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There are nearly two million expats living in South Korea. People who make up the expat community vary from those who are here for a short term to the ones who have been here for decades. But not all of expats feel at home here. From time to time you might cannot but feel like a complete outsider, out of touch with what’s going on in Korea. That’s where [Bridge] Paperzine comes in. Unlike other English magazines that focus on either tourist information or limited inner circles, we have created a media outlet where everyone can come together. Through [Bridge] Paperzine expats and Koreans can communicate, collaborate, and stay connected to each other. We are excited to bring you lively and interesting stories told by unique people around Korea. One thing we promise you is that we won’t be just another same old tour guide around Korea. With fresh stories and thought-provoking ideas, we hope to grow as the favorite read by expats in Korea. We would love to hear directly from you. Please feel free to tell us what you think about [Bridge] Paperzine. info@roking.co.kr

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ㄱㄴㄷㄹㅁㅅㅇㅈㅊㅋㅌㅍ hangul ㅎ가나다라마바사아자타카 타파하아 야 어 여 오 요 우 유으이애외에예위왜얘 아야어여오요으이걔냬댸럐 먜뱨섀얘쟤챼컈턔퍠해 갸 냐댜랴먀뱌샤야쟈챠캬탸퍄 햐사 샤 서 셔 소 쇼 수 슈 스 시새쇠세쉬쇄싸써쏘쑤 쑈 쓰 씨 규뉴듀류뮤뷰슈유 쥬츄큐튜퓨휴 기니디리미비 시이지치키티피히 그느드르 므브스으즈츠크트프흐 거 너더러머버서어저처커터퍼 허 가갸거겨고교구규그기 나냐너녀노뇨누뉴느니 다댜더뎌도됴두듀드디 c

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hidden seoul

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entertainment

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these da y s

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i ' m music

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talk to me in korean

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social

Our alphabet hangul

an escape into the imaginary world of nami island

hangul hOtspOts great places tO celebrate KOrea’s inDigenOus script.

bakery baekgudang

weaVing hangul with colors Artist Geum Yo-bi

between adolescence & manhood, annyeongbada

rhie won-bok’s fifty-year loVe affair with cartoons

Educating students on how to teach Korean as a foreign language, professor robert fouser north korean refugees in south korea : education, ngos and the importance of future planning The rain & you

hangul the korean script

When hanGUl meets jeWelRy

wOrDs that start with 'ㄹ'

is where i liVe who i am A Gangbuk Enthusiast’s view on Gangnam

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Our alphabet

hangul

우리 글 한글 ILLUSTRATION BY_ YOON-JI PARK (http://parkyoonji.com/)

See, we have Beautiful letters that Capture our warm-hearted spirit.

보라 우리는 우리의 넋이 담긴 도타운 글자를 가졌다

On the waves of the history, And in my heart You are alive, waving Lively as an unextinguishuble fire And live forever.

역사의 물결 위에 나의 가슴에 너는 이렇듯 살아 꿈틀거려 꺼지지 않는 불길로 살고 영원히 살아 남는다

I call you in the name of the nation And write our words and mind. On any earth, On any vine You flower with your own colour And bear fruit.

조국의 이름으로 너를 부르며 우리의 말과 마음을 적으니 어느 땅 어느 가지에도 제 빛깔 꽃을 피우고 아람찬 열매를 남긴다

Our alphabet, Hangul A prideful asset.

우리글 한글 자랑스런 자산 김후란 시 ‘우리글 한글’ 중에서

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the korean alphabet

How I see hangul BY_SANG-AA PARK / IMAGES BY_YOON-JI PARK / PHOTOS PROVIDED BY_MILMUL MODERN DANCE COMPANY, ARTIST YOUNG-SOOK OH, LIE SANG BONG, KING SEJONG MEMORIAL PROJECT ASSOCIATION, CAFÉ SPACE, UIWANG CITY HALL CULTURE AND SPORTS DIVISION

Among some 3,000 languages in the world, only a handful have their own alphabet. The Korean alphabet is unique in that it has an inventor and a specific date of creation. Otherwise known as Hangul, the Korean alphabet is perhaps one of the most scientific, yet simple alphabets in use today and can be used to pronounce just about any word. In 1989, Unesco and the Korean government established the King Sejong Literacy Prize, which rewards governments for the promotion of literacy and mother-tongue languages. In addition, Hunminjeongeum— the original document and name of the Korean alphabet— was designated a Unesco Memory of the World document. Linguistics scholars around the globe have praised Hunminjeongeum for its efficiency.

Development of Hangul

hun . min . j eong . um The development of Hangul in a nutshell In 1446, the fourth king of the Joseon Dynasty, Sejong the Great, promulgated Hangul, calling it Hunminjeongeum, literally meaning

“ The proper sounds for the instruction of the people.” Hangul was composed of 17 consonants and 11 vowels. Four of the original consonants eventually dropped out because of pronunciation difficulties. Currently Hangul is composed of 14 consonants ( ㄱ, ㄴ, ㄷ, ㄹ, ㅁ, ㅂ, ㅅ, ㅇ, ㅈ, ㅊ,ㅋ,ㅌ,ㅍ,ㅎ) and 10 vowels ( ㅏ, ㅑ, ㅓ, ㅕ, ㅗ, ㅛ, ㅜ, ㅠ, ㅡ,ㅣ).

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1 . art Hangul reemerges in dance and painting, leaving an unforgettable impression. 한글로 춤을 추고 한글로 그림을 만들다. 시각 예술을 통한 문화 컨텐츠로의 도약! 세계인들에게 한글을 각인시키다.

Artist Oh Young-suk’s Hangul artwork (►Just the consonants used in her artwork) Oh only uses consonants to parody some of the representative artwork by famous artist from the East and the West. By only using Hangul consonants, matching them like puzzle pieces, Oh reinterprets and re-creates well-known artwork, such as “Beauty” by ShinYun-bok, “Boy with a Flute” by Manet, and even historic structures like Namdaemun.

The Hangul Dance of the Milmul Modern Dance Company The beauty of the shape of Hangul meets modern dance and is reborn as a new kind of art. The soft yet energetic movements of the dancers represent not only the shape of the vowels and consonants that comprise Hangul, but also the spirit of the Korean language.


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Fashion design with Hangul-Fashion designer Doii Lee: With written Hangul text by calligrapher Kang Byeong-in, designer Doii Lee designed her collection in achromatic colors. The design and accessories, as well as the colors, are minimized to focus on the beauty of the Korean alphabet itself.

Fashion designer Lie Sang Bong: Dubbed the “Ambassador of Hangul”, Lie is the very person who created the trend of using Hangul in designs. He has announced that he wants to develop Hangul as a world-famous cultural brand. He uses Hangul in designing everything from cell-phone accessories, mugs, and even in interior design. Winners of the Hangul industrial design competition by the King Sejong Memorial Project Association: The association was founded to promote the work of King Sejong the Great. Here you can find various Hangul-related materials. Through various exhibitions, competitions and events, the association provides opportunities for Koreans and foreigners alike to learn more about Hangul.

2 . design Hangul doesn’t only serve as a writing system anymore. It has become a design inspiration for products that are used on a daily basis. It has become something even more familiar in day-to-day life. It becomes alive when used in fashion and also in various industrial designs, showing off its versatility. 한글을 입고 한글을 디자인하다. 단순한 언어표현으로만 그치지 않고 일상생활에 밀접한 디자인적 요소로 풀어내어 조금 더 친근하게 다가왔다. 한국 고유의 숨결이 묻어나는 필체로 표현된 패션, 한글을 모티브로 하여 재치 있는 아이디어를 표현한 각종 제품 디자인!

공 간

3 . S pace Parks and cafés are great places for a relaxing break. And of course, some of these places have taken Hangul and used it as their theme. Here are a few of them: 한글로 공간을 채우다. 편안하게 휴식을 취하는 장소인 공원과 카페. 이곳에서 한글의 아름다움을 감상한다? 인테리어와 조형물을 통해 색다른 모습을 선보이는 한글을 만나다.

ㅎ (pronounced ‘hee-eut’) is a café that takes the theme of Hangul typography and cleverly weaves it into the interior design and other aspects of the café. It is located in Seoul in Sangsu-dong, Mapo-gu. Various items and books related to Hangul can also be purchased here. Hangul at Galmi Park in Uiwang, Gyeonggi promotes the beauty of Hangul with various sculptures. The sculptures are inspired by the scientific structure and simplistic beauty of Hangul. The park has been garnering a fair amount of attention from visitors due to its dual purpose of promoting Hangul while also being a place you can get some much needed rest and relaxation. Café ㅎ (café hiut) Location: 86-30 Sangsu-dong, Mapo-gu, Seoul Tel: (82)2-336-6236 / Hours: 11am-11pm Photo Courtesy of: Milmul Modern Dance Company +82-2-578-6810, Artist Young-sook Oh +82-2-569-5159, Lie Sang Bong+82-2-553-3380, King Sejong Memorial Project Association +82-2-969-8852, Café Space +82-2-336-6236, Uiwang City Hall Culture and Sports Division +82-31-345-2532

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An escape into the imaginary world of nami island BY_NAYOUNG KANG

Sitting only 63 kilometers east of Seoul in Chuncheon-si, Gangwon-do, Nami Island offers a convenient yet complete respite from hectic city life. It is a kingdom that celebrates stories, and the following is one story that took place inside it. Read on to find out what makes this island so magical.

