled in the shape of a boar's head. It was used in warfare, probably to incite troops to battle and intimidate opponents. The instrument's upright carriage allowed its notes to carry over the heads of the participants in battles and ceremonies.

128. Cn. Egnatius Cn. f. Cn. n. Maxsumus AR Denarius. 78-76 BC. MAXSUMUS, diademed bust of Liberty right, pileus behind / Cn. Egnatius Cn. f. Cn. n. H, Roma and Venus standing facing; Venus caressed by Cupid, oar and prow on either side. Crawford 391/3, Sydenham 787. 4.07g, 18mm. GOOD VERY FINE

300

129. M. Volteius AR Denarius. 78 BC. Bust of young Hercules right, wearing lion skin / Erymathian Boar right, M VOLTEI M F in exergue. Sydenham 775, Crawford 385/2. 3.95g, 18mm. EXTREMELY FINE

350

Mommsen has given an interesting explanation of the types issued by M. Volteius, and has shown that they probably relate to the five principal agonistic festivals which were celebrated annually in Rome. Hercules and the boar, here shown, refers to the Ludi Plebeii, held in November. The four other issues, namely Jupiter and his temple, Liber and Ceres, Cybele, and Apollo and a tripod, refer to the ludi Romani, ludi Cereales, ludi Megalenses, and ludi Apollinares respectively.

53


130. P. Satrienus AR Denarius. 77 BC. Helmeted bust of Mars right, numeral behind / ROMA above, she-wolf walking left; P SATRIENVS in two lines in exergue. Crawford 388/1b, Sydenham 781a. 3.96g, 16mm. FLEUR DE COIN Attractive gold iridescence around devices, particularly on the obverse.

1000

This type refers to the foundation of Rome, and to the canonical story of Romulus and Remus being fathered by Mars and suckled and cared for by a she-wolf.

131. P. Satrienus AR Denarius. 77 BC. Helmeted bust of Mars right, numeral behind / ROMA above, she-wolf walking left; P SATRIENVS in two lines in exergue. Crawford 388/1b, Sydenham 781a. 3.80g, 18mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

600

132. P. Satrienus AR Denarius. 77 BC. Helmeted bust of Mars right, numeral behind / ROMA above, she-wolf walking left; P SATRIENVS in two lines in exergue. Crawford 388/1b, Sydenham 781a. 3.84g, 17mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

600

133. Cn. Cornelius Lentulus AR Denarius. 76-75 BC. GPR above bearded bust of the Genius of the Roman people right / EX-SC, wreathed & filleted sceptre, globe & rudder, C N LEN Q in ex. Sydenham 752, Crawford 393/1a. 3.90g, 20mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

700

This type was struck when the moneyer Cn. Cornelius Lentulus was acting as paymaster to Pompey's troops in Spain. 134. Cn. Cornelius Lentulus AR Denarius. 76-75 BC. GPR above bearded bust of the Genius of the Roman people right / EX-SC, wreathed & filleted sceptre, globe & rudder, C N LEN Q in ex. Sydenham 752, Crawford 393/1a. 3.87g, 19mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

300

135. L. Lucretius Trio AR Denarius. 74 BC. Laureate bust of Neptune right, trident over shoulder, numeral above / L LVCRETI TRIO in two lines, infant Genius riding dolphin right. Crawford 390/2, Sydenham 784. 4.05g, 18mm. FLEUR DE COIN Gorgeous toning; a very difficult issue to find in such good condition.

750

This coin may refer to an ancestor of the moneyer, C. Lucretius Gallus, who in 181 BC was created duumvir navalis, and later commanded the fleet against Perseus of Macedon. For historical note on gens Lucretia see Lot 89.

54


136. L. Rustius AR Denarius. 74 BC. Helmeted bust of Mars right, S C behind, X under chin / Ram standing right, L RVSTI in ex. Crawford 389/1, Sydenham 782. 3.72g, 19mm. EXTREMELY FINE Beautiful toning.

450

137. C. Postumius AR Denarius. 73 BC. Draped bust of Diana right, wearing hair tied into knot; bow and quiver over shoulder / C. POSTVMI/TA in exergue, hunting dog running right; spear below. Crawford 394/1a, Sydenham 785, Kestner 3282, BMCRR Rome 3238, Postumia 9. 4.16g, 19mm. NEAR EXTREMELY FINE

300

138. C. Postumius AR Denarius. 74 BC. Draped bust of Diana right, wearing hair tied into knot; bow and quiver over shoulder / C. POSTVMI/TA in exergue, hunting dog running right; spear below. Crawford 394/1a, Sydenham 785, Kestner 3282, BMCRR Rome 3238, Postumia 9. 3.92g, 18mm. NEAR EXTREMELY FINE

300

139. Pub. Lentulus P. f. L. n. Spinther AR Denarius. 71 BC. Bust of Hercules right, Q. S. C behind / P LENT P F L N, Genius of the Roman People seated facing, holding cornucopiae & sceptre; being crowned by Victory who flies left. Crawford 397/1, Sydenham 791. 3.89g, 19mm. VERY RARE FLEUR DE COIN

6000

A truly exceptional example of this very rare type. Preserved virtually as struck with all detail intact, including the vulnerable facial features of Genius. Publius Cornelius Lentulus, nicknamed Spinther because of his likeness to a popular actor of that name, came from an ancient Roman patrician family of the Cornelia gens. Although treated with great favour by Julius Caesar, Spinther eventually came to support the aristocratic senatorial cause of Caesar's great rival Pompeius Magnus and aligned himself with that party. This proved an unwise move that would eventually lead to his political destruction and perhaps his death. Although his execution on Caesar’s orders is unverified, this may explain why his son (P Cornelius P f P n Lentulus Spinther) joined Caesar's assassins, Brutus and Cassius, and struck coins for them during their civil war against the forces of Mark Antony and Octavian. Like his father before him, the younger Spinther also put his own name and nickname 'Spinther' on the reverse of his coins, the obverse of which feature the bust of Liberty. 140. Pub. Lentulus P. f. L. n. Spinther AR Denarius. 71 BC. Bust of Hercules right, Q. S. C behind / P LENT P F L N, Genius of the Roman People seated facing, holding cornucopiae & sceptre; being crowned by Victory who flies left. Crawford 397/1; Sydenham 791. 4.10gm, 18mm. VERY RARE GOOD VERY FINE

2250

Another example of this very rare type, not quite as fine as the preceding lot, however nonetheless still in excellent condition.

55


141. M. Plaetorius M. f. Cestianus AR Denarius. 57 BC. Bust of Bonus Eventus right; ivy leaf behind / M. PLAETORI CEST. EX. S. C, winged caduceus. Crawford 405/5, Sydenham 807. 4.05g, 19mm. FLEUR DE COIN

1100

The gens Plaetoria was of Sabine origin, and of the Cestianus family there are fifty seven varieties of coins engraved by Morell, all silver, amongst which there are pieces struck in honour of Brutus, including the celebrated EID MAR denarius. 142. M. Plaetorius M. f. Cestianus AR Denarius. 57 BC. Bust of Bonus Eventus right; ivy leaf behind / M. PLAETORI CEST. EX. S. C, winged caduceus. Crawford 405/5, Sydenham 807. 3.74g, 19mm. EXTREMELY FINE

450

143. M. Plaetorius M. f. Cestianus AR Denarius. 57 BC. Female (Ceres?) bust right, hair gathered up in net; gladius behind / M PLAETORI CEST EX SC around winged caduceus. Crawford 405/3b. 3.68g, 19mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

800

144. M. Plaetorius M. f. Cestianus AR Denarius. 67 BC. Winged, helmeted bust of ‘Vacuna’ right, wearing a wreathed and crested helmet, bow and quiver on shoulder, cornucopiae below chin, CESTIANVS behind, SC before / M. PLAETORIVS M.F. AED CVR, Eagle standing right on thunderbolt, head left. Crawford 409/1, Sydenham 809, Plaetoria 4. 4.06g, 20mm. EXTREMELY FINE

750

This particular coin bears record to the curule aedileship of Plaetorius. Cicero himself notes that Plaetorius conducted himself memorably in that magistracy, and the types of his coins seem to allude to the same fact. The sella curulis on his other issue places this beyond dispute. The eagle and turreted bust of Cybele indicate that the public games sacred to Jupiter and Mater Magna were, as usual, caused to be performed by the curule aediles. The winged and helmeted bust on this issue is often identified with Vacuna, a Sabine goddess, and appears to pay homage to the Sabine origins of the Plaetoria gens. However, Crawford suggests that this identification of the obverse bust as Vacuna is impossible, citing J.P. Morel. The bust appears to bear the attributes of a number of different deities, and has therefore been occasionally deemed a pantheon. The identity of this goddess is as such something of a mystery. 145. M. Plaetorius M. f. Cestianus AR Denarius. 67 BC. Winged, helmeted bust of ‘Vacuna’ right, wearing a wreathed and crested helmet, bow and quiver on shoulder, cornucopiae below chin, CESTIANVS behind, SC before / M. PLAETORIVS M.F. AED CVR, Eagle standing right on thunderbolt, head left. Crawford 409/1, Sydenham 809, Plaetoria 4. 3.96g, 19mm. EXTREMELY FINE

600

56


146. M. Plaetorius M. f. Cestianus AR Denarius. 67 BC. Winged, helmeted bust of ‘Vacuna’ right, wearing a wreathed and crested helmet, bow and quiver on shoulder, cornucopiae below chin, CESTIANVS behind, SC before / M. PLAETORIVS M.F. AED CVR, Eagle standing right on thunderbolt, head left. Crawford 409/1, Sydenham 809, Plaetoria 4. 3.89g, 19mm. EXTREMELY FINE

550

147. M. Plaetorius M. f. Cestianus AR Denarius. 67 BC. Turreted bust of Cybele right; forepart of lion behind shoulder, globe under chin / Curule chair; grain to left. Crawford 409/2, Sydenham 808. FLEUR DE COIN Beautiful old cabinet tone.

850

This type refers to the celebration of the Ludi Megalesiaci, in honour of Cybele, which was under the control of the curule aediles.

148. Mn. Aquillius Mn. f. Mn. n. AR Serrate Denarius. 65 BC. VIRTVS III VIR, helmeted bust of Virtus right / MN • AQVIL right, MN • F • MN • N left, SICIL in exergue, the consul Manius Aquillius standing facing, holding shield and raising slumped Sicilia by the arm. Crawford 401/1, Sydenham 798. 3.97g, 21mm. EXTREMELY FINE Attractive light toning with hints of iridescence around the devices.

850

The consul depicted on the reverse was probably a son of Manius Aquillius, consul in 129 BC; he was a loyal follower of Gaius Marius. During the election campaign for Marius' fourth consulship, Aquillius was left in command of the army in case the migrating Cimbri attacked before Marius could return to command the army himself. As a reward for his loyal services, Gaius Marius ran with Aquillius under a joint ticket for the consulship of 101 BC. After the consulship, as Rome struggled with famine caused by the slave revolt on Sicily, Aquillius was sent to put it down. Aquillius completely subdued Salvius and his insurgents, and earned a triumph in Rome in 100 BC. In 98 BC, Aquillius was accused by Lucius Fufius of maladministration in Sicily. In the trial he was defended by Marcus Antonius Orator (the grandfather of Marc Antony), and, even if there were strong proofs of his guilt, he was acquitted because of his bravery in the war.

149. Mn. Aquillius Mn. f. Mn. n. AR Serrate Denarius. 65 BC. VIRTVS III VIR, helmeted bust of Virtus right / MN • AQVIL right, MN • F • MN • N left, SICIL in exergue, the consul Manius Aquillius standing facing, holding shield and raising slumped Sicilia by the arm. Crawford 401/1, Sydenham 798. 3.84g, 20mm. EXTREMELY FINE Attractive, lustrous metal.

500

150. Mn. Aquillius Mn. f. Mn. n. AR Serrate Denarius. 65 BC. VIRTVS III VIR, helmeted bust of Virtus right / MN • AQVIL right, MN • F • MN • N left, SICIL in exergue, the consul Manius Aquillius standing facing, holding shield and raising slumped Sicilia by the arm. Crawford 401/1, Sydenham 798. 3.86g, 21mm EXTREMELY FINE Struck on a broad flan; complete fields and borders.

500

57


The Calydonian Boar

King Oenus of Calydon, an ancient city of western Greece, north of the Gulf of Patras, held annual harvest sacrifices to the gods on the sacred hill. One year the king forgot to include Diana in his offerings. Insulted, she loosed the biggest, most ferocious boar imaginable on the countryside of Calydon. It rampaged throughout the land, destroying vineyards and crops, forcing people to take refuge inside the city walls, where they began to starve. Oeneus sent out messengers to look for the best hunters in Greece, offering them the boar's pelt and tusks as a prize. Among those who responded were some of the Argonauts, Oeneus' own son Meleager, and, remarkably for the Hunt's eventual success, one woman - the huntress Atalanta, the "indomitable", who had been suckled by Artemis as a she-bear and raised as a huntress. Many of the men refused to hunt alongside a woman, but it was the smitten Meleager who convinced them. Nonetheless it was Atalanta who first succeeded in wounding the boar with an arrow, although Meleager finished it off, and offered the prize to Atalanta, who had drawn first blood. But the sons of Thestios, the uncles of Meleager, who considered it disgraceful that a woman should get the trophy where men were involved, took the skin from her, saying that it was properly theirs by right of birth, if Meleager chose not to accept it. Outraged by this, He slew the sons of Thestios and again gave the skin to Atalanta. It had been prophesied at Meleager’s birth that he would only live until a brand, burning in the family hearth, was consumed by fire. So his mother Althaea, overhearing, doused and hid the brand. Upon now hearing that Meleager had slain his uncles, her brothers, she took the fatal brand from the chest where she had kept it for so many years and threw it once more on the fire; as it was consumed, Meleager died on the spot, as the Fates had foretold. Thus did Diana achieve her revenge against King Oeneus.

151. C. Hosidius C. f. Geta AR Denarius. 64 BC. GETA behind, III VIR before, diademed and draped bust of Diana right, bow and quiver on shoulder / C HOSIDI C F, wild boar of Calydon right, pierced by arrow and attacked by dog. Sydenham 904, Crawford 407/1. 3.85g, 22mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

1000

Superb strike on a very large flan, perfectly centred. Attractive toning; insignificant banker’s mark on obverse.

152. C. Hosidius C. f. Geta AR Denarius. 64 BC. GETA before, III VIR behind, diademed & draped bust of Diana right, bow and quiver on shoulder / C HOSIDI C F, wild boar of Calydon right, pierced by arrow and attacked by dog. Sydenham 903, Crawford 407/2. 3.92g, 19mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Lightly toned with golden highlights.

450

153. C. Hosidius C. f. Geta AR Denarius. 64 BC. GETA before, III VIR behind, diademed & draped bust of Diana right, bow and quiver on shoulder / C HOSIDI C F, wild boar of Calydon right, pierced by arrow and attacked by dog. Sydenham 903, Crawford 407/2. 3.95g, 18mm. EXTREMELY FINE

400

58


154. L. Furius Cn. f. Brocchus AR Denarius. 63 BC. Bust of Ceres right between wheat-ear and barley-corn; III VIR across field, BROCCHI below / Curule chair between fasces; L. FVRI CN. F above. Crawford 414/1, Sydenham 902a. 3.85g, 19mm. FLEUR DE COIN Perfectly centred reverse; attractive old cabinet tone with iridescent tones.

1000

The gens Furia was of the patrician order, amongst whose members was the great Marcus Furius Camillus, though he is not depicted on its coins. It also included other great men, who filled high employments under the republic. On this elegant denarius we observe accents employed in the abbreviation of words and an example of refinement in pronunciation such as the word FVRI being used instead of FOVRI.

155. L. Furius Cn. f. Brocchus AR Denarius. 63 BC. Bust of Ceres right between wheat-ear and barley-corn; III VIR across field, BROCCHI below / Curule chair between fasces; L. FVRI CN. F above. Crawford 414/1, Sydenham 902a. 3.91g, 20mm. EXTREMELY FINE

500

156. L. Furius Cn. f. Brocchus AR Denarius. 63 BC. Bust of Ceres right between wheat-ear and barley-corn; III VIR across field, BROCCHI below / Curule chair between fasces; L. FVRI CN. F above. Crawford 414/1, Sydenham 902a. 3.86g, 19mm. EXTREMELY FINE

475

157. L. Furius Cn. f. Brocchus AR Denarius. 63 BC. Bust of Ceres right between wheat-ear and barley-corn; III VIR across field, BROCCHI below / Curule chair between fasces; L. FVRI CN. F above. Crawford 414/1, Sydenham 902a. 3.67g, 19mm. GOOD VERY FINE

450

158. L. Furius Cn. f. Brocchus AR Denarius. 63 BC. Bust of Ceres right between wheat-ear and barley-corn; III VIR across field, BROCCHI below / Curule chair between fasces; L. FVRI CN. F above. Crawford 414/1, Sydenham 902a. 3.94g, 21mm. GOOD VERY FINE

400

59


An Excptional Aemilius Lepidus Paullus Denarius

159. L. Aemilius Lepidus Paullus AR Denarius. 62 BC. Veiled and diademed bust of Concordia right, PAVLLVS LEPIDVS CONCORDIA around / L Aemilius Paullus standing to right of trophy, Perseus and his two sons captive on the left, TER above, PAVLLVS in ex. Crawford 415/1, Sydenham 926. 4.06g, 20mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

600

An exceptional example of a common type, this coin is usually to be found engraved in crude style, and poorly preserved. This piece is highly unusual in that it is not only of very good style, but it also displays very little wear. This coin was struck by L. Aemilius Lepidus Paullus, brother to the triumvir Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, and commemorates a celebrated member of the Aemilia gens, L. Aemilius Paullus, and his victory over the Macedonians in 168 BC at the Battle of Pydna, after which he captured and brought the Macedonian king Perseus and his sons to Rome to adorn his triumph. Paullus was acknowledged by the senate with the surname Macedonicus. The word TER on this coin points to the fact that Paullus had three times enjoyed the honour of a triumph. During his consulship in 50 BC, Julius Caesar bribed L. Aemilius Lepidus Paullus for his support. He reconstructed the Basilica Aemilia in Rome with part of his bribery money. According to Valerius Maximus: "When the senate decreed that the temples of Isis and Serapis be demolished and none of the workmen dared touch them, Consul L. Aemilius Paullus took off his official gown, seized an axe, and dashed it against the doors of that temple."(I, 3.3; quoting Julius Paris (translation from Loeb edition). Paullus opposed the second triumvirate. His brother ordered his murder. On the day of his execution, the soldiers allowed him to escape. Paullus joined the political rebel Marcus Junius Brutus and after Brutus' suicide in 42 BC, Paullus was pardoned and lived his remaining years at Miletus.

160. L. Aemilius Lepidus Paullus AR Denarius. 62 BC. Veiled and diademed bust of Concordia right, PAVLLVS LEPIDVS CONCORDIA around / L Aemilius Paullus standing to right of trophy, Perseus and his two sons captive on the left, TER above, PAVLLVS in ex. Crawford 415/1, Sydenham 926. 4.00g, 20mm. GOOD VERY FINE

250

161. L. Aemilius Lepidus Paullus and L. Scribonius Libo AR Denarius. 62 B.C. PAVLLVS LEPIDVS, veiled & diademed bust of Concordia right / PVTEAL SCRIBON, Puteal Scribonianum, garlanded, ornamented with lyres, hammer at base, LIBO in ex. Scribonia 9, Crawford 417/1a, Sydenham 927. 3.99g, 20mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE A very attractive example of the type.

650

The reverse of this coin depicts the Puteal Scriboniarum, or Puteal Libonis, which L. Scribonius Libo renovated. According to ancient sources, the Puteal Libonis was a bidental, that is, a spot which had been struck by lightning. It took its name from its resemblance to the low enclosure around a well (puteus) that was between the Temple of Castor and Pollux and the Temple of Vesta, near the Porticus Julia and the Arcus Fabiorum (arch of the Fabii). The praetor's tribunal was convened nearby, having been removed from the comitium in the 2nd century BC. It thus became a place where litigants, money-lenders and business people congregated.

60


162. L. Scribonius Libo AR Denarius. 62 BC. BON EVENT LIBO, bust of Bonus Eventus right, with broad diadem / PVTEAL SCRIBON Puteal Scribonianum, garlanded, ornamented with lyres, hammer at base. Sydenham 928, Crawford 416/1a. 4.01g, 21mm. EXTREMELY FINE

400

163. L. Scribonius Libo AR Denarius. 62 BC. BON EVENT LIBO, bust of Bonus Eventus right, with broad diadem / PVTEAL SCRIBON Puteal Scribonianum, garlanded, ornamented with lyres, hammer at base. Sydenham 928, Crawford 416/1a. 3.91g, 19mm. EXTREMELY FINE

400

164. L. Scribonius Libo AR Denarius. 62 BC. BON EVENT LIBO, bust of Bonus Eventus right, with broad diadem / PVTEAL SCRIBON Puteal Scribonianum, garlanded, ornamented with lyres, hammer at base. Sydenham 928, Crawford 416/1a. 3.97g, 21mm. EXTREMELY FINE

300

M. Aemilius Lepidus Future Triumvir

165. M. Aemilius Lepidus AR Denarius. 61 BC. Laureate & diademed female bust (Roma?) right / Equestrian statue of M. Lepidus, right, holding trophy. Crawford 419/1a. 3.69g, 20mm. FLEUR DE COIN Well struck on a very large flan for the issue; the obverse displays a fantastic medallic quality.

1650

The coins of the Lepidi are remarkable for their commemoration of warlike achievements performed by persons belonging to that branch of the Aemilia gens. This particular issue records the deeds of the moneyer’s ancestor of the same name who was honoured for his bravery with the Corona Civica, the second highest military award to which a Roman soldier could aspire. This coin’s accompanying issue bears the legend AN XV PR H O C S, which means ANorum XV PRaetextatus Hostem Occidit Civem Servavit - thus informing us that M Lepidus at the age of fifteen, still Praetextatus (that is, wearing the robe peculiar to a patrician boy) killed an enemy in battle and saved the life of a Roman citizen. According to Valerius Maximus, a statue of Lepidus, dressed in the costume appropriated to the male children of noblemen till 17 years of age, was placed in the Capitol, by order of the Senate, as an honourable record of this precocious act of valour and patriotism. This moneyer went on to become one of the Triumviri along with Marc Antony and Caesar Octavian.

61


Rare Calpurnia Denarius

166. M. Calpurnius Piso Frugi AR Denarius. 61 BC. Terminal bust of Mercury or Terminus right, wreath & star behind, two handled cup before / M PISO M F FRVGI above sacrificial knife & patera, all in wreath. Crawford 418/2b, Sydenham 825. 3.96g, 18mm. RARE EXTREMELY FINE

1500

The wreath and patera are both connected with the worship of Terminus as celebrated at the feasts called Terminalia, when neighbours met, garlands were placed on his statues and a lamb or suckling pig was slain.

The Capture of Privernum

After a long period of peace, the Privernates in 358 BC laid waste some Roman territory in the Pontine Marshes. Gaius Marcius Rutilus in a brief campaign the next year defeated them and celebrated a triumph. According to Livy, twice later, in 342 and 330 BC, the Privernates laid waste the lands of the Roman colonies of Norba and Setia, and were twice defeated by Gaius Plautius in 341 and 329 B.C. Modern historical criticism reduces these two wars to one, that of 330-329 BC, which resulted in the capture of the city and the granting of a triumph to its captor, Gaius Plautius Decianus Hypsaeus. As a punishment for the attack on Rome, the walls of Privernum were destroyed, the senators of the city were deported to quarters in Rome on the right bank of the Tiber, and the Romans seized twothirds of the territory of Privernum. Livy and others assert that the Privernates did not suffer further punishment, but were granted full Roman citizenship, owing to the spirit of liberty displayed by their envoys and the firm attitude of Plautius. 167. L. Plautius Hypsaeus AR Denarius. 60 BC. Draped bust of LeuconoĂŤ right, dolphin behind, P. YPSAE S C before / Jupiter in rearing quadriga left, C. YPSAE COS PRIV in ex, CEPIT to right. Crawford 420/2a. 3.75g, 18mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Lightly off-centre, but lustrous and far more beautiful in hand than this photograph can convey.

550

The Hypsaei traced their descent from Neptune and his daughter LeuconoĂŤ. The reverse commemorates the capture of Privernum by the ancestor of this moneyer.

168. L. Roscius Fabatus AR Denarius Serratus. 59 BC. Bust of Juno Sospita in goat skin, L ROSCI below, pickaxe behind / girl standing right feeding serpent before, knife to left, FABATI in ex. Crawford 412/1, Sydenham 915. 3.94g, 19mm. EXTREMELY FINE Attractively toned.

350

L. Roscius Fabatus was born at Lanuvium and was a "new man" (the first to ennoble his family by entering the Senate). In 55, he held the tribuneship. Roscius was co-author of a measure to further Caesar's plans for agrarian and municipal reform. He was a Caesarian legate in Gaul after 54, where he commanded the 13th legion. In 49, he held the praetorship and was involved as a messenger in the events of that year, which led to the fatal rupture between Caesar and Pompey. In one of his letters, Cicero reported Roscius was killed at Forum Gallorum in 43 BC during the war of Mutina. Juno Lanuvina, or with title in full, Juno Sospita Maxima Regina, as it is expressed on denarii of Thorius Balbus, was worshipped with particular devotion at Lanuvium, and accordingly we find her honoured here on the coinage of the gens Roscia, which was of Lanuvinian origin. On this coin we see opposite to the serpent a woman offering food to it, the meaning of which may be learnt in Elianus and Propertius. Each year at the festival in honour of Juno Sospita at Lanuvium, a virgin descended into the grotto under the temple with food for the serpent that dwelt there. If the girl selected for the ceremony was chaste, then she returned safely to her home, where there was much rejoicing. If she was not chaste she was destroyed by the serpent.

62


Extremely Rare Aemilius Lepidus Denarius

169. M. Aemilius Lepidus AR Denarius. Rome, 58 BC. Turreted bust of Alexandria right, ALEXANDRE below / M. Lepidus crowning the young Ptolemy V, TVTOR REG to left, SC above, PONF. MAX to right, M. LEPIDVS in exergue. Crawford 419/2 note, Sydenham 832 (R6), RSC Aemilia 24. 4.28g, 19mm. EXTREMELY RARE GOOD VERY FINE

2000

This denarius refers to the moneyer's ancestor of the same name who served in the legions at 15 and killed an enemy, in so doing saving the life of a citizen. He was later one of the three ambassadors sent to the Egyptian court in 201 BC to administer the affairs of the kingdom for the infant king Ptolemy V. Though the youngest of the three ambassadors, he seems to have enjoyed the most power and influence, and accordingly we find writers speaking of him alone as tutor of the Egyptian king.

