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IFLA国际大学生设计竞赛作品选登

三等奖: 潮汐景观——以荷兰埃姆斯大坝为例 Tidal Landscape of the Eemsdam

流、潮汐湿地、盐渍草地以及淤泥,形成一个自然的沿海防御系统,以减少潮 汐振幅,并且防止洪水灾害。该项目促使代尔夫宰尔现有产业转移到埃姆斯哈 文港,而其逐渐转型为休闲港口。

基于形态学的海滨防御体系 本设计概念旨在给予瓦登海更多的自然动力发展的空间。目前的概念是

(荷兰)罗兰·米克 / (Netherlands)Roeland Meek 庄佳栋 译 / Translated by ZHUANG Jia-dong 文章编号:1000-6664(2013)06-0039-01 中图分类号:TU 986

文献标志码:A

收稿日期:2013-05-13;

修回日期:2013-05-22

边界景观 边境地区对景观设计师来说是一块可以改变、重建以及再塑造的区域。 边境景观的二元性是其主要特点。一方面,它是两国之间的边界线。而另一方 面,它本身也可以引发冲突和双重解读。边界线的周围地区常常是遍布矛盾以 及争议的地方,正是这种争议性,形成不同的边界和边界景观。

项目场地介绍 埃姆斯—多拉尔特河口位于荷兰东北部,与德国交界。其面积约 2

290km ,是荷兰四大河口三角洲地区之一。该河口是鸟类以及比目鱼的栖居 地。埃姆斯河还是通往荷兰与德国几大重要港口的要道。

让动态的潮汐景观显现出来,它将为海堤后方的土地带来丰富的沉积物。通过 这种方法,土地面积将不会像过去一样渐渐往内陆萎缩,而是会逐步被填埋增 长,甚至快过海平面的上升。

项目设计 本项目考虑到大坝能给人带来窒息震撼的体验而没做过多的休闲设计。该 项目的设计和概念反映了其周围景观的二元性。在这个设计作品里,作者想引 起路人对Eems-Dollard河口未来发展的思考。 该设计分为5个区,每一个都有自己的特色和功能。 区域1是人一般无法接近的“潮汐边疆”。这个区域完全是用于生态发 展,可以作为瓦登海比目鱼以及鸟类的繁殖地。 区域2是“海上花园”,这里将重点放在创新性耕作上。在大坝区域将会 有大约1 000hm2的空间作为海藻生产基地。海藻中富有多种有价值的元素, 可以用来取代一些靠土地种植的产物。此外,这里将放置27个风力涡轮机用 于发电。 区域3为“改变的土地”,从外观上看类似于区域1,但人们可以进入这