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n a sunny Sunday afternoon, my coworkers and I boarded a private bus headed for our weekend workshop destination: Nami Island. Knowing nothing about it, I sat back and watched the scenery go by: iconic Seoul bridges and busy highways weaving in and out of a background of faraway mountains and the Han river. After an hour and half, we arrived at Gapyeong Wharf, purchased our Nami “visas”, and took the ferry to the Island. We were in the middle of a river surrounded by mountains of various shades of green, travelers whizzing by on banana boats and water skis, their shouts and laughs visible but inaudible over our own chatter and the roar of the boat’s motors. In the space of 5 minutes, we were safely transported to the island, which welcomed us with flags of various nations and a flag of its own —Naminara Republic (nara meaning “nation”) is a culturally independent nation with its own flag, currency, and anthem. The walk to our cabin marked the beginning of our retreat—our slow and peaceful transition from the reality of our work life in Seoul to the unknown, unpredictable world

of Naminara. Gravel paths lined with tall, sky-reaching trees were flanked by patches of green grass where rabbits, ostriches, squirrels, and little birds of all kinds frolicked, welcoming visitors and luring them off the beaten path into the lesstraveled, tucked-away pockets of nature. This was a fairytale wonderland, a picturesque world where humans play happily in nature. Everywhere I looked, there was something to see, to touch, to wonder about: a footbridge decked out in recycled green bottles, unexplained straw huts and brick outhouses, colorful banners emblazoned with elephant paintings. A string of artfully decorated Easter eggs and a giant, mysterious piñata-like structure hung from a tall tree in the middle of a road. It was back to business when we arrived at our cabin, The Dahlia Bungalow, one of the larger houses in “Bungalow Row”, a strip of cottages and cabins on the riverfront. We unloaded the car, threw our bags in the rooms, and started making dinner. The perfectionist Manager Kim had graciously prepared and packed the food. While Art Director Da-woon got the fire going for the barbecue, the rest of us set the outdoor table with plates of salad, kimchi, banchan, and ssam fixings. As the fire crackled,

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finally re-united to ride together along the river, stopping only to dip our toes in the water and skip rocks.

As everyone became steadily inebriated, I stepped outside for a walk. It was pitch dark—Nami turns off all the lights at night to ensure complete immersion in nature—and every sound my movements made was amplified, ringing out in the invisible surroundings. Free from all the distractions and sensory assault of city life, I was comfortably alone with my thoughts and the sharp scent of the pine trees.

Nami is a magical land where dragonflies flutter about in ponds of lily pads and dappled sunlight touches every bit of nature. It is akin to the world of “Where The Wild Things Are”, minus the fear and negativity. The place seems to take on a life on its own-lopsided trees, fallen trunks, mini train tracks, and winding sky bike monorails give the space the illusion that it cannot be contained, that it will grow as it wishes and interact with everyone who visits.

In the morning, we cleaned up, feeding the woodpeckers and the squirrels leftover crumbs and nuts. We left our bags at the hotel reception and walked around aimlessly, exploring the myriad curiosities and wonders of the island: a song museum, a traditional outdoor kitchen, a miniature apple orchard, just to name a few. Then we all rented bikes, and the island became our own, a territory to scope out, a micro-universe with secrets to uncover. We cut through forests and forts, playgrounds and slide parks, passing each other in laughter until we

As my colleagues and I left the island, I made a promise to myself to return to this mystical place, perhaps in the winter when ice castles form and the citizens and visitors of Naminara launch into a bonfire celebration called Midwinter Night’s Dream. On my next visit, I will bring a trusted friend to play and run around with, getting lost in the imaginary world that is Naminara Republic.

In 1965, the recently retired Minn Byeong-do, former governor of the Bank of Korea, purchased Nami Island to spend the remainder of his life in nature. Trees of various species were planted to transform the island into the beautiful woodland we know today. Within a decade, Namiseom was named a Citizens Tourist Area by the governor of Gangwon-do. In 2001, Kang Woo-Hyon, an artist with a background in graphic design and illustration, became CEO of Nami Island, Inc. Proclaiming to change the place from a “recreation area to a tourist destination,” he designed the island’s current features and established cultural institutions such as the Raison Gallery and UNICEF Hall. It has now been six years since the island declared independence as Naminara Republic. More than simply a tourist destination, Nami Island is evolving into a cultural center, hosting international events such as the International Children’s Book Festival and International Young People’s Muse Festival.

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GREAT PLACEs

to celebrate Korea’s indigenous script. article and photos by_matt kelley

If you believe the 2009 science fiction flick, Moon, Korea’s Hangul is the script of the future. In the film, the name of Lunar Base Sarang (sarang means “love” in Korean) is etched into its walls in Korea’s ingenious, indigenous script. And why not? Rendered beautifully by paint brush or iPad, when combined, Hangul’s 14 consonants and 10 vowels yield striking shapes that are both classical and modern, scientific and organic. Indeed, Korea’s script is timeless. In recognition of Hangul, consider the following:

Royal Records

Memorial Museum of King Sejong the Great

Korean history’s revered Renaissance man, King Sejong the Great, promulgated Hangul in the 15th century. A true people's king, he sought to make literacy accessible to commoners. Near Korea University is a museum in his honor. Opened in 1973, its four well-organized galleries betray their age. For the Korean script enthusiast, one exhibit showcases some of the first documents that bypassed classical Chinese in favor of the new system. Another provides an overview of Korea’s ancient typesetting and printing process along with profiles of two of Hangul’s most iconic font men. Dongdaemun-gu Cheongnyangni-dong San 1-157, Korea University Station on Line 6, Exit 3

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Hangul Hub

Gwanghwamun Square

Seoul’s central plaza is also a hub of Hangul. Atop Gwanghwamun Square is a seated statue of the Korean script’s founding patron, while beneath it is a 3,000-square-meter museum dedicated to his life and gifts to Korean culture and science. Called “King Sejong Story,” the exhibits pay more than lip service to Korea’s writing system. The script’s three basic vowel shapes were conceived to imitate a round heaven, a flat earth and a human being. According to Oriental philosophy, these three symbols are the foundation for harmony on Earth. Also on site is the recently reopened Sejong-no Park. If you look closely at the black stools and pavers, you’ll see every one of Hangul’s 11,172 letter combinations rendered in stone. Jongno-gu Sejong-no, Gwanghwamun Station on Line 5, Exits 2~3

Sign Language

Sign-Crazy Seoul

There are countless buildings across Seoul where every seemingly square centimeter is covered by rectangular signs bearing Korean script. After all, Hangul is rendered equally well vertically as horizontally. Although the previous mayor pushed to standardize a signage aesthetic, there’s little evidence that anything took root. These days, there’s talk of creating a Hangul-only zone in neighborhoods west of Gyeongbokgung. Similar restrictions in popular Insa-dong yielded the world’s first Starbucks sign printed in a non-Latin script. Available virtually everywhere

Script Scripture

Gansong Art Museum

Korea’s first private art museum opens its doors only twice per year - once in May and again in October. Founded by Jeon Hyeong-pil in 1938, the Gansong Art Museum lays claim to one of the world’s finest collections of Korean art. Amongst its greatest treasures is the Hunminjeongeum Haerye manuscript. The 33-page volume, drafted in 1446 by King Sejong and members of his “Hall of Worthies,” explains Hangul’s purpose and function. In recognition of Hangul’s unique genius, the document was added to UNESCO’s Memory of the World register in 1997. Seongbuk-gu Seongbuk-dong 97-1, Hansung University Station on Line 4, Exit 6

Hangul Hallyu

Hangul Museum

Like Duncan Jones’s Moon flick, let’s fast forward into the future. Next year construction of a state-ofthe-art museum dedicated to Hangul will conclude. To be opened on the sprawling grounds of the National Museum of Korea, the four-level space will include exhibits about how Koreans communicated before Hangul’s widespread adoption, a repository of hundreds of rare books and historical documents, as well as a comparison of the striking script with other global writing systems. Yongsan-gu Seobinggo-ro 135, Ichon Station on Line 4, Exit 2

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Baekgudang A taste of Nostalgia found in Busan For most Koreans, bread can never substitute rice as a meal. It is rather considered a snack between meals. Chewy, sweet and flavorful, bread has become a favorite adopted snack in Korea since the 1950s. For our second installment of the Bread Road series, I visited Baekgudang patisserie in Busan. Forget about diet! Surrender to the tasty temptation of pastries of the historical Baekgudang. article and photos by_nak hyung ju

bread road #2

What are some of the symbols of Busan? There are many things, but the white seagulls flocking around the beach maybe one. So there's no wonder the historical patisserie with more than 50 years of history was named 'Baekgudang,' which means 'House of Seagull'. Baekgudang has always been in the same place in Jungang-dong, a financial district in Busan. Built in 1959, Baekgudang formerly consisted of 'Baekguyang' on the first floor and 'Baekgu Cafe' on the second floor. Baekgudang boasts a broad store space, but its interior design is not exactly slick or modern. However, it does have an old charm to it. In the display case, there are several dozens of different kinds of bread. The customers wander around the store with trays and tongs in their hands, charmed and enchanted by the smells. People bring their plate topped with freshly baked bread and sit down with it at the tables inside the store. I imagine many people sitting at that very table on their first dates in the old times.

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During the past fifty years, various types of bread have been added to Baekgudang's menu. But their mugwort rice bread (ssook-ssal-shik-bbang in Korean) is without a doubt a signature staple bread of the store. In 2010, the bread won gold at the Korea's national bakery fair competition. Like its name says, the bread is made of mugwort and rice. The appearance and the taste of the bread are quite different from your everyday bread. Shaped like a brick, the mugwort rice bread has the perfect mix of the soft texture of bread and the chewiness of rice cake. Covered with candied red beans and sweet bread crumbs, the bread is not too sweet but certainly not lacking in flavor. The various ingredients such as dried raisins, chestnuts, walnuts and more add another layer of flavor. It's an ordinary bread, but there's something remarkable about it. Recently they added some new treats to their repertoire. Dubbed 'Croizen,' this bread has a unique flavor match with a mix of chestnut choux on the outside and corn salad inside. Other popular selections include the raisin special and the choux a la fromage. If you visit the bakery too late, sometimes you will miss out on a chance to taste these pastries, so make sure you get there before everything gets sold out!


where Address: 31-1 Jungangdong4-ga, Jung-gu, Busan. Exit 13 of Joongang Subway station. Phone: 051-465-0109 Hours: Mon-Sat 9am —10:30pm / Sunday 9am — 5pm Bread to taste: Mugwort Rice Bread (3500 KRW), Croizen (4,000 KRW), Raisin Special (3,000 KRW), Choux a la Fromage (3,000 KRW)

Jungang-daero

With a long history and tradition, Baekgudang is already listed in various guidebooks and introduced as one of the must-visit places in Busan. You often see foreign and domestic tourists visiting the store to taste the famous mugwort rice bread. In South Korea, there are more than five thousand franchise bakeries. Before, the local bakeries kept their tradition and unique flavors. But now, with the popularity of brand franchises, the taste of bread is pretty much the same wherever you go.