170. M. Aemilius Scaurus & Pub. Plautius Hypsaeus AR Denarius. 58 BC. M SCAVR EX S C, Nabatean king Aretas kneeling before camel, AED CVR in ex / P HYPSAEVS AED CVR CAPTV C HYPSAE COS PREIVER, Jupiter in quadriga right. Crawford 422/1a, Sydenham 912. 4.00g, 18mm. VERY FINE

400

Marcus Aemilius Scaurus, son of the illustrious princeps senatus and consul of 115 of the same name (c. 162 - c. 89), was a stepson of the dictator Sulla. He served as Pompey's quaestor and proquaestor in the Third Mithradatic War (66-61). During this time a quarrel broke out in Judaea between the Hasmonaen brothers, the energetic Aristobulus and the feeble Hyrcanus. The Nabatean king Aretas (Harith III) had come to the aid of the latter and besieged Aristobulus in Jerusalem (in 65). Scaurus was sent to mediate and induced Aretas to withdraw. In 64, Scaurus settled the argument in favour of Aristobulus; Scaurus was later accused before Pompey of having taken a bribe of 1000 talents. Pompey later reversed the decision and overthrew Aristobulus after besieging him in the temple in Jerusalem (in 63). When Pompey returned to Rome in the following year, the venal Scaurus moved against the impregnable capital of the wealthy Nabateans, Petra, in Arabia Petraea, but was induced to withdraw by a settlement of 300 talents. The name "Aretas" was inscribed upon the tablet of kings 'conquered' by Pompey. The other participant in the production of this massive coinage, Hypsaeus, also served Pompey as a quaestor. While Scaurus's side of the coin celebrated the Aretas incident, Hypsaeus' design referred to the capture of Privernum, a town 75 km. south-east of Rome, by his ancestor, the consul C. Plautius. See Lot 167.

171. M. Plaetorius M. f. Cestianus AR Denarius. 57 BC. Draped bust of Fortuna right, symbol behind / Half-length bust of Sors facing, head slightly right; tablet inscribed SORS below. Crawford 405/2, Sydenham 801. 3. 88g, 19mm. RARE FLEUR DE COIN

6000

An exceptional example of this rare type that is so often marred by areas of flat strike, graffiti or wear upon the high features. A complete inscription is also present on this example, which is well centred on a full flan. The Romans undertook the imaginative task of deifying the virtues, qualities and affections of the mind. These they have represented by various attributes on monuments, and principally on their coinage which is frequently the most survivable of ancient artefacts. Among such allegorical divinities was this personification of Sors (chance or hazard), which has sometimes been confused with Destiny or Fate. The Sortes Praenestiae, were tesserae, or tablets of oak inscribed with sentences of antique writing, and shut up in a casket of olive wood. It was believed that, under the secret guidance of the goddess Fortuna, Sors drew these lots by the hand of a child, and it was supposed to learn its fate by the reading of what was written on the tablets by one of the ministers called sortilege, or fortune-tellers.

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172. M. Plaetorius M. f. Cestianus AR Denarius. 57 BC. Draped bust of Fortuna right, symbol behind / Half-length bust of Sors facing, head slightly right; tablet inscribed SORS below. Crawford 405/2, Sydenham 801. 4.11g, 18mm. RARE NEAR EXTREMELY FINE

1600

Well centred and preserved, with good detail on reverse, including the facial area which is usually worn. Attractively toned.

173. M. Nonius Sufenas AR Denarius. 57 BC. Bust of Saturn right, harpa and conical stone behind, SVFENAS right, S.C left / Roma seated left being crowned by Victory, PR. L. V. P. F. around, SEX. NONI in ex. Crawford 421/1, Sydenham 885. 4.05g, 18mm EXTREMELY FINE

650

Sextus Nonius, possibly the moneyer's father, in 81 BC inaugurated the Ludi Victoriae Sullanae in honour of Sulla's victory at the Colline Gate. 174. M. Nonius Sufenas AR Denarius. 57 BC. Bust of Saturn right, harpa and conical stone behind, SVFENAS right, S.C left / Roma seated left being crowned by Victory, PR. L. V. P. F. around, SEX. NONI in ex. Crawford 421/1, Sydenham 885. 4.03g, 16mm NEAR EXTREMELY FINE

400

175. M. Nonius Sufenas AR Denarius. 57 BC. Bust of Saturn right, harpa and conical stone behind, SVFENAS right, S.C left / Roma seated left being crowned by Victory, PR. L. V. P. F. around, SEX. NONI in ex. Crawford 421/1, Sydenham 885. 3.83g, 20mm. EXTREMELY FINE

400

176. M. Nonius Sufenas AR Denarius. 57 BC. Bust of Saturn right, harpa and conical stone behind, SVFENAS right, S.C left / Roma seated left being crowned by Victory, PR. L. V. P. F. around, SEX. NONI in ex. Crawford 421/1, Sydenham 885. 3.87g, 18mm. NEAR EXTREMELY FINE

350

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Faustus Cornelius Sulla Son of the Great Dictator

Faustus was eldest surviving son of the Dictator of Rome Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Faustus married Pompeia Magna, daughter of the notable Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus. They had three children. His career as an advocate was cut short, however, by the civil war between Pompey Magnus and Caesar. He, as Pompey's son-in-law, sided with him and was killed in a minor skirmish with Caesarian troops in 47 BC. 177. Faustus Cornelius Sulla AR Denarius. 56 BC. Laureate and diademed bust of Venus right, sceptre on shoulder, SC behind / three military trophies between capis & lituus; FAVSTVS (ligate) in ex. Crawford 426/3, Sydenham 884. 3.63g, 20mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

800

178. Faustus Cornelius Sulla AR Denarius. Circa 56 BC. Bust of Hercules right, in lion skin, SC behind. / Globe between jewelled wreath and three triumphal wreaths. Crawford 426/4b, Cornelia 62. 4.12g, 19mm. RARE EXTREMELY FINE

800

The three trophies and the three wreaths are symbolic of the three triumphs of Pompey Magnus. Pompey’s string of victories against the Marian party in Sicily and Africa, where he defeated Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and the Numidian King Hiarbas led to him being reluctantly awarded his first, and illegal, triumph by Sulla, and being hailed by the Dictator as Magnus (‘The Great’), no doubt in recognition of his many victories, but also with some degree of sarcasm. Following his defeat of Quintus Sertorius, the Marian general who had been holding out in Hispania, Pompey returned to Italy, encountering on his way the remnants of Spartacus’ army that had been crushed by Crassus. Pompey slew the fugitives, and claimed the credit for ending the war, thus earning the enmity of Crassus. On returning to Rome Pompey was awarded a second triumph for his victories in Hispania, and like the first it was awarded extra-legally. Pompey’s third triumph, awarded for his victories in the East against Mithridates VI of Pontus and at Jerusalem, exceeded all others in magnificence – an unprecedented two days were scheduled for its procession and games. Spoils, prisoners, soldiers and banners depicting battle scenes made their way along the triumphal route between the Campus Martius and the Capitoline temple of Jupiter. To conclude, he gave an immense triumphal banquet and money to the people of Rome, and promised them a new theatre. Plutarch claimed that this triumph represented Pompey's - and therefore Rome's - domination of the entire world, an achievement to outshine even Alexander's.

179. Faustus Cornelius Sulla AR Denarius. 56 BC. Rome mint. FEELIX (sic) behind, diademed bust of young Hercules right, wearing lion's skin / FAVSTVS below, Diana driving galloping biga right, holding reins and lituus; crescent and two stars above, one star below. Crawford 426/2, Sydenham 881a. 3.81g, 20mm RARE EXTREMELY FINE

1500

The obverse depiction of Hercules recalls that Pompey while still young had, like that hero, extended his conquests across the world. 180. Faustus Cornelius Sulla AR Denarius. 56 BC. Rome mint. FEELIX (sic) behind, diademed bust of young Hercules right, wearing lion's skin / FAVSTVS below, Diana driving galloping biga right, holding reins and lituus; crescent and two stars above, two below. Crawford 426/2, Sydenham 880. 3.92g, 19mm. RARE GOOD VERY FINE

1200

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181. C. Memmius C. f. AR Denarius. 56 BC. C MEMMI C F, bust of Ceres right / C MEMMIVS IMPERATOR, captive kneeling before trophy. Crawford 427/1, Sydenham 920. 3.93g, 19mm. EXTREMELY FINE

500

This issue records the assumption of the title IMPERATOR by C Memmius L. f. Gemellus, son-in-law of Sulla, in B.C. 57 when propraetor in Bithynia.

The Aqua Marcia

182. L. Marcus Philippus AR Denarius. 56 BC. Diademed bust of Ancus Marcius right, lituus behind, ANCVS below / equestrian statue on aqueduct of five arches, flower below, AQVA MAR between arches, PHILIPPVS behind. Marcia 28, Sydenham 919. 4.06g, 19mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Attractively toned with blue and gold iridescent highlights.

600

The Marcia gens claimed descent from Ancus Marcius, the fourth King of Rome, who is said to have been the first to bring water to Rome by means of an aqueduct. The equestrian statue is that of Q. Marcius Rex, who, when praetor in 144 BC, was commissioned by the Senate to repair the old aqueducts and to build one which would give a supply of water to the Capitol. This aqueduct is known as the Aqua Marcia.

The Muses

The gens Pomponia claimed descent from Pompo, son of Numa Pompilius, who was the originator of the sacred rites of sacrifice to Apollo, as depicted on the coinage of Pomponius Molo. Unsurprisingly then, Apollo features on the obverse of this moneyer’s coins, while the reverse is type parlant of Musa’s own name.

183. Q. Pomponius Musa AR Denarius. 56 BC. Q POMPONI MVSA, diademed bust of Apollo right / HERCVLES MVSARVM, Hercules standing right, playing lyre, club at his feet. Crawford 410/1, Sydenham 810. 3.88g, 18mm. FLEUR DE COIN Lightly and attractively toned.

1650

Hercules Musagetes, or leader of the choir of Muses, shown here playing a lyre, was known in Greece under that name, and his worship was often associated with that paid to the nine virgin goddesses of poetry and civilisation. It is difficult to account for this seeming abandonment of Apollo’s maiden companions by the God of Song himself to the protection of another and inferior divinity. However such were the contradictions and inconsistencies of the superstitious patchwork which formed the Greco-Roman system of deification. The subject before us has been reasonably supposed to indicate, by an allegory, that the cultivation of intellectual pursuits rests secure under the guardianship of strength and courage, and that the heroic genius of Hercules can be worthily proclaimed only through the influence of the Muses.

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184. Q. Pomponius Musa AR Denarius. 56 BC. Laureate bust of Apollo right; scroll behind / Q POMPONI MVSA, Clio, the Muse of History, standing left, left elbow on pedestal, holding an open scroll. Crawford 410/3, Sydenham 813. 3.86g, 19mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Banker’s mark on obverse, but a well-centred issue struck on a full flan. Excellent reverse. A very attractive specimen of the type.

1100

Clio, or Kleio, like all the Muses, is a daughter of Zeus and Mnemosyne. She had one son, Hyacinth, with the King of Pieria, Pierus. Some sources say she was also the mother of Hymenaios. She is often represented with a parchment scroll or a set of tablets and is also known as the Proclaimer. 185. Q. Pomponius Musa AR Denarius. 66 BC. Laureate bust of Apollo right, in hair rolled back & in loose locks over forehead; flower or rosette before ear; wreath behind / MVSA to left, Q. POMPONI to right, Polyhymnia, the Muse of Rhetoric, standing facing in pensive mood, in long flowing tunic & peplum. Crawford 410/10a, Sydenham 817. 3.88g, 18mm. GOOD VERY FINE Beautiful obverse, reverse lamentably somewhat flat-struck.

350

Polyhymnia ("the one of many hymns) was the Muse of sacred poetry, sacred hymn and eloquence or rhetoric as well as agriculture and pantomime. She is depicted as very serious, pensive and meditative, and often holding a finger to her mouth, dressed in a long cloak and veil and resting her elbow on a pillar. Polyhymnia is also sometimes accredited as being the Muse of geometry and meditation.

186. P. Fonteius P. f. Capito AR Denarius. 55 BC. P FONTEIVS P F CAPITO III VIR, helmeted and draped bust of Mars Tropaeophorus right, trophy over shoulder / MN FONT TR MIL , Roman horseman thrusting his spear at a Gallic enemy who is about to slay an unarmed comrade. Crawford 429/1, Sydenham 900. 3.83g, 18mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE An exceptional and splendid example of the type, well struck on a full flan.

800

This coin records the exploits of this moneyer’s uncle Mn. Fonteius who was governor of Narbonese Gaul between 76-73 BC. The reverse type depicts some now unknown battle that occurred while Mn. Fonteius was serving in the capacity of a military tribune, wherein he may have saved the life of a comrade in battle. 187. P. Fonteius P. f. Capito AR Denarius. 55 BC. P FONTEIVS P F CAPITO III VIR, helmeted and draped bust of Mars Tropaeophorus right, trophy over shoulder / MN FONT TR MIL , Roman horseman thrusting his spear at a Gallic enemy who is about to slay an unarmed comrade. Crawford 429/1, Sydenham 900. 4.15g, 20mm. EXTREMELY FINE Lustrous and struck on a broad flan.

450

188. Cn. Plancius AR Denarius. 55 BC. Bust of Diana Planciana right, wearing petasus / Cretan goat right; bow and quiver behind. Crawford 432/1, Sydenham 933. 4.01g, 17mm. EXTREMELY FINE

300

This moneyer had served in Crete under the proconsul Q. Metellus, and also as military tribune in Macedonia; both of these commands are illustrated on this type through the petasus and Cretan goat.

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The Lex Cassia Tabellaria

The following three coins refer to an ancestor of the moneyer, L. Cassius Longinus, and his Lex Cassia Tabellaria, a law relating to the method of voting. This Cassius, having been appointed in the year of Rome 641, under the Peduceian Law, as Commissioner with praetorian power to investigate certain cases of violation of chastity in Vestal virgins, summoned again to trial and condemned to death Licinia and Marcia, who had allegedly been improperly acquitted by L. Metellus P. M, according to Asconius Paedianus on Cic. Pro Milone. Cassius was so great an exemplar of severity that he was commonly called reorum scopulus, and Cassiana judicia became a proverb. The curule chair within the temple denotes the praetorian power. The urn, or cista, is that into which the tabella were cast.

189. Q. Cassius Longinus AR Denarius. Circa 55 BC. Veiled bust of Vesta right, Q CASSIVS behind, VEST before / Curule chair within circular temple of Vesta between urn and voting tablet inscribed AC (Absolvo; Condemno). Sydenham 917, Crawford 428/1. 3.97g, 19mm. EXTREMELY FINE Attractively toned.

900

190. Q. Cassius Longinus AR Denarius. Circa 55 BC. Veiled bust of Vesta right, Q CASSIVS behind, VEST before / Curule chair within circular temple of Vesta between urn and voting tablet inscribed AC (Absolvo; Condemno). Sydenham 917, Crawford 428/1. 3.64g, 19mm. EXTREMELY FINE

750

191. Q. Cassius Longinus AR Denarius. Circa 55 BC. Veiled bust of Vesta right, Q CASSIVS behind, VEST before / Curule chair within circular temple of Vesta between urn and voting tablet inscribed AC (Absolvo; Condemno). Sydenham 917, Crawford 428/1. 3.86g, 20mm. GOOD VERY FINE

450

192. Q. Cassius Longinus AR Denarius. 55 BC. Bust of young Jupiter, sceptre behind / eagle on thunderbolt right between lituus & jug, Q CASSIVS below. Sydenham 916, Crawford 428/3. 3.97g, 19mm. GOOD VERY FINE

450

The youthful bust on this coin is often described as being that of Bonus Eventus, however unlike the coins of the Scribonii, there is no legend or defining attribute to identify it as such. Indeed, the sceptrum, fulmen and aquila instead point to this being the bust of a young Jupiter, for whom such insignia are normally reserved. The priestly implements on the reverse likely allude to an ancestor who belonged to the college of pontiffs, and if we take the symbolism of this coin to be in reference to Jupiter, then it is probable that this coin is in reference to a family member who was once Flamen Dialis, (high priest of Jupiter), a position of great importance and privilege in Rome that entitled the holder of that office to many honours, including the right to a lictor, the toga praetexta, the sella curulis, and to a seat in the Senate. The moneyer of this coin, Quintus Cassius Longinus, was the brother or cousin of the Cassius who conspired to assassinate Caesar. In 49 BC, as tribune of the people, he strongly supported the cause of Caesar, by whom he was made governor of Hispania Ulterior. He treated the provincials with great cruelty, and his appointment in 48 BC to take the field against Juba I of Numidia gave him an excuse for fresh oppression. The result was an unsuccessful insurrection at Corduba. Cassius punished the leaders with merciless severity, and made the lot of the provincials harder than ever. Some of his troops revolted under the quaestor Marcellus, and Cassius was surrounded in Ulia. Bogud, king of Mauretania, and Lepidus, proconsul of Hispania Citerior, to whom Cassius had applied for assistance, negotiated an arrangement with Marcellus whereby Cassius was allowed to go free with his remaining legions. Cassius sent his troops into winter quarters and boarded ship at Malaca with his illgotten gains, but was wrecked in a storm at the mouth of the Iberus. His tyrannical behaviour in Hispania greatly injured Caesar’s cause.

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Q. Pompeius Rufus Grandson of the Dictator Sulla

193. Q. Pompeius Rufus AR Denarius. 54 BC. Rome mint. Q POMPEI Q F RVFVS above, curule chair flanked by arrow & laurel-branch; COS on raised tablet below / SVLLA COS above, curule chair flanked by lituus & a wreath; Q POMPEI RVF on raised tablet below. Crawford 434/2, Sydenham 909. 3.91g, 19mm. EXTREMELY FINE

400

This moneyer was the son of Cornelia, daughter of Sulla, and grandson of Q. Pompeius Rufus, who was consul with Sulla in 88 BC, and here he honours his two grandfathers with a coin that is emblematic of the offices held by them and also of their careers. He became a great partisan of Pompey. 194. Q. Pompeius Rufus AR Denarius. 54 BC. Rome mint. Q POMPEI Q F RVFVS above, curule chair flanked by arrow & laurel-branch; COS on raised tablet below / SVLLA COS above, curule chair flanked by lituus & a wreath; Q POMPEI RVF on raised tablet below. Crawford 434/2, Sydenham 909. 4.19g, 18mm. EXTREMELY FINE

300

The Ludi Florales

195. C. Servilius C. f. AR Denarius. 52 BC. FLORAL PRIMVS, bust of Flora right wearing wreath of flowers, lituus behind / Two warriors face to face with shields & swords; C F to right, C SERVEIL in ex. Crawford 423/1, Sydenham 890. 3.73g, 19mm. EXTREMELY FINE

400

This type refers to the institution of the Floralia or Ludi Florales by Servilius on the occasion of the dedication of the temple to Flora in the Circus Maximus in 240 BC. The reverse may be a depiction of the alliance between Romulus and Tatius. 196. C. Servilius C. f. AR Denarius. 52 BC. FLORAL PRIMVS, bust of Flora right wearing wreath of flowers, lituus behind / Two warriors face to face with shields & swords; C F to right, C SERVEIL in ex. Crawford 423/1, Sydenham 890. 3.66g 19mm. EXTREMELY FINE

300

197. Servius Sulpicius AR Denarius. 51 BC. SER SULP, laureate bust of Apollo right, SER behind / Naval trophy (aplustre, anchor & mast), clothed figure standing left, Macedonian captive to right. Sydenham 931, Crawford 438/1. 3.82g, 20mm. VERY RARE VERY FINE

1500

This moneyer may have been an ancestor of the emperor Galba and the reverse may relate to P. Sulpicius Galba Maximus, proconsul in Greece in 209-208 BC, during the war against Philip of Macedon. The trophy would refer to the destruction of the enemy's fleet and the prisoner to the captives who were sold sub hasta and repurchased by their fellow citizens, represented by the figure on the left.

69


198. Q. Sicinius and C. Coponius AR Denarius. 49 BC. Mint in the east moving with Pompey. Q. SICINIVS III. VIR, diademed bust of Apollo right; star below / C. COPONIVS. PR. S. C., club of Hercules, arrow & bow. Crawford 444/1a, Sydenham 939. 3.86g, 18mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

400

This coinage was struck by Sicinius for the use of the fleet commanded by Coponius in the East for Pompey. To justify this action the formula S.C. is added to make it appear as under senatorial authority. 199. Q. Sicinius and C. Coponius AR Denarius. 49 BC. Mint in the east moving with Pompey. Q. SICINIVS III. VIR, diademed bust of Apollo right; star below / C. COPONIVS. PR. S. C., club of Hercules, arrow & bow. Crawford 444/1a, Sydenham 939. 3.89g, 19mm. EXTREMELY FINE Attractive blue/red/gold iridescent highlights.

400

200. Man. Acilius Glabrio AR Denarius. 49 BC. SALVTIS, bust of Salus right / MN ACILIVS III VIR VALETV, Valetudo standing left holding serpent. Sydenham 922, Crawford 442/1a. 4.06g, 19mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

600

Salus and Valetudo are almost synonymous divinities of health and physical well-being. A famous statue by Nikeratos of Salus/Hygieia was in the temple of Concord at Rome. It represented the goddess feeding a serpent which she holds. The coin type might well represent this statue. Pliny notes that the first doctor to practise in Rome (a Peloponnesian named Archagathos) came to the city in 219 BC and was given citizenship and a shop located at public expense in the crossway Acilia. There is, however, no ancient evidence to support the Acilia gens’ claim that it was they who brought him to Rome. The moneyer is commonly identified with the son of Mn. Acilius Glabrio, consul in 67, and Aemilia, daughter of M. Aemilius Scaurus, whom Sulla forced him to divorce in 82. He was born in Pompey's house in 81. Aemilia was the sister of M. Scaurus, the infamous curule aedile in 58. Pompey married Aemilia after her divorce. Acilius supported his uncle M. Aemilius Scaurus at his trial in 54. The year 50 saw Pompey fall gravely ill at his villa at Naples, and prayers and public vows for his recovery were offered throughout Italy. His recovery was greeted with widespread celebrations. These coin types are not inappropriate choices for one who was born in Pompey's house. It is possible that he was the Acilius who produced bronze coins in Sicily as quaestor, and at Corinth. There is no further record of him. It is interesting to note that the Acilii Glabriones long survived and had consuls in the direct line in AD 210 and AD 256. 201. Man. Acilius Glabrio AR Denarius. 49 BC. SALVTIS, bust of Salus right / MN ACILIVS III VIR VALETV, Valetudo standing left holding serpent. Sydenham 922, Crawford 442/1a. 3.89g, 18mm. NEAR EXTREMELY FINE

450

202. Man. Acilius Glabrio AR Denarius. 49 BC. SALVTIS, bust of Salus right / MN ACILIVS III VIR VALETV, Valetudo standing left holding serpent. Sydenham 922, Crawford 442/1a. 3.97g, 20mm. EXTREMELY FINE

250

203. Man. Acilius Glabrio AR Denarius. 49 BC. SALVTIS, bust of Salus right / MN ACILIVS III VIR VALETV, Valetudo standing left holding serpent. Sydenham 922, Crawford 442/1a. 3.77g, 18mm. EXTREMELY FINE

275

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204. L. Cornelius Lentulus and C. Claudius Marcellus AR Denarius. Apollonia, 49 B.C. Bust of Apollo right, L.LENT. C. MARC. COS. around / Jupiter standing right, eagle in left hand over garlanded altar, thunderbolt in right; star and Q in left field. Crawford 445/2. 3.46g, 18mm. RARE EXTREMELY FINE Attractively toned.

1250

This coin was struck for the two consuls of 49 BC, both of whom supported the party of Pompey and were violently opposed to Caesar, on whose approach to Rome they fled to Sicily. They then went, via Greece, to Asia Minor where this coin was struck. The reverse is claimed to be a copy of the famous statue of Zeus Eleutherios, by Myron, which was set up by the Syracusans as a memorial to their freedom in 460 BC.

205. Q. Sicinius AR Denarius. 49 BC. FORT P.R, diademed bust of Fortuna right / Q. SICINIVS below, III. VIR across field, caduceus and palm in saltire, laurel wreath above. Sydenham 938. 4.02g, 18mm. FLEUR DE COIN Light iridescent highlights.

700

This type is in honour of Pompey and his party. The palm-branch refers to Pompey's numerous victories; the caduceus to the restoration of commerce after the destruction of the fleets of the pirates, the wreath to the golden chaplet conferred on him by the citizens of Rome. These great deeds were effected by the special favour of the goddess Fortuna.

206. Cn. Nerius AR Denarius. 49 BC. NERI Q VRB, bust of Saturn right, harp behind / L LENT-C MARC-COS, legionary eagle between two standards, inscribed H (Hastati) and P (Princeps). Crawford 441/1, Sydenham 937. 3.81g, 17mm GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Very rare this well preserved.

1250

Nerius was appointed quaestor urbanus by the Pompeian part in 49 BC and in virtue of his office he struck these coins. On the approach of Julius Caesar to the capitol he fled with the consuls to Sicily. The bust of Saturn refers to the temple of that divinity at Rome, which was under the special charge of the quaestores urbani, as it contained the public treasury. The reverse names the two consuls of that year, and uses the same type of the earlier issue by Valerius Flaccus. The standards are often taken to refer to the different corps of the manipular pattern legions (which had been abolished in the Marian reforms of 107 BC), the hastati, principes and triarii, and may allude to some victory achieved by an ancestor.

207. C.Vibius C. f. C. n. Pansa Caetronianius AR Denarius. 48 BC. Young bust of Bacchus right, wearing ivy wreath, PANSA behind / CeresDemeter walking right, carrying torches, plough before, C VIBIVS C F C N behind. Sydenham 946, Crawford 449/2. 4.14g, 18mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Insignificant flan flaw on reverse

500

The reverse of this coin illustrates the goddess Demeter, or Ceres as she was known to the Romans, seeking the path by which her daughter Persephone was taken down to Hades. The cult of Demeter and Persephone was of the greatest importance in Southern Italy, and given that this gens is reputed to have come from Bruttium it is therefore not unexpected that Demeter should figure prominently on its coinage.