荷兰和德国的边界正处于该河口。而两国仍未为边界的确切位置达成一

个区域。许多旧渔船在这里将改造为临时住宅。船体的内部是现代风格的装

致。由于这个边境争端,两国都无法为该地区承担职责,导致一场看不见的生

修,而它们的外表因生锈和风化看起来陈旧。它们的方向和位置会随潮汐的变

态灾难正在发生。

化而做改变。

景观历史

区域4则是“43号防波堤”,它是最后一座连接到埃姆斯的堤岸。这块空

埃姆斯—多拉尔特河口的东部有一个明显的突起且不规则的形状,这就是

旷开敞的区域壮可供人们娱乐用。这个区域尽可能保持简单的。只有一些基本

多拉尔特湾,它是由1362年的大洪灾冲刷形成的。如今,多拉尔特湾是一个

设施:停车场,一个港口,观景点以及基本卫生设施。该设计寻求一种以人为

满布泥滩、河道的潮汐地带。退潮时,70%的泥滩是干燥的。

本、技术上可行和最实用的形状外观。

大洪灾使该地区形成不规则的潮差。土地复垦降低了潮汐的覆盖范围。因

区域5“终曲”将延展出大坝的末端。人将走在狭长的大坝上,感觉自身

为潮汐的海水供应一直保持不变,水无法再覆盖到原来的地方。这些极端的潮

的渺小与脆弱。但是当你到达终点时,你将豁然开朗,看到神奇壮丽的景观。

汐振幅,使该地生态系统获得一些得以开发与维护的空间。

混凝土结构观景点

当前危机与现状

这个观景点位于43号防波堤的一个小土坡上。它是基于开放与封闭,导

目前,该地区的港口活动仍不断需要对河道进行处理以保证航道的深度。

向与迷失2个相对立的二元性概念进行设计的。在土坡上和围墙内将有2种不

但是,不断挖掘航道会导致2个严重的后果。其一则是涨潮时潮汐会通过这些

同的空间感。人在封闭的空间内视野局限,然而快走到尽头时,又豁然开朗。

航道逐渐侵蚀内陆深远地区。这不仅导致了内陆地区的水环境问题,还导致几

利用潮汐,改造未来:景观设计师未来的角色

个村庄不得不在2012年被疏散。 其次,连续疏浚也导致河里含有高浓度的污泥。这些淤泥使水变得浑浊, 氧气浓度降低,从而阻碍了水生植物、海洋动物和土壤生物的生存繁衍。大多

埃姆斯大坝极大提升了该河口的生态价值并且将改善了德国和荷兰水滨应 对海平面上升的能力。这个项目显示了未来景观设计师和景观设计学的潜在作 用。它为提升整个地区的景观质量提供了新的重要举措。

数原本生存在水里的生物已经消失了,从而导致一个无形的生态灾难。

扭转现状的设计方案

注:竞赛图纸见拉页。

“埃姆斯大坝”项目试图在埃姆斯—多拉尔特河口放置一个南北走向长达 33km的水坝以改变目前的僵局。这个大坝适应了该河口独特的地貌,同时减

(编辑/曹娟)

少了河口处的潮汐振幅。大坝的形状和位置还为边境冲突提供了解决途径:荷 兰和德国的边界最后可以落在这个大坝上。 大坝将该地区分成2个截然不同的系统。大坝以北的德国境内,将注重开 发一种“快景观”,主要体现这里的工业特征以及用于获取风能和海藻栽培。 而大坝以南的荷兰境内,则更注重“慢景观”的发展,这里将遍布蜿蜒的溪

44

作者简介: (荷兰)罗兰·米克/1986年生/男/2012年毕业于万豪劳伦斯坦应用科技大学/ 万豪劳伦斯坦应用科技大学指导员 译者简介: 庄佳栋/ 1987年生/男/新西兰林肯大学景观设计学硕士


Selected Works of IFLA International Student Design Competition

Tidal landscape of the Eemsdam The changing attitude of the Dutch towards water and nature (Netherlands)ROELAND MEEK

Abstract: The project Eemsdam proposes a solution for the Eems-Dollard estuary in the Northeast of the Netherlands. This is one of the two remaining open sea estuaries after the realisation of the DutchDelta Works. The project Eemsdam deals with water safety, ecological values, an existing border conflict and cultural landscape identity. It illustrates a new Dutch approach of 'working with water'. Human interventions such as land reclamation and diking have led to a gradual reduction of the size of the estuarine area. The high concentration of sludge in the water causes serious ecological problems. The Netherlands and Germany still disagree about the exact border in the Eems-Dollard estuary, despite of a border agreement of 1960. Because of this frontier dispute, neither country currently takes responsibility for the estuary. The project Eemsdam presents an integral solution for the area by proposing the building of a real dam in the Eems. This 'Eemsdam' solves the sludge problem and thus greatly improves the ecological value of the estuary. At the same time it contributes to flood safety, strengthens regional and cultural landscape identity and will solve the border issue. Interestingly, the plan embraces natural processes as well as technical solutions for the problems at hand. It creates new, inspiring landscapes that offer new possibilities for recreation, nature development, agriculture and energy production. The project Eemsdam offers important new incentives for developing landscape quality of the region as a whole. The plan ‘Eemsdam’ was developed during my graduation stage at the University of applied sciences Van Hall Larenstein in Velp, the Netherlands. I worked on this thesis from February to July 2012. This publication is a summary of my master phase design, as well as a supporting design research and a detailed design. I would like to thank in particular my supervisors from University Van Hall Larenstein: Ir. A. Noortman, Ir. J. Vlug, Ir. C. Zoon, Ir. Veenstra R, Ir. I. Branderhorst and Ir. H. Smolenaers. Their sharp questions and helpful suggestions lifted the plan to a higher level.