-daero Chungjang Jungang-daero 81beon-gil

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Daegyo-ro

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That's why the presence of Baekgudang is so special. If you get a chance to visit Busan, stop by and get a taste of nostalgia.

Jungang Station

Daecheong-ro

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interview/cover artist

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co v er artist

weaving Hangul with colors Artist Geum Yo-bi

Poet-painter Gum Yo-bi has been exploring the theme of language for a long time. Starting out by writing poetry in high school, he first focused on telling stories through carefully chosen words. But as he wrote, he started to notice the real beauty in the shape of Hangul itself: he saw Korea’s soul reflected in each stroke of the vowels and consonants. He started to paint the images of Hangul in his mind on canvas. And now, nearly two decades later, Geum Yo-bi is still actively producing both poetry and paintings.

BY_ JUNG-YOON CHOI / PHOTOGRAPHS BY_ Narith Vann Ta / IMAGES PROVIDED BY_ GEUM YO-BI (people.artmusee.com/rmadyql)

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From his name to the artwork to the gallery he runs, everything about Geum Yo-bi can be described in one word: earthy. There's a sense of life and natural beauty in it all. As soon as you pronounce his name, you feel like you are reading a children's poem. 'Geum,' a unique last name, is a Korean word that means 'gold.' It gives you a sense of warmth. But to really appreciate the meaning of his full name you can't separate the last name from the first, because as a whole the name means 'rain (Bi) on a Friday (Geum Yo).' It's not everyday that you run into such a name in Korea, and its soft resonance is compelling. And there's the space, Gallery PyeongChangDong. The gallerystudio he runs is a tranquil yet inviting place. With a vibe of modern interpretation of the Korean

traditional house, the art objects on display are in harmony with the dark-brown hue of the wooden floor. When I visited him, there was a wood-and-steel furniture exhibition on display. It struck a perfect balance with the space and selected works of Gum Yo-bi, as if it has been around for years. Then there's the master behind the work himself. A man with a full beard and knowing smile, Geum Yo-bi has an easy and composed attitude. He grinds the beans and drips coffee by hand for me and the photographer and presents it in a beautiful tea cup set. A warm aroma imbues the beautiful space we are visiting. In a blissful mood, I ask Geum Yo-bi to introduce himself to Bridge readers. He chuckles and says that he's just someone who weaves color with Hangul.

He uses the word ‘weave’ a lot when describing his work. And as I listened to him I realized that his working process is just like weaving different elements by hand, constantly in contact with the material. As the master artisan works and shapes the materials to weave them together, his personality and character are applied to the final product. The former Christian missionary explains that Hangul has had an important presence in his life. Once he noticed the beauty of Hangul while writing poetry, he wanted to paint them. “Hangul is much more than a writing system. It is a cultural index of five thousand years of Korean culture,” Geum Yo-bi said, his eyes sparkling with pride. “I wanted to present the beauty and share it with more people."

Without getting any formal training, he started to paint. Geum Yo-bi explains that he not only focused on presenting the unique beauty of Hangul, but also on perfecting the aesthetic quality of the painting. "The fact that I'm painting Hangul can't be an excuse of poor quality of art," Geum Yo-bi said. One thing to remember is that his work is not calligraphy. Calligraphy, an East Asian traditional art, is admired and practiced by many to this day. But the work is really about harmony of flowing strokes and the context. With all due respect to the art form, Geum Yo-bi begs to differ. He explains that while one has to know Korean language to understand the poetry or writings fully, his painting of Hangul can speak to anyone.

"If I present things I want to tell by painting, not writing, the spectators can understand it in a instance," Geum Yo-bi said. "The foreign spectators are often surprised and tell me that before they didn't even know Korea had its own writing system." While studying the purposefully invented script, Geum Yo-bi says he came to understand his own identity as a human and Korean. "Even though I spoke and wrote Korean, I didn't fully understand what's reflected in the language until I started to paint them," Geum Yo-bi said. "The shape is based on Cheon-ji-in, or the sky, the earth, and the human. It shows our admiration for nature and respect for humankind. I came to notice our spirit reflected in Hangul."

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In his early years, he started out by painting vowels and consonants. But the style developed over time, and in recent works the Hangul is intertwined like puzzle pieces, forming a human face. And this reflects his philosophy of fusionism. Geum Yo-bi focuses on finding the common denominator between seemingly different things, and brings them together harmoniously. "With the idea of fusion, I bring together Hangul with a human face, Korean traditional pottery, and various other objects," Geum Yo-bi said. "Hangul is perfect in itself. A pottery is perfect itself as well. I try to bring together these two perfect objects together, and a new energy is created. That kind of energy is an energy of life which moves people." Geum Yo-bi also explains that color is one of the most important aspects in painting. "Historically Koreans were drawn to the colors of the nature," Geum Yobi said. "I wanted to use the colors we see in Korea's nature and show them in my paintings." One other notable feature is that he shares his art-making process online. He publishes the photos of works in progress on his blog and twitter. "I don't like drawing boundaries between the ‘lay people' and the ‘artist’. I want to show the spectators that I am the same as them," Geum Yo-bi said.

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"I also want to show that there's no mystery when it comes to painting. Painting is not the only kind of art in life. Everything is a form of art." He also adds that the real way to communicate with the spectators is to move them and bring about change. "The way you can comfort people is by ridding the angst and sadness in their heart. In order to do that, you have to reach out to them," Geum Yo-bi said. "I want to tell them that I suffered for my art, too, just like how they suffer in daily life." Geum Yo-bi says he wants to continue on with his exploration in not only Hangul, but other languages such as Sumerian and Greek. While his roots are firmly in the Korean language, he wants to explore the spirit behind other writing systems. For Bridge readers, Geum Yo-bi highly recommended giving a shot at learning spoken and written Korean. "Learning about Hangul may be one of the best ways to get to know Korean culture. Because getting to know Korea is not only limited to sightseeing destinations or hiking," Geum Yo-bi said. "If you delve into the real meaning behind the Korean alphabet system, you will get to understand the Korean spirit that we tried so hard to keep alive for a long time."


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interview/ENTERTAINMENT

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indie band

Between adolescence & manhood,

ANNYEONGBADA myung je bass

ANNYEONGBADA has been delivering the true sound of modern rock with a touch of the sensitivity of youth. [Bridge] sat down with the musicians to hear their pure passion and love.

BY_sang-aa park / INTERVIEW BY_ SANG-AA PARK, MIN-JUNG CHOI/ PHOTOS PROVIDED BY_ FLUXUS MUSIC (02-3443-6046)

jun hyuk drum

The name of the band, Annyeongbada, sounds pleasantly childlike. I think of acoustic music, mellow and pure. The original name was more lyrical than this; it was, "I cross the sea with you," but as I was becoming more active in the scene, I felt that it was too long and tedious. There was a bar in Hongdae that I used to frequent with then-members of the band that was called Annyeongbada. It was perfect, so I changed the name to that. How did you meet the members of the band? Dae Hyun: Namoo and I know each other from high school, and we started to make music together in our sophomore year.

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Back then, we made hardcore music, unlike now. Myung Je: I heard Namoo singing and playing in the streets, and I really liked it. So I approached him and asked him to collaborate with me. Jun Hyuk: Yes, when I first met Namoo, there was something very unique and attractive about him. So I took him out for gamjatang and soju. (laughs) I persuaded him to make music together over dinner. So you met by chance, but it also seems like destiny. Then what year was Annyeongbada formed? 2006. It's been six years already. Time goes by fast, doesn’t it?

Yes, it has been six years. You guys have been together for such a long time, you must be able to read each other’s minds. Namoo: Yes, we really can read each other’s thoughts. Dae Hyun: We’re like family now, but we weren't like this in the beginning. As time passed, we learned about each other and cared for each other. In that process, we became a real family. Now we even know the smallest habits of one another, so I don't think we will be disagreeing on things much Sounds like perfect teamwork. Yes, it’s true. Sometimes I find that the members are doing things that I wanted but hadn’t even voiced;


'Annyeongbada' literally means, 'Hello, sea.'

dae hyun Keyboard

namoo

vocals & guitar

it’s bewildering. (laughs) It really is like having my mind read.

T he wa v es of growing pain People have described your music in a variety of ways. Some feel the “growing pain of an adolescent,” and some feel like they’re “experiencing vertigo.” How would you describe it yourself, though? There are many things that influenced our music, so it has many different styles. But what we know for sure is that whether the music

is upbeat or quiet, people can empathize with the stories because of songs’ lyrical nature. You make your own music, produce it, sing it, and play it, too. You all participate in the music making process yourselves. Do any of you ever get overwhelmed? I’d be lying if I told you that I don't stress over how to express myself and create music. But I think that's something every musician faces. We are not the only ones who go through this kind of music-making process. Almost all band musicians, indie or major, go through it. They are the masters of their own music, producing various sounds. I guess that's where we differ from K-Pop music.

True. I think K-POP is mostly about performance, whereas indie music is really for those who appreciate music. Maybe that's why each band stands out with its own unique style. Some of the mainstream composers and producers sell songs to singers. So maybe that's why K-pop lacks diversity. Because it's just various singers performing similar styles of music. The bands, on the other hand, make music themselves, and they put their own philosophy into it. So their music may not be popular amongst the public, but there is a variety of styles.

When talking to you, I can feel that you all are very happy to be creating music and are proud of it. What's the main purpose of making music for you? Myung Je: We love music, so we make it to fulfill our need for it. Jun Hyuk: I think making music elevates the quality of my life. If I make a piece of good music, I am greatly influenced by it. It makes my life more full and happy. Namoo: Some say they sing because they can lift others’ spirits and feel happier in turn. For me, I sing for my own sake. I believe that I have to be happy first in order to make others happy. Dae hyun: Like Namoo said, I didn't start music because I wanted to comfort others. I started doing it

as a hobby. But as my obsession for music grew, I started to feel a sense of responsibility. First, I was focused on putting out records. But now, I just want to make better music. Though you all enjoy the music-making process, there must be hard times, too. What are some of the most difficult problems you face? Jun Hyuk: When I face my own limitations, I feel very shameful. I want to play the drums exactly the way I want to accompany this amazing music. But if I can't deliver that, I feel quite sad. Namoo: True. I think all musicians would feel the same. The pressure and stress for creating is immense.