71


208. C.Vibius C. f. C. n. Pansa Caetronianius AR Denarius. 48 BC. Young bust of Bacchus right, wearing ivy wreath, PANSA behind / CeresDemeter walking right, carrying torches, plough before, C VIBIVS C F C N behind. Sydenham 946, Crawford 449/2. 4.01g, 19mm. EXTREMELY FINE

400

209. C.Vibius C. f. C. n. Pansa Caetronianius AR Denarius. 48 BC. Young bust of Bacchus right, wearing ivy wreath, PANSA behind / CeresDemeter walking right, carrying torches, plough before, C VIBIVS C F C N behind. Sydenham 946, Crawford 449/2. 4.03g, 19mm. EXTREMELY FINE

400

210. C. Vibius C. f. C. n. Pansa Caetronianus AR Denarius. 48 BC. PANSA, mask of Pan right / C VIBIVS C F C N behind, IOVIS AXVR before, Jupiter Axurus seated left, holding patera & sceptre. Crawford 449/1a; Sydenham 947. 3.95g, 20mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Exhibits none of the usual flat striking and consequent loss of detail

400

This elegant and unique type most probably presents to us a copy from the image of the Auxurian Jupiter, who from his radiate head and beardless face, seems to be identical to Apollo, or Sol, like Ve Jupiter, and Jupiter Heliopolitanus, whose figure appears on coins of Heliopolis, in Coele Syria. The obverse depiction of Pan is a punning allusion to the cognomen Pansa. Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus was tribune in 51 BC and supported Gaius Julius Caesar in the civil war. After Caesar's assassination, however, he became one of the leading proponents for the return of the Republic, and was elected consul in 43 BC, with Aulus Hirtius. The two took command of the senatorial legions, marching north to engage Mark Antony, now an enemy of the Roman Senate. On April 14, 43 BC, the two forces collided at the Battle of Forum Gallorum. Although the Senate's forces proved victorious, Hirtius was killed in battle and Pansa was wounded and died a few days later.

Pallor

This coin may relate to the siege of Massilia in 49 BC, as the cult of Diana was especially prominent there. The obverse bust is usually referred to as that of Gallia, and the male bust on the contemporaneous coin of Saserna, as Vercingetorix. However these attributions are possibly incorrect, or at least only part of the story. The gens Hostilia were an ancient and illustrious Patrician family, which claimed descent from Tullus Hostilius, the third King of Rome. The story on this point is that Victory having, through the treachery of the Albani, threatened to turn against the Romans in a battle they fought with the Veii, King Tullius Hostilius made a vow to consecrate a temple to Pavor and Pallor – the bringer of Terror and the resultant Paleness of his grip. The enemy were finally routed, and from that epoch Pallor and Pavor were honoured as divinities at Rome. Thus we might infer that the obverses of these two coins at once honour the divinities that were caused to be worshipped at Rome by the moneyer’s legendary ancestor, and as allusions to Caesar’s victories over the Gauls. Given that in this year, 49 BC, Caesar was also engaged in warfare against Pompey and his supporters, we may also see this issue as an invocation by Saserna, on Caesar’s behalf, of Pavor and Pallor to strike fear and dread into the heart of his enemies. 211. L. Hostilius Saserna AR Denarius. 48 BC. Bust of Pallor right, hair long and dishevelled, Gallic trumpet behind. / L HOSTILIVS SASERNA, Diana of Ephesus facing with stag and spear. Sydenham 953, Crawford 448/3. 3.82g, 20mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE An excellent example of this type, with fully detailed devices, the usual flatness of the issue confined only to the very edges.

72

1250


212. L. Hostilius Saserna AR Denarius. 48 BC. Bust of Pallor right, hair long and dishevelled, Gallic trumpet behind. / L HOSTILIVS SASERNA, Diana of Ephesus facing with stag and spear. Sydenham 953, Crawford 448/3. 4.02g, 19mm. NEAR EXTREMELY FINE

450

213. L. Hostilius Saserna AR Denarius. 48 BC. Laureate bust of Venus right / HOSTILIVS SASERNA, Victory advancing right with winged caduceus and trophy. Sydenham 951, Crawford 448/1a. 3.98g, 18mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Excellent condition for the issue.

750

Ex NAC sale 27, 2004, lot 267 As with the coins above, the meaning of this issue can be seen in the context of the events of the period: Caesar was at war with Pompey, and so the obverse of Venus is a clear reference to Caesar, and the reverse of Victory is a standard propagandistic type.

214. Decimus Junius Brutus AR Denarius. Bust of Pietas right, PIETAS behind / two joined hands holding a caduceus, ALBINVS BRVTI F below. Crawford 450/2, Sydenham 942. 3.97g, 18mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

450

Decimus Junius Brutus, who was later to become one of the assassins of Julius Caesar, was adopted by A. Postumius Albinus and he joined to his own name that of his adopted father. He must not be confused with the more celebrated M. Junius (or Q. Caepio) Brutus. This moneyer served under Caesar in Gaul and received many marks of favour from him. This type denotes the good relationship between Caesar and the citizens of Rome. 215. A. Licinius Nerva AR Denarius. 47 BC. Laureate bust of Fides right, NERVA behind, FIDES before / III VIR, horseman galloping right, dragging captive by the hair, A LICINI below. Crawford 454/1, Sydenham 954. 3.73g, 18mm GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

1250

This coin refers to the successes of Aulus Licinius Nerva in Macedonia in 142 BC.

73


216. L. Plautius Plancus AR Denarius. 47 BC. L PLAVTIVS below mask of Medusa facing, hair dishevelled, serpents at sides / Aurora flying right conducting the four horses of the sun, PLANCVS below. Crawford 453/1a, Sydenham 959. 3.96g, 18mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

2000

This moneyer was the brother of L. Munatius but was adopted into the Plautia gens. Ovid relates that during the censorship of C. Plautius and Ap. Claudius Caecus in B.C. 312, the latter quarrelled with the tibicenes, who retired to Tibur. As the people resented their loss, Plautius caused them to be placed in wagons and conveyed back to Rome early in the morning, and in order that they should not be recognised their faces were covered with masks. The chariot of Aurora is an allusion to their early arrival and the mast to the concealment of their faces. In commemoration of this event the Quinquatrus Minusculae were celebrated yearly at Rome on the 13th June, at which those who took part in them wore masks. 217. Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio, Imperator, AR Denarius. Military mint in Africa, legate Eppius, 47-46 BC. Q METELL SCIPIO IMP, laureate bust of Africa right in elephant skin headdress, grain ear before, plough below / EPPIVS LEG F C, Hercules standing facing, naked, hand on hip, leaning on club set on a rock. Crawford 461/1, Sydenham 1051. 3.88g, 19mm. EXTREMELY FINE Beautiful, lustrous metal.

1000

Scipio disclosed to Cicero the Catiline conspiracy, was consul with Pompey in 52 BC and governor of Syria in 49 BC. He commanded the centre line of Pompey’s army at Pharsalus, after which he fled to Africa and formed an alliance with Juba, king of Numidia. This coin was struck during his African campaigns and the type refers to Africa and the fertility of that province. He was defeated by Caesar at Thapsus, and when cornered in flight by the fleet of Publius Sittius he committed suicide, famously departing from his soldiers with a nonchalant Imperator se bene habet – ‘Your general is just fine.’ Scipio, from a long and illustrious line of generals and statesmen, was the last man of any consequence to bear that famous name.

218. Mn. Cordius Rufus AR Denarius. 46 BC. Corinthian helmet with crest on which an owl stands / Aegis of Minerva with head of Medusa in the centre. Crawford 463/2, Sydenham 978. 3.85g, 19mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Exceptional for the issue - this denarius is notoriously difficult to find in good condition.

700

This type is ascribed to Manius Cordius Rufus, monetal triumvir under Julius Caesar, before or after the dictatorship. The owl refers to Caesar's prudence and wisdom; the warlike helmet and the Aegis to his valour.

219. Mn. Cordius Rufus AR Denarius. 46 BC. Diademed bust of Venus right, RVFVS S.C. behind / Cupid on dolphin right, conducting it with a bridle, MN. CORDIVS below. Crawford 463/3, Sydenham 977. 3.63g, 21mm. EXTREMELY FINE An unusually fine example of the type.

525

Manius Cordius Rufus was monetary triumvir under Julius Caesar. The type of Venus refers to the origin of Caesar, who claimed decent from the goddess through Aeneas. The reverse type of Cupid riding the dolphin may be an obscure reference to an ancestor who occupied a prominent naval office or won a naval victory, as is probably the case on the similarly styled coin of Lucretius Trio – see Lot 135.

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An Exceptional T. Carisius Denarius

220. T. Carisius AR Denarius. 46 BC. Bust of the Aphrodisian Sibyl right, back hair in sling / T. CARISIVS, Sphinx seated right; III.VIR in exergue. Crawford 464/1, Sydenham 983a. 3.68g, 18mm. SCARCE FLEUR DE COIN Probably the finest and most complete example sold in the last ten years.

2200

This coin was minted by Titus Carisius, who was monetal triumvir under Julius Caesar. The fictitious creature depicted on the reverse, whose mysterious origin is associated with the most remote antiquity, is said to have had its haunts in Mount Sphincius, near Thebes, and to have been accustomed thence to assail and destroy wayfarers. Apollo having been consulted in this matter, the oracle declared that there was no other way to rescue the country from its fury than someone's solving the enigma of the Sphinx, said riddle being 'what walks on four legs in the morning, two at noon, and three in the evening?' Oedipus correctly answered the riddle, which alluded to the life-cycle of man at infancy, adulthood and old age, and the creature thus flung itself from its rocky perch and perished.

221. C. Considius Paetus AR Denarius. 46 BC. Helmeted bust of Minerva right / Victory driving quadriga right, C CONSIDI below. Crawford 465/5, Sydenham 992. 3.81g, 20mm. SCARCE VERY FINE

400

A beautiful portrait of Minerva in her splendid crested Corinthian helm; a scarce piece in a good state of preservation for the type.

222. L. Valerius Acisculus AR Denarius. 45 BC. ACISCVLVS, diademed bust of Apollo Soranus right, axe behind, star above / Valeria Luperca riding a heifer right, holding a veil above; L•VALERIVS in ex. Sydenham 998a, Crawford 474/1b. 3.16g, 19mm GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Lovely old cabinet tone.

800

This type refers to the legendary origin of the family. Plutarch relates that when the plague visited Falerii, in Etruria, the oracle announced that the scourge would only cease by the annual sacrifice of a virgin to Juno. This superstition was long maintained till the lot fell on a young virgin named Valeria Luperca; when she drew forth the sword to slay herself an eagle descended and carried off this weapon and deposited on the altar a hammer, it then threw the sword on a heifer grazing nearby. When the virgin saw this she sacrificed the heifer and taking the hammer she went from house to house restoring the sick by gently touching them gently with the hammer, and telling them to be healed.

75


223. L. Valerius Acisculus AR Denarius. 45 BC. ACISCVLVS, diademed bust of Apollo Soranus right, axe behind, star above / Valeria Luperca riding a heifer right, holding a veil above; L•VALERIVS in ex. Sydenham 998a, Crawford 474/1b. 3.99g, 20mm. EXTREMELY FINE

600

224. L. Valerius Acisculus AR Denarius. 45 BC. ACISCVLVS, diademed bust of Apollo Soranus right, axe behind, star above / Valeria Luperca riding a heifer right, holding a veil above; L•VALERIVS in ex. Sydenham 998a, Crawford 474/1b. 3.89g, 19mm. GOOD VERY FINE

350

Very Rare Valerius Acisculus

225. L. Valerius Asisculus AR Denarius. Circa 45 BC. Diademed bust of Apollo Soranus right, ACISCVLVS and pickaxe behind, star above, all within laurel wreath / Owl with helmeted bust (of Minerva) walking right, carrying two spears and shield, L. VALERIVS in ex, all within laurel wreath. Crawford 474/2b. 4.13g, 19mm. VERY RARE EXTREMELY FINE

1750

A very difficult type to find in decent condition; this example benefits from being well centred and in a good state of preservation making it one of, if not the, finest example offered for at least a decade. The Valeria gens was one of the most ancient and celebrated at Rome, and no other Roman gens was distinguished for so long a period, although a few others, such as the Cornelia gens, produced a greater number of illustrious men. The Valerii are universally admitted to have been of Sabine origin, and their ancestor Volesus or Volusus is said to have settled at Rome with Titus Tatius. The Valeria gens enjoyed extraordinary honours and privileges at Rome. Their house at the bottom of the Velia was the only one in Rome of which the doors were allowed to open back into the street. In the Circus Maximus a conspicuous place was set apart for them, where a small throne was erected, an honour of which there was no other example among the Romans. They were also allowed to bury their dead within the walls, a privilege which was also granted to some other gentes; and when they had exchanged the older custom of interment for that of burning the corpse, although they did not light the funeral pile on their burying-ground, the bier was set down there, as a symbolical way of preserving their right. The pickaxe (acisculus) on the obverse of this coin is a punning allusion to the moneyer’s name.

226. L. Lollius Palikanus AR Denarius. 45 AD. HONORIS, Laureate bust of Honor right / PALIKANVS above curule chair between two ears of corn. Lollia 1; BMC 4014, Crawford 473/2a.3.81g, 19mm. RARE FLEUR DE COIN

1500

This type, like the others issued by Lollius, may relate to the vigorous and successful exertions of the tribune M. Lollius Palikanus (possibly the moneyer’s father), to obtain for the tribunes the restoration of those powers and privileges of which they had been deprived by Sulla.

76


The Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus The Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, also known as the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus (Aedes Iovis Optimi Maximi Capitolini Temple of Jupiter Best and Greatest on the Capitoline) was the greatest temple in Ancient Rome, located on the Capitoline Hill. Lucius Tarquinius Priscus vowed this temple while battling with the Sabines, and seems to have laid some of its foundations; a large part of the work, however, was done by Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, who is said to have nearly completed it. The temple was dedicated on September 13, 509 BC in the first days of the new Republic. The temple was decorated with many terracotta sculptures. The most famous of these was of Jupiter driving a quadriga, a chariot drawn by four horses, which was placed at the peak of the pediment, and which can be seen on these two coins.

227. Petillius Capitolinus AR Denarius. 43 BC. PETILLIVS CAPITOLINVS, eagle standing on thunderbolt, wings open, head right / hexastyle temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, armed figures on pediment, Jupiter in quadriga at peak. Sydenham 1150, Crawford 487/2a. 3.64g, 20mm. SCARCE GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

800

Petillius Capitolinus, a friend of Augustus, struck, in his capacity as monetal triumvir, two denarii, of which this is one type. Amidst much uncertainty to dates, this issue does serve to connect a Petillius in some sort of association with the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. 228. Petillius Capitolinus AR Denarius. 43 BC. CAPITOLINVS, bust of Jupiter right / hexastyle temple of Capitoline Jupiter, PETILLIVS below. Sydenham 1149, Crawford 487/1. 3.74g, 19mm. SCARCE GOOD VERY FINE

400

229. C. Vibius Varus AR Denarius. 42 BC. Bust of Minerva right, in crested Corinthian helmet & aegis / Hercules standing left, holding club & lion's skin. Crawford 494/38, Sydenham 1140. RARE GOOD VERY FINE

1000

This scarce coin and the two below, struck in 42 BC, have clear military overtones that should be seen in the context of the impending conflict between the Triumvirs and the assassins of Caesar. Minerva, in her magnificent panoply and the legendary hero Hercules (with whom Mark Antony identified and claimed descent from) are here invoked on behalf of the avenging Triumvirs.

230. C. Vibius Varus AR Denarius. Circa 42 BC. Bust of Hercules right / C. VIBIVS VARVS, Minerva standing right, holding victory and sceptre, shield at side. Crawford 494/37. 4.05g, 20mm. EXTREMELY FINE

1500

231. C. Vibius Varus AR Denarius. Circa 42 BC. Bust of Hercules right / C. VIBIVS VARVS, Minerva standing right, holding victory and sceptre, shield at side. Crawford 494/37. 3.54g, 20mm. GOOD VERY FINE

600

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232. C. Vibius Varus AR Denarius. 42 BC. Ivy-wreathed bust of Bacchus right / VARVS, panther springing left, toward garlanded altar upon which sit thyrsus and mask, C VIBIVS in ex. Crawford 494/36. 3.75g, 19mm. FLEUR DE COIN An exceptional example, struck on a large flan and attractively toned.

1250

Ex NAC 25 (25 June 2003), lot 333. 233. C. Vibius Varus AR Denarius. 42 BC. Ivy-wreathed bust of Bacchus right / VARVS, panther springing left, toward garlanded altar upon which sit thyrsus and mask, C VIBIVS in ex. Crawford 494/36. 3.98g, 19mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

500

234. P. Clodius M. f. Turrinus AR Denarius. 42 BC. Laureate bust of Apollo right, lyre behind / Diana standing facing, with bow and quiver over shoulder, holding lighted torch in each hand; P CLODIVS right, M F on left. Sydenham 1117, Crawford 494/23. 3.89g, 19mm. FLEUR DE COIN A superb and exceptionally fine example of the type, struck on a large flan and displaying a beautiful old cabinet tone.

2000

235. P. Clodius M. f. Turrinus AR Denarius. 42 BC. Laureate bust of Apollo right, lyre behind / Diana standing facing, with bow and quiver over shoulder, holding lighted torch in each hand; P CLODIVS right, M F on left. Sydenham 1117, Crawford 494/23. 3.92g, 21mm. FLEUR DE COIN

600

236. P. Clodius M. f. Turrinus AR Denarius. 42 BC. Laureate bust of Apollo right, lyre behind / Diana standing facing, with bow and quiver over shoulder, holding lighted torch in each hand; P CLODIVS right, M F on left. Sydenham 1117, Crawford 494/23. 3.53g, 18mm. GOOD VERY FINE

350

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237. C. Clodius Vestalis AR Denarius. 41 BC. Laureate draped bust of Flora right; lily at shoulder / Veiled Vestal virgin seated left, holding a two-handled bowl. Crawford 512/2, Sydenham 1135. 3.88g, 19mm. CHOICE EXTREMELY FINE

800

This coin was struck by Caius Clodius, who fought under Brutus, monetary quatuovir in 43 BC. The head of Flora recalls the fetes instituted by Clodius Certho in 240 BC, which were probably made annual in 173 BC by C. Servilius, whose son struck coins in 74-50 BC with the legend C SERVEIL C F FLORAL PRIMVS (see Lots 195 and 196). The type of the Vestal recalls either Quinta Claudia (c. 212 BC), who, when a ship laden with things sacred to Cybele struck in the shallows of the Tiber, called upon the goddess to vindicate her innocence, and drew the vessel safe to shore; or the Vestal Virgin Claudia (143 BC) who, when her father Appius Claudius Pulcher resolved to have a triumph contrary to the will of the people, walked by his chariot to the Capitol, so that it might not be lawful for any of the tribunes to interfere and forbid it.

238. C. Numonius Vaala AR Denarius. 41 BC. Bare head of Numonius Vaala right / Warrior armed with sword and shield attacking a vallum which is defended by two soldiers; VAALA in ex. Crawford 514/2, Sear, CRI 322, Numonia 2. 3.39g, 20mm. VERY RARE NEAR VERY FINE

1500

The cognomen Vaala was no doubt received by an ancestor for the act of bravery that is depicted on the reverse of this issue - being the first to breach the enemy's fortifications and in so doing receiving the corona vallaris - but the details are not known to history. Sadly, one descendant of this brave individual was less endowed with courage - one Numonius Vala was a legate of Publius Quinctilius Varus in 9 AD. He left the infantry when they were attacked by the enemy in the fatal Battle of the Teutoburg Forest and fled with the cavalry to the Rhine, but was overtaken in his flight and slain.

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IMPERATORIAL

239. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Caesar, 49-48 BC. CAESAR in exergue, elephant walking right, trampling on horned serpent / Simpulum, sprinkler, axe (surmounted by a wolf's head), and priest's hat. Crawford 443/1, CRI 9, Sydenham 1006, Kestner 3518, BMCRR Gaul 27, RSC 49. 3.97g, 19mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Rare with horned serpent.

1250

Interestingly, only the catalogue of the Kestner collection distinguishes between the serpent and horned serpent varieties of this issue.

240. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Africa, 46 BC. COS.TERT.DICT.ITER., bust of Ceres right / Simpulum, sprinkler, capis and lituus, AVGVR above, PONT.MAX. below; M in right field. Sydenham 1024, Crawford 467/1b. 3.87g, 19mm. FLEUR DE COIN

1750

An exceptional example of this ever-popular type, being soundly struck on a broad flan. The obverse is of uncommonly fine style, and perfectly preserved. Lightly toned, with hints of red and gold iridescence. This type was probably struck to pay Caesar’s successful legions after the battle of Thapsus, 6 April 46 BC. The bust of Ceres is emblematic of Africa and its corn-producing wealth.

241. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Africa, 46 BC. COS.TERT.DICT.ITER., bust of Ceres right / Simpulum, sprinkler, capis and lituus, AVGVR above, PONT.MAX. below; M in right field. Sydenham 1024, Crawford 467/1b. 3.80g, 18mm. GOOD VERY FINE 500

242. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Africa, 46 BC. COS.TERT.DICT.ITER., bust of Ceres right / Simpulum, sprinkler, capis and lituus, AVGVR above, PONT.MAX. below; M in right field. Sydenham 1024, Crawford 467/1b. 3.83g, 20mm. GOOD VERY FINE

450

80


81


SUPERB VENUS PORTRAIT

243. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Spanish mint, 46-45 BC. Diademed bust of Venus right, Cupid on her shoulder / CAESAR below Gallia & Gaulish captive seated beneath trophy of Gallic arms. Sydenham 1014, Crawford 468/1. 4.15g, 19mm. FLEUR DE COIN

3000

An exceptional example of this type, this piece having been struck with what is arguably the finest known obverse die of the entire series. The portrait is bold, expressive and beautiful, with cupid's features fully distinguishable - unlike most examples. Gorgeous toning with hints of gold and blue iridescence. This type was struck to commemorate Caesar’s Gallic triumph of 46 BC. The obverse bust is of Venus Genetrix, to whom Caesar had dedicated a temple in the Forum Julium in fulfilment of the vow he had made at the Battle of Pharsalus. The reverse refers to his victories in Gaul, and the Gaul may be Vercingetorix, who was executed at the conclusion of Caesar’s triumph.

JULIUS CAESAR PORTRAIT OF FINEST STYLE

244. Divus Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Struck under the magistrate Q. Voconius Vitulus, 40 BC. Laureate bust of Julius Caesar right / C. VOCONIVS SC VITVLVS.Q. DESIGN Calf standing left. Babelon (Julia) 121, (Voconia) 1, Crawford 526/4, CRI 331, Sydenham 1133. 3.72g, 21mm. VERY RARE EXTREMELY FINE A lovely coin with an outstanding portrait of Caesar.

20000

While there exist a great many portrait issues of Julius Caesar, the vast majority are of poor style and usually poorly preserved. Indeed, the issue of Q. Voconius encompasses a great many obverse dies, of which this is unquestionably the finest. This portrait is of masterly style, having clearly been engraved by an individual of substantial talent. Another example with what is in this cataloguer’s opinion a portrait of inferior style and preservation sold for CHF 45,000 (£27,553) excluding buyer’s fee, on 18th May 2010.

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245. Mark Antony AR Denarius. Sepullius Macer, moneyer, 44 BC. P. Veiled bust of Antony right; capis behind, lituus before / P. SEPVLLIVS above, MACER below, horseman riding right with two horses, whip in right hand; wreath and palm behind. Crawford 480/22, Sear, CRI 142, Sydenham 1077, BMCRR 4178, RSC 74. 3.82g, 18mm. VERY RARE ABOUT EXTREMELY FINE

1500

A SPLENDID PORTRAIT OF MARCUS ANTONIUS

246. Mark Antony AR Denarius. C. Vibius Varus, moneyer. Rome, 42 BC. Bearded bust of Marcus Antonius to right / C VIBIVS VARVS Fortuna standing to left holding Victory in right hand and cornucopiae in left hand. Crawford 494/32, Sydenham 1144, Cohen 4, Sear 149. 3.38g, 18mm. VERY RARE EXTREMELY FINE

9000

As with Julius Caesar, it is particularly rare to come across an issue of Mark Antony that bears a bust of fine style. So many of his issues display portraits that are clearly little more than caricatures, however this particular type coined by C. Vibius Varus clearly employed engravers of quality, who rendered some truly sublime portraits of Antony. This issue rightfully deserves to have been paired with the preceding portrait coin of Julius Caesar. Together - the great general and his loyal right hand man.

247. Mark Antony AR Denarius. Military mint (Italy), 42 BC. Bearded bust of Mark Antony right, lituus on left. / M ANTONIVS III VIR RPC, Radiate bust of Sol right Crawford 496/2. Sydenham 1170, C. 68, Sear 127. 3.83g, 19mm. VERY FINE Another excellent portrait of Antony in finest style.

2500

248. Mark Antony & Octavian AR Denarius. Barbatius Pollio, moneyer. Ephesus mint, 41 BC. M. M ANT. IMP AVG III VIR. R. PC. M. BARBAT Q P, bare head of Antony right / CAESAR. IMP. PONT. III. VIR. R. P. C., bare head of Octavian right, in slight beard. Crawford 517/2. 3.86g, 20mm. EXTREMELY FINE

2400

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249. Mark Antony & Octavian AR Denarius. M. Barbatius Pollio, moneyer. Ephesus mint, 41 BC. M ANT. IMP AVG III VIR. R. PC. M. BARBAT Q P, bare head of Antony right / CAESAR. IMP. PONT. III. VIR. R. P. C., bare head of Octavian right, in slight beard. Crawford 517/2. 3.53g, 20mm. EXTREMELY FINE Pleasing, old cabinet tone.

1750

250. Mark Antony AR Denarius. Athens, mid 38 BC. III VIR RPC COS DESIG ITER ET TER, radiate bust of Sol right. / M ANTONIVS M F M N AVGVR IMP TERT, Mark Antony, dressed as a priest, standing right with lituus. Sydenham 1199, Crawford 533/2. 3.86g, 18mm. VERY RARE GOOD VERY FINE

1500

251. Mark Antony AR Denarius. Athens mint, 38-37 BC. III VIR R P C COS DESIG ITER ET TERT, radiate bust of Sol right / M ANTONIVS M F M N AVGVR IMP TER, Mark Antony, dressed as a priest, standing right with lituus. Sydenham 1199, Crawford 533/2. 3.97g, 20mm. VERY FINE Somewhat worn and with a bankers mark on obverse chin, but still a highly attractive example of this sought after type, displaying magnificent iridescent hues around the devices, and a well composed bust of Sol.