1 Border Landscapes

is often left blank. Frequently, we only see a boundary line drawn that

In 2012, my year of graduation, landscape architecture focused

indicatesand marks the contour of the neighbour country. For landscape

on the border regions of the Netherlands. After the formation of the

design and development this boarder can't be marked or indicated so

European Union in 1958, European countries still held their own spatial and

hard. Scenic landscapes or landscape systems never end at borders

economic policy. For years, individual countries hardly looked across their

devised by humans. For example, the Netherlands isa delta country

national borders. In this way it could happen that areas developed entirely

inextricably linked to and dependent of the water from the rivers beyond its

different in economical and scenic way on both sides of a national border.

own borders. Therefor, the Dutch water policy is presently determined by

Differences of insights, opportunism and lack of cooperation often led to

the European Union of Water Boards in Brussels.

conflicts between neighbouring countries. Opportunities to collaborate with

On a lower scale, you will never experience a national border as a

neighbours often remained unexploited. Besides, border regions usually

hard limit or boundary when you walk through a border landscape. A

have their own specific problems, such as limited possibilities for economic

border often exist exclusively in our minds. Many borders are determined

development, social and demographic decline. Along the coast, salinization

without being visible in a landscape. An interesting or fascinating thought is

of agricultural and natural areas may cause problems.

that, in theory a borderisonly an abstract body of thought. Purely because

Because of the globalization of economies and communication

we collectively have determined its positionit is actually there. But if we

through Internet and social media as well as by a better understanding of

were to agree that it would be 100 meters in another direction it could

issues such as climate change, we become more and more aware that

be possible as well. This indicates that a border is not determined by a

we have to look across our own borders for the sustainable development

landscape phenomenon or appearance but is only a territorial demarcation

of a country or region as a whole. We realize that cooperation with our

of countries. Within different disciplines there is also a different approach

neighbours is necessary to increase the quality of a border landscape.

or view towards a border. The more contemplative disciplines such

As a landscape architect, border landscapes have always fascinated

as geographers and historians see a border more often as a result of

me. If we look at most maps of the Netherlands or other European

constructions, processes and historical events, a logical consequence of

countries, it is remarkable that they are often detailed and colorized up

a number of events and facts. The more designing disciplines, for instance

to the border of a country. The area of our neighbours behind the border

landscape architects, see a border rather as a region or area that could be

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IFLA国际大学生设计竞赛作品选登

changed, redeveloped and shaped again.

mentioned above, a complex system of waterworks, known as the Delta

What makes border landscapes particularly interesting and fascinating

Works, was built after our latest major flood disaster in 1953. This complex

is that there is always a duality. Drawing a borderline between two

system of waterworks protects the country against the constant threat

countries, thus agreeing that this is mine and that is yours, gives on the

of flooding. Only two main estuaries were not barred in this system: the

one handpeace, because uncertainty is resolved. On the other hand,

Westerschelde in the southwest of the Netherlands and the Eems-Dollard

the borderline in itself can be a new source of conflict and duality. In the

in the northeast of the Netherlands.

Netherlands there are numerous examples of neighbour conflicts about

The Eems-Dollard estuary is located in the northeastern part of

the border between two gardens or the placement of a fence. A border

the Netherlands at the boundary with Germany. With a surface of

is a double-sided and often contradictory phenomenon and the influence

approximately 290 km2, it is one of the four major estuaries of the Dutch

of that dilemma is frequently present in the direct surrounding of borders,

delta region (the other estuaries being formed by the rivers Schelde, Maas

also on a large scale. It is this duelling characteristic, which ensures that no

and Rijn). Besides the Westerschelde (the western estuary of the Schelde)

border and no border landscape is comparable. This makes border regions

it is the last estuary with a free outflowing river. The Eems-Dollard estuary

so interesting for a graduation assignment.

is connected to the much larger Wadden Sea, which extends from Den Helder in the Netherlands to Esbjerg in Denmark. The Eems-Dollard