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You try the best you can to make music that can outdo your previous work, but you first notice the flaws. No matter how many times we perform live and record music, I always notice things that I could have done better. Dae Hyun: You have to try hard to move onto another chapter. Overcoming stress requires effort, too. But sometimes it's exhausting when the results do not match up with the effort you put in. By “results,” I don't mean public response, but the structural result. Sometimes I feel drained when I’m facing that. Namoo: Actually, the structural problem is quite huge. You can overcome personal stress by trying hard. But when we don't receive even minimal respect as artists, that really lets us down. But there are people who know the importance of purchasing music in the proper way, which is a relief. We get encouraged from them and keep making music. You’ve put out four albums so far. Which are some of the most satisfying tracks among the many songs you’ve made? Dae Hyun: I was never one hundred percent satisfied with the songs. But if I had to pick one, I'd say “Liar” from the first album. The song is about our anger towards the music industry, and the lyrics are quite direct. This is kind of the style I like. Namoo looks awesome when he sings that song. Namoo: Hmm, you thought so? For me, “Fluorescent light” is the most honest song. Myung Je: Among the songs we've made together as a team, “Sea of tears” has the longest history. I am personally attached to that song. There are a lot of memories attached to it. Jun Hyuk: My favorite is “Outside the window is a peaceful dining table."

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Each one of you has a clear preference and style. Where do you draw inspiration? Namoo: I write songs based on my imagination from time to time, but I think inspirations from my own personal experience make up the majority of the music I make. I think the honest feelings that you get from your daily lives are the basis for honest music. Dae Hyun: Maybe that's why I can really visualize a picture with the lyrics written by Namoo. I don't think I am just hearing words; it really feels like I am enjoying an entire piece of art. You’re right. I feel that way, too. When I listen to your music, I feel like I've seen a video clip and it leaves a lasting impression. Is this an influence from your filmmaking studies? Namoo: Yes. I try to write a story in a way that people can imagine it as a moving image in their head. I personally think writing lyrics is harder than directing. A movie explores a subject for two hours. But in music, you have to deliver everything in five minutes. Then what kind of moving image do you want to give to the public? Namoo: The organic changes we go through as we live. We were so young when our first album came out. Our youthful thoughts are clearly embedded in the music. But now we've aged, and I want such mature thoughts to be expressed in the music. As such, I believe our next album will be more mature. (laughs)

T he line between pla y ing to be seen and pla y ing to be heard

learn that we have fans in Peru. Myung Je: One time, a Mexican fan sent us a huge box of goodies as a gift. There was a gigantic candy and a hand-written letter in Korean. We were so touched by that. We have not even reached out overseas officially, so we are grateful to have fans all over the world.

I think these days, you can draw a line between music that is performed to be seen, and music that is performed to be heard. Annyeongbada has kept a fine line between the two, I believe. You have many female fans. Dae Hyun: About performing music to be seen… Well, I think appearance and styling are important, too. To go on stage and officially perform, you have to have a tight performance prepared. So we try to show a well-prepared exterior as well. Namoo: I don’t think that’s the only reason we have many female fans, but the majority of our fans are women. (laughs) Maybe the male fans are just cheering us on in hidden places. I don't think they make an effort to come to the venues. Myung je: That's right! I love having a lot of female fans, but I hope to see more male fans, too.

Have you performed overseas? If you have, I wonder how you were received. Jun Hyuk: In Italy, there was a Korean movie festival. We got to perform there, and to our surprise, a lot of people gave us recognition. It was quite amazing, since we are an indie band that doesn’t even appear on major broadcasts. It's funny, because though the audience didn't understand the lyrics, they sang along to them. Dae Hyun: It was our first overseas performance, so we were nervous. We thought it was going to be a disaster. But to our surprise, the performance was fun and the response was great. I want to perform there again.

안녕 바다

It must feel great to feel the energy of your fans at the concert venues! Yes! It feels amazing. That's the best part about live performances. We enjoy performing ourselves, but when we can feel the audience feeling it, it's exhilarating. Are there foreign fans at your concerts? Jun Hyuk: It's hard to see foreign fans when we give concerts only within Korea. But in the past, there was an article about the 'Korean wave,' and a Peruvian fan had done an interview. She was hoping to see a 'Korean wave' concert back home, and she had our CD in her hand. We were so surprised to

Hearing the overseas reaction so far, I wonder what it would be like if you really start going overseas. So your band is doing quite well, but do you have any rivals? Myung Je: We don't like competition. We don’t like it at all. The Hongdae indie scene is quite peaceful. I think you can say that there is no competition at all; the musicians get along so well. We didn't think of having rivals in making music. We just don't like the idea of having to compete with others. Lastly, anything you'd like to say to BRIDGE readers? We are planning a new album for this fall or winter. Namoo and Daehyeon will be going to the army. So for two years, we will have to take a hiatus. This album will be the last before going off to the military, so please look out for it. We will return with better music. Thank you!

Scan here Play music


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interview/art

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art

Rhie Won-bok’s fifty-year love affair with cartoons

BY_ JUNG-YOON CHOI / INTERVIEW BY_ JUNG-YOON CHOI, MIN-JUNG CHOI / IMAGES PROVIDED BY_ RHIE WON BOK

Mention "Monnara E-wut nara" to South Koreans and nine out of ten will say they know the book. They might exclaim "Of course I know the book! How do you know it?" It is a natural response, as almost every single household with children owns a copy or many copies of the "Monnara" series. Its title translates to "Far Countries, Near Countries," "Monnara" is a cartoon series that explores history and culture of countries around the world. Covering European nations to the U.S. to China to Korea, the fourteen-book series has sold 14 million copies since its first release in 1987. Author of the series, cartoonist Rhie Won-bok, may be the single most celebrated cartoonist of all time in South Korea. Unprecedentedly popular, Rhie elevated the status of the cartoon in

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a country where cartoons had been looked down upon as unintelligent pieces of work. Over the course of his career, Rhie has not only put out the "Monnara" series but also many more cartoon books on economics, stock investing, religion, philosophy, and even wine. But "Monnara" remains the most beloved. Nowadays over 550,000 copies are sold each year, proving the undying popularity of the series. However, Rhie surprised "Monnara" fans this year with the announcement of his plans to end the series. He said he would finish the series with his last book, which will be on Spain. Being a long-time fan of the series, I and fellow Bridge staffers decided to interview Rhie.

At his office located at historical Yuksa-jang in the Unhyeon Palace, Rhie greets me and other Bridge staffers warmly. Short, yet charismatic with a firm handshake, Rhie looks much younger than his sixtysix years. I was immediately reminded of the caricature of himself, a man with curious eyes wearing a basque beret that appears as the narrator in "Monnara."

ě?´ Rhie tells us that Yuksa-jang is a place where the spouse of an ancient Chosun kingdom prince was selected. It is fascinating to think that Rhie creates his cartoons about history, culture, and current issues of countries around the globe in a traditional Korean palace building. Though "Monnara" is coming to an end, he has no plans to retire any time soon. Now the chair profes-


Multimillion-selling cartoonist Rhie Won-bok's tells Bridge of his love for cartoons, history, and travel, and how he got started.

sor of Visual Design at Duksung Women's University, he will continue lecturing and drawing the series on current issues. "You know, there's a saying: ‘Leave while people are applauding.’ I wanted to finish the "Monnara" series while it is still popular." Rhie said about his decision to put the final strokes on the cartoon series.

"Professor is a temporary job. I want to remain a cartoonist," Rhie said. " Besides, cartoonists don't have to retire."

이원복 His career seems to be a classic example of "Do what you love, and money will follow." Rhie says that in the fifty years of his cartoon-drawing career he never agonized over his work and has always remained a happy, positive person. For him being able to express himself through cartoons is the biggest reward, more than money and fame. He prefers to be called a cartoonist rather than a professor.

Since childhood, cartoons were everything to Rhie. In junior high he started to draw comic strips for the school newspaper. Though normally a quiet student who didn't stand out in class, he drew comic strips that often caught his peers’ eyes. His love for cartoons continued through his secondary education, but upon graduating from high school he advanced to South Korea's top university as an architecture major. "Back then one had to worry about how to make it in the world. Being a cartoonist wasn't it," Rhie said.

But after graduating from university, he decided that he wouldn't follow the conventional path. He went abroad to Germany and studied visual design and Western art history. And there he opened his eyes to the importance of understanding history. "Back then, in 1975, history was something that Koreans wanted to forget. We were hurt by history and felt great pain remembering past," Rhie said. "But while in Germany I noticed that history was clearly recorded and saved there. The presence of their vivid history left me with a lasting impression." With his new acknowledgment of the importance of history, he started to published cartoon strips in the Junior Hankook Newspaper serially. He drew on European

history and culture, which was the beginning of "Monnara." For the next ten years he drew, never missing a single day. "I was able to accurately reflect on European culture because I was living there," Rhie said. "I traveled much, read many newspapers and books, and had many conversation with kids from around the world." While traveling outside of the country was a rarity in the late 80s for a South Korean, Rhie's books have been credited with giving people a new perspective of the broader world, encouraging youngsters to pack up their bags and travel. Since his return in 1984, Rhie continued to draw the world through his own eyes. The first "Monnara," on the Netherlands, came out in

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1987, and without major promotions it became an instant hit. The series continues to this day, including a book on South Korea. Having been translated into Korean, it is popular reading for foreign ambassadors to Korea, according to Rhie. Nowadays Rhie is planning to give a brand new lecture series to teens at Yuksa-jang, at his very office. "Based on my "Monnara" series, I will teach teenagers about world history and culture at this very place where princes and princesses once sat," Rhie said. "Isn't that exciting?" With Rhie's infectious enthusiasm, he got us laughing throughout the interview. When asked to give a word of advice to expat readers at the end of the interview, Rhie said he knows how it feels to live in a foreign country, having been an expat for ten years himself.