600

252. M. Junius Brutus with P. Servilius Casca Longus AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with the army (western Asia Minor or northern Greece), 43-42 BC. Laureate bust of Neptune right, trident below / BRVTVS IMP, Victory in long tunic walking to right, palm branch over left shoulder and breaking diadem with both hands. Broken sceptre on ground. Junia 44, Crawford 507/2, Sydenham 1298. 3.88g, 18mm. RARE GOOD VERY FINE

800

P. Servilius Casca Longus was one of the leading conspirators against Caesar and was actually the first to stab the dictator on the Ides of March, 44 BC. He later joined Brutus in the East and was entrusted with the command of a fleet. He fought bravely at Philippi, but when it became clear that all was lost he emulated his commander by committing suicide. This remarkable type, issued in the months preceding Philippi, graphically symbolizes the anticipated defeat of the forces of tyranny which, in the view of the 'liberators', were aiming at the destruction of Rome's republican constitution and its replacement by an autocratic form of government. It is ironic that while Casca's denarius depicts Victory breaking the diadem of royal power, his aureus shows Brutus' portrait surrounded by a similar symbol of regal or even divine status. The appearance of Neptune, god of the sea, is probably in celebration of Cassius' naval exploits against the Rhodians, though it could equally well be in recognition of Casca's own command.

84


85


253. Brutus AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Brutus and Cassius in Western Asia Minor or Northern Greece, 43-42 BC. COSTA LEG, laureate bust of Apollo right / IMP BRVTVS, trophy of arms. Junia 42, Sydenham 1296, Crawford 506/2. 3.76g, 20mm. RARE FLEUR DE COIN

4500

An incredible example that is as fresh today as when it was minted. Centrally struck on a broad flan, this is without a doubt one of the very best examples of the type. The types here celebrate the victories in Thrace and the coins were likely struck from silver donated by Polemokratia, widow of the Thracian prince Sadala. Nothing is known about Pedanius Costa, who was the legate of Brutus here mentioned. What is interesting iconographically about the bust of Apollo on the obverse is the way the standard border of dots has been changed to tear-drop shaped rays, thus emphasizing his connection with the sun.

254. Brutus AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Brutus and Cassius in Western Asia Minor or Northern Greece, 43-42 BC. COSTA LEG, laureate bust of Apollo right / IMP BRVTVS, trophy of arms. Junia 42, Sydenham 1296, Crawford 506/2. 3.68g, 18mm. EXTREMELY FINE Attractively toned; a couple of unobtrusive bankers marks.

1000

255. Brutus AR Denarius. 42 BC. L SESTI PRO Q, veiled, draped bust of Libertas right / Q CAEPIO BRVTVS PRO COS, tripod between sacrificial axe and simpulum, all within beaded border. Junia 37, Sydenham 1290, Crawford 502/2. 3.71g, 19mm. EXTREMELY FINE

1500

Brutus' uncle, Quintus Servilius Caepio, adopted him when he was a young man and Brutus was known as Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus for an unknown period of time. Lucius Sestius Quirinalis Albinianus was a proquaestor of Marcus Iunius Brutus and a suffect consul in 23 BC. He was the son of Publius Sestius. During the excavations of the villa in Settefinestre, which belonged to Sestius' parents, stamped potteries with the letters LS, attributed to his initials, have been revealed. Literary sources credit him with the dedication of three arae (altars) of the Imperial cult in north-west Hispania, sometime around 19 BC. Sestius was also a friend of Horace and was the subject of one of his odes.

86


256. M. Junius Brutus AR Denarius. L. Plaetorius Cestianus, moneyer. Military mint travelling with Brutus and Cassius in northern Greece, 42 BC. L • PLAET • CEST behind laureate, veiled, and draped bust of Ceres right, surmounted by modius / BRVT • IMP below, sacrificial axe and simpulum. Crawford 508/2, CRI 214, Sydenham 1300, Kestner 3780, BMCRR East 66-67, RSC 2. 3.60g, 20mm. VERY RARE GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

5000

Light porosity, but otherwise virtually as struck, and on a broad flan. Very rare and in exceptional condition for the type. This issue bears the distinction of being the last coined in the name of Brutus before his defeat at Philippi. The obverse probably relates to Cestianus’ office as quaestor, while the reverse relates to Brutus’ office of pontifex.

ONE OF THE FINEST KNOWN

257. Brutus AR Denarius. Military mint, probably at Smyrna, 42 BC. Axe, simpulum and knife, BRVTVS below. / Jug and lituus, LENTVLVS SPINT below. Crawford 500/7, CRI 198, Sydenham 1310. 3.97g, 19mm. RARE FLEUR DE COIN

7000

One of the finest examples of this type known to exist, this piece is exceptional for the broad flan on which it is struck, the beautiful medallic effect on the obverse and the absence of wear indicating it was deposited very shortly after being minted. The piece displays gorgeous iridescent hues. As perfect an example as one can hope to find. The implements on the obverse refer to the priestly college to which Brutus belonged, while the jug and lituus on the reverse relate to P. Cornelius Lentulus Spinther’s position as an augur, a function to which he was elected in BC 57. Early in 42 BC, when this coin was struck, Brutus began to plunder the cities of Asia Minor, in order to obtain much needed money and manpower for his legions. The inhabitants of Lycia refused to submit to the tyrannicides, and Brutus besieged the city of Xanthus. After destroying their suburbs, the Xanthians withdrew into the heavily fortified city. The Roman legionaries (2,000 men) forced the gate and fought their way into the forum. The citizens made an heroic stand by the temple of Sarpedon, but by nightfall the Roman army had reduced the city to ruins. The Xanthians preferred to perish in the flames of their city rather than to yield. Thereafter the confederation of Lycia sent ambassadors to Brutus, promising to form a military league and contribute money for the building of ships.

87


A BEAUTIFUL SEXTUS POMPEY DENARIUS

258. Sextus Pompey AR Denarius. 42 BC. MAG PIVS IMP ITER, bust of Neptune right, trident over shoulder / PRAEF CLAS ET ORAE MARIT EX S C, trophy with trident above & anchor below; prow-stem on left & aplustre on right, heads of sea monsters Scylla and Charybdis below. Pompeia 21, Crawford 511/2b, Sydenham 1347. 3.70g, 19mm. RARE GOOD EXTREMELY FINE An exceptional example of this rare type. Toned, with beautiful surfaces.

3750

This coin was struck to commemorate the naval successes of Sextus Pompey and the disaster which befell the enemy. The fatal rock Scylla lay opposite the vortex Charybdis. These two lay on opposite sides of the strait of Messana, and were so close that sailors trying to avoid the one would often pass too close to the other. It was in the harbour of Messana that the greater part of the fleet of Pompey took shelter during the tempest which was so fatal to the ships of Octavian.

259. Sextus Pompey AR Denarius. 42 BC. MAG PIVS IMP ITER, bust of Neptune right, trident over shoulder / PRAEF CLAS ET ORAE MARIT EX S C, trophy with trident above & anchor below; prow-stem on left & aplustre on right, heads of sea monsters Scylla and Charybdis below. Pompeia 21, Crawford 511/2b, Sydenham 1347. 3.87g, 20mm. RARE EXTREMELY FINE

2500

260. Sextus Pompey Denarius. Sicily, 40 BC. MAG PIVS IMP ITER, bare head of Pompey the Great right between lituus and capis / Neptune left, foot on prow, between brothers Anapias and Amphinomus, parents on their shoulders, PRAEF above, in ex CLAS ET ORAE / MARIT EX SC. Pompeia 27, Crawford 511/3a, Sydenham 1344. 3.92g, 21mm. RARE EXTREMELY FINE Excellent portrait of Pompey Magnus in both fine style and high relief.

2000

This issue was struck by Sextus Pompey after his victory over Salvidienus and relates to his acclamation as the 'Son of Neptune', whilst the representation of the Catanaean brothers may either refer to the title Pius or show that the coins were struck at Catana.

88


89


261. Octavian AR Denarius. Uncertain Italian mint, 32-29 BC. Diademed bust of Venus right, cornucopia behind & branch before / CAESAR DIVI F, Octavian in military dress advancing right with spear over shoulder. RIC 253, RSC 72. 3.56g, 20mm. VERY FINE

750

262. Octavian AR Denarius. 32-29 BC. Diademed bust of Venus or Pax right / CAESAR DIVI F, Octavian, in military dress, rushing left, bearing spear in left hand and raising right. RIC 251, RSC 70, BMC 609. 3.60g, 20mm. EXTREMELY FINE 1750

263. Octavian AR Denarius. 32-29 BC. Italian (Rome?) mint. Bare head right / IMP CAESAR across field, ithyphallic boundary-stone of Jupiter Terminus, surmounted by laureate head of Octavian facing; winged thunderbolt below. RIC I 269a, CRI 425, RSC 114. 3.78g, 21mm. RARE VERY FINE

600

264. Octavian AR Denarius. 32-29 BC. Diademed bust of Venus or Pax right / CAESAR DIVI F, Octavian, in military dress, rushing left, bearing spear in left hand and raising right. RIC 251, RSC 70, BMC 609. 3.90g, 21mm. VERY FINE 450

265. Octavian AR Denarius. Brundisium or Roma, 32-29 BC. Bare head right / CAESAR DIVI F, Mercury, with petasus slung behind, seated right on cloak set on rock, playing lyre. C 61. BMC 597, RIC 257, CBN 75. 3.77g, 21mm. VERY FINE

1250

90


RARE OCTAVIAN DENARIUS

266. Octavian AR Denarius. Italian (Rome?) mint, Autumn 31- Summer 30 BC. Bare head right / Victory standing left on globe, holding wreath and palm frond. RIC I 254a, CRI 406, BMCRE 602 = BMCRR Rome 4338, RSC 65, BN 35. 3.85, 20.5mm. RARE GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

3500

A superb example of this rare type, which is significantly scarcer than the bust left counterpart of the issue, displaying a perfectly preserved reverse, and a portrait of fine style. Lightly toned with hints of gold about the devices. Far superior to the Prideaux example.

267. Octavian AR Denarius. Undetermined Italian mint, 31-30 BC. Bust of Victory right, her hair knotted behind / CAESAR DIVI F, Octavian as Neptune, naked, standing to left, foot on globe. Aplustre in right hand, sceptre in left hand. RIC 256, BMC 615, C. 60. 3.68g, 20mm. SCARCE GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

2500

This coin was struck to commemorate the victory over Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium. The symbolism on this piece is bold and clear; the bust of Victoria, in all her glory, occupies the entire obverse. Normally rendered as only a small figure, and usually on the reverse of Roman coinage, here she is paid high tribute with a full bust of fine style, itself exclaiming victory to all that saw it. The reverse is no less audacious in design. Octavian is portrayed as Neptune himself, bearing a sceptre and aplustre – the ornamental appendage of wood at the ship's stern – that denote authority and maritime power. Octavian stands, foot firmly planted upon a globe, a prerogative previously reserved only for Roma herself on the coinage of the Republic, suggesting at once both Rome’s ordained dominion over the world, and that of Octavian himself as the embodiment of Rome’s power and auctoritas.

268. Octavian AR Denarius. 31-30 BC. Winged bust of Victory right / CAESAR DIVI F, Octavian, as Neptune, standing left, right foot set on globe, holding aplustre in right hand, sceptre in left. RIC 256, RSC 60. 3.80g, 22mm. EXTREMELY FINE

1500

91


269. Octavian AR Denarius. 31-30 BC. Winged bust of Victory right / CAESAR DIVI F, Octavian, as Neptune, standing left, right foot set on globe, holding aplustre in right hand, sceptre in left. RIC 256, RSC 60. 3.83g, 21mm. NEAR EXTREMELY FINE

1000

LAST ISSUE OF THE REPUBLIC

270. Octavian AR Denarius. Cyrenaica, provincial governor L Pinarius Scarpus, ca 31–29 BC. IMP. CAESARI above, SCARPVS. IMP below, open right hand reaching left / DIVI. F on right, AVG. PONT on left, Victory standing right on globe, holding wreath. Crawford 546/6, Sydenham 1282, RSC 500. 3.88g, 20mm. EXTREMELY RARE VERY FINE A number of bankers' marks.

1500

According to Crawford, this coin represents the last denarius of the Roman Republic. L. Pinarius Scarpus commanded four legions for Mark Antony in Cyrenaica against Octavian's African army which was under the command of Cornelius Gallus. After learning of Antony’s defeat at Actium, Scarpus changed his allegiance to Octavian. This issue was struck shortly after the battle of Actium, the open hand signalizing a gesture of friendship toward Octavian.

271. Octavian AR Denarius. Cyrenaica, provincial governor L Pinarius Scarpus, ca 31–29 BC. IMP. CAESARI above, SCARPVS. IMP below, open right hand reaching left / DIVI. F on right, AVG. PONT on left, Victory standing right on globe, holding wreath. Crawford 546/6, Sydenham 1282, RSC 500. 3.88g, 20mm. EXTREMELY RARE VERY FINE 1000

272. Octavian AR Denarius. 29-27 BC. Bare head of Octavian right / IMP - CAESAR, trophy composed of helmet, cuirass, shield, and crossed spears set on prow of galley right. RIC 265a, RSC 119. 3.42g, 21mm. VERY FINE

700

92


273. Octavian AR Denarius. Circa 28 BC. Laureate bust of Apollo of Actium right, with features of Octavian. / IMP CAESAR, Octavian, veiled and in priestly robes, ploughing right with team of oxen. RIC 272, BMC 638, RSC 117. 3.98g, 20mm. RARE GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Beautifully toned and exceptionally well preserved for the issue. Attractive iridescent tones.

2750

The obverse of this rare coin borrows from the Greek tradition of moulding the features of a deity to resemble the ruler, as was the case on the coinage of Alexander and his father Philip. The reverse depicts Octavian as city founder of Nikopolis in Epirus, established in 31 BC at the site of the battle of Actium in memory of his victory over Antony and Cleopatra. The sacred boundary was marked by a pomerium or sacred furrow. On the spot where Octavian's own tent had been pitched he built a monument adorned with the beaks of the captured galleys; and in further celebration of his victory he instituted the so-called Actian games in honour of Apollo Actius, who had an ancient temple on the promontory there.

274. Octavian AR Denarius. Unknown Eastern mint (Pergamum?), 28 BC. CAESAR DIVI F COS VI, bare head of Augustus right, Capricorn below / AEGVPTO CAPTA, crocodile standing right BMC 653, Cohen 4, RIC 545. 3.35g, 18mm. VERY RARE – R3 EXTREMELY FINE

4000

A beautiful portrait of fine style, and a very rare and popular reverse type. Reverse edge chip, though does not impact on the detail or appreciation of the type. A perfect example would sell for many multiples of this price - an example in similar condition that was very slightly better centred and had a sound flan sold for $26,000 in 2008. This type celebrates the conquest of Egypt for which Octavian had claimed a triumph the previous year on 15 August, which was celebrated immediately following his other two triumphs for his victories in Illyria and at Actium, on 13 and 14 August respectively.

275. Octavian, with Julius Caesar, Æ Dupondius. Vienna, Gaul, 36 BC. Bare heads of Julius Caesar and Octavian, back to back / CIV above prow of quinquireme with elaborate superstructure and mast right. RPC 517, SNG Copenhagen. 18.06g, 31mm. RARE GOOD VERY FINE Exceptional for this issue. From the Richard Prideaux Collection of Augustus.

1750

The reverse of this piece could refer to one of several naval actions in 36 BC, but the most likely event to which it alludes is the action on September 3, when Agrippa defeated Sextus Pompey in a major naval engagement off Naulochus.

93


IMPERIAL

276. Augustus AR Denarius. P. Carisius, moneyer. Emerita, Spain, 25-23 BC. IMP CAESAR AVGVST, bare head right / P CARISIVS LEG PRO PR, helmet between dagger & bipennis. BMC 281, RSC 405. 3.80g, 19mm. VERY RARE EXTREMELY FINE Attractively toned.

1500

277. Augustus AR Cistophorus. Ephesus, 24-20 BC. IMP CAESAR, bare head right of Augustus / Capricorn right, bearing cornucopiae on its back, AVGVSTVS below, all in laurel wreath. RIC 480, BMC 696. 11.61g, 27mm. EXTREMELY FINE

1950

278. Augustus AR Denarius. Uncertain mint in the northern Peloponnnesos, circa 21 BC. AVGVSTVS, bare head of Augustus right / IOVI OLVM, hexastyle temple of Zeus at Olympia, seen from front, round shield in pediment and palmettes on roof. Bauten 159, BMC 665, BN 939, Cohen 182, RIC 472. 3.67g, 19mm. RARE FLEUR DE COIN

2500

This coin was issued while Augustus was travelling east across the Peloponnesos after having arrived at Patrai. The site of its production is not known - it may have been produced at Elis or even at Patrai. The Temple of Zeus at Olympia, built between 472 and 456 BC, was an ancient temple; the very model of the fully-developed classical Greek temple of the Doric order. It stood in the most famous sanctuary of Greece, which had been dedicated to local and Pan-Hellenic deities and had probably been established towards the end of the Mycenaean period. The Altis, the enclosure with its sacred grove, open-air altars and the tumulus of Pelops, was first formed during the tenth and ninth centuries BC. The temple housed the Statue of Zeus - one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The Chryselephantine statue was made by the sculptor Phidias in his workshop on the site at Olympia, taking about twelve years to complete, and it stood approximately 13 metres (43 ft) high, occupying the whole width of the aisle in the temple built to house it. "It seems that if Zeus were to stand up," the geographer Strabo noted early in the first century BC, "he would un-roof the temple." In his right hand he held a figure of Nike, the goddess of victory, also made from ivory and gold, and in his left hand, a sceptre made with many kinds of metal, with an eagle perched on the top. His sandals were made of gold and so was his robe. His garments were carved with animals and with lilies. The throne was decorated with gold, precious stones, ebony, and ivory. This statue was the most famous work in all of Greece. In 426 AD, Theodosius II ordered the destruction of the sanctuary, and earthquakes in 522 and 551 devastated the ruins and left the Temple of Zeus partially buried.

94


95


279. Augustus AR Denarius. Samos, 21-20 BC. CAESAR, bare head of Augustus right / AVGVSTVS, bull standing right. BMC 663, BN 941, Cohen 28, RIC 475. 3.87g, 20mm. FLEUR DE COIN Perfect, central strike on a large flan. Lustrous surfaces and crisp detail engraved in fine style.

4000

280. Augustus AR Denarius. L. Aquillius Florus, moneyer. Rome, circa 19 BC. Draped bust of Virtus right, wearing helmet with a long crest and feather on side, L.AQVILLIVS.FLORVS. III.VIR around / Augustus driving biga of elephants left, holding laurel branch over their backs; AVGVSTVS above, CAESAR below. BMC 36, BMCRR 4545, Cohen 354, RIC 301. 3.66g, 20mm. VERY RARE GOOD EXTREMELY FINE An exceptionally difficult coin to find in good condition. This example is the best to have been offered in at least a decade.

7750

The obverse of this coin is taken from the issues of the moneyer’s ancestor, Mn. Aquillius who struck coins in 71 BC. The reverse type, also used by the moneyer’s two colleagues M. Durmius and P. Petronius Turpilianus, probably refers to the events of the previous year, when Armenia was "reduced under the power of the Roman people", as Velleius puts it. In 20 BC, the Armenians sent messengers to Augustus to tell him that they no longer wanted Artaxias II as their king, and asked that his brother Tigranes (then in Roman custody in Alexandria) be installed in his place. Augustus readily agreed, and Tiberius was sent into Armenia at the head of his legions to depose Artaxias. Before they arrived, however, Artaxias was assassinated by some of his other relatives, and the Romans put Tigranes on the throne unopposed.

281. Augustus AR Denarius. M. Durmius, moneyer. Rome, 19 BC. CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head right / M DVRMIVS IIIVIR, lion bringing down stag left. BMCRE 65. CBN 217, Pl. IX (same obverse die), Cohen 431 (40 Fr.), RIC 318. 3.97g, 20mm. EXTREMELY FINE

1750

96


282. Augustus AR Denarius. Uncertain Spanish mint, 19 BC. Bare head of Augustus right / SIGNIS RECEPTIS and SP QR, above and below standard and Aquila flanking shield inscribed CL V. RIC 86b, RSC 286, BMC 420. 3.85g, 19mm. GOOD VERY FINE

1100

Part of the extensive series celebrating Augustus’ recovery of the blood-stained legionary standards lost to the Parthians in Crassus' disastrous campaign. That such a large series of numerous and varied types was struck in commemoration of this event is evidence of the pride Augustus felt in his accomplishment and of the significance it had to the citizens, and more importantly to the legions of Rome.

283. Augustus AR Denarius. Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), circa 19 BC. Bare head right / SIGNIS RECEPTIS, shield inscribed CL∙ V; S P Q R around, Aquila on right, signa on left. RIC I 86a, RSC 265. 4.02g, 19mm. EXTREMELY FINE Beautifully toned.

800

284. Augustus AR Denarius. L. Aquillius Florus, moneyer. Rome, 19-18 BC. CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head of Augustus right / L AQVILLIVS.FLORVS.III.VIR, open flower with six petals seen from above. BMC 46 (BMCRR 4553), BN 183, Cohen 364, RIC 309. 3.57g, 21mm. VERY RARE FLEUR DE COIN A bright, lustrous and exceptionally sharp example of this very rare type. Certainly one of the finest known of the issue.

7750

Punning allusions were a well-established tradition on coins of the Roman Republic, and we find a number of them on coins from the middle of Augustus’s reign. This superb denarius shows a flower in bloom with the moneyer's name L. Aquillius Florus around it. The similarity of the Latin floris (meaning a flower or a blossom) to the moneyer’s name florus would not have been lost on recipients of this coin. That a coin type of such a personal nature was struck is evidence of Augustus’ desire to restore the semblance of the old Republican institutions. Indeed, he restored the appearance of moneyers’ names on coinage in 19 B.C. after they had been absent for more than a generation. Augustus allowed moneyers to strike coins with their names and personalized designs until 12 B.C. and thereafter he allowed the tradition to linger until 4 B.C. in a somewhat more constrained fashion with moneyers’ names still appearing on dupondii, asses and quadrantes of generic designs.

285. Augustus AR Denarius. P. Petronius Turpilianus, moneyer. Rome mint, 19-18 BC. TVRPILIANVS III • VIR • FE-RON, draped bust of Feronia right, wearing stephane, above which is a row of berries, and pearl necklace / CAESAR • AVGVSTVS • SIGN RECE, bare-headed Parthian kneeling on right knee right, extending in right hand a standard, to which is attached a vexillum marked X, and holding out left hand below left knee. RIC I 288, RSC 484, BMCRE 14-7, BN 127-37. 4.00g, 19mm. EXTREMELY FINE Superbly toned with gold highlights.

900

Another type commemorating Augustus’ diplomatic triumph in securing the restoration of the legionary standards which had been lost by Crassus in the disastrous campaign of 53 BC. Many of the issues of this period commemorate this significant event.

97


286. Augustus AR Denarius. Spanish mint, 18-16 BC. SPQR IMP CAESARI, bust left / QVOD VIAE MVN SVNT, in four lines between two arches on viaduct, each bearing facing equestrian statues and trophy. RIC 142. 3.18g, 18mm. EXREMELY RARE - R4 in RIC VERY FINE This issue is among the rarest of Augustus' denarii.

1000

287. Augustus AR Denarius. P. Licinius Stolo, moneyer, 17 BC. Bare head of Augustus right, AVGVSTVS TR POT / Apex between two studded ancilia, P STOLO above, III VIR below. C 438, BMC 74, RIC 343, CBN 296. 3.65g, 18mm. RARE EXTREMELY FINE

2000

This denarius refers to the ludi saeculares held in 17 BC, a series of games and sacrifices signalling the birth of a new golden age. The Ancile was the legendary shield of the god Mars, said to have fallen from heaven, upon Numa Pompilius during a plague that had devastated the city. The plague was stayed, and at the same time, a voice was heard which declared that Rome should be mistress of the world while the shield was preserved. Though there was but one Ancile that fell from heaven, there were twelve preserved, called the Ancilia; Numa, by the advice, as it is said, of the nymph Egeria, ordered eleven others, perfectly like the first, to be made. This was so that if anyone should attempt to steal it, as Ulysses did the Palladium, they might not be able to distinguish the true Ancile from the false ones. These Ancilia were preserved in the temple of Mars, and were committed to the care of twelve priests of Salii, instituted for that purpose by Numa. They were carried every year, in the month of March, in procession around Rome, and on the 30th day of that month, were again deposited in their place

288. Augustus AR Denarius. Uncertain mint (Emerita?), 16 BC. Bare head right / AVGVSTVS, capricorn right, bearing cornucopiae on its back and holding globe and rudder. RIC I 547a, BMCRE 346, BN 1271ff, RSC 21. 3.97g, 20mm. VERY RARE EXTREMELY FINE A superb example of this very rare and sought after type. This piece displays beautiful mirror lustre.

2500

The capricorn represents Augustus' birth sign and was to appear frequently as a coin type during his reign. His birthday was September 23 (63 BC), which would have made him a Libra by the modern reckoning. However, it is clear from an astronomical work dating from the early part of Tiberius' reign that the moon and not the sun was used as the basis for computations at that time. The moon was in Capricorn at the time of Augustus' birth.

98


289. Augustus AR Denarius. Lyons mint, 15-13 BC. DIVI•F AVGVSTVS, bare head right / IMP• X, SICIL• in exergue, Diana standing left, head right, leaning on spear & holding bow, dog at her feet to left. RSC 146, RIC 173a. 3.71g, 21mm. GOOD VERY FINE Attractively toned with gorgeous rainbow iridescence.

1200

This issue commemorates the defeat of Sextus Pompey by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa in 36 BC at the Battle of Naulochus. Following the victory a shrine was erected to Diana Siciliensis at Naulochus, by whose divine favour the victory was supposedly gained. 290. Augustus AR Denarius. Circa 13BC. AVGVSTVS CAESAR, bare head right / C ANTISTIVS REGINVS, simpulum & lituus above tripod & patera, III VIR below. RSC 347, BMC 120. 4.01g, 20mm. VERY RARE GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

2250

291. Augustus AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 11-10 BC. AVGVSTVS DIVI F, laureate bust right / IMP XII, Apollo Citharoedus of Actium with long robe standing right holding lyre in right hand and plectrum in left hand. ACT in exergue. RIC 193a. BMC 484, C. 163. 3.76g, 19mm. VERY RARE VERY FINE

700

292. Augustus Denarius. Lyons mint, 2 BC-circa 4 AD. CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE, laureate bust right / AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, C L CAESARES below, Gaius & Lucius standing front, each with a hand resting on a round shield, a spear, & in field above, a lituus right & simpulum left ("b9"). RIC 207, RSC 43, BMC 519. 3.68g, 18mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Lightly toned.