2 The Dutch and Water

estuary is home to the largest bird colony of Pied Avocets (Recurvirostra

Water has always been the strongest enemy as well as the best friend

avosetta ) of Northwest Europe. Migratory birds like Common Teal (Anas

of the Dutch people. The Dutch country is indissolubly connected with

crecca ), and Spotted Redshank (Tringa erythropus ) make a stop there

water: Salt water from the sea as well as sweet water from big European

during migration to recuperate. In addition, it acts as a nursery area

rivers. Dyke construction, land reclamation, Delta Works and Dam's

for flatfish. Around 75% of all the flatfish in the North Sea is born in the

are all terms that make it possible for the Dutch to live and function in

Wadden Sea. Of these 75%, 25% is born and nursed in the Eems-Dollard

their country. These days, the Dutch are not in an enviable position. The

estuary. The major species of this flatfish population is Plaice (Pleuronectes

land is sinking while at the same time the sea level is rising, posing new

platessa ). Besides this ecological function, the estuary also hosts a lot

challenges for the Dutch to keep their feet dry. As most people know, a

of economic activity. The Eems is the gateway to the Dutch harbours of

large part of The Netherlands lies below sea level. As a result, the struggle

Delfzijl with its chemical industry and the rapidly developing energy harbour

against water characterizes the Dutch and the Dutch landscape. To deal

Eemshaven. At the German site these are the harbours of Papenburg,

with the water, technical solutions like dikes, pumps and dams were built

with the largest drydock in the word, and Emden, the third largest vehicle

to protect the country against the constant threat of flooding. As people

port of Germany. The activity in these harbours requires good accessibility

say: "God created the earth, but the Dutch created the Netherlands". The

for large vessels. Therefore, continuous dredging is required in order to

Delta Works, a complex system of waterworks that was built after the flood

keep the shipping lane at depth. These harbours are economically very

disaster of 1953, is perhaps the most famous example of this technical

valuable for the region. Probably, the Eemsdelta will suffer in the future from

approach. Behind the dikes, the land was cultivated and used for living,

social and demographic decline. Employment is an important agenda for

working and agriculture areas, leaving little space for nature and natural

the provinces and municipalities on both sides of the border, in order to

processes to take place.

maintain the liveability in the area.

Nowadays the Dutch attitude towards water and nature seems to

The border between the Netherlands and Germany is positioned

be changing. In the last couple of years new types of plans are being

through the Eems-Dollard estuary. The Netherlands and Germany still

presented. Instead of fighting the water, the tendency seems to change

disagree about the exact border location. According to the Netherlands

towards working together with the water, allowing water and nature to take

the border is located through the main shipping channel. According to

their own course. We are looking for long-term alternatives for the current

Germany the border is located in front of the Dutch city Delfzijl. In 1960, a

strategy of building higher and higher dikes and pumping water as hard

border treaty was established in which agreements were made for mineral

as possible. No longer we want to fight against the water, but instead we

extraction, use of the waterway and water management. Due to this

want to profit from its natural dynamics. New projects seem to mark a

frontier dispute neither country takes responsibility for the estuary and an

change in thinking about defence against water, which will also affect the

invisible ecological disaster is taking place.

development possibilities for nature, as well as our view towards nature.

4 Chronicle of the Landscape 3 Introduction in the Project Area

If we look at the shape of the Eems-Dollard estuary it is immediately

Disastrous floods in the past have encouraged the Dutch people

apparent that the estuary has a crazy bulge and disproportional form on

to continually strengthen their defence against the sea and rivers. As

the east side. This part of the Eems-Dollard estuary is called the Dollard.

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Selected Works of IFLA International Student Design Competition

This unnatural shaped Dollard area istheresult of a great flooding. Up to

as the “yellow river� of Europe. Caused by the sludge of the dredged

1362 the Dollard didn't exist. In that year, during the Marcellus Flood, large

fairway and the disproportional form of the estuary that resulted from land

parts of the habitable land were swept away by the sea. Only few people

reclamation in the past, the characteristic gully system is silting up, the

know that the Eems-Dollard estuary lost a lot of villages to the sea. Only

water gets murky and oxygen concentrations diminish, thus hampering

Zeeland, in the southwest of the Netherlands, lost more villages during the

the development of aquatic plants, marine animals and soil biota. Over

flood disaster of 1953. More than 800 years ago, the current Dollard was

the years, most life in and above the Eems-Dollard estuary has gradually

a prosperous agricultural area, where 30 to 35 villages were located and

disappeared, resulting in an invisible ecological disaster. Environmental

even a small city. During the Marcellus Flood in 1362 and the emergence

care organizations and harbour industries are constantly arguing. As a

of the Dollard, waves have swallowed all these villages. After this

result, the landscape development stagnates and neither can realize their

breakthrough, the Dollard arises in the following 150 years, and in the next

ambitions. The biggest excuse that is used by both countries is the frontier

300 years the surface of the Dollard floodplain is slowly diminishing caused

dispute. This disagreement allows neither country to take responsibility

by human interventions such as land reclamation and diking, eventually

for the area. It seems as if both countries have turned their backs to the

reaching its present shape and size. Nowadays, the Dollard is a tidal area

estuary and are only lookingtowards their own inland.