Series of cartoon-history book written and illustrated by Rhie Won-Bok

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"South Korea is a unique country that is on the rise," Rhie said. "People who come here may have a purpose of their own. I hope you will realize that we are a people with warm hearts. If you open up, you will truly be able to feel the warmth of the people here." After the interview, one of the Bridge staff holds out a copy of "Monnara," circa 1990. "My dad and I are a huge fans, and I was wondering if I could get an autograph," the staffer said. For me that's what captures what Rhie and "Monnara" means to South Koreans. A historian, a storyteller, and above all, a cartoonist, Rhie Won-bok and his series will remain as a favorite read among Korean households, being enjoyed by everyone regardless of age or gender.


- EXHIBITION - RELOCATION SERVICE - INTERNATIONAL - DOMESTIC MOVING - ART MOVING - PROJECT CARGO - STORAGE SERVICE TEL. 02-333-653 / FAX. 02-333-5384

WWW. PUMEX.CO.KR/EN

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interview/[bridge] people

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a

round the world the zeal to learn the Korean language is growing. Not only ethnic Koreans overseas, but more and more foreigners are learning the language, seeing the potential. To cater to the increasing demand, leading universities in Korea have been establishing more classes on Korean language teaching. In 2008, Seoul National University, a top institution in Korean language studies, made an interesting choice. They decided to hire a foreign faculty member. “I was teaching at a Korean language department at a University in Japan when someone told me that SNU was recruiting a foreign

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professor to teach in its Korean department. I thought it was a joke,” Professor Fouser said in a flawless Korean. “Nonetheless, I applied and luckily was hired. When I arrived at the university, I could see why they needed a foreign professor: There were quite a number of foreign students studying at the Korean Language and Literature department."

Korean as a Foreign Language’ and also practice teaching classes for those who are seeking to get a Korean language teaching certificate. “I am not teaching Korean language itself but teaching about the method of teaching the Korean language,” he said.

was no foreign food at all. There were curfews at night and Korean people couldn’t travel abroad. But in just two decades that all changed remarkably,” he said. “And I witnessed it while going back and forth all those years. I feel like I’ve grown up with Korea.”

He tells me that often people raise their brow when they learn of his work. And I wondered as well: How did this U.S.-born professor become a teacher of Korean language education?

Professor Fouser grew up listening to the stories of East Asia from his father, a WWII veteran stationed in Kyoto, Japan. This influenced him to major in Japanese Language and Literature in college. After that, he decided to leave his native country to travel to East Asia. He traveled around South Korea extensively and studied the Korean language for a year in 1983.

Professor Fouser said. “While visiting here, I was drawn to its history, culture, and the language.” After that, he spent the next twenty years teaching English in Japan and Korea, but didn’t stop learning and practicing Korean language. “Hangul, the writing system for Korean language, really interested me,” he said. “Also, there are many different ways of saying something in korean, which is fun for a linguist to explore.”

로버트

A man in his early fifties with a delightful personality, Professor Fouser is an experienced educator and linguist. He has visited South Korea since 1982, lived here for a number of years, and has mastered the language. And now for the past few years he’s been teaching undergraduate and graduate classes on ‘Teaching

Born in 1961, Professor Fouser’s relationship with Korea go back all the way to the 80s. He first visited Korea in 1982 when the country was still under the military dictatorship. “In the early 80s, Korea was still a third-world country. There

“Initially Korea interested me because it was a continent,”

After years of teaching English, in 2006, he took a position at Kagoshima University in Japan to teach in the Korean Language Department there.

“I got tired of teaching English to people who had little interest in the language but were forced to learn it


[ bridge ] people

Educating students on how to teach Korean as a foreign language,

Professor

robert fouser A language lover and a hanok enthusiast, Michiganborn Robert Fouser is the only foreign faculty at Seoul National University's Korean Language and Literature department. In light of Hangul day on Oct 9, BRIDGE sat down with Professor Fouser to hear his story of how he became a professor of the Korean language.

BY_ JUNG-YOON CHOI / INTERVIEW BY_ JUNG-YOON CHOI, MIN-JUNG CHOI

to get a job,” Professor Fouser said. “I got more emotional satisfaction while teaching Korean.”

“I had already battled the different word order and complexity of the grammar while learning Japanese,” he said. “However, speaking Korean wasn’t easy. I had to really work hard.”

away to his house and I found myself sharing the dinner with his family and spending the night at their home. It was a heartwarming and memorable experience.”

So now three years into teaching Korean Language Education in SNU, Professor Fouser says he is satisfied with his life here. Another important part of his life in Korea is his devotion to Hanok preservation. He resides in the Bukchon area in downtown Seoul, right next to historical Gyeongbok Palace. Having served as the president of the Seochon Residence Research Society, he has actively participated in efforts to preserve the Hanok around the Seochon area.

파우저 And now, finally, he’s in Korea, teaching Koreans and non-native Koreans about methods of teaching the Korean language. It was the right move by the university to hire a foreign professor who speaks perfect Korean as the students will eventually be teaching Korean to foreigners like Professor Fouser himself.

Professor Fouser admits that learning the Korean language came relatively easy to him since he had struggled with Japanese already, as its grammar is similar to that of Korean.

He said traveling by himself around the country helped him learn the language quicker.

“Traveling in Korea during the 80s was very different from nowadays. Most places didn’t have written English information and people spoke very little English, so I was forced to speak Korean, no matter how bad it was,” he said. “But because of that, I’ve had many great experiences. One time I was traveling in Jeonju, and by chance I met a college student who spoke some English. He invited me right

To get the reading and writing part of the Korean language down, he delved deeper into Chinese characters, which is an integral part of learning Korean. Also, he kept on reading famous Korean literature. “When you’re learning a country’s language, you have to read the classics to really understand the flow in it,” Professor Fouser said. “I’m glad I got to read some literature in Korean, because the true meaning of the language often gets lost in translation.”

“The charm of Hanok and this neighborhood are two things: the retro atmosphere and the layers of history. Each of the golmoks or back street-alleyways have stories to tell.”

Professor Fouser says as long as he’s in Korea, he will be living in that neighborhood, enjoying the quiet, retro-style of life there. He says he doesn’t have a specific goal, but wants to have a productive and interesting life. To BRIDGE readers, he recommends discovering Korea and giving a shot at learning the Korean language. “Just being in Korea is not a very emboldening experience,” he said. “In order to make Korea meaningful, find something that appeals to you, go for it, and experience it.”

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The rain & you By_ MIN-JUNG CHOI / korean CONTENT PROVIDED BY_Na-neun Moo-sik Hada

The rain came down all day long. I sat by the window, sipping my coffee as I stared at the blurry scene outdoors. The rain drops hit the window rhythmically, making its own music. Rather than feeling gloomy or down, I felt warm inside, enjoying that little moment.

Paint the Sky

Richard Durand and Pedro Del Mar [feat. Roberta Harrison]

Roberta Harrison is a charming singer. You might not know her well, such as how old she is and where she's from. But that doesn't matter at all, because just her voice will make you feel like you are standing in the rain. This is one of the representative pieces by Richard Durand, known as the "Schubert of electro music," and Pedro Del Mar. Take a listen, and let Roberta Harrison's vocals transport you to another world.

Isn’t She Lovely

David Sanborn

A pioneer of fusion jazz, David Sanborn has interpreted Stevie Wonder's ”Isn't She Lovely” in his own characteristic style. The original song is well-known to Koreans as it has been sung by some of the most famous musicians in Korea. Play this track while you drive in the rain and hum to the familiar melody. It’s a classic you can never tire of.

Moon River

Time flowed in the rain in the space of a peaceful afternoon. Though it wasn't an eventful day, it was special in itself. What can be better than putting on just the right music to go with such a precious moment? We have selected some songs for you to listen to on a rainy day.

Brad Mehldau

The theme song of the movie, “Breakfast in Tiffany”, “Moon River” has been covered by various artists. Among the covers, Brad Mehldau’s version stands out with its lyrical and pure sound. Listen to this piece on a night after the rain, when the roads are washed down and the cars are speeding past. As you gaze up into the clear night sky while the moon shines down, you will feel like you're back in your childhood.

True

Martin Taylor

As soon as you listen to this song, you may feel like the melody is vaguely familiar. The beautiful melody and the guitar's resonating notes will move you, almost having a restorative effect. Not only that, but the song fills you up with a pure, bright energy. A U.K.-based guitarist awarded with the Order of the British Empire, Martin Taylor is a world-renowned guitarist who is to this day admired by many fans and guitarists.

Never Let Go (Original Mix)

Motif

”Never Let Go” by Motif is a mix album with the band’s originals and various remixes. It enjoyed quite a bit of popularity in Korea as well. The original mix’s downtempo melody is profound and mysterious, which is perfect for a rainy day. Lose yourself in your memories while listening to this song. ‘Naneun Moo-sik Hada’ I am the MUSIC iTunes Podcast :http://itunes.apple.com/kr/ podcast/naneun-musig-music-hada./id500126785 Twitter : @musichada

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North Korean Refugees in South Korea:

Education, NGOs and the importance of future planning.

BY_Markus Bell and Justyna Gollob

encompassing as the education at Hanawon might try to be, the task of cramming a lifetime’s education into three months means that there are always going to be deficiencies in the understanding a North Korean refugee might have regarding South Korean society.