750

In exceptionally good state, as evidenced by the preservation of the facial features on the reverse figures of Gaius and Lucius. Made all the more special by the fine style of portraiture on the obverse.

293. Augustus AR Denarius. Lyons mint, 2 BC-circa 4 AD. CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE, laureate bust right / AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, C L CAESARES below, Gaius & Lucius standing front with shields & spears; in field above, a simpulum & lituus (in "Pd" formation). BMC 540, RSC 43b. 3.75g, 21mm. RARE NEAR EXTREMELY FINE

600

An exceptional example of this scarcer mirror-image version of the popular reverse type: Gaius, with his shield in front of Lucius’ shield and the ladle by his head marking him as Pontifex, is on the right rather than on the left as he should be.

294. Augustus AR Denarius. Lyons mint, 2 BC-circa 4 AD. CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE, laureate bust right / AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, C L CAESARES below, Gaius & Lucius standing front, each with a hand resting on a round shield, a spear, & in field above, a lituus right & simpulum left ("b9"). RIC 207, RSC 43, BMC 519. 3.78g, 18mm. EXTREMELY FINE Attractive portrait of fine style in high relief.

500

99


295. Divus Augustus Æ As. Struck under Tiberius, 31-37 AD. DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER, radiate bust left / S-C to left and right of altar enclosure with large double-panelled door, PROVIDENT in exergue. RIC I 81 (Tiberius), BMC 146, Cohen 228. 11.08g, 30mm. EXTREMELY FINE 1250 Splendid portrait in fine style. An unusual example, in that the band of Augustus' radiate crown is partially concealed by the locks of his hair.

296. Divus Augustus Æ As. Struck under Tiberius, 31-37 AD. DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER, radiate bust left / S-C to left and right of altar enclosure with large double-panelled door, PROVIDENT in exergue. RIC I 81 (Tiberius), BMC 146, Cohen 228. 11.26g, 32mm. EXTREMELY FINE Attractive ‘Tiber’ patina; lightly double-struck obverse but in extremely good condition for the issue and struck on a broad flan.

1000

297. Tiberius AV Aureus. Lugdunum, 14-17 AD. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate bust right / PONTIF MAXIM, Livia as Pax seated right, holding branch and sceptre; plain legs to chair. RIC 25, Cohen 15, BMC 30. 7.78g, 21mm. EXTREMELY FINE Attractive early portrait of Tiberius in good style.

7500

Note that the design of the reverse has been composed using geometric principles – Livia’s sceptre stands at a right angle with the ground, which runs parallel to the line at the base of her chair, and to Livia's left thigh. The chair legs, in turn, as well as Livia left leg to a lesser extent, again are at right angles to this line running underneath her. This geometric design, and the youthful portrait depicted in fine style on the obverse are typical of earlier issues of this type and its corresponding denarius.

100


101


298. Tiberius AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 14-37 AD. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate bust right / PONTIF MAXIM, Livia, as Pax, seated right on throne with ornate legs, single line below, holding long sceptre & olive branch. RIC 30, RSC 16a, BMC 48. 3.75g, 19mm. FLEUR DE COIN

2000

Beautifully toned with golden iridescent highlights. A superb portrait in fine style, typical of the earlier issues of this coin.

299. Tiberius AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 14-37 AD. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate bust right / PONTIF MAXIM, Livia, as Pax, seated right; plain legs to chair with double line below. RIC 26, BMCRE 34, RSC 16. 3.64g 19mm. GOOD EXTRMELY FINE

2000

Perfectly centred on a full flan. Beautifully toned with golden iridescent highlights. Another fine early portrait of Tiberius.

300. Tiberius AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 14-37 AD. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate bust right / PONTIF MAXIM, Livia, as Pax, seated right on throne with ornate legs, single line below, holding long sceptre & olive branch. RIC 30, RSC 16a, BMC 48. 3.73g, 20mm. EXTREMELY FINE Lightly toned and excellent style.

1250

301. Tiberius AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 14-37 AD. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate bust right / PONTIF MAXIM, Livia, as Pax, seated right on throne with ornate legs, single line below, holding long sceptre & olive branch. RIC 30, RSC 16a, BMC 48. 3.76g, 19mm. NEAR EXTREMELY FINE

1250

Beautiful old tone with the slightest hints of iridescence around the devices. Obverse slightly off-centre, but legends visible and legible. Perfectly centred reverse.

102


302. Tiberius AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 14-37 AD. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate bust right / PONTIF MAXIM, Livia, as Pax, seated right on throne with ornate legs, single line below, holding long sceptre & olive branch. RIC 30, RSC 16b. 3.85g, 19mm. GOOD VERY FINE Strong late style portrait, nicely toned.

500

303. Tiberius AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 14-37 AD. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST, laureate bust right / PONTIF MAXIM, Livia, as Pax, seated right on throne with ornate legs, single line below, holding long sceptre & olive branch. RIC 30, RSC 16a, BMC 48. 3.65g, 18mm. GOOD VERY FINE Excellent young portrait.

450

304. Tiberius Æ Dupondius. Rome, 16-22 AD. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST IMP VIII, laureate bust left / CLEMENTIAE S-C, small bust of Tiberius within laurel wreath; all in the centre of a large shield with palmettes and raised petals. RIC 38. 14.82g, 29mm. VERY RARE EXTREMELY FINE A beautiful coin of superb style; one of the finest portraits of Tiberius to be found on an AE issue.

3500

RIC rates this coin as Scarce, however so very few examples of this type appear on the market that it can justifiably be rated as at least Very Rare. The supposedly rarer counterpart to this issue - MODERATIONI - appears more frequently, yet these are still few and far between. This issue and its counterpart pose the only major disputed problem in the aes of Tiberius, in that the coins have been assigned to a wild variety of dates and for different reasons. RIC asserts that ‘very careful consideration of the artistic characteristics of the coins themselves, as distinct from the possible historical interpretations of the imagines clipeatae on the reverses, must lead without much serious doubt to the conclusion that the date of issue was comparatively early in Tiberius’ reign... the year 22 still seems most likely’. This coin is vastly superior in style to the RIC plate coin, and as such would seem to support RIC’s authors’ conclusion that the type was minted earlier than others would suggest, as it is quite apparent that the finest artistry and engravings, particularly of Tiberius himself, appeared at the start of his reign.

103


305. Tiberius Æ Sestertius. 21-22 AD. CIVITATIBVS ASIAE RESTITVTIS, Tiberius seated left, feet on stool, holding patera and long sceptre / TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST P M TR POT XXIIII around large SC. RIC 48. 25.31g, 35mm. RARE GOOD FINE

350

306. Tiberius Æ As. Rome, 15-16 AD. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST IMP VII, bare head right / PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XVII S C, Livia seated right. Cohen 17, RIC 33. 10.86g, 29mm. GOOD VERY FINE Attractive portrait and finely detailed rendering of Livia.

300

307. Germanicus Æ As. Struck under Caligula. Rome, 37-41 AD. GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N, bare head left / C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around large S∙C. RIC 35 [Caligula], Cohen 1, BMC 49. 10.65g, 27mm. GOOD VERY FINE Very attractive portrait and

300 surfaces.

308. Nero and Drusus Caesars, the brothers of Caligula, Æ Dupondius. Struck under Caligula. Rome, 37-38 AD. NERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES, Nero & Drusus on horseback riding right / C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around large S∙C. Cohen 1, RIC 34. 16.26g, 31mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Beautiful even patina.

3000

104


309. Claudius Æ As. ca 42-43 AD. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P, bare head left / CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI S-C, Constantia standing left leaning on sceptre. RIC 111, Cohen 14, BMC 199. 9.92g, 29mm. NEAR EXTREMELY FINE Slight bend in flan.

700

A fine example of the type, displaying a highly attractive patina.

Nero Claudius Drusus Son of Livia, brother of Tiberius

310. Nero Claudius Drusus AR Denarius. Rome, 41-45 AD. NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICVS IMP, laureate bust left / DE GERMANIS, two oblong shields crossed over spears and trumpets, vexillum, and flag. RIC 74, BMC 107, C. 6. 3.48g, 19mm. VERY RARE GOOD VERY FINE Ex Jacob Hirsch Auction, 3 October 1934, lot 1234.

3000

Roman history, like that of any enduring empire, allows for speculation about how the course of events might have changed had certain people died, or in this case, not died. A perfect study in this is Nero Claudius Drusus, the younger brother of Tiberius. Unlike Tiberius, whom Augustus had always disliked, Drusus was much beloved by Rome’s first emperor. When Augustus wrested Livia from her first husband, she was pregnant with Drusus, and gave birth to him months after her marriage to Augustus. It is commonly understood that Livia’s first husband had sired Nero Claudius Drusus – but perhaps it is not impossible that Augustus was the father. Speculation aside, Augustus took instantly to the newborn Drusus and treated him as if he was a son of his own blood. The same cannot be said for Drusus’ brother Tiberius, who was already four years old when he came to live in Augustus’ household. Augustus saw personally to Drusus’ education and arranged his marriage to his extraordinarily noble and wealthy niece Antonia. Drusus’ career advanced quickly and, after commanding alongside his brother, he spent three years leading a campaign in Germany. While there Drusus was able to dedicate the great Altar of Lugdunum to Augustus on August 1, 10 B.C., the very day that his youngest son, Claudius (who struck this denarius in posthumous remembrance 50 years after his death) was born. But Drusus’ great possibilities ended tragically in 9 BC when he died of injuries he received falling off a horse at age 29. This reverse type celebrates his German campaign – for which his eldest son, Germanicus, was renamed.

105


311. Nero and Agrippina II AR Didrachm of Caesarea, Cappadocia. 58-60 AD. NERO CLAVD DIVI CLAVD F CAESAR AVG GERMANI, laureate bust of Nero right / AGRIPPINA AVGVSTA MATER AVGVSTI, draped bust of Agrippina with elaborate coiffure right. RPC 3632. Sydenham 73, RIC 607. C. 1. 7.11g, 22mm. VERY RARE GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Beautiful toning. Ex Auction Swiss Bank Corp. 25, Zurich, 19 September 1990, lot 405.

3750

312. Nero AR Denarius. 66-67 AD. IMP NERO CAESAR AVGVSTVS, laureate and bearded bust of Nero right / Salus draped, seated left on throne, holding patera, SALVS in exergue. RIC 67, RSC 258, BMC 83. 3.52g, 18mm. EXTREMELY FINE Obverse lightly double-struck.

500

313. Nero AR Denarius. 66-67 AD. IMP NERO CAESAR AVGVSTVS, laureate bust right / IVPPITER CVSTOS, Jupiter seated left with thunderbolt & sceptre. RIC 64, RSC 121. 3.44g, 18mm. VERY FINE Lightly toned but lustrous.

500

Interesting Gold Coated Sestertius

314. Nero Gilt Æ ‘Imperial Donative’ Sestertius. 63 AD. NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P, laureate bust right / DECVRSIO S-C, Nero on horse prancing right, accompanied by a second horseman behind him. RIC 130. 29.66g, 36mm. EXTREMELY RARE - very few such gilt sestertii are known. VERY FINE

2000

A remarkable sestertius - this piece was coated in antiquity with a thin layer of gold, most probably for the purpose of being an imperial donative or other display of largesse, serving as an impressively large and heavy gold medallion (but without the associated cost of solid gold!) Clearly the original owner then fell upon hard times, as the sestertius was spent, and at several points in its life was test-cut to check for gold content, with the result being no doubt disappointing each time.

106


107


315. Nero Æ Dupondius. Rome, 64 AD. NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P, radiate bust right / VICTORIA AVGVSTI S-C, Victory flying left, holding wreath and palm, II in exergue. Cohen 338 var. 14.96g, 31mm. VERY FINE Superb visual appeal; better in hand.

450

Two Very Rare Civil War Denarii

316. Civil War AR Denarius - Revolt of Vindex. Spanish mint in support of Vindex/Galba, early 68 AD. LIBERTAS RESTITVTA, bust of Libertas wearing necklace right / S P Q R on round shield within oak wreath. RIC 27, BMC 12, C. 431. 3.57g, 18mm. EXTREMELY RARE GOOD VERY FINE

2500

317. The Civil Wars, Vitellian forces in Southern Gaul, March 69 AD, AR Denarius. Nemausus, IO MAX CAPITOLINVS, diademed and draped bust of Jupiter left, palm-branch before chin / VESTA P R QVIRITIVM, Vesta, veiled, enthroned left, holding patera and torch. RIC 125a, BMC 72, RCV 2082. 3.25g, 19mm. VERY RARE VERY FINE Ex Munzhandlung Basel.

1750

318. Galba AR Denarius. 68-69 AD. IMP SER GALBA AVG, laureate bust left / SALVS GEN HVMANI, Salus advancing left, resting foot on globe, holding patera & vertical rudder, lighted altar before. RIC 210. 3.27g, 18mm. VERY FINE Superb portrait.

600

108


Beautiful and Rare Otho Denarius

319. Otho AR Denarius. Rome, 69 AD. IMP M OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P, bare head right / VICTORIA OTHONIS, Victory, draped, flying right with wreath & palm. RIC 14, RSC 27. 3.39g, 18mm. VERY RARE – R3 FLEUR DE COIN

3500

This issue was struck prior to March 9, when the title of pontifex maximus was conferred upon Otho. The reverse is a rallying cry to the citizenry and legions in the face of the looming confrontation with Vitellius. On March 14 Otho, undismayed by omens and prophecies, started northwards at the head of his troops in the hopes of preventing the entry of Vitellius' troops into Italy. Just over a month later Otho was dead, killed by his own hand to prevent the empire from falling into civil war.

320. Otho AR Denarius. Rome, 69 AD. IMP M OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P, bare head right / PAX ORBIS TERRARVM, Pax standing left with branch & caduceus. RIC 4, RSC 3, BMC 3. 3.24g, 19mm. GOOD VERY FINE Excellent portrait.

2250

Exceptional Vitellius Portrait

321. Vitellius AR Denarius. Spanish mint (Tarraco?), 69 AD. A VITELLIVS IMP GERMAN, laureate bust left, globe at point / VICTORIA AVGVSTI, Victory alighting left, holding shield inscribed S P Q R in two lines. RIC I 36, BMCRE 94, BN 13, RSC 101. 3.68g, 19mm. RARE EXTREMELY FINE

3000

A magnificent portrait of Vitellius in exceptionally fine style. This issue was clearly the mark of a master engraver. Compare to the following lot, which although again a greatly above average portrait, is more typical of the chunky features that Vitellius is later portrayed as having.

109


322. Vitellius AR Denarius. Rome, April-December 69 AD. A VITELLIVS GERMAN IMP TR P, laureate bust right / XV VIR SACR FAC, dolphin set over tripod, raven below. RIC 86, BMC 17, C. 3.23g, 18mm. FLEUR DE COIN Virtually as minted; flawless detail.

2500

323. Vespasian AR Denarius. Ephesus mint, 71 AD. IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS II TR P P P, laureate bust right / LIBERI IMP AVG VESPAS, Titus & Domitian, each veiled & holding a patera, standing facing; BY monogram in exergue. RIC 2 (2007) 1420. 3.28g, 18mm. EXTREMELY RARE – R3 (equivalent to R5 in old RIC). EXTREMELY FINE

900

324. Vespasian AR Denarius. Ephesus Mint, 71 AD. IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P, laureate bust right / AVG in wreath, EPHE monogram below. RIC 328, C. 40, BMC 451, RPC 829, BN 341. 2.96g, 18mm. FLEUR DE COIN

500

325. Vespasian AR Denarius. Ephesus Mint, 71 AD. IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG COS III TR P P P, laureate bust right / CONCORDIA AVG, Ceres seated left, holding corn ears, poppies & cornucopia, EPHE monogram in exergue. RIC 329, RSC 67, BMC 453. 3.52g, 17mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Superb portrait.

500

326. Vespasian AR Denarius. Rome, 75 AD. IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate bust right / PON MAX TR P COS VI, Victory standing left on prow of ship, holding wreath & palm. RIC 93, RSC 368, BMC 166. 3.19g, 21mm. SCARCE VERY FINE Attractively toned.

250

110


327. Vespasian AR Denarius. Rome, 75 AD. IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate bust right / PON MAX TRP COS VI, Pax seated left holding branch. RIC 90, RSC 366. 3.42g, 18mm. EXTREMELY FINE Old, dark cabinet tone.

200

328. Vespasian AR Didrachm of Caesaria, Cappadocia, 77-78 AD. AVTOKPA KAICAP OVECPACIANOC CEBACTOC, laureate bust right / NIKH CEBACTH, Nike advancing right, holding wreath & palm. RPC II 1641, Metcalf 1. 6.54g, 22mm. NEARLY EXTREMELY FINE This piece displays an excellent portrait in fine, realistic style. Wonderfully toned.

400

329. Divus Vespasian AR Denarius. Issue of Titus, 80-81 AD. DIVVS AVGVSTVS VESPASIANVS, laureate bust right / EX-SC across field, Victory standing left placing shield on trophy, Jewish captive seated at foot of trophy. RIC 59a (Titus), RSC 144, BMC 112. 3.07g, 22mm. SCARCE GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

1500

Superbly toned with gold iridescence on obverse; only the very lightest of wear prevents this from being graded as FDC, and it remains the most beautiful example of this type that ROMA has yet seen.

330. Divus Vespasian AR Denarius. 80-81 AD. DIVVS AVGVSTVS VESPASIANVS, laureate bust right / S C inscribed on shield supported by two capricorns, orb with crosshatching below. RIC 357 (RIC [1962] 63) (Titus), RSC 497, BMC 129, BM-129, Paris 101. 3.48g, 18mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Attractively toned.

750

331. Divus Vespasian AR Denarius. 80-81 AD. DIVVS AVGVSTVS VESPASIANVS, laureate bust right / S C inscribed on shield supported by two capricorns, orb with crosshatching below. RIC 357 (RIC [1962] 63) (Titus), RSC 497, BMC 129, BM-129, Paris 101. 3.53g, 19mm. GOOD VERY FINE

300

Wonderful strike on a large flan, with full reverse and a gorgeous mirror lustre giving the coin a freshly struck appearance. Light die wear evident on obverse.

111


332. Vespasian Æ As. Rome, 71 AD. IMP CAES VESPASIANVS AVG COS III, laureate bust right / PROVIDENT, facade of the Ara Providentiae Augusti. RIC 494 var (NT not ligate). 10.27g, 29mm. VERY RARE GOOD VERY FINE

350

333. Vespasian Æ Sestertius. 72-73 AD. IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M TR P P P COS III, laureate bust right / PAX AVGVSTI S-C, Pax standing left, holding branch & cornucopiae. RIC 437, C. 327, BMC 554. 25.06g, 32mm. VERY FINE

750

334. Vespasian Æ As. 72-73 A.D. IMP CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG P P COS IIII, laureate bust right / S-C, Eagle standing facing on globe, head right. RIC 528b. 11.95g, 28mm. GOOD VERY FINE

300

335. Vespasian Æ Dupondius. Lugdunum mint, 77-78 AD. IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG COS VIII P P, laureate bust right / FORTUNAE REDVCI S-C, Fortuna standing left holding rudder & cornucopiae. RIC 794b. 11.26g, 27mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE 'Tiber' patina.

7500

A truly exquisite piece, with superb preservation of detail, from the wrinkles on Vespasian's brow to the fruit overflowing from Fortuna's cornucopiae, and the delicate toes of her feet. In exceptional condition for the type, and struck from dies of fine style and high artistic rit.

112


113


336. Titus AV Aureus. Rome, 79 AD. IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, laureate bust right / TR P VIIII IMP XIIII COS VII, slow quadriga left with garlanded car, in which are three ears of corn; RIC I虏 6, BMCRE -, BN 5 (different dies), Hunter -, Mazzini Coll. -, Calic贸 761 (same obverse die), C. 275. 7.41g, 19mm. EXTREMELY RARE NEAR EXTREMELY FINE

12000

337. Titus AR Denarius. 78-79 AD. T CAESAR VESPASIANVS, laureate bust right / CERES AVGVST, Ceres standing left holding grain ears & sceptre. RIC 219 (Vespasian), RSC 31, BMC 321. 3.05g, 19mm. EXTREMELY FINE Attractively toned.

300

338. Titus AR Denarius. Rome, 79 AD. IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, laureate bust right / TR P VIIII IMP XIIII COS VII P P, quadriga left with corn ears in car. RIC 12, RSC 278. 3.11g, 18mm. RARE VERY FINE Lightly toned with hints of iridescence.

350

339. Titus AR Denarius. Rome, 80 AD. IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, laureate bust right / TRP IX IMP XV COS VIII PP, elephant walking left. RIC 115, (RIC [1962] 22a), RSC 303, BMC 43. 3.42g, 20mm. GOOD EXTRMELY FINE Beautiful metal, finely toned with hints of iridescence.

1200

The reverse of this coin likely refers, in conjunction with the accompanying silver issues of 80-81 AD, to the inauguration of the Colosseum which lasted for one hundred days, and included gladiatorial contests, mock naval battles and beast fights. Indeed, for this purpose Titus had imported a number of elephants and it is probably in reference to this spectacle that the current coin was struck.

340. Titus AR Denarius. Rome, 80 AD. IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, laureate bust right / TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, wreath on curule chair. RIC 108, RSC 318. 3.43g, 18mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Attractively toned fields, remaining lustrous around the devices.

750

114


Agricola’s Campaign in Britannia

341. Titus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 80. IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM, laureate bust right / TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, Britannia seated left in attitude of mourning and bound British captive seated right. RIC 21a, RSC 306. 3.51g, 18mm. EXTREMELY FINE Lightly toned.

600

This denarius commemorates Gnaeus Julius Agricola's victorious advance across Britain and his establishment of a line of forts at the estuary of the river Taus, for which Titus was proclaimed imperator for the fifteenth time. "The third year of his campaigns opened up new tribes, our ravages on the native population being carried as far as the Taus, an estuary so called. This struck such terror into the enemy that he did not dare to attack our army, harassed though it was by violent storms; and there was even time for the erection of forts. It was noted by experienced officers that no general had ever shown more judgment in choosing suitable positions, and that not a single fort established by Agricola was either stormed by the enemy or abandoned by capitulation or flight. Sorties were continually made; for these positions were secured from protracted siege by a year's supply. So winter brought with it no alarms, and each garrison could hold its own, as the baffled and despairing enemy, who had been accustomed often to repair his summer losses by winter successes, found himself repelled alike both in summer and winter." - Tacitus, Agricola Book I From his arrival in Britannia around mid 78 A.D., Agricola, then appointed governor of the province, began expanding Roman control ever northwards. He advanced steadily across the island, making a sortie into Ireland in 82 A.D. and leading the Roman invasion of Caledonia in 83 A.D. The massed armies of the Caledonians were smashed at the Battle of Mons Graupius and the routing enemy were relentlessly pursued by the well-organised Roman units. The Caledonian casualties were estimated at around a third of their strength, which was given by Tacitus as 30,000. Roman casualties were reported at 360. Agricola was recalled from Britain in 85 A.D., after an unusually long tenure as governor. Tacitus claims that Domitian ordered his recall because Agricola's successes outshone the Emperor's own modest victories in Germany. The relationship between Agricola and the Emperor is unclear: on the one hand, Agricola was awarded triumphal decorations and a statue (the highest military honours apart from an actual triumph); on the other, Agricola never again held a civil or military post, in spite of his experience and renown. He was offered the governorship of the province of Africa, but declined it, whether due to ill health or (as Tacitus claims) the machinations of Domitian. In 93 A.D. Agricola died on his family estates in Gallia Narbonensis aged 53.

342. Titus AR Denarius. Rome, 80 AD. IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, laureate bust right / TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, dolphin coiled around an anchor. RIC II 26a, BMCRE 72, RSC 309. 3.30g, 19mm. This piece was minted in 80 A.D. under Titus, who ruled from 79-81 A.D. Titus remained in Judaea after Vespasian's accession to carry on the Jewish war, and captured Jerusalem in 70 A.D. On his return to Rome, Titus was made Vespasian's colleague in the government, and thus his succession on Vespasian's death went smoothly. Rome was plagued by a number of misfortunes during his reign, the most wellknown of which was the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 A.D., which destroyed the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Faced with these events, Titus proved to be a most benevolent emperor, and his death caused much sorrow. GOOD VERY FINE Spectacular multi-coloured iridescent patina.

350

343. Titus AR Denarius. Rome, 80 AD. IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, laureate bust right / TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, dolphin coiled around an anchor. RIC 26a, RSC 309, BMC 72. 3.26g, 18mm. VERY FINE

350

115


344. Titus AR Denarius. Rome, 80 AD. IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, laureate bust right / TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, thunderbolt on draped table or chair. RIC 23a, RSC 316, BMC 51. 3.26g, 19mm. VERY FINE Attractive iridescent toning.

175

345. Titus Æ As. Lugdunum, 77-78 AD. T CAES IMP AVG F TR P COS VI CENSOR, laureate bust right / VICTORIA NAVALIS S-C, Victory standing right on prow, holding wreath and palm. RIC 789. 13.00g, 31mm. GOOD VERY FINE 900 A couple of minor flaws, but an exceptional portrait of Titus and a beautifully rendered and detailed Victory. Extremely rare this nice.

346. Domitian, as Caesar, AV Aureus. Rome, 77-78 AD. CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS, laureate bust right / COS V, Captive kneeling right, offering standard with vexillum. RIC 959, C. 48. 7.30g, 20mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Reddish Boscoreale toning on obverse. Well struck on a full flan with complete bordering.

15000

347. Domitian AR Denarius. 76 AD. CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS, laureate bust right / COS IIII, winged Pegasus standing right with raised left foreleg. BMC 193, RSC 47. 3.29g, 19mm. GOOD VERY FINE

500

348. Domitian AR Denarius. Rome, 79 AD. CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI, laureate bust right / PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, clasped hands before legionary eagle, set on prow. RIC 1081 (RIC [1962] 246) (Vespasian), RSC 393, BMC 269. 3.29g, 20mm. EXTREMELY FINE As Struck. Traces of light die wear on obverse, but reverse crisp and lustrous as when minted.