of mudflats, channels and plates. During low tide, 70% of the mudflats are dry. It has a brackish water system, influenced by salt water from the North Sea and fresh water from the rivers Eems and Westerwoldse Ae.

6 Redemptive Design Response The 'Eemsdam' plan tries to breach this stalemate situation by

Because of the historical events just described, a unnatural tidal

placing a 33 km long dam in the Eems-Dollard estuary, with a north-

amplitude has arisen in the Eems-Dollard estuary. Reclamation of land

south orientation, starting in Germany next to the town of Ditsum and

that was swallowed by the sea has brought much wealth in the region,

ending in the Wadden Sea. This dam respects the unique open estuary

because this land was highly fertile. However land reclamation reduced

system, and simultaneously reduces the tidal amplitude in the estuary,

the tidal volume. Since the tidal supply of sea water has remained the

thus enabling new opportunities for the Eems-dollar region on both the

same, the system can no longer find space for all the water and the level is

land- and seaside. Besides the technical advantage of parallel positioning

elevated at high tide. Consequently the disproportional shape of the Eems-

of the Eemsdam in the estuary this shape and location of the Eemsdam

Dollard estuary causes extra high water levels and thus unnatural high

also offers reason to resolve the border conflict. The border between the

tidal amplitudes. Because of these extreme tidal amplitudes, the ecology

Netherlands and Germany will definitely be positioned at the Eemsdam.

system gets little space to develop or maintain itself.

Consequently, there will be certainty about the management of the EemsDollard estuary. In this way the focus of both countries will turn 180

5 Crisis and Current Condition

degrees, from inwards to their own inland to outward to the Eems-Dollard

The significant ecological importance of the open estuary has been

estuary. The dam will divide the estuary in two distinct systems. North

acknowledged in 2007 by its addition to the Natura 2000 Wadden Sea

of the dam, at the German side, a 'fast landscape' will develop, with a

area, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Besides being an important natural

predominantly industrial character. Harbour industries may be extended

area, the Eems-Dollard estuary also has an important economical function.

and intensified here and in addition the dam will provide opportunities for

The estuary provides an entrance to important harbours as mentioned

harvesting wind energy and seaweed cultivation. South of the dam, at the

before. The current economic developments around these harbours

Dutch side, a 'slow landscape' will develop, existing of meandering creeks

continuously require interventions in the estuary in order to keep the

and tidal marshes, with salt meadows and mud plates. At the southwest

shipping lane at depth. The continuously dredging of the fairway has two

side of the dam, new salt meadows will form a natural coastal defence,

major consequences.

leading to reduced tidal amplitudes, thereby defending the land from the

The first consequence is that the tidal amplitude easily reaches further

sea. At the land side around the Eems-Dollard estuary, the reduced tidal

and further inland during high tide through the deep dredged fairway. This

amplitudes will prevent flooding caused by abundant rainfall, since sweet

causes dangerous inland water problems. Sweat water from the inland

water can be more easily drained away into the estuary. The expected

cannot be disposed anymore into the estuary during high water levels at sea.

hydrodynamic changes at the Dutch side of the dam will induce the

As a result, several villages had to be evacuated in 2012 since water from

transformation of the city of Delfzijl into a recreational harbour, inaccessible

the "Eemskanaal" could not be drained into the estuary. This problem will be

for large vessels. By gradually moving the existing industry near Delfzijl

reinforced in the future by the expected sea level rise due to climate changes

to Eemshaven, a process that is already taking place because of better

as well as by land subsidence caused by gas extraction from this region.

development opportunities in Eemshaven, the city of Delfzijl will gain new

Secondly, the continuous dredging also causes high concentration of sludge in the water. The river Eems is presently negatively indicated

ĂŠlan, focussing on nature development, high quality living, water storage and recreation.