Since the early 2000s, the number of North Koreans arriving in South Korea has continued to rise, surpassing the 23,300 mark in early 2012. It is only recently, in the past few months, in fact, that the number of arrivals has dipped, as a direct result of the tightening of the North Korea/China border following the death of Kim Jong-Il. As well as the effects of chain migration in increasing and maintaining the numbers of North Koreans leaving their homes and heading South, exposure to South Korean music, drama and movies while in North Korea and China also act as a strong pull factor. It is now well known that many who have made it out of North Korea have done so with the hope of experiencing the glitz and glamour of life as portrayed in South Korea dramas, most of which are now smuggled into North Korea on pirated DVDs and USB drives. Upon arrival in South Korea North Korean refugees are sent to Hanawon for education. Hanawon is a government centre set up in the early 2000s when the number of North Koreans arriving in South Korea started to dramatically rise. During their time in Hanawon they are given basic information on South Korean society, including such survival training on how to use the subway system, as well as lessons in history, maths, English, science and Korean. As all-

The common answer many North Korean refugees give when questioned as to how they felt after arrival in South Korean society is, “Shocked”, Disappointed”, “Lost” and, ultimately, “Very lonely”. In particular, for those North Koreans who arrive in South Korea without any family, the reality of their new lives can seem a world away from the well polished dramas they watched in North Korea and China. Numerous studies have shown that a very high percentage of North Korean refugees arrive in South Korea suffering from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The effects of PTSD manifest themselves in various ways; the most apparent, in regards to North Korean refugees in South Korea seems to be a distrust of strangers and a difficulty in forming long lasting, emotionally based relationships. In the last five years the South Korea government has taken various steps to reform the settlement process of North Korean refugees in South Korea. This has included cutting back the taxfunded settlement funding for new arrivals in an attempt to curtail a reliance on the state. The burden of ‘funding’ individuals has instead shifted to civil society, to churches, NGO groups and private individuals. The results of these initiatives are yet to be seen. One of the key steps to countering the formation of a marginalized group and staving off the troubles that would no doubt accompany such a scenario lies in providing appropriate support programs to North Korean refugees. In South Korean society education is one of the few ways newcomers

are able to gain access to stable and comfortable living. At the same time, however, completing education is one of the most difficult challenges that North Korean children and young adults have to face. From the beginning, North Korean refugee students are extremely disadvantaged, as their previous studies in North Korea are of little use in the new environment. If they enter regular South Korean schools, they are often overwhelmed and confused by the new realities. For one thing, there are significant differences in educational content and pedagogical strategies between North and South Korea, to which refugees have a hard time adjusting. Their difficulties are aggravated by the fact that due to long periods of time spent outside of formal education during the defection period, most newcomers are placed in lower age grades with younger South Koreans, triggering emotional discomfort and loss of self-esteem. Feeling inferior to their classmates, many North Korean refugee students struggle to make South Korean friends, preferring to associate with others from North Korea. This only amplifies feelings of isolation. Compounding this problem, South Korean schools are unable to adapt to the special needs of incoming North Korean students. This leaves North Korean youth in a difficult position where many struggle to find their place in the unfamiliar environment. The number of young refugees who struggle with adapting to the new system, and, as a result, drop out of formal education is much higher than their South Korean peers. Recent scholarship has also suggested a link between absenteeism and increasing levels of violence among young North Korean refugees. Recognizing the problems that North Korean refugee students continue to experience in their adaptation to South Korean schools, Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) provide a

variety of educational programs geared towards helping refugees bridge this gap. English courses are one of the most widely offered programs. These English programs are carried out with the help of both South Korean volunteers and English native speakers, who regularly teach small groups of refugees. The Wednesday English Class, organized by the group PSCORE is an example of such a program. Taking place in Seodaemun Police Station every Wednesday evening, Wednesday English Class welcomes all North Korean refugees, regardless of age, who wish to improve their English language skills. Many organizations also organize short summer camps, where refugees can practice their English as well as spend some time getting to know volunteers from South Korea and overseas. One of the main benefits of educational programs offered by NGOs is that they are flexible and designed to meet the unique needs of North Korean refugees. Small in size and scale, NGOs offer help and services in a broad, yet local scope, and are thus effective in acting as support networks. Furthermore, as current government support is mostly short-term in nature, the role of NGOs in the long-term adjustment process is vital. Viewing the promotion of education and mutual understanding between North Korean refugees and South Koreans as another key aspect of successful integration, many NGOs offer various awareness programs that aim to educate South Korean youth on both the current situation in North Korea and problems that North Korean refugees experience. The hope is that they will become more understanding and sympathetic to the fate of their brethren from the North.

important to understand that North Korean refugees have been completely uprooted from their familiar surroundings and have to start their lives from the beginning. Without a support network of family and friends they struggle to survive in the new environment. Most South Koreans, however, do not understand the difficulties that defectors are confronted with. Many tend to underestimate or ignore the cultural differences between the two Koreas and assume that the burdens of adjustment should fall upon refugees. When trouble arises, it is often the newcomers who shoulder the blame. North Korea refugees are often seen as noisy, backwards and troublesome tax burdens. Media coverage of refugees is also often quite negative and thus tends to amplify the anxieties and distrust among South Koreans. The relationships created through NGO groups contribute towards much needed emotional support, offering feelings of acceptance and worth for individuals who may otherwise be isolated. In particular, for North Korean refugees who arrive in South Korea without any family, many of these organizations offer a pseudo-familial environment essential for the recovery of those suffering from the effects of PTSD. These groups play a vital role as a bridge between the mainstream South Korean community and incoming North Koreans. The work of the staff and many volunteers in NGOs and informal groups are an essential part of the narrative of North Korean refugees in South Korea.

The involvement of South Korean society is essential in order to achieve the successful integration of North Korean refugees into South Korean society. It is

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Hangul the korean script

BY_ LYMAN MCLALLEN (mclallen.hufs@gmail.com)

Lyman McLallen is a professor in the English College of Hankuk University of Foreign Studies.

Everything a Korean learns begins with Hangul (한글), even English. Though many Koreans think with English and speak the language well (often as good as erudite native speakers) English for them is a subset of Hangul because when they begin to learn English, they first learn about it through Hangul. (Their first English teachers were most likely Koreans who themselves learned English through Hangul.) Without Hangul, it’s hard to imagine that the Koreans would have the academic progress they are famous for. So Hangul is more than just the Korean written language; it’s the intellectual engine of the nation.

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No one to ask around ? Touch to learn Korean!

Many Koreans will often say to a foreign visitor, “Do you know about Hangul? King SeJong and his scholars made it for us. It’s one of the best alphabets in the world.” And they’re not wrong about this. With twenty-four letters (twenty-eight originally) and a simple logical syntax with which to combine the letters to form all the possible syllables of spoken Korean, Hangul is easy to learn and easy to read such that most Korean children become adept with it in a couple of months. (And without much training, a visitor to Korea can learn to voice Korean syllables using Hangul.) Ask Koreans how they learned Hangul and almost all of them will say that their mothers taught them when they were children before they started school. Indeed, all the generations of Korean mothers – going back to 1446 CE when SeJong and his scholars formally proclaimed their phonetic script to their countrymen – have taught their children Hangul. That Korean children learn Hangul from their mothers and not at school is yet another sign of the simplicity and genius of its design. It also shows the vital role that women have played in the life of the nation. Despite being conceived, commissioned, and developed by Korea’s greatest king, upper class Korean men, YangBan (양반) – men of influence and power who controlled the upper echelon of Chosun society – shunned Hangul, preferring to use Chinese characters, which had been their tradition, which also took much time and great resources to learn, which gave this hereditary aristocracy its corner on power. The YangBan perceived – correctly – that SeJong’s script posed a threat to their influence because it would give every Korean the opportunity to learn how to read.

Hangul-learning Application that helps one to understand the basics of Korean alphabets composition in minutes!

The new script did not die, though, for women learned it, wrote with it, and taught it to their children, (AmGul 암글 : Women’s Letters). Despite the low status of women in Chosun society, they kept SeJong’s script alive by teaching it to succeeding generations. Korea would be a different country today had the women of that time not taken it upon themselves to embrace Sejong’s alphabet. As well, those generations of Korean women left a substantial body of literature of many well-written anonymous narratives that disclose candidly, accurately, and with great insight everyday life in Korea during that time. SeJong and his scholars made their script so it would represent perfectly the sounds of spoken Korean (HunMinJungEum: 훈민정음). SeJong’s ambition was that any Korean would be able to learn to read with this new phonetic alphabet in a short time without expensive training by experts, thus gaining a real chance at realizing her or his full potential through literacy. This reveals the egalitarian spirit of SeJong and his concern for all Koreans regardless of their stations in society, which shows that SeJong had the human quality the Koreans call “Jung” (정). (Jung is a feeling of regard for others, but there’s more to it than that. Ask a Korean what “Jung” is, for they can explain it better than I.) Also, because of its precision, Hangul is one of the few scripts that can be compiled into a computer language, which is a testament to the genius and creativity of the scholars that SeJong gathered to create the Korean alphabet over five-hundred years ago. (The Koreans don’t call SeJong the great king for nothing.) The late nineteenth century brought great changes to Korea, and changes to SeJong’s script, which wasn’t even known as Hangul until the early twentieth. The demise of Chosun, the YangBan, and its king, due in part to the Japanese takeover (but also because of YangBan corruption that had been going on for centuries) stirred up the resistance led in part by the DongHak (동학 : the core of the DongHak were working-class, self-educated intellectuals who did much to incite the nationalist movement growing in Korea in those years, in spite of Japan’s attempts to suppress Korean zeal for the nation). Churches and other groups also made strong efforts in the resistance against the Japanese. With some exceptions, the members of these groups were workers who wrote and published pamphlets in Sejong’s script in defiance of the Japanese, and it is at this point that his phonetic alphabet – that represents correctly the sounds of Korean – becomes Hangul. So through adversity, the Koreans finally embraced Hangul, not just as their writing system, but as a symbol of nationalist spirit. SOURCES - Yongho Ch’oe, Peter H. Lee, and Wm. Theodore DeBary, Editors. Sources of Korean Tradition (Volumes 1 & 2), New York, Columbia University Press, 2000. - Bruce Cumings. Korea’s Place in the Sun, New York, W.W. Norton, 1997.

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Keith Pratt. Everlasting Flower, London, Reaktion Books, 2006. Michael J. Seth. A History of Korea, Lanham, Maryland, Rowman & Littlefield, 2006.

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APP STORE

Learning how to read, write, understand and speak Korean language Available in English / Chinese / Japanese / French / Spanish


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All the tickets may purchased in english through the links provided on the right.