116

750


349. Domitian AR Denarius. Rome, 79 AD. CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI, laureate bust right / PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, clasped hands before legionary eagle, set on prow. RIC 1081 (RIC [1962] 246) (Vespasian), RSC 393, BMC 269. 3.15g, 18mm. EXTREMELY FINE

300

350. Domitian AR Denarius. 80 AD. CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII, laureate bust right / PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Minerva advancing right, wielding javelin and holding shield at the ready. RIC 268 (RIC [1962] -) (Titus), RSC 381a, BMC 86. 3.34g, 18mm. EXTREMELY FINE Attractive old tone.

350

351. Domitian, as Caesar under Titus, AR Denarius. 80 AD. CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII, laureate bust right / PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, lighted, garlanded altar, with corn ears on either side. RIC 46[Titus], RSC 397. 3.32g, 18mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Beautiful gold, pink and blue iridescence only just visible in the photo, but superbly evident in hand. A very attractive piece.

350

352. Domitian, as Caesar AR Denarius. Struck under Titus, Rome, 80-81 AD. CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII, laureate bust right / PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, goat standing left within laurel wreath. RIC II 267 (Titus), RSC 390. 17mm, 3.29g. SCARCE GOOD EXTREMELY FINE A superior example of this type, with well centred strikes on both obverse and reverse.

750

353. Domitian AR Denarius. 81-83 AD. IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG P M, laureate bust right / IVPPITER CONSERVATOR, eagle standing on thunderbolt. RIC II, 40, BMCRE 53, Cohen 320. 3.38g, 19mm. SCARCE GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

650

354. Domitian AR Denarius. Rome, 82 AD. IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG P M, laureate bust right / TR POT COS VIII P P, dolphin twined around anchor. RSC 593, RIC 28. 3.26g, 19mm. EXTREMELY FINE Superbly toned.

500

117


355. Domitian AR Denarius. 82 AD. IMP CAESAR DOMITIANVS AVG P M, laureate bust right / TR POT IMP II COS VIII DES VIIII P P, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae. C 610, BMC 34, RIC 141, CBN 35. 3.65g, 20mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE A beautiful piece, centrally struck on a full flan. Lightly toned, yet displaying a superb underlying lustre with hints of iridescence.

400

356. Domitian AR Denarius. 88-89 AD. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM TR P VIII, laureate bust right / IMP XIX COS XIIII CENS P P P, Minerva standing left with thunderbolt and sceptre, shield at feet. RIC 669. 3.40g, 19mm. FLEUR DE COIN Superb old tone with iridescent highlights.

400

357. Domitian AR Denarius. 93-94 AD. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P XIII, laureate bust right / IMP XXII COS XVI CENS P P P, Minerva standing right on capital of rostral column, brandishing spear & holding shield, owl before. RIC 762, RSC 284. 3.52g, 19mm. FLEUR DE COIN

500

358. Domitian AR Denarius. 95-96 AD. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P XV, laureate bust right / IMP XXII COS XVII CENS P P P, Minerva standing left holding thunderbolt & spear, shield at foot left. RIC II 789, RSC 291. 3.67g, 19mm. EXTREMELY FINE Lightly toned with an underlying lustre.

300

359. Domitian AR Denarius. 96 AD. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P XV, laureate bust right / IMP XXII COS XVII CENS P P, Minerva standing left, holding thunderbolt and sceptre, shield at foot left. RIC II (2008) 789, Cohen 291. 3.12g, 18mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

250

118


Finest Known Example

360. Domitian, as Caesar, Æ Sestertius. Unknown Balkan Imperial mint, 80-81 AD. CAES DIVI AVG VESP F DOMITIANVS COS VII, laureate bust right / S C across field, Mars walking right, holding spear in right hand, trophy over left shoulder. RIC II 159 (Titus; Rome mint); RPC II 505 (Thrace); A. Burnett, "Regional Coinage in Thrace and Bithynia during the Flavian Period," Travaux Le Rider, pl. 8, 1, H. Cahn, "An Imperial Mint in Bithynia," INJ 8 (1984-5), 5, BMCRE -, BN 326 (Titus), Cohen 422. 26.90g, 35mm. VERY RARE GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

15000

A beautiful imperial bronze of impressive proportions and stunning detail. The portrait is rendered in exceptionally fine style, and the reverse depiction of Mars in heroic stance with his cloak billowing in the wind is of no less artistic merit. This piece has been perfectly preserved with the metal completely intact and with only a very thin patina, in some areas exposing the gorgeous golden orichalcum beneath. Besides being very rare, this example is also the finest of the type known to exist.

361. Domitian, as Caesar under Titus, Æ Sestertius. Rome, 80-81 AD. CAES DIVI AVG VESP F DOMITIAN COS VII, laureate bust right / SC, Minerva advancing right, brandishing spear & shield. RIC 157. 23.82g, 34mm. VERY FINE

450

362. Domitian Æ As. Rome, 86 AD. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XII CENS PER P P, laureate bust right, drapery on far shoulder / FORTVNAE AVGVSTI S-C, Fortuna standing left with rudder & cornucopiae. RIC 488. 10.10g, 29mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

3000

119


363. Domitian Æ As. Rome, 88-89 AD.IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XIIII CENS PER P P, laureate bust right / VIRTVTI AVGVSTI, Virtus standing right with spear & parazonium. Cohen 655. 10.81g, 30mm. GOOD VERY FINE

300

364. Julia Titi, as Augusta, AR Denarius. Rome, 80-81 AD. IVLIA AVGVSTA TITI AVGVSTI F, draped bust right / VENVS AVGVST, Venus standing right, back facing, leaning upon column to left, holding helmet and sceptre. RIC II 388 (Titus), RSC 14. 3.45 g, 19mm. VERY RARE GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Attractively toned.

5000

365. Nerva AR Denarius. 96-98 AD. IMP NERVA CAES AVG GERM P M TR P II, laureate bust right / IMP II COS IIII P P, priestly implements: ladle, sprinkler, jug & lituus. RIC 47, RSC 95. 3.57g. 18mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE A splendid portrait, beautifully toned.

750

366. Nerva Æ Sestertius. 97 AD. IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P COS III P P, laureate bust right / CONCORDIA EXERCITVVM S-C, clasped hands holding legionary eagle set on prow. RIC 80, Cohen 30, BMC 102. 24.69g, 35mm. VERY FINE

800

Composed in elegant and masterly style, unlike the crude caricatures that dominate the majority of his coinage, Nerva is here portrayed with vigorous and noble features.

120


367. Nerva Æ Sestertius. January-September 97 AD. IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P COS III P P, laureate bust right / FORTVNA AVGVST S-C, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia. RIC 83, Cohen 67. 30.67g, 35mm. EXTREMELY FINE An exceptional portrait.

2500

The sestertii of Nerva are in themselves quite scarce, and most examples display rather crude, hooked nosed portraits of little artistic merit. This piece then is unusual in that it is both well preserved, and of uncommonly fine style, showing an idealised, but far more accurate representation of Nerva than the caricatures that are so prevalent. Although already an old man of 65 by the time of his accession, here he is shown as a youthful individual in the prime of his life, with classical features reminiscent of Augustus. This piece was clearly the work of one of the more experienced celators at the imperial mint. A beautiful piece with an untouched green patina with lighter highlights around the devices.

368. Trajan AR Denarius. 99 AD. IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM, laureate bust right / PONT MAX TR POT COS II, Pax standing left with branch and cornucopiae. RIC 17, RSC 292, BMC 14. 3.38g, 18mm. EXTREMELY FINE

200

369. Trajan AR Denarius. 100 AD. IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM, laureate bust right / P M TR P COS III P P, Vesta seated left holding patera and torch. RIC 40, RSC 214. 3.22g, 20mm. EXTREMELY FINE Superb portrait.

350

370. Trajan AR Denarius. 101-102 AD. IMP CAES NERVA TRAIANVS AVG GERM, laureate bust right / P M TR P COS IIII P P, Victory standing right on prow, holding wreath and palm. RIC 59, RSC 241. 3.42g, 19mm. FLEUR DE COIN Beautifully toned, sharp detail and portrait of fine style.

400

121


Extremely Rare Restitution of Faustus Cornelius Sulla

371. Trajan AR Denarius. Restitution issue of Faustus Cornelius Sulla. Rome mint, 102-117 AD. Diademed bust of Hercules right, wearing lion skin, FEELIX above / Diana driving biga right, holding reins and lituus; crescent and two stars above, one star below. RIC II 793, RSC (Trajan Restored Issues) 23b. 3.02g, 20mm. EXTREMELY RARE EXTREMELY FINE

7250

Restitution issues may be considered to have appeared first under Augustus, with the re-use of certain Republic reverses as well as classical types first depicted on Greek coinage centuries before. The Restitution series of coinage under Trajan greatly expanded upon those which appeared under his predecessors Nerva and the Flavians; the series spanned both gold and silver issues, and commemorated coinages from the latter part of the Roman Republic through to Augustus and even more recent emperors. A possible explanation for this series would be Trajan’s desire to see types emblematic of Rome’s past continue to circulate long after the disappearance, through either wear, displacement, or recoining, of the prototypes. The fact that the Romans regarded their coinage with a certain degree of reverence is indicated by the idea of sacra moneta, and, with the help of propaganda, the emission of selective types from the past would further aid whatever view of history the restorer wished to convey.

372. Trajan AR Denarius. 103-104 AD. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P, laureate bust right, slight drapery on far shoulder / S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Aequitas standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae. RIC 169, RSC 462. 3.23g, 19mm. FLEUR DE COIN Struck on a full flan and attractively toned. An exceptional example of the type.

550

373. Trajan AR Denarius. 103-111 AD. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P, laureate bust right, slight drapery on far shoulder / COS V P P SPQR OPTIMO PRINC, Spes advancing left holding flower and lifting skirt. RIC 127, RSC 84. 3.06g, 20mm. EXTREMELY FINE Attractively toned.

300

122


374. Trajan AR Denarius. 112-114 AD. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TRP COS VI PP, laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder/ SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Trajan on horseback left carrying spear. RIC 291, RSC 497a, BMC 445. 3.23g, 20mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

600

Finely detailed and very attractively toned. The fields display an old, dark cabinet toning, while around the devices there is a light, slightly golden iridescence that highlights the detail. An exceptional example of this type that has to be held to be fully appreciated.

375. Trajan AR Denarius. 114-117 AD. IMP CAES NER TRAIAN OPTIM AVG GERM DAC PARTHICO, laureate, draped bust right / P M TR P COS VI P P SPQR, Providence standing left, holding sceptre, resting on column and pointing at globe at feet. PRO-VID across field. RIC 364. 3.53g, 19mm. EXTREMELY FINE

175

376. Trajan AR Denarius. 116-117 AD. IMP CAES NER TRAIAN OPTIM AVG GER DAC PARTHICO, laureate, draped bust right / P M TR P COS VI P P S P Q R, Virtus standing right, foot on helmet, with spear and parazonium. RIC 353, RSC 272. 3.8g, 20mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

275

377. Trajan AR Denarius. 116-117 AD. IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC, laureate draped bust right / P M TR P COS VI P P SPQR, Virtus standing right holding spear and parazonium, foot on helmet. RIC 334, RSC 193. 3.25g, 20mm. EXTREMELY FINE Attractive iridescent toning.

250

378. Trajan Æ Sestertius. 100 AD. IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM P M, laureate bust right with aegis on left shoulder / TR POT COS III P P, S C in exergue, Pax seated left on throne, feet on footstool, holding olive branch in outstretched right hand and cradling long sceptre in left arm leaning on throne arm. RIC 413. 23.55g, 34mm. RARE EXTREMELY FINE Beautifully detailed, good surfaces and an even patina.

2000

123


379. Trajan Æ Sestertius. Circa 103-111 AD. IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P, laureate bust right / SPQR PTIMO PRINCIPI, Trajan standing left in military attire, holding thunderbolt and sceptre, crowned by Victory. In exergue, S C. BMC 825. RIC 549. 28.50g, 35mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

10000

380. Trajan Æ Sestertius. Circa 103-111 AD. IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P, laureate bust right, drapery on far shoulder / SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI SC, Aquila flanked by legionary standards. RIC 588, Cohen 579. 11.07g, 27mm. GOOD EXTRMELY FINE Attractive, untouched green patina.

2000

381. Trajan Æ Sestertius. 103-111 AD. IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V PP, laureate bust right / S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI S-C, Trajan on horseback, galloping right, spearing Dacian enemy before horse. RIC II 536v. 10.36g, 29mm. VERY RARE EXTREMELY FINE This bust type with draped left shoulder is not listed for the type as an As.

1250

382. Trajan Æ Dupondius. IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P, radiate bust right / S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI S-C; trophy of arms, two shields at base. RIC 586, Cohen 573, BMC 909. 13.76g, 28mm. NEAR EXTREMELY FINE

400

124


The Temple of Venus Genetrix

383. Trajan Æ Sestertius. Rome, 104-111 AD. IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P, laureate bust right, displaying bare shoulder and chest, slight drapery on left shoulder / SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI, octostyle temple of Venus Genetrix(?), Venus standing within; Jupiter seated facing in pediment, flanked by smaller reclining figures; five statues on roof, S C in exergue. RIC 575, Cohen 552. 27.89g, 35mm. EXTREMELY FINE

4500

This sestertius was part of an extensive issue in bronze, silver and gold, clearly intended to commemorate an important event. The authors of RIC note that Trajan built no temples in Rome, and that this temple must either be a building connected with Trajan’s Forum or else one erected in the provinces. However, one must question why quite so much fanfare would have been made in Rome over a provincial temple. Since the only temple we know of in Trajan’s forum was that of Jupiter, later rededicated to Divus Traianus, which has its own distinct representation on coinage, this is unlikely to be the case also. Though that temple is octostyle and similar in design to the one depicted here, there are distinct differences, the most important being the figure within. On this coin we clearly see a figure which cannot be Jupiter, but which does bear remarkable resemblance to surviving statues of Venus Genetrix in both stance and posture. The temple of Venus Genetrix, which this coin might plausibly represent, was dedicated by Caesar on September 26, 46 B.C., and subsequently damaged by fire in 80 A.D., rebuilt under Domitian, was finally rededicated by Trajan in 113 A.D. While this coin was issued earlier than this date, as denoted by the COS V, it is not unlikely that Trajan would have had the rededication publicised pre hoc. Contemporary coins also bear the likeness of Trajan’s column and the temple of Jupiter (subsequently rededicated by Hadrian as the temple of the deified Trajan), both integral elements of Trajan’s Forum, though these two had also yet to be completed.

The Fall of Singara

384. Trajan Æ Sestertius. Rome mint, 115 AD. IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI P P, laureate and draped bust right / IMPERATOR VIII in exergue, Trajan seated right on platform, placed on left, accompanied by two officers, addressing soldiers. RIC II 658; Banti 80. 23.51g, 36mm. EXTREMELY FINE Beautiful even and dark patina. A very impressive sestertius.

10000

Ex Gorny & Mosch 138 (7 March 2005), lot 234. Trajan's acclamation by his troops as imperator for the eighth time occurred after the fall of the city of Singara in 115 during his campaigns on the eastern frontier. Singara itself was a strongly fortified post at the northern extremity of Mesopotamia, which for a while was occupied by the Romans as an advanced colony against the Persians. It was the camp of Legio I Parthica. Its position, south-east of Nisibis, has not been clearly defined by ancient writers, Stephanus of Byzantium calling it a city of Arabia, near Edessa, and Ptolemy placing it on the Tigris. There can, however, be no doubt that it and the mountain near it are represented in the present day by the district of Singar (in modern-day Iraq).

125


385. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome mint, 119-122 AD. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P COS III, Mars standing facing, holding spear and shield. RIC 65. BMC 109. Calic贸 1312. 7.27 g, 19mm. VERY RARE GOOD EXTREMELY FINE A superb and rare depiction of Mars standing facing, armoured and helmeted with a dark, menacing visage.

12500

386. Hadrian AR Denarius. 128 AD. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P, laureate bust right / COS III, Victory seated left, holding wreath and palm. RIC 345, RSC 362. 3.46g, 19mm. FLEUR DE COIN

500

An exceptionally beautiful piece displaying a magnificent portrait of Hadrian, with highly attractive toning on both the obverse and reverse that complements the superb details.

387. Hadrian AR Denarius. 134-138 AD. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, laureate bust right / ROMVLO CONDITORI, Romulus in military dress advancing right, holding spear and trophy. RIC 266, RSC 1316, BMC 710. 3.54g, 18mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

500

388. Hadrian AR Denarius. 134-138 AD. HADRIANVS AVG COS III PP, bare head right / PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing left, holding baton over a globe and sceptre. BMC 694, RSC 1204. 3.38g, 20mm. EXTREMELY FINE The excellent portrait combined with the stunning iridescent tone creates a beautiful contrast.

350

389. Hadrian AR Denarius. 134-138 AD. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, laureate bust right / MONETA AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae. RIC 256, RSC 965, BMC 677note. 3.24g, 17mm. EXTREMELY FINE

200

126


390. Hadrian Æ Sestertius. 118 AD. IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG, laureate bust right, drapery over left shoulder / PONT MAX TR P COS II, Fortuna seated left holding cornucopiae and rudder, FORT RED SC in exergue. RIC 551a, Cohen 756, BMC 1130. 23.88g, 34mm. VERY FINE A strong portrait, nice evenly toned patina.

750

391. Hadrian Æ Sestertius. Struck circa 119-120 AD. IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG P M TR P COS III, laureate, draped bust right / MONETA AVGVSTI, Moneta standing left with scales and cornucopiae. RIC 586c, Cohen 974, BMC 1196. 27.10g, 35mm. EXTREMELY FINE Beautifully toned.

2000

Extremely Rare Hadrian Double Portrait Issue

392. Hadrian Æ Dupondius or As. Rome, 134-138 AD. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, bare-headed bust of Hadrian right / HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, draped bust of Hadrian right. RIC 1006. BMC -. C. -. 13.43g, 27mm. EXTREMELY RARE GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

4000

Ex Platt Ex Ramon Coll., Auction Bourgey, Paris, 1913, lot 247.

127


393. Hadrian Æ Sestertius. 134-138 AD. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, laureate and draped bust right / EXERCITVS MAVRETANICVS SC, Hadrian on horseback right, haranguing three soldiers: the first holds an eagle, the other two hold standards. RIC 924 variant. 25.37g, 32mm. GOOD FINE A rare variant of a rare type. This issue is normally recorded as depicting the third soldier carrying a spear.

750

394. Aelius Caesar Æ As. 137 AD. L AELIVS CAESAR, bare head right / TR POT COS II S-C, Spes standing left, holding flower and lifting skirt. RIC 1067, Cohen 57, BMC 1931. 10.29g, 27mm. GOOD VERY FINE

600

395. Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius as Caesar AR Denarius. 140 AD. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate bust of Antoninus Pius right / AVRELIVS CAESAR AVG PII F COS, bare head of Marcus Aurelius right. RIC 417a, RSC 15, BMC 155. 3.36g, 19mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

1000

396. Antoninus Pius AR Denarius. 145-147 AD. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate bust right / TR POT COS IIII, Liberalitas standing left with coin dispenser and cornucopiae. LIB IIII in exergue. RIC 156, RSC 490. 3.30g, 18mm. SCARCE EXTREMELY FINE Beautifully toned.

175

128


397. Antoninus Pius AR Denarius. 156 AD. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P IMP II, laureate bust right / TR POT XIX COS IIII, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and cornucopiae. RIC 252, RSC 979. 3.63g, 18mm. EXTREMELY FINE AS STRUCK

150

398. Divus Antoninus Pius AR Denarius. 161 AD. DIVVS ANTONINVS, bare head right, drapery on far shoulder / CONSECRATIO, four tiered funeral pyre surmounted by quadriga. RIC 438 [Aurelius], RSC 164a, BMC 60. 3.29g, 18mm. EXTREMELY FINE

200

399. Antoninus Pius Æ As. 139 AD. IMP T AEL CAES HADR ANTONINVS AVG PIVS, laureate bust right / P M TR POT COS II S-C Pax standing left, holding branch and cornucopiae. RIC 532. 8.51g, 29mm. SCARCE GOOD VERY FINE Excellent portrait.

350

400. Diva Faustina Senior (wife of Antoninus Pius, died AD 141), AR Denarius. 141 AD. DIVA FAVSTINA, draped bust right / CONSECRATIO, peacock advancing right, looking left. RIC 384a, C. 174, RCV 4594. 3.31g, 20mm. FLEUR DE COIN RARE and nicely toned.

300

129


401. Diva Faustina Senior AR Denarius. 141-161 AD. DIVA FAVSTINA, draped bust left / AVGVSTA, Ceres or Aeternitas standing left, raising hand and holding torch. RSC 101b, RIC 361. 3.46g, 19mm. EXTREMELY FINE Exceptional portrait, splendid style, beautiful tone and full flan.

300

402. Faustina I AR Denarius. Rome, after 141 AD. DIVA AVG FAVSTINA, draped bust right, hair coils decorated with pearls / AVGVSTA, Ceres standing right holding corn ears and sceptre. RIC -, RSC -, BMC -. 3.25g, 18mm. VERY RARE NEAR EXTREMELY FINE This issue is not recorded with this obverse legend in any of the major references.

250

403. Marcus Aurelius AR Denarius. ANTONINVS AVG ARMENIACVS, laureate bust right / P M TR P XVIII IMP II COS III, Armenia seated left, in mournful attitude; vexillum and shield before; left hand on bow; ARMEN in exergue. RIC 80. 3.16g, 19mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Light, appealing tone. Rare this well preserved.

400

404. Marcus Aurelius Æ Sestertius. Rome, 163 AD. IMP CAES M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG P M, laureate bust right, slight drapery on far shoulder / SALVTI AVGVSTOR TR P XVII, COS III in exergue, S C across field, Salus standing facing, head left, feeding out of patera in right hand a snake coiled around and rising from an altar, cradling sceptre in left arm. RIC III 844, MIR 18 54-6/32, Banti 287, BMCRE 1042. 24.94g, 32mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

8000

This coin displays a beautiful Tiber patina and exceptional preservation of detail. Wonderful untouched fields.

130


405. Divus Aurelius Æ Sestertius (posthumous issue by Commodus). DIVVS M ANTONINVS PIVS, bare head right / CONSECRATIO S-C, eagle standing right on globe, head left. RIC 654 [Commodus], Cohen 89, BMC 385. 22.75g, 32mm. SCARCE VERY FINE Splendid patina.

400

406. Faustina Junior Æ Sestertius. 147-150 AD. FAVSTINAE AVG PII AVG FIL, draped bust right, in stephane / VENERI GENETRICI S-C, Venus standing left, holding apple in her raised right hand and cradling swaddled infant in her left arm. Cohen 237. 27.02g, 31mm. EXTREMELY FINE Superb patina.

3000

407. Lucius Verus AR Denarius. 168 AD. L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX, laureate bust right / TR P VIII IMP V COS III, Aequitas seated left with scales and cornucopiae. RIC 595, BMC 481. 2.99g, 19mm. NEAR EXTREMELY FINE Superb portrait of Verus; attractively toned.

200

Unpublished Lucius Verus Sestertius

408. Lucius Verus Æ Sestertius. 161 AD. IMP CAES L AVREL VERVS AVG, bare headed, cuirassed bust right / CONCORD AVGVSTOR COS II, Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus standing opposite, clasping hands; SC in exergue. RIC -, BMC -, C. -, BN -. 24.42g, 33mm. EXTREMELY FINE

1000

Apparently this arrangement of the reverse legend is rare: usually it's COS II in exergue and S-C in field. Of seven specimens in the British Museum, only one has the arrangement like this one, with COS II in circular legend and SC in exergue. That BM coin, no. 862, has a cuirassed bust like this, but head laureate rather than bare.

131


409. Lucilla AR Denarius. 161-162 AD. LVCILLAE AVG ANTONINI AVG F, draped bust right / CONCORDIA, Concordia seated left, holding a patera and resting her arm on a statue of Spes. RIC III 758; Sear 5, 5479. 3.50g, 19mm. GOOD VERY FINE Attractively toned.

175

Manlia Scantilla, Wife of Didius Julianus

410. Manlia Scantilla, wife of Didius Julianus, AR Denarius. MANLIA SCANTILLA AVG, draped bust right / IVNO REGINA, Juno standing left, holding patera and sceptre, peacock at feet standing left. RSC 2, RIC 7. 3.05g, 17mm. EXTREMELY RARE VERY FINE Superb portrait.

3500

411. Clodius Albinus, as Caesar, AR Denarius. 194 AD. D CLOD SEPT ALBIN CAES, bare head right / MINER PACIF COS II, Minerva standing facing with olive branch, shield and spear. RIC 7, RSC 48, BMC 98. 2.09g, 19mm. GOOD VERY FINE An exceptional portrait.

450

412. Clodius Albinus AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 195-197 AD. IMP CAES D CLO SEP ALB AVG, laureate bust right / FIDES LEGION COS II, clasped hands, holding legionary eagle. RIC 20b, RSC 24, BMC 284. 3.37g, 17mm. VERY RARE NEAR EXTREMELY FINE

500

132


413. Clodius Albinus, as Caesar, Æ Sestertius. Rome, 195 AD. D CLOD SEPT ALBIN CAES, bare head right / CONCORDIA S C, Concordia seated left, holding patera and cornucopia. Cohen 7. 21.28g, 29mm. RARE VERY FINE

400

This reverse is apparently the final type on the sestertii of Clodius Albinus, before the mint of Rome ceased to strike for him sometime during the summer of 195 (unpublished chronology of C. Clay). The choice of Concordia was probably suggested by the increasing lack of harmony between Septimius and his Caesar.

414. Septimius Severus Legionary AR Denarius. 193 AD. IMP CAES L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate bust right / LEG XIIII GEM MV, legionary eagle between two standards, TR P COS in exergue. RIC 397, RSC 274. 3.14g, 18mm. VERY RARE VERY FINE

250

Legio Quarta Decima Gemina (Fourteenth Twin Legion) was levied by Octavian after 41 B.C. The cognomen Gemina suggests that the legion resulted from the amalgamation of two previous ones, one of them possibly being the Fourteenth legion that fought in the Battle of Alesia. Martia Victrix was a cognomen added by Nero following the victory over Boudica in Britain. The emblem of the legion was the Capricorn, as with many of the legions levied by Augustus. In 193 A.D., after the death of Pertinax, the commander of the Fourteenth, Septimius Severus, was acclaimed emperor by the Pannonian legions, and above all by his own, XIIII Gemina. The Legion fought for its emperor in his march to Rome to attack usurper Didius Julianus, and contributed to the defeat of the usurper Pescennius Niger in 194 A.D., and probably fought in the Parthian campaign that ended with the sack of the capital of the Parthian empire, Ctesiphon in 198 A.D.

