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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

non-engineered construction to pre- engineered construction, and then finally to 100 % engineered buildings is the best course of action for the implementation of Code - instead of a radical move from nothing to everything. The approach for the development and implementation of a building code suggested in the paper could be applicable to other countries experiencing similar difficulties in introducing safer seismic construction practice. Also in Pakistan, Building code where not much implicated in the practical practices. At the time of the 2005 earthquake, the destruction in the cities and in the towns were massive. The government felt the requirement of the regulation to overcome the earthquake, hence develop earthquake-resistant construction. This was initially limited by the Government only to reinforced concrete frame or concrete block with concrete slabs for floors and roof. A year later, with influence from international NGO’s working in the disaster areas, the government’s Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Authority (ERRA) approved the use of Dhajji Dewari31, and, during the following year, a Bhatar (timber-laced bearing wall construction). Five years after the earthquake, UN-HABITAT has reported that over 250,000 Dhajji new houses have been constructed in the damage district.32 Outside Asia, Australia was one the earliest countries to develop a national design and construction reference document for adobe, pressed block and rammed earth building (traditional construction). The Australian Earth Building Handbook was published by Standards Australia in August 2002 (Standards Australia, 2002). The handbook sets out the principles of accepted good practice and recommended design guidelines for lightly loaded, primarily single and two storey buildings, constructed using stabilised and unstabilised unbaked earthen walls and floors. Where as in the country, government is more focus on preservation of traditional architecture by using modern material it has resulted in monotonous rhythm in the overall architecture in Bhutan irrespective of the regions opposing to the fact that Bhutan, even though a small nation, ranges from the subtropical region the high Himalayas, where we

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Timber frame with stone and earth infill, typically used in the mountain regions of South Asia. ‘Earthquake Resistant Traditional Construction’ by Randolph Langenbach USA


Dissertation: Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism  

It is the combined ideas of people, who thinks that Bhutanese Architecture has many different perspectives if we look into. Nation's goal...