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PlayDB http://www.playdb.co.kr/

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hero Show Type: musical Dates: 2012.10.16~11.18 Venue: Samsung Electronics Hall, Blue Square Rating: 7 AND above Tickets: HERO 50,000 WON INDEPENDENCE 30,000 WON CAST: SOOYONG KIM, HYUNSOO LIM, DOHYUNG KIM, HEEJUNG LEE, LISA, KIJOO HONG, SANGEUN SONG DESCRIPTION: A legend that won “The Musical Awards” and 12 prizes from “Korea Musical Awads.” The most talented actors are gathered here to perform for you in one of the most amazing shows than ever.

THE SORROWS OF YOUNG WERTHER Show Type: concert Dates: 2012.10.25~12.16 Venue: UNIVERSAL ARTS CENTER Rating: 7 and above Tickets: R 100,000 WON S 80,000 WON A 50,000 WON CAST: DAHYUN KIM, JAEBUM KIM, DOOSEOB SEOUNG, DONGSEOK JEON, JIWOO KIM, AHSUN KIM, KYOUNGSOO HONG. DESCRIPTION: The best romantic musicla to watch this fall, <THE SORROWS OF YOUNG WERTHER>

Man of La Mancha Show Type: musical Dates: 2012.06.19~12.31 Venue: Charlotte Theater Rating: 13 and above VIP 130,000 WON R 110,000 WON S 80,000 WON A 60,000 WON CAST: JUNGMIN HWANG, BEOMSEOK SEO, GWANGHO HONG, HYEKYOUNG LEE, JUNGEUN CHO, HOONJIN LEE, CHANGYOUNG LEE. DESCRIPTION: The return of the cervantes novel <Don Quixote>. The reckless but beautiful rush of don quixote towards the windmill. In summer 2012, the man of la mancha don quixote is coming back to find your dreams.

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interpark english booking http://ticket.interpark.com/Global/

Tickets for MUSICAL

Oct. BALLET

KOREAN NATIONAL BALLET <SWAN LAKE>

JEKYLL & HYDE IN BUSAN 2012.10.12~10.21 venue: BUSAN CITIZEN HALL

2012.10.19~10.20 venue: SEONGNAM ARTS

GRAND THEATER Rating: 7 and older tickets: VIP 130,000WON R 110,000WON S 70,000WON A 50,000WON

CENTER OPERA HOUSE Rating: 7 and older tickets: VIP 100,000WON R 70,000WON S 50,000WON A 30,000WON

SHERLOCK HOLMES

CLASSIC

2012.09.12~11.04 venue: DOOSAN ARTS CENTER

RODGERS & HAMMERSTEIN

YONKANG HALL Rating: 10 and above tickets: R 60,000 WON S 40,000 WON

2012.10.11~10.12 venue: Grand Theater, Sejong Art Cener Rating: 7 and above tickets: VIP 100,000WON R 70,000WON S 50,000 WON A 40,000WON B 30,000 WON

CONCERT 2012 IL MARE

GIDON KREMER & KREMERATA BALTICA

2012.10.13~10.14 venue: NANJI HANGANG PARK

2012.10.16~10.17 venue: SEOUL ARTS CENTER

Rating: ALL AGES tickets: 2 DAYS PASS 154,000 WON 1 DAY PASS 99,000 WON

CONCERT HALL Rating: 7 and above tickets: R 150,000 WON S 120,000 WON A 80,000 WON B 50,000 WON

Beenzino 2 4 : 2 6 Concert]

2 days only

TRADITIONAL

2012.10.14 only venue: KT&G SANGSANG MADANG LIVE HALL Rating: ALL AGES tickets: STANDING (REGULAR) 40,000 WON STANDING (RESERVATION) 35,000 WON

GYEONGHOEROO YEONHYANG 2012.10.12~10.21 venue: GYEONGBOKGUNG GYEONGHOEROO Rating: 7 and ABOVE tickets: ALL SEATS 30,000 WON

1 day only

THE LAUNDRY 2000 SHOWS CELEBRATION

THE DISSAPERANCE OF WANGSEJA

Show Type: musical Dates: 2012.10.12~11.11 Venue: HAKCHON GREEN SMALL THEATER Rating: 13 and above

Show Type: MUSICAL Dates: 2012.08.07~10.28 Venue: DAEHAKRO ARTONE THEATER 1ST HALL Rating: 19 and older

ALL SEATS 49,000 WON R 60,000 WON S 40,000 WON CAST: JUNGIM KANG, KUKHEE KIM, SONGEE KIM, YEOJIN KIM, JONGGU KIM, JOHOON KIM, TAEWOONG KIM. DESCRIPTION: The commemoration shows of the musical <The Laundry> will last for a month and will have all actors from previous casts.

CAST: SANGHYUN LEE, SOONCHANG CHO, RYOONHEE HONG, TAEYOUNG SEO, KYUNGSOO KIM, EUNSEOK PARK, JISOOK LEE. DESCRIPTION: 2011 5th <The Musical Awards> small theater original musical award winner. 2011 Hi Seoul Gogung Musical Selection. The audience’s selection for <2012 Best Original Musical>.

Above information may change due to an actor/actress and entertainment management company's scheduling.

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W hen hangul meets j ewelr y Hangul-inspired artwork is everywhere these days. It could be fashion design, paintings, sculptures, and much more. If you appreciate these things, how about a piece of jewelry inspired by Hangul? It is one of the special way to appreciate Hangul.

BY_MIN-JUNG CHOI / IMAGES BY_ MUCHA(1588-9391) , NEEUN(02-332-6142)

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A modern interpretation of Hangul Inspired by the curve of traditional Korean housing, Neeun's Hangul jewelry line is high on demand by the youth with its simple yet delicate design. Also you can choose from fourteen consonants of Hangul. Flaunt the beauty of Hangul on your fingers or on your neck!

Gold Necklace \ 381,000 / neeun (left top) Gold Ring \ 235,000 / neeun (left bottom) Silver Ring \ 69,000 / neeun (same style as the gold ring)

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Hangul-inspired crown adorns the head of the most beautiful woman of Korea The crown, designated as the official tiara for Miss Korea 2009, took its motif from the crown of Queen Seondeok during the Silla period (57 BC – 935 AD). A modern interpretation of the traditional Korean crown, this design by Mucha was dubbed “The Light of the Orient”. Paired with symbolic pendants inspired by Hangul, the crown is ornate with various luxurious stones. It was also awarded with the prestigious presidential award for design.

Name: Miss Korea 2009 Tiara, price undetermined, Mucha

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Marvelous Hangul design with coral gemstone This captivating necklace is made with a gold pendant inspired by Hangul and red coral gemstone. It has captured the feminine spirit with its rounded shape and successfully integrated a Korean traditional pattern. Overall, this classic necklace is perfect to accentuate your look.

Name: The graceful style of Korea, price undetermined, Mucha

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Mugunghwa in full bloom & Hangul Korea's national flower, Mugunghwa is the Korean name for the rose of sharon Mugunghwa matched with golden Hangul is an elegant symbol of Korea. The Mugunghwa is decorated with pearl, its petals in natural gradation from deep pink to light pink, as if it's a miniature version of a real flower. Engraved in a natural Korean technique, this necklace has just the right amount of luxury and sophistication.

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Name: The Beauty of Korea, price undetermined, Mucha

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Capturing the grace of Hangul in one pendent The subtlety of this Hangul drop pendant will instantly draw people's attention. Having interpreted the spirit of Hangul by making it shine as it reflects the light, the necklace has captured both beauty and soul of Hangul.

Name: The Breath of Hangul, price undetermined, Mucha

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Is Where I Live Who I Am A Gangbuk Enthusiast’s view on Gangnam

BY_ JUNG-YOON CHOI / ILLUSTRATION BY_ HYUN-JIN YOO In the small city I came from, there were more affluent places than others but there was no barometer that distinguished one place from the rest. But in Seoul this is quite well pronounced. The cost of living, the price of housing, the way people look and dress are quite different than they are back home. Gangnam is the epitome of everything expensive. In areas such as Cheongdam or Sinsa, you have to be careful where you go. A cup of coffee could easily cost you more than five dollars. A haircut can easily cost three times more than what you would pay in other places. Shops are modern and classy with staff often so good-looking they could be models. Still, I couldn't really find a place that I felt comfortable with.

What comes to your mind when you hear the word “Gangnam”? Home to over half-a-million people, the district now has become worldfamous with Psy's viral hit, Gangnam Style. When I asked Seoulites around me about Gangnam, some of their responses were: “Expensive,” “Youthful,” “More buildings than trees,” “Plastic surgery,” “Luxury goods,” “Mercedes-Benzes,” “Money,” “Money,” “Money,” “And even more money.” And responses such as these are not unusual. A lot of people in Korea associate Gangnam with wealth and luxury, oftentimes viewing the region in a negative light for its notorious conspicuous consumption.

I was a Gangnam novice, and I didn’t fit in. The next year I found a job near Myeongdong, an old “it” place and still a favorite among tourists, and I moved way up North in the theatrical district in Daehakno. I felt comfortable living near a university where people were relaxed and dressed casually. Getting my coffee in the morning for a dollar was great, and I enjoyed walking along the palaces or through the old alleyways. I seldom made the trip down to Gangnam, thinking it a plastic world where I couldn’t find any joy at all.

But then again, there’s a sense of envy amongst the Korean public towards the ones who have made it big enough to live in Gangnam.

So, where is this Gangnam, and what is “Gangnam Style”?

Gangnam-gu, is that really where I want to be?

Gangnam or Gangbuk: North or South of the Han River

“Gangnam is like the Beverly Hills of Korea,” Psy, the 34-year-old world sensation, told ABC news in a recent interview. “But the dance doesn't look like Beverly Hills. None of the scenes in the music video look like Beverly Hills.”