415. Septimius Severus and Caracalla AR Denarius. 200-201 AD. SEVERVS AVG PARTH MAX, laureate bust of Septimius Severus right / ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS, laureate, draped bust of Caracalla right. C. 2, BMC 187, RIC 157. 2.88g, 20mm. RARE GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

1500

Ex NAC sale 51, 2009, lot 350. Part of the series of dynastic issues by Septimius Severus.

133


416. Septimius Severus and Caracalla Silver AR Denarius. Rome, 201-202 AD. SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate bust right / AETERNIT IMPERI, busts of Septimius and Caracalla, both laureate and draped, facing each other. BMCRE 307. Cohen 1(60 Fr.), RIC 250 (R3). 2.98g, 20mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE VERY RARE

1300

417. Septimius Severus AR Denarius. 201-210 AD. SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate bust right / FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna seated left with rudder and cornucopiae. RIC 264a, RSC 181, BMC 327. 3.23g, 19mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

175

Important Severus Architectural Issue

418. Septimius Severus AR Denarius. Struck circa 206 AD. SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate bust right / COS III P P, Triumphal Arch of Septimius of four columns and three arches, surmounted by quadriga between two equestrian statues. RIC IV 259, BMCRE 320, RSC 104. 2.74g, 20mm. EXTREMELY RARE VERY FINE

3000

The Arch of Septimius Severus was constructed in the Forum Romanum in 203 A.D. to commemorate the victories of Septimius Severus, Caracalla and Geta over the Parthians. The type was employed on coins to celebrate the 15th and 10th anniversaries of Severus and Caracalla respectively. Originally, a bronze quadriga with the emperor and his sons topped the arch. Inscriptions dedicated the arch to all three, but Caracalla had Geta’s name removed from the arch after murdering him. The arch survived into our time because an early Christian church had incorporated it into its building. After the church itself was no longer used, it still remained owner of the arch and thusly the arch was not torn down for building material. It is, today, one of the best preserved Roman monuments in existence. Roman architectural types have long ranked among the most sought-after coins by scholars, historians, archaeologists and collectors, not only because their designs are often attractive, but also because they are usually valuable in reconstructing the appearance of buildings, temples and monuments that no longer exist. Another category altogether is coins depicting ancient structures that survive, the population of which is far smaller than the category of vanished structures. In terms of rarity and importance, the great prizes include provincial coins depicting the Acropolis in Athens, and, imperial coins depicting, in Rome, the Colosseum, the arch of Septimius Severus, and the Circus Maximus (even though its modern remains largely consist of an open field).

134


419. Divus Septimius Severus AR Denarius. 211 AD. DIVO SEVERO PIVO, bare head right / CONSECRATIO, eagle standing facing on globe, head left, wings spread. RIC 191C [Caracalla], RSC 84, BMC 21. 3.22g, 19mm. SCARCE GOOD VERY FINE

300

420. Divus Septimius Severus AR Denarius. 211 AD. DIVO SEVERO PIO, bare head right / CONSECRATIO, funeral pyre of five levels surmounted by the emperor in a quadriga. RIC 191F [Caracalla], RSC 89, BMC 27. 2.96g, 19mm. SCARCE VERY FINE

300

421. Septimius Severus Æ20 of Perinthos, Thrace. 193-211 AD. AVK Λ CEΠ SEVHPOCA, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right / ΠEPINΘIΩN NEOKOR, octostyle temple, viewed from front. Moushmov 4524. 4.19g, 20mm. EXTREMELY FINE Struck on a broad flan, attractive light green patina.

250

422. Septimius Severus Æ31 of Neocaesarea, Pontos. 204-205 AD. AVK Λ CEΠ CEVHPOΣ, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right / KOINΩN NEOKAI MHTPO, ET PMB in exergue, tetrastyle temple, ornate doorway in centre, statues of the Dioskouroi each on a cippus, within the columns to left and right. RecGen 11. 17.45g, 31mm. VERY RARE GOOD VERY FINE Superb medallic piece bearing a fine portrait and an interesting architectural reverse.

2000

423. Julia Domna AR Denarius. 196-211 AD. IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right / VENERI GENETRICI, Venus standing left, holding patera and sceptre. RIC 578. 3.24g, 20mm. SCARCE GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

250

135


424. Julia Domna AR Denarius. Struck under Caracalla, 211-217 AD. IVLIA PIA FELIX AVG, draped bust right / DIANA LVCIFERA, Diana standing left, holding long torch with both hands. RIC 373A [Caracalla], RSC 32, BMC 1. 3.58g, 19mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

200

425. Julia Domna Denarius. Struck under Caracalla, 211-217 AD. IVLIA PIA FELIX AVG, draped bust right / DIANA LVCIFERA, Diana standing left, holding long torch with both hands. RIC 373A [Caracalla], RSC 32, BMC 1. 3.23g, 19mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

200

426. Julia Domna AR Antoninianus. 215 AD. IVLIA PIA FELIX AVG, diademed and draped bust right on crescent / LVNA LVCIFERA, Luna, cloak floating around head, driving biga galloping left. RIC 379a [Caracalla], RSC 106. 5.06g, 24mm. GOOD EXTEMELY FINE

450

This epigraph and type appear on silver, gold, and ae coins of Julia Domna. The ambitious wife of Septimius Severus is exhibited on her coins as Cybele, then as Venus, but here as Diana, or Luna. Just as her imperial husband is styled Pacator Orbis under the figure of the Sun, so Julia on account of her fertility in bearing sons, is called Luna Lucifera, for as Cicero says (Lib. ii De Nat. Deor.), Diana was invoked by women at the time of childbirth.

427. Caracalla AR Denarius. Rome, 199-200 AD. ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS, laureate, draped bust right / FELICITAS AVGG, Felicitas standing left holding long caduceus and cornucopiae. RIC 35. 3.56g, 20mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Superb large flan of near medallic quality; sharp detail and mirror lustre.

300

428. Caracalla AR Denarius. 213 AD. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate bust right / MONETA AVG, Moneta standing half-left holding scales and cornucopiae. RIC 308, RSC 167. 3.37g, 19mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE A very attractive specimen with virtually all fine detail intact.

200

429. Caracalla AR Denarius. 213 AD. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT, laureate bust right / MONETA AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae. RIC 224, RSC 165. 3.71g, 19mm. EXTREMELY FINE Bold, strong portrait of good style.

150

136


430. Caracalla AR Antoninianus. 215 AD. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Sol standing left, raising hand and holding globe. RSC 287, RIC 264. 5.17g, 24mm. FLEUR DE COIN Attractively toned.

300

431. Plautilla AR Denarius. Laodicea mint, 202 AD. PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE, draped bust right / CONCORDIA AVGG, Concordia standing left, holding patera and sceptre. RIC 359, RSC 2. 4.23g, 23mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

300

432. Geta AR Denarius. Laodicea, 200-202 AD. P SEPT GETA CAES PONT, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICT AETERN, Victory flying left, crowning shield with wreath. RIC 23, RSC 206. 3.47g, 19mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Beautifully toned.

300

433. Geta AR Denarius. 201 AD. P SEPT GETA CAES PONT, draped bust right / PRINC IVVENT, Geta standing left in military attire, holding branch and inverted spear. RIC 15a, RSC 159a, BMC 232. 3.22g, 20mm. GOOD VERY FINE Minor deposits on reverse.

175

434. Geta AR Denarius. Early 209 AD. P SEPTIMIVS GETA CAES, bare head right, bearded / PONTIF COS II, Genius standing left, holding patera over lit altar and corn ears. RSC 114. 3.21g, 20mm. GOOD VERY FINE An excellent portrait, well struck on a full flan. Attractively toned.

200

137


435. Macrinus AR Denarius. Antioch, 217-218 AD. IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right / IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left with thunderbolt and sceptre. RIC 73, RSC 33b, BMC 66. 2.81g, 19mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Iridescent tone.

750

436. Macrinus AR Denarius. 217-218 AD. IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG, laureate, draped bust right seen from behind / FELICITAS TEMPORVM, Felicitas standing, holding long caduceus and cornucopia. RIC 60 var, RSC 15. 3.55g, 20mm. SCARCE GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Well centred with a fine portrait.

400

This bust type is much less frequently encountered than the standard cuirassed bust with short beard, seen from the front.

437. Macrinus AR Denarius. Rome, 217-218 AD. IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG, laureate, draped bust right / FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing front, head right, right foot on helmet, holding standard in each hand. RIC 68. 3.27g, 20mm. SCARCE GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

350

438. Macrinus AR Denarius. 218 AD. IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG, laureate, draped bust right / P M TR P II COS P P, Anonna standing left holding corn ears of a modius and cornucopiae. RIC 26, RSC 47a, BMC 41. 3.44g, 21mm. SCARCE GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

350

439. Elagabalus AR Denarius. Antioch, 218-222 AD. ANTONINVS PIVS FEL AVG, laureate draped bust right / CONCORDIA MILIT, two standards between two legionary eagles. RIC 187, RSC 15, BMC 275. 2.88g, 19mm. SCARCE GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

300

440. Elagabalus AR Denarius. Rome, 218-222 AD. IMP CAES ANTONINVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTOR ANTONINI AVG, Victory flying right with wreath and palm. RIC 153, RSC 293. 3.81g, 20mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

225

138


441. Elagabalus AR Denarius. Rome, 218-222 AD. IMP CAES ANTONINVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / MARS VICTOR, Mars with flowing cloak, advancing right with spear and trophy. RIC 121, RSC 109. 3.60g, 20mm. EXTREMELY FINE Mint lustre.

125

442. Elagabalus AR Denarius. Rome, 218-222 AD. IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped bust right / VICTORIA AVG, Victory flying left, diadem in both hands, shields to sides, star to right. RIC 161, RSC 300a, BMC 234. 3.08g, 19mm. EXTREMELY FINE Beautifully toned.

125

443. Elagabalus AR Denarius. Rome, 221 AD. IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped bust right / P M TRP IIII COS III P P, Victory flying left holding open wreath, star in field right. RIC 45, RSC 195a, BMC 251. 2.93g, 18mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

200

444. Elagabalus Æ Sestertius. 218-222 AD. IMP CAES M AVR ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA ANTONINI AVG, Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm branch. C 297. BMC 362. RIC 377. 3.19g, 31mm. EXTREMELY FINE A superb portrait of fine style and well preserved.

2500

139


Exceptional Julia Paula Denarius

445. Julia Paula AR Denarius. 219 AD. IVLIA PAVLA AVG, draped bust right / CONCORDIA, Elagabalus and Julia Paula standing, clasping hands. RIC 214, RSC 12, BMC 318. 2.74g, 20mm. FLEUR DE COIN

650

A superb piece, struck on a full flan and with an exceptional reverse. Highly lustrous with hints of golden toning around the devices. A truly beautiful coin that must be seen in hand to be appreciated.

446. Julia Paula AR Denarius. 219 AD. IVLIA PAVLA AVG, draped bust right / CONCORDIA, Elagabalus and Julia Paula standing, clasping hands. RIC 214, RSC 12, BMC 318. 3.11g, 21mm. EXTREMELY FINE Attractively toned.

275

447. Julia Soaemias AR Denarius. 220 AD. IVLIA SOAEMIAS AVG, draped bust right / VENVS CAELESTIS, Venus seated left, holding sceptre and apple; Cupid standing before her. RIC 243, RSC 14, BMC 55. 2.92g, 19mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

200

448. Julia Maesa AR Denarius. 218-220 AD. IVLIA MAESA AVG, draped bust right / PVDICITIA, Pudicitia seated left, raising veil and holding sceptre. RIC 268, RSC 36, BMC 76. 2.68g. 20mm. GOOD EXTRMELY FINE

150

140


449. Severus Alexander AR Denarius. Antioch mint, 222 AD. IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate, draped bust right seen from behind / VICTORIA AVG, Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm; star in field, right.RIC 301, RSC 559, BMC 1038. 3.29g, 21mm. EXTREMELY FINE Light die shift on reverse. Better in hand.

150

450. Severus Alexander AR Denarius. 231 AD. IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / IOVI PROPVGNATORI, Jupiter standing front, head right, naked but for cape flowing out to right, preparing to hurl thunderbolt. RIC 235, RSC 76. 3.34g, 20mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

200

Two Excellent Severus Alexander Denarii

451. Severus Alexander AR Denarius. 231-235 AD. IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing right with vexillum and transverse standard. RIC 231, RSC 58. 3.60g, 20mm. FLEUR DE COIN

300

452. Severus Alexander AR Denarius. 232 AD. IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate draped bust right / PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing left, holding corn ears over modius and anchor. RIC 252. 3.28g, 20mm. FLEUR DE COIN Beautiful golden red tone.

300

453. Orbiana AR Denarius. Rome, 225-227 AD. SALL BARBIA ORBIANA AVG, diademed and draped bust right / CONCORDIA AVGG, Concordia seated left on throne, holding patera and double cornucopiae. RIC 319, RSC 1, BMC 287. 3.60g, 19mm. EXTREMELY FINE

450

454. Orbiana AR Denarius. Rome, 225-227 AD. SALL BARBIA ORBIANA AVG, diademed and draped bust right / CONCORDIA AVGG, Concordia seated left on throne, holding patera and double cornucopiae. RIC 319, RSC 1, BMC 287. 2.62g, 19mm. RARE VERY FINE

300

141


455. Julia Mamaea AR Denarius. Early 222 AD. IVLIA MAMAEA AVG, draped bust right / IVNO CONSERVATRIX, Juno standing left, holding patera and sceptre, peacock at feet left. RSC 35. 2.88g, 20mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Beautiful dark cabinet tone.

300

456. Julia Mamaea AR Denarius. Early 222 AD. IVLIA MAMAEA AVG, draped bust right / IVNO CONSERVATRIX, Juno standing left, holding patera and sceptre, peacock at feet left. RIC 343, RSC 35, BMC 43. 2.97g, 20mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Centrally struck on a full flan, well detailed and nicely toned.

200

457. Maximinus I AR Denarius. Rome, 236-237 AD. MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right/ P M TR P II COS P P, Maximinus standing left between two standards, holding sceptre and raising right hand in salute. RIC 4, RSC 56. 3.59g, 19mm. FLEUR DE COIN

250

458. Maximinus I AR Denarius. Rome, 236-237 AD. IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed / PM TR P II COS P P, Maximinus standing left between two standards, holding sceptre and raising right hand in salute. RIC 3, RSC 55. 2.92g, 20mm. EXTREMELY FINE Beautiful, lustrous surfaces.

125

459. Maximinus I Æ Sestertius. Rome, 236 AD. IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / FIDES MILITVM SC, Fides standing left, standard in each hand. RIC 43, Cohen 10. 21.24g, 32mm. VERY FINE

300

142


460. Maximus Caesar AR Denarius. 235-236 AD. IVL VERVS MAXIMVS CAES, draped bust right / PIETAS AVG, sacrificial implements: lituus, knife, jug, simpulum (ladle) and sprinkler. RIC 1, RSC 1, BMC 118. 3.19g, 20mm. FLEUR DE COIN

600

461. Maximus Caesar AR Denarius. 235-238 AD. MAXIMVS CAES GERM, bare-headed draped bust right, seen from behind / PRINC IVVENTVTIS, Maximus standing left with baton and two standards. RIC 3, RSC 10, BMC 211. 2.94g, 20mm. VIRTUALLY MINT STATE

800

462. Maximus, as Caesar, AR Denarius. 235-238 AD. MAXIMVS CAES GERM, bare-headed draped bust right, seen from behind / PRINC IVVENTVTIS, Maximus standing left with baton and two standards. RIC 3, RSC 10, BMC 211. 3.28g, 21mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

600

463. Maximus, as Caesar, AR Denarius. 235-238 AD. MAXIMVS CAES GERM, bare-headed draped bust right, seen from behind / PRINC IVVENTVTIS, Maximus standing left with baton and two standards. RIC 3, RSC 10, BMC 211. 2.81g, 21mm. VERY FINE

350

464. Maximus, as Caesar, Æ Sestertius. Struck 236-238 AD. MAXIMVS CAES GERM, bare-headed, draped bust right / PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Maximus standing left, holding baton and spear, two standards behind him. RIC 9, Cohen 14. EXTREMELY FINE

500

143


Three Very Rare Gordian I Denarii

465. Gordian I AR Denarius. Rome, 238 AD. IMP M ANT GORDIANVS AFR AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated left on shield, holding Victory and sceptre. RIC 4, RSC 8. 3.22 g, 20mm. VERY RARE GOOD EXTREMELY FINE A superb example of uncommonly fine style, bearing a reverse engraved in excellent detail; nicely toned and well centred.

5500

466. Gordian I AR Denarius. Rome, March-April 238 AD. IMP M AND GORDIANVS AFR AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated left on shield, holding victory and leaning on sceptre. RIC 4. 3.10g, 20mm. VERY VERY RARE GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

5000

Ex G. Steinberg Collection. Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Zurich 16 Nov. 1994, 662. Ex Hess-Divo 2007.

467. Gordian I AR Denarius. Rome, 238 AD. IMP M ANT GORDIANVS AFR AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / P M TR P COS P P, Gordian, standing facing, head left, holding branch in right hand and a short sceptre in left. RIC 1, RSC 2, BMC 1. 2.94, 19mm. VERY RARE EXTREMELY FINE Hint of reddish tone on reverse; lustrous and bright metal.

4000

144


Perfect Balbinus Portrait

468. Balbinus AR Antoninianus. 238 AD. IMP CAES D CAEL BALBINVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / FIDES MVTVA AVGG, clasped right hands. RIC 11, RSC 6. 4.55g, 23mm. FLEUR DE COIN Superbly toned.

2000

This is undoubtedly the finest and most detailed portrait of Balbinus that ROMA has yet come across. The perfect preservation of all the most delicate elements of the portrait including the beard suggests that this coin was lost or hoarded very soon after being minted.

469. Balbinus AR Denarius. 238 AD. IMP C D CAEL BALBINVS AVG, laureate draped bust right / PM TRP COS II PP, emperor standing left, holding branch and sceptre. RIC 5, RSC 20. 3.37g, 20mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Beautifully toned. Excellent portrait, perfectly centred full flan.

1500

470. Balbinus AR Denarius. April-July 238 AD. IMP C D C AL BALBINVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / P M T – R P COS II P P, Balbinus, togate, standing front, head left, holding branch up in right hand and short transverse sceptre in left. RSC 20. BMC 26. RIC 5. 3.22g, 20mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Lightly toned, but still wonderfully lustrous metal. Excellent portrait in finest style.

1500

471. Balbinus AR Denarius. April-May 238 AD. IMP C D CAEL BALBINVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Balbinus to right / VICTORIA AVGG, Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm branch. BMC37. C.27. RIC8. 2.66g, 22mm. RARE GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Fine style. Lustrous but with pleasant light toning

1250

145


472. Balbinus AR Denarius. April-May 238 AD. IMP C D CAEL BALBINVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGG, Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm branch. BMC37, C.27, RIC8. 2.86g, 20mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Lustrous.

1000

473. Balbinus Denarius. 238 AD. IMP C D CAEL BALBINVS AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGG, Victory standing front with wreath and palm. RIC 8, RSC 27. 3.04g, 20mm. RARE NEAR EXTREMELY FINE

800

474. Pupienus AR Antoninanus. 238 AD. IMP CAES PVPIEN MAXIMVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / CARITAS MVTVA AVGG, clasped hands. RIC 10b, RSC 3, BMC 87. 5.08g, 23mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

950

475. Pupienus AR Antoninanus. 238 AD. IMP CAES PVPIEN MAXIMVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / CARITAS MVTVA AVGG, clasped hands. RIC 10b, RSC 3, BMC 87. 5.08g, 23mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

750

476. Pupienus AR Denarius. 238 AD. IMP C M CLOD PVPIENVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P COS II P P, Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and sceptre. RIC 6, RSC 26, BMC 52. 2.94g, 21mm. RARE EXTREMELY FINE

850

477. Pupienus AR Denarius. 238 AD. IMP C M CLOD PVPIENVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P COS II P P, Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and sceptre. RIC 6, RSC 26, BMC 52. 2.52g, 21mm. EXTREMELY FINE

700

146


478. Gordian III AR Antoninianus. 238-239 AD. IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS AVG, Virtus standing facing in military dress, head left, with shield & spear. RIC 6, RSC 381. 4.61g, 23mm. FLEUR DE COIN

300

Exceptionally attractive portrait of Gordian as a young, clean-shaven adult. Well struck, centrally, on a large flan. Beautiful, lustrous metal.

479. Gordian III AR Antoninianus. 238-239 AD. IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS AVG, Virtus in crested helmet standing left with branch & spear, shield on ground before. RIC 39, RSC 383. 4.70g, 24mm. FLEUR DE COIN

200

480. Gordian III AR Denarius. 240 AD. IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right / VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left with helmet & sceptre, leaning on shield. RIC 131, RSC 347. 3.23g, 21mm. FLEUR DE COIN

300

481. Philip I AR Antoninianus. 244-247 AD. IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / AEQVITAS AVGG, Aequitas standing left with scales & cornucopia. RIC 27b, RSC 9. 3.65g, 24mm. FLEUR DE COIN

150

482. Philip I AR Antoninianus. 244-247 AD. IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right / SECVRIT ORBIS, Securitas seated left, holding wand & propping head with left hand. RIC 48b, RSC 215. 4.38g, 23mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

150

483. Philip I AR Antoninianus. 244-249 AD. IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate bust right / ADVENTVS AVGG, Philip on horseback left raising hand. RIC 26b, RSC 3. 5.10g, 23mm. FLEUR DE COIN

200

484. Philip I AR Antoninianus. 249 AD. IMP PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right / SAECVLVM NOVVM, Hexastyle temple with statue of Roma within. RIC 25b, RSC 198. 4.08g, 24mm. EXTREMELY FINE

150

147


485. Philip II, as Augustus, AR Antoninianus. 247 AD. IMP PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate draped bust right / LIBERALITAS AVGG III, Philip I and Philip II seated left on curule chairs distributing money. RIC 230, RSC 17. 3.92g, 23mm. EXTREMELY FINE

150

486. Trajan Decius AR Antoninianus. 249-251 AD. IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right / PANNONIAE, the two Pannoniae standing front holding standards. RIC 21b, RSC 86. 4.51g, 23mm. FLEUR DE COIN

250

487. Trebonianus Gallus AR Antoninianus. 251-253 AD. IMP CAE C VIB TREB GALLVS AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right / ANNONA AVGG, Annona standing right, holding rudder and corn ears, foot on prow. RIC 31. 3.20g, 21mm. RARE FLEUR DE COIN In exceptional condition for the issue.

350

488. Aemilian AR Antoninianus. Rome, 253 AD. IMP AEMILIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, radiate draped and cuirassed bust, right / APOL CONSERVAT Apollo standing left, holding branch in right hand and resting left elbow on lyre set on rock. RIC 1, C. 2. 3.63g, 23mm. RARE EXTREMELY FINE A superb portrait of this rare usurper; struck on a large flan and attractively toned.

1500

As commander of the Moesian legions, Aemilian obtained an important victory against the invading Goths and was, for this reason, acclaimed emperor by his army. He then moved quickly to Italy, where he defeated emperor Trebonianus Gallus. According to some sources, after his recognition as emperor Aemilian wrote to the Senate promising to fight for the Empire in Thrace and against Persia, and to relinquish his power to the Senate. Aemilian received the titles of Pius, Felix and Pater Patriae, the tribunicia potestas, and was elevated to the rank of pontifex maximus. However by this time Valerian, the governor of the Rhine provinces, was already on his way southwards with the Rhine army. 489. Aemilian AR Antoninianus. Rome, 253 AD. IMP CAES AEMILIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / IOVI CONSERVAT, Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and sceptre, protecting figure of the emperor. Cohen 17, RIC 14. 3.35g, 20mm. RARE GOOD VERY FINE

700

148


490. Valerian I AR Antoninianus. 254 AD. IMP P LIC VALERIANO AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS AVGG, Soldier standing left, right hand resting on shield and supporting spear, left hand holding Victory. RIC 23, C. 257. 4.06g, 21mm. RARE EXTREMELY FINE An exceptional portrait of Valerian.

200

491. Gallienus (joint reign) AR Antoninianus. 257 AD. IMP GALLIENVS P F AVGG M, radiate, cuirassed bust right / PAX AVGG, Pax standing left holding olive branch and sceptre. T in left field. RIC 157 var. 2.85g, 22mm. FLEUR DE COIN

300

492. Gallienus AR Antoninianus. Lyons, 257 AD. IMP GALLIENVS AVG, radiate cuirassed bust right / FIDES MILITVM, standard either side of eagle standing on globe left, head right. RIC 13. 3.72g, 24mm. RARE GOOD EXTREMELY FINE; as struck, but from a lightly worn reverse die.

350

Important Postumus Aureus

493. Postumus AV Aureus. Lugdunum, Autumn 263 A.D. POSTVMVS AVG, cuirassed bust left, wearing crested helmet decorated with a fast biga / P M GM TP COS III P P, Trophy flanked on either side by captive seated in attitude of mourning. C 232, RIC 3, Schulte 44a and pl. 5, 44a (this coin), Calicó 3751 (this coin), Biaggi 1523 (this coin). 5.16g, 20mm. EXTREMELY RARE EXTREMELY FINE Superb coin displaying strong martial themes symbolic of Postumus’ reign. Attractive reddish tone.

40000

Ex Hess sale 3 May 1951, 248. The military types displayed on both sides of this coin were important to Postumus' portrayal of his reign as that of a protector of the vulnerable and oft-ravaged Western provinces. The Rhine was under assault on an almost annual basis, and barbarian incursions were frequent. The reverse is evidence of Postumus' struggle against the invaders - showing barbarian captives at the base of the trophy which is decorated with items that are distinctly Germanic and Gallic, such as elongated shields and a war trumpet, the carnyx. The reverse inscription is notable for its unusual nature: PM GM TP COS III PP, abbreviating TR P in unusual fashion, and also including 'GM', the abbreviation of Germanicus Maximus. Although Germanic victories are referenced on other issues of Postumus, no other inscription on any of his coinage includes this title.

149


150


494. Carausius AR Denarius. Londinium. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA MILITVM, two clasped hands, R S R below. RIC 548, C. 41 var. 3.93g, 20mm. VERY RARE VERY FINE

3000

The legend RSR was for a long time considered to be a mystery. Two Carausian medallions, now in the British Museum, were found which eventually made it possible to identify the meaning of this abbreviation: one of the medallions has RSR in the exergue, the other has INPCDA. In 1998 these letters were recognised as representing the sixth and seventh lines of the Fourth Eclogue of Virgil, which reads Redeunt Saturnia Regna, Iam Nova Progenies Caelo Demittitur Alto, meaning 'the Golden Ages are back, now a new generation is let down from Heaven above'. This poem was widely known in the Roman world, so that anyone who was literate and educated would have known what the initials represented. No other Roman emperor in history ever made such an explicit reference to Roman literature. It is quite extraordinary that in a remote province like Britain a rebel emperor should utilise such a method to appeal to his public. He was claiming to represent a revival of traditional Roman virtues and the great traditions of the Empire as established by Augustus back in the last few decades of the first century B.C., not in Rome but in Britain.

Extremely Rare Probus Aureus

495. Probus AV Aureus. Siscia, 5th emission, 278 AD. IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding round shield and carrying spear over shoulder / HERCVLI INMORTALI, Hercules advancing right, head left, holding club, lion skin draped over shoulder, dragging Cerberus from the underworld. RIC V 588 var. (obverse legend - P F omitted), Pink VI/1 p. 52, 9, Calic贸 4160 var. (obverse legend); Stoll-. 5.90g, 22mm. EXTREMELY RARE GOOD VERY FINE

25000

The last of Hercules' twelve labours, assigned to him by King Eurystheus as penance for killing his own children by Megara after being driven insane by Hera, was the most dangerous and the most difficult - to capture Cerberus alive. Cerberus was the vicious beast that guarded the gates of Hades, charged by Hades with permitting the spirits of the dead to enter, but none to leave, and to keep the living from entering the world of the dead. According to Apollodorus, Cerberus was a strange mixture of creatures: he had three heads of wild dogs, a dragon or serpent for a tail, and heads of snakes all over his back. After having been given the task, Heracles went to Eleusis to be initiated in the Eleusinian Mysteries so that he could learn how to enter and exit the underworld alive, and in passing absolve himself for killing centaurs. He found the entrance to the underworld at Tanaerum, and Athena and Hermes helped him to traverse the entrance in each direction. Heracles found Hades and asked permission to bring Cerberus to the surface, which Hades agreed to if Heracles could overpower the beast without using weapons. Heracles was able to overpower Cerberus and proceeded to drag it out of Hades through a cavern entrance in the Peloponnese, then taking it to Eurystheus. The king was so frightened of the beast that he jumped into a pithos, and asked Heracles to return it to the underworld in return for releasing him from his labours.

151


496. Probus Silvered Æ Antoninianus. Serdica, 276-282 AD, IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG, radiate & cuirassed bust right / SOLI INVICTO, Sol in galloping quadriga facing, KHB in exergue. RIC 864. 3.96g, 24mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

200

497. Probus Silvered Æ Antoninianus. Siscia, 278 AD. IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, radiate cuirassed bust right / RESTITVT ORBIS, female standing right presenting wreath to emperor holding globe & sceptre, * between, XXIQ in exergue. RIC 733. 4.08g, 23mm. EXTREMELY FINE

150

498. Probus Æ Antoninianus. Rome, 279 AD. IMP PROBVS AVG, radiate, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield / ADVENTVS AVG, emperor on horseback left, trampling captive. R*S in exergue. RIC 157, Sear 3338a, Cohen 39. 3.28g, 25mm. EXTREMELY FINE

125

499. Probus Silvered Æ Antoninianus. Rome, 279 AD. IMP PROBVS AVG, radiate cuirassed bust right / ADVENTVS AVG, emperor on horseback left, raising right hand & holding a sceptre in the left, treading down a captive seated on ground to left, R*Z in exergue. Cohen 37, RIC 157. 3.63g, 23mm. FLEUR DE COIN

250

500. Probus Silvered Æ Antoninianus. Rome, 280 AD. IMP PROBVS P F AVG, radiate bust right, cuirassed / FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left, holding two ensigns, R(thunderbolt)E in exergue. Cohen 254, RIC 169. 4.63g, 23mm. FLEUR DE COIN

175

501. Probus Æ Antoninianus. Ticinum, 282 AD. VIRTVS PROBI AVG, radiate, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear & shield / PAX AVGVSTI, Pax standing left with branch & sceptre, T to left, * to right, VXXI in exergue. RIC 517, Cohen 427. 3.77g, 24mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

300

502. Probus Æ Quinarius. Rome, 281-282 AD. Triumphal issue. PROBVS P AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / MARS VLTOR, Mars advancing right, holding spear and shield. RIC 266. 1.64g, 17mm. VERY RARE – R2 GOOD VERY FINE 800 A beautiful piece struck on a large flan. The quinarii of Probus are all very rare, with perhaps as few as a dozen or less having come to market in the last decade. The series was struck to celebrate Probus' triumph in Rome in 281 AD.

152


503. Divus Carus Æ Antoninianus. Lugdunum, 282-283 AD. DIVO CARO PIO, radiate bust right / CONSECRATIO, eagle standing left, head right. II in exergue. RIC 28, Cohen 15. 3.25g, 22mm. EXTREMELY FINE

175

Julian I of Pannonia

504. Julianus of Pannonia Æ Antoninianus. Siscia, 284 AD. IMP C M AVR IVLIANVS P F AVG, radiate, drape and cuirassed bust right / FELICITAS TEMPORVM, Felicitas standing left holding caduceus and sceptre. S–B in field, XXI in exergue. RIC 2, C. 1. 3.81g, 24mm. EXTREMELY RARE EXTREMELY FINE Some minor deposits, but a superb portrait struck on a full flan of good metal.

5500

Ex Münzhandlung Basel. Little is known of Marcus Aurelius Sabinus Iulianus (also known as Julian I or Julian of Pannonia), save that he was an usurper against Emperor Carinus. Soon after the news of the death of Emperor Carus (in 283 A.D.) or Numerian (in November 284 A.D.) arrived in the western provinces, Iulianus revolted in Pannonia. Emperor Carinus met, defeated, and killed Iulianus early in 285 A.D., near Verona.

505. Diocletian AV Aureus. Cyzicus, 293 AD. DIOCLETIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate bust right / CONCORDIAE AVGG NN, emperors seated left, each holding globe and parazonium and crowned by Victory. RIC 292. 5.51g, 20mm. VERY RARE - R2 FLEUR DE COIN

11000

Ex Bank Leu AG, Zurich 10 (1974), 387. Ex Münzen & Medaillen AG Basel 68 (1986), 393. Ex Hess-Divo 2007.

506. Diocletian AR Argenteus. 294 AD. DIOCLETIANVS AVG, laureate bust right / VIRTVS MILITVM, four tetrarchs sacrificing over tripod before city enclosure with six turrets; A in exergue. RIC 40a. 3.36g, 18mm. FLEUR DE COIN Perfectly centred, lightly toned and lustrous.

750

153


507. Maximianus Herculius AV Aureus. Cyzicus, 293 AD. MAXIMIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate bust right / CONCORDIAE AVGG NN, Emperors seated left, each holding globe and parazonium, corned by Victory. RIC 601. 5.39g, 21mm. VERY RARE - R2 FLEUR DE COIN Ex Münzen & Medaillen AG Basel 66 (1984), 847. Ex Hess-Divo 2007.

15000

508. Maximianus Herculius AR Argenteus. Carthage, 300 AD. MAXIMIANVS AVG, laureate bust right / XC-VI, surrounded by laurel wreath, dot placed centrally between two lines of legend. RIC 16a. 3.35g, 18mm. VERY RARE - R2 FLEUR DE COIN Ex Th. Voltz Collection. Ex Münzen & Medaillen AG Basel 81 (1995), 326. Ex Hess-Divo 2007.

2000

509. Maximianus Silvered Æ Follis. Trier, 303-305 AD. IMP MAXIMIANVS PF AVG, laureate cuirassed bust right / GENIO POPVLI ROMANI S-F, Genius standing left, modius on head & holding patera & cornucopia, PTR in exergue. RIC 652b. 8.43g, 29mm. FLEUR DE COIN Reverse struck from worn dies, but an impressive piece nonetheless.

300

510. Maximianus Silvered Æ Follis. Trier, 306-308 AD. D N MAXIMIANO P F S AVG, laureate cuirassed bust right / GENIO POP ROM, SA, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae, PTR in exergue. RIC 722. 7.50g, 28mm. FLEUR DE COIN

300

511. Constantius I, as Caesar, AR Argenteus. 294-295 AD. CONSTANTIVS CAES, laureate bust right / VICTORIA SARMA, four emperors sacrificing over tripod altar before gate of turreted enclosure. C 286 var, RIC 18. Sisak hoard 68. 3.14g, 19mm. FLEUR DE COIN

750

512. Constantius I, as Caesar, AR Argenteus. 305-306 AD. CONSTANTIVS CAES, laureate bust right / VICTORIA SARMA, four emperors sacrificing over tripod altar before gate of turreted enclosure. RIC 18. 3.10g, 18mm. FLEUR DE COIN Well centred, surface displaying mirror lustre; all details crisp, no flan crack as is common with this issue. A perfect example.

154

1650


155


513. Constantine I AV Solidus. Trier, 313-315 AD. CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate bust right / P M TRIB P COS IIII P P PRO COS, emperor, togate, seated left on curule chair, holding globe and short sceptre. PTR in exergue. C 398, RIC 19, Depeyrot 21/2, Alfรถldi 301, Biaggi 1984 (this coin). 4.34 g, 19mm. VERY RARE GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

12000

514. Constantine I AV Solidus. Sirmium, 323 AD. CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate bust right / SECVRITAS PERPETVAE, emperor, in military attire, standing left and holding spear, crowning trophy at foot of which cuirass and shield, SIRM in exergue. C 496, RIC 42, Depeyrot 7/5, Alfรถldi 451, Biaggi 1991 (this coin). 4.42g, 19mm. RARE EXTREMELY FINE Ex Biaggi Collection.

15000

Exceptional Hellenistic Portrait of Constantine I

515. Constantine I AV Solidus. Nicomedia, 324 AD. Diademed bust right, with uplifted gaze / CONSTANTINVS AVG, Victory enthroned left, shield at side, holding cornucopiae and small Victory bearing wreath. RIC 70, C. 102, Depeyrot 34/1. 4.46 g, 20mm. VERY RARE FLEUR DE COIN

22000

A stunning Hellenistic portrait of the finest style, rendered in superb detail. This wonderful coin complements the portrait of lot 517 beautifully, though it exceeds the latter in the magnificence of its lustre, and the accuracy of the artistry. This portrait is closer to what we know was Constantine's true appearance, as portrayed on busts and statues. The date of this issue may lead us to putatively ascribe the reverse type to the victories over Licinius in July of that year, when Constantine defeated Licinius at Adrianople, forcing him to retreat to Byzantium; shortly thereafter Crispus defeated the Licinian navy under the command of Abantus in the Hellespont.

156


Extremely Rare Constantine I AV Medallion

516. Constantine I AV Medallion of 1¼ Solidi. Nicomedia, 325-326 AD. DN CONSTANTINVS AVG, diademed bust right with uplifted gaze / EQVIS ROMANVS, Constantine, bare-headed but in military dress, mounted right, raising right hand. SMN in exergue. RIC-, Depeyrot -, Alföldi, Goldmünzenprägung-, Hunter-; Mazzini Coll.-, Bachofen von Echt Coll.-, C.-, 5.29g, 21mm. EXTREMELY RARE EXTREMELY FINE

18000

Multiples of 1½ and 2 solidi are recorded, however this 1¼ is one of only two known.

517. Constantine I AV Solidus. Trier, 326-327 AD. Diademed bust right, looking upwards, without legend / CONSTANTINVS AVG, two intertwined wreaths side by side, star above, N in exergue. RIC 497. 4.51 g, 20mm. EXTREMELY RARE FLEUR DE COIN RIC records only two examples: Ars Classica III, #182 and Ratto, June 1926, #1414.

15000

An exceptional portrait of the highest order, stunningly rendered in classic Hellenistic form. The reverse displays the two wreaths representing Constantine's vicennalia: the two decades of rule that he had successfully completed.

518. Constantine I AV Solidus. Antioch, 335 AD. CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG, rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA CONSTANTINI AVG, Victory advancing left holding trophy and palm. SMAN in exergue. RIC 93, C. 603. 3.98 g, 20mm. RARE EXTREMELY FINE

11500

157


519. Constantine I AR Quinarius. Trier, 307 AD. IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS MILITVM, four turreted gateway, with no doors. TR in exergue. RIC 758. 1.40g, 17mm. VERY RARE - R2 FLEUR DE COIN Ex Bank Leu AG, Zurich 33 (1983), 147. Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Zurich 8 (1995), 946. Ex Hess-Divo 2007.

3000

Unique and Unpublished Constantine I Siliqua

520. Constantine I AR Siliqua. Thessalonica, circa 335 AD. Bust of Constantine I right, with uplifted gaze, wearing rosette diadem / CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm branch, TS in exergue. RIC-, Cohen-. 3.26g, 20mm. UNIQUE FLEUR DE COIN

5000

An otherwise completely unknown type. The reverse legend CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG is only known for the four standards reverse type. An important and unique piece.

Unique Crispus Solidus

521. Crispus AV Solidus. Ticinum, 320-321 AD. FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, heroic laureate bust left, with shield held to front and spear behind / VICTORIAE PERPETVAE, Victory seated right on cuirass, holding shield, supported by Cupid, on which is inscribed VOT XX; SMT in exergue. C –, RIC –, Depeyrot –, Alföldi –, Biaggi 2069 (this coin). 4.39g, 19mm. UNIQUE GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

15000

Ex B.d.B Collection. Crispus, much beloved by the Legions due to his strategic abilities and the victories to which he led them, inflicted a significant defeat on the Franks in battle in 320 A.D. The obverse type clearly alludes to the high regard in which Crispus was held as a military commander. The style of his portrayal, as that of a classical hoplite warrior, is unusual in Roman coinage but all the more magnificent because of it.

158


159


Unique 1 ½ Scripulum Piece

522. Constantine II AV 9 Siliquae (1 ½ Scripulum). Nicomedia, 337-340 AD. CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA CONSTANTINI AVG, Victory seated left on cuirass holding shield supported by genius on which inscribed VOT XXX, SMN in exergue. RIC-, Depeyrot-. 1.74g, 17mm. UNIQUE - These issues for Constantine II as Augustus are otherwise only known from Siscia. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

7500

This gold piece is one of the enigmas of late Roman coinage - the 1 ½ scripulum or 9-siliqua denomination. It had been introduced as part of Constantine's reform of the gold coinage, but why such an inconvenient fraction should have been issued as a coin is hard to explain. It appears only to have been struck on special occasions and perhaps filled some ceremonial role. In 383 A.D. Theodosius I replaced the 1 ½ scripulum with a slightly lighter coin, the tremissis, which was valued at one-third of a solidus, or 8 siliquae.

523. Constans as Caesar AV Solidus. Constantinople, 335-336 AD. FL CONSTANS NOB CAES, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right / CONSTANS NOB CAESAR, Victory advancing left with wreath and palm. CONS in exergue. RIC 97, Cohen 6. 4.6g, 21mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Ex Platt Hall Collection. Ex Glendining, November 1950, lot 2039.

5000

524. Constans AV Solidus. Siscia, 340-350 AD. FL IVL CONSTANS PF AVG, rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / OB VICTORIAM TRIVMFALEM, two Victories facing each other, holding wreath between them inscribed VOT X MVLT XV, SIS* in exergue. C–, RIC 114, Depeyrot 9/1, Biaggi 2106 (this coin). 4.48g, 21mm. RARE FLEUR DE COIN Ex Biaggi Collection.

8000

Constans waged war against the Franks, and then the Caledonians, which procured for him this distinction of a triumphal victory.

525. Constans AR Siliqua. Siscia, 340-350 AD. FL IVL CONSTANS PF AVG, rosette-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGVSTORVM, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm frond; SIS(pellet-in-crescent). RIC VIII 163, RSC 316†. 3.08 g, 20mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

1200

160


526. Constantius II AV Solidus. Siscia, 337-340 AD. CONSTANTIVS MAX AVG, rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left / GLORIA CONSTANTI AVG, emperor, diademed and in military attire, standing facing, head right, holding sceptre and standard with banner inscribed VOT XX; captive seated on ground right, raising left hand to his head. SIS in exergue. C–, RIC 5, Depeyrot 1/3, Biaggi 2186 (this coin). 4.32g, 22mm. VERY RARE FLEUR DE COIN Ex Dorotheum sale 13-16 June 1955. Privately purchased from Cahn in 1956.

12500

527. Constantius II AV Solidus. Thessalonica mint, 337-340 AD. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS EXERCITVM; TES in exergue. Emperor standing left in military attire and holding standard; two captives below. RIC 34, Depeyrot 4/6. 4.61g, 21mm. FLEUR DE COIN

5000

528. Constantius II AV Solidus. Constantinople, 337-340 AD. D N CONSTANTIVS AVG, rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA CONSTANTI AVG, Victory seated right on cuirass holding shield, supported by winged genius, inscribed VOT XX MVLT XXX. CONS in exergue. RIC 10, Depeyrot 1/9, Biaggi 2175 (this coin). 4.46 g, 22mm. VERY RARE GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

7500

529. Constantius II AV Solidus. Antioch, 337-347 AD. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS PEP AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / FELICITAE ROMANORVM, wreath enclosing VOTIS XV MVLTIS XX. SMANΓ in exergue. C 76 var. (FELICITAS). RIC 31 note var, (FELICITAS). Depeyrot 5/8, Mazzini dopo 76 (this coin), Biaggi 2134 (this coin), 4.43g, 22mm. UNIQUE FLEUR DE COIN

7500

530. Constantius II AV Solidus, Antioch, 340-350 AD. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS PERP AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIAE DD NN AVGG, VOTIS XV MVLTIS XX within wreath, jewel at top, tied at the bottom, SMAND in exergue; RIC VIII 31. 4.55g, 22mm. VERY RARE (R3) GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

3500

161


531. Constantius II AV Solidus. Antioch, 347-350 AD. Diademed, cuirassed and draped bust right of Constantius II / GLORIA REIPVBLICAE, Roma and Constantinopolis supporting round shield, on which inscribed VOT XX MVLT XXX. RIC 81, C. 108, 4.49g, 21mm. FLEUR DE COIN

3500

Unique Constantius II Miliarense

532. Constantius II AR Light Miliarense. Nicomedia, circa 355-360 AD. D N CONSTAN TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / GLORIA RO-MANORVM, emperor, in military attire, standing facing with head left, holding standard with Christogram on banner in right hand and resting left on shield. In exergue, SMN. RIC –, C –, 4.03g, 24mm. UNIQUE AND UNRECORDED FLEUR DE COIN

5000

533. Constantius II AR Siliqua. Sirmium, 351-355 AD. DN CONSTANTIVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, cuirassed and draped bust right / VOTIS XXX MVLTIS XXXX in wreath. SIRM between two dots in exergue. RIC 13, C. -, 2.93g, 21mm. FLEUR DE COIN

600

534. Constantius II AR Reduced Siliqua. Sirmium, 355-361 AD. D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VOTIS XXX MVLTIS XXXX within wreath. SIRM in exergue. C 343, RIC 68. 1.87g, 19mm. FLEUR DE COIN

1000

535. Julian II Æ3. DN FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG, helmeted bust left, holding spear and shield / VOT X MVLT XX within wreath; ASIRM. LRBC 1619, RIC 108 (Sirmium). 3.78g, 20mm. EXTREMELY FINE A very attractive portrait.

125

162


536. Jovian AR Siliqua. Constantinople, 363-364 AD. Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / VOT V MVL X in four lines; all within wreath; CP·Δ in exergue. RIC 173, RSC 33†b. 2.05g, 20mm. EXTREMELY FINE

750

537. Valentinian I AV Solidus. Constantinople, 367-375 AD. DN VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE, emperor standing facing, head right, holding labarum and Victory bearing wreath on globe. *CONS(wreath) in exergue. RIC 25a, C. 25, 4.43g, 22mm. FLEUR DE COIN

4000

538. Valens AR Siliqua. Nicomedia, 367-375 AD. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VOT X MVLT XX within wreath; SMN in exergue. C 96b, RIC 22b. 2.05g, 19mm. SCARCE FLEUR DE COIN

500

539. Valens AR Siliqua. Trier, 367-375 AD. D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VRBS ROMA, Roma seated left on throne, holding Victory on globe and sceptre, TRPS in exergue. RIC 27e2. 1.77g, 18mm. EXTREMELY FINE

400

540. Valens AR Siliqua. Trier, 367-375 AD. DN VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VRBS ROMA, Roma seated left on throne, holding Victory on globe and sceptre, TRPS ∙ in exergue. RIC Trier 27e, Sear 4113. 2.01g, 19mm. GOOD VERY FINE

250

163


541. Procopius AR Siliqua. Cyzicus, 364-367 AD. DN PROCOPIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right / VOT V within wreath, KV delta in exergue. RIC IX Cyzicus 3a var (officina). 1.84g, 18mm. VERY RARE - R3 FLEUR DE COIN A wonderful coin of this rare emperor; superb style and quality.

4500

542. Gratian AR Miliarense. Siscia, 367-375 AD. D N GRATIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS EXERCITVS, Gratian standing slightly right, head left, holding labarum and round shield set on ground; ·SISCP in exergue. RIC 10c, RSC 53†b. 24mm, 4.42g. VERY RARE GOOD EXTREMELY FINE Beautifully toned example of this rare type that represents one of the last great flourishes of Roman coinage.

10000

543. Gratian AR Siliqua. Constantinople, 367-375 AD. D N GRATIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VOT V MVLT X in wreath. (palm) C (Christogram) S (wreath) in exergue. RIC 36(e), Cohen 66. 2.08g, 19mm FLEUR DE COIN

700

544. Gratian AR Siliqua. Trier, 367-375 AD. D N GRATIANVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VRBS ROMA, Roma seated left, with Victory on globe and spear. TRPS∙ in exergue. RIC 27C, C. 86. 2.00g, 18mm. FLEUR DE COIN

600

545. Gratian AR Siliqua. Siscia, 375-378 AD. D N GRATIANVS P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VOT XV MVLT XX in wreath. SISCPS in exergue. RIC 19b var., C. 72. 2.21g, 18mm. FLEUR DE COIN

550

164


546. Valentinian II AR Siliqua. Trier, 388-392 AD. DN VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma seated left on cuirass, holding victory on globe, and reversed spear. TRPS in exergue. RIC 94a. 1.83g, 19mm. GOOD VERY FINE

300

547. Theodosius I AR Siliqua. DN THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, & cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma seated left on cuirass with Victory & reversed spear; TRPS in exergue. RIC 106a. 2.08g, 18mm. EXTREMELY FINE

400

548. Magnus Maximus AR Siliqua. Trier, 383-388 AD. D N MAG MAX-IMVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma enthroned facing, head left, holding globe & spear, TRPS in exergue. RIC 84b1 of Trier, RSC 20a. 1.86g, 18mm. EXTREMELY FINE

400

549. Magnus Maximus AR Siliqua. D N MAG MAX-IMVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma enthroned facing, head left, holding globe & spear, TRPS in exergue. RIC 84b of Trier. RIC 84b1, RSC 20a. 1.99g, 18mm. EXTREMELY FINE

350

Two Very Rare Eugenius Siliquae

550. Eugenius AR Siliqua. Lugdunum, 392-394 AD. D N EVGENIVS PF AVG, draped and cuirassed bust right wearing pearl diadem / VRBS ROMA, Roma seated left with Victory and spear. RIC 46, C. 72. 1.92g, 19mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

2500

551. Eugenius AR Siliqua. D N EVGENIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma seated left on cuirass, holding Victory on globe and reversed spear, TRPS in exergue. RIC 106D, RSC14a. 2.00g, 18mm. EXTREMELY FINE

1000

552. Arcadius AR Siliqua. Milan, 395-402 AD. D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma seated left on cuirass with Victory on globe & spear, MDPS in exergue. RIC 32b, RSC 27b. 1.27g, 16mm. EXTREMELY FINE

200

553. Honorius AR Siliqua. Milan mint. D N HONORIVS P F AVG, diademed draped bust right / VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma seated left on cuirass holding Victory & inverted spear, MDPS in exergue. RIC 1228. 1.29g, 17mm. GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

300

165


Rare Constantine III Siliqua A soldier of some ability, Constantine was elevated in Britannia where he was then stationed, and moved quickly to secure territory on the continent by taking the entire military presence in Britain across the channel to defeat Sarus, the lieutenant of Stilicho, and the barbarian tribes that were then ravaging Gaul. He secured the Rhine frontier and the Italian Alpine passes, making Arles his capital. With the execution of Stilicho and the betrayal of Sarus, Honorius was forced to accept Constantine as co-emperor, and the two were joint consuls in 409 AD. However, further barbarian incursions and ravages, pirate raids on Britannia, which had been denuded of her military forces, and the revolt of Constantine’s general Gerontius in Hispania led to his being besieged in Arles, where he eventually surrendered and was beheaded.

554. Constantine III AR Siliqua. Trier mint, 407-411 AD. D N CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AAVGGG, Roma seated left, holding Victory on globe in right hand, reversed spear in left, TRMS in exergue. RIC 1533. 1.34g, 16mm. EXTREMELY RARE VERY FINE

1000

Rare Jovinus Siliqua Following the defeat of the usurper Constantine III, Jovinus, a Gallo-Roman senator, was proclaimed emperor at Mainz in 411, a puppet supported by Gundahar, king of the Burgundians, and Goar, king of the Alans. Acting under the pretext of Jovinus’ position as emperor, Gundahar and his people settled on the western bank of the Rhine with the Roman town of Borbetomagus as their capital. Jovinus’ end came when the Visigoths under Ataulf, who had aligned himself with Honorius, defeated Jovinus’ troops. Jovinus’ brother and co-emperor Sebastianus was executed, while he himself fled was eventually captured and executed by the Praetorian Prefect Postumus Dardanus.

555. Iovinus AR Siliqua. Trier, 411-413 AD. D N IOVINVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGG, Roma seated left, holding Victory on globe & spear; TRMS in exergue. RIC 1711. 0.58g, 16mm. EXTREMELY RARE GOOD FINE

1250

556. Theodosius II AV Solidus. Constantinople mint, 408-420 AD. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, helmeted ¾ facing bust, holding spear over shoulder and shield decorated with horseman / CONCORDIA AVGGH, Constantinopolis seated facing with sceptre & Victory on globe, CONOB in exergue. RIC 202. 4.50g, 21mm. FLEUR DE COIN

3000

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Roma Numismatics Auction I