For most Koreans who don’t live in Seoul, the word “Gangnam” rings of a vague concept of wealth and riches. As a girl born and raised in a remote city much smaller than Seoul, the idea of disparity between North or South of the river seemed irrelevant to my life. Also, I thought of all eleven districts south of the river as Gangnam, as the word literally means, “South of the river.” However, after moving to Seoul to work in 2009 I soon realized that there’s a huge difference between each district of Seoul. Seoul is divided into twenty-five districts, but largely it could be divided into two, North and South of the Han River. North of the Han, mainly the region within the four major gates in Gwanghwamun and Jongno, used to be the center of Korea with historical palaces and major market places. However, as the city expanded, the shift went south of the river nearly two decades ago. Once a broad plain with rice fields, Gangnam made a quick transition as the place for the new rich. Soon, high-rise buildings and apartments sprang up, and some of the most luxurious boutique shops and department stores in Korea opened in Gangnam.

Gangnam and Me My first job was in Gangnam, so I found a little studio at a place south of the river. I watched people and looked at the places of Gangnam while on my way to and from work. For a few weeks, I couldn’t believe how “perfect” people in the place looked. Everyone – whether dressed casually or formally – seemed to be dressed to the max in perfect cleanliness and in the trendiest outfits. I hate to admit it, but I was overwhelmed by the Gangnam women who were slender and clad in their chic outfits. Also, I often spotted many girls who had so much plastic surgery that they all began to look like multiple twins. Many women would walk around wearing Sunglasses and masks at night, which I soon found out was how they hid their recent surgery.

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When Psy mentioned Beverly Hills, I was immediately reminded of the song of the same name by Weezer. The song’s lyrics sing of the beauty and luxuries of Beverly Hills, but gives up on the chance of living there, saying that “it’s something you are born into, and I just don’t belong.” Maybe it's true for many Koreans. A lot of us long to live in Gangnam, living in a luxury apartment, rolling in and out of a Mercedes, but we know that we don’t stand a chance. But I don’t think we should be disappointed by that. Sure, Gangnam can be the best place for a lot of people for its conveniences and luxurious lifestyle, but if you look around, Seoul has a lot of other places that are charming and affordable. It really comes down to the attitude of life you have – not the place – that makes you who you are.

In a closing note My new work place is near Shinsa’s Cafe Street, the “hottest place” in Seoul, right by a plastic surgery hospital. I dreaded when I learned the news earlier this year. But as I started going back and forth from work, I realized that I had a lot of prejudice against Gangnam. The Gangnam natives often are relaxed and friendly. There are hidden little vintage shops and bars that really hit the note of this Ganbuk-girl. No… Wait… While writing this article, I came to realize that it's completely ridiculous to call someone “Gangnam Style” or “Gangbuk Style” because no matter how pronounced a place is, it doesn’t really change who you are. If you’re okay with who you are, you’ll be okay no matter where you go. But if you try too hard to change yourself to fit into a vague concept of the style of a region, you’ll end up being ridiculous, and worse, losing yourself.


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Today, we will introduce you to words that start with the consonant "ㄹ" (l/r)

words that start with

There are hundreds of thousands of words in Korean and sometimes it's more fun and much easier to learn them by grouping words into certain categories. Through this series, we will do just that. By grouping some of the vocabulary that start with the same consonant, we hope this simplifies the seemingly daunting task of learning Korean words.

라디오[ra-di-o] = radio

러시아 [reo-si-a] = Russia

로즈마리 [ro-jeu-ma-ri] = rosemary

라면 [ra-myeon] = instant noodle

로또 [ro-tto] = Lotto

리모컨 [ri-mo-keon] = remote control

BY_ TALK TO ME IN KOREAN Now, we will introduce you to phrases using words that start with the consonant "ㄹ" (l/r)

라볶이 [ra-ppo-kki] = Rappokki (Ramyeon + Tteokbbokki)

로마 [ro-ma] = Rome

라오스 [ra-o-seu] = Laos

로봇 [ro-bot] = robot

라디오를 듣다 [ra-di-o-reul deut-da] = to listen to the radio 라디오를 틀다 [ra-di-o-reul teul-da] = to turn on the radio 라디오를 끄다 [ra-di-o-reul kkeu-da] = to turn off the radio 라면을 끓이다 [ra-myeo-neul kkeu-ri-da] = to cook instant noodle 라면을 먹다 [ra-myeon-neul meok-da] = to eat instant noodle 라오스에 가다 [ra-o-seu-e ga-da] = to go to Laos 러시아를 여행하다 [reo-si-a-reul yeo-haeng-ha-da] = to travel in Russia 로또를 사다 [ro-tto-reul sa-da] = to buy a Lotto ticket 로또에 당첨되다 [ro-tto-e dang-cheom-doe-da] = to win the lotto 리모컨을 찾다 [ri-mo-keo-neul chat-da] = to look for a remote control 로봇을 조립하다 [ro-bo-sseul jo-rip-ha-da] = to assemble a robot (kit)

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ENGLISH SER V ICE CENTER i n c h e o n G y e o n g

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INTERNATIONAL HEALTHCARE CENTER TnTn Hospital 1588-7562

Immigration Call Center / 1345 Dasan Call Center / 120 (Press 9 for foreign language services) Korea Tourism organization Information Center / 1330 BBB Korea Interpretation Service / 1588-5644 Emergency Medical Information Center / 1339 Emergency Support Center for Female Migrants / 1577-1366 Seoul Global Center / 02-2075-4180

CHURCH Global Mission Church 031-710-5924 Seung Lee Church 031-911-9191 Gwacheon Church 02-502-2357 Ilsan Kwanglim Church 031-904-1004 Kwang Sung Church 031-918-9100

INTERNATIONAL HEALTHCARE CENTER Gachon University Gil Medical Center 032-460-3213 Inha University Hospital 032-890-2114 CHURCH Juan Presbyterian Church 032-527-1009 Onsege Church 032-361-0022 MOBILE PHONES KT Guwol_KT M&S 032-831-6019

MOBILE PHONES KT Guwol_KT M&S 032-831-6019

c h u n g SEOUL INTERNATIONAL HEALTHCARE CENTER Hanyang University International Hospital 02-2290-9550 The Catholic University Korea Seoul St. Maryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Hospital 02-2258-2003~5 Kwangdong Oriental Hospital 02-2222-4992 Korea University Medical Center 02-920-5677 Yonsei University Health system 02-2019-3600~3690 Seoul National University Hospital 02-2072-2890 , 0505 Samsung Medical Center 02-3410-0200 , 0026 Soon Chun Hyang University Hospital 02-709-9158 , 9058 Jaseng Hospital of Oriental Medicine 02-3218-2167 Asan Medical Center 02-3010-5001 Kyunghee University Medical Center 02-958-1897 , 9644 , 9619 Konkuk University Hospital 02-2030-8361~2 Jeseng Hospital of Oriental Medicine 02-3218-2105 , 02-3218-2167 CHURCH Jubilee Church 02-569-2293 SaRang Community Church 02-3489-7536 Onnuri Community Church 02-793-9686 MyungSung Community Church 02-6930-9450~2 Yoido Full Gospel Church 02-782-4851 Samil Church 02-713-2660 Seoul Dream Church 02-749-0730 Seoul National University Church 02-876-0654 Kwanglim Church 02-2056-5600 Chungdong First Methodist Church 02-753-0001 Gyung Hyang Presbyterian Church 3664-0333 Noryangjin Church 02-814-3425 Karakdong Church 02-408 , 409-1903 Jeilsungdo Church 02-886-4111 Seodaemoon Church 02-360-8900 Seoul International Baptist Church 02-793-6267 Young Nak Presbyterian Church 02-2280-0228 Seoul Union Church 02-333-7393 Myungsung Church 02-440-9004 Seoul International Church of Christ 02-601-0645 MOBILE PHONES KT Gwanghwamun_Olleh Square 02-733-0285

CHURCH Dae Jeon Samsung Evengelical Holiness Church 042-632-7771 Jung Moon Baptist Church 042-525-9191 Sangdang International Church 043-288-2203

BANK KOOKMIN BANK HEAD OFFICE 02-2073-7114 SHINHAN BANK 1577-8000 WOORI BANK 080-365-5000 HANA BANK 1599-1111 Guro Office: 02-853-1111 CITI BANK GLOBAL BRANCH Bangbae: 02-533-6111 Gangnam: 02-567-6001 Dadong: 02-3455-2750 Ichon: 02-3785-2005 Myungdong: 02-3119-7100 Oksu: 02-2281-8305 KEB BANK Itaewon: 02-792-3911 Hannam-dong: 02-793-5401 Gangnam Finance Center: 02-554-2745 STANDARD CHARTERED Gwanghwamun: 02-3702-3114 Itaewon: 02-796-4931 Banpo: 02-536-8368 COEX: 02-552-2337 INDUSTRIAL BANK OF KOREA (IBK) 1566-2566, 1588-2588 NongHyup (NH) 02-2080-5114

d a e j e o n MOBILE PHONES KT Gung-dong_JS Media 042-826-0789

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CHURCH Gwangsan Church 062-941-8004 BANK KWANG JU BANK 062-239-5000

g y e o n g s a n g CHURCH Gumi Jeil Church 054-471-8650 Daegu Saemgipeun Church 053-642-7384 The First Presbyterian Church of Daegu 053-253-2615 Busan Baek Yang Ro Presbytarian Church 051-898-3740 Ulsan Simin Church 052-277-6091 Gyungju Myungsung Church 054-748-1004

CAR RENTALS KT Kumho Rent-a-car 1588-1230 My Car Auto Rental 02-558-1750 Car For you 02-558-1750 My Friend Rent a Car 02-508-5171 AVIS 1544-1600

DAEGU MOBILE PHONES KT Dongseongno_KT M&S 053-431-0130 KT Keimyung University_Daejong I&T 053-587-1016 BANK DAEGU BANK 1566-5050 / 1588-5050

C h a n g w o n BANK KYONGNAM BANK 055-290-8000

J E J U BANK JEJU BANK 064-720-0200

b u s a n INTERNATIONAL HEALTHCARE CENTER Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital 055-360-2011 BANK BUSAN BANK 1588-6200

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BRIDGE PAPERZINE ISSUE #08  

In this issue we discuss 'Hangul' the Korean alphabet. We take readers through places to visit for learning the history of Hangul, meet arti...

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