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IFLA国际大学生设计竞赛作品选登

surrounding landscape of the Eemsdam, it is immediately apparent that the

7 Morphological Coastal Defence

landscape is characterized by the continuous conflict and duality between

The open connection with the North Sea characterizes the Eems-

economic and ecological activity, either the natural versus the created. The

Dollard estuary. Gullies and plates are constantly moving and changing

design and concept of the Eemsdam reflects this duality in the surrounding

in this system. These dynamics are the main strength of Eems-Dollard

landscape. While designing the Eemsdam I have asked myself which

estuary, but are difficult to predict. New plates and salt marshesand gullies

architectural terms characterize a fast landscape and which architectural

will occur because the construction of the Eemsdam will interfere with

terms characterize a slow landscape. Eventually, the concept is based

these morphological processes. I made a scale model of the estuary to get

on wonder. You will see continuously different characters on both side of

a rough understanding of the morphological changes and processes that

the dam, which unconsciously will provoke questions to passers. With

will arise. In this model high and low tides can be simulated. By adding

this concept, I want to provoke passers to think about the development

sand and coffee dregs, the model showed how and where erosion or

of the Eems-Dollard estuary. Should the landscape be conservative or

sedimentation would occur in the estuary.

innovative, economically or ecologically equipped, should it have a neutral

Based on the outcome of this model, a literature study of sedimentation and sea-level rise and discussions with professional hydrologists, I have implemented the following concept, which adapts

or expressive appearance and so on. The design of the Eemsdam distinguishes 5 zones, which each will have there own appearance and function.

the costal defence to the expected rise of the sea level. In this sediment-

Zone 1, indicated as "The Tidal Marchland" is inaccessible for

rich Eems-Dollard estuary, a natural dynamic coastal defence seems a

humans. This area is fully meant for ecological development. The important

promising long-term alternative to the current strategy of building higher

ecological function of the Eems-Dollard estuary as a nursery area for flatfish

and higher dikes and pumping water as hard as possible. The design

in the Wadden Sea will be preserved here. Thousands of birds will make

concept gives more space to the natural dynamics of the Wadden Sea

nests and will find food on the vast tidal flats. In this way an answer is given

area. With the present proposal, a dynamic tidal landscape arises, which

to the Natura 2000 legislation and requirements.

allows feeding the land behind the dikes by sediment-rich tides. In this way

Zone 2 "The Sea Garden" will be focused on innovating cultivations.

we are not reclaiming land further and further seawards, like we did in the

Due to the growing human demand for food and energy, opportunities

past, but instead our country could grow simultaneous with, or even faster

for sustainable exploitation of sea products receive increasingly more

than the sea-level rise. The proposal offers space for nature, agriculture

attention. In this zone of the dam there will be roughly 1 000 hectares of

and new salt-crops. In this way we no longer have to fight against the

space for seaweed production. Seaweeds are known for their diversity of

water, but we can profit from the dynamics of this system. This proposal is

valuable elements that may replace land-cultivated biomass and fuels. In

inspired by a concept of H+N+S Landscape architects.

addition, 27 wind turbines will be placed here.

8 Designing the Eemsdam

Marshland", in terms of appearance, with the difference that it is accessible

Zone 3 "The Changing Land" is similar to the first zone, "The Tidal As a landscape architect, I attached great importance to the creation

to people. A number of old fishing boats will function here as temporary

of new, attractive and inspiring spaces for humans during the design

residences. The interior of the boats will have a modern character, whereas

of the Eemsdam. In most cases, the appearance and shape of a dam

their outside will look old, rusty and weathered. Their orientation and

is determined by its primary function. However, an additional aspect of

position will change twice a day due to the effect of tides.

dams is their enormous attractiveness to the public. Walking on a dam

Zone 4 "Breakwater 43" is the last rockfilled breakwater connected

will make you feel small and vulnerable towards the huge dimensions of

to the Eemsdam. It is meant for recreation in an area dominated by

this construction and the power of the water. Especially this experience

emptiness and openness. People are free to give their own meaning

of the littleness of man makes dams attractive for people. The design

to this region. There are only a few basic services, including a parking

of the Eemsdam accounts for these human feelings without too much

space, a harbour, a viewpoint and a building with basic sanitary facilities.

predetermined recreational design. This would overrule the pure

This subdivision of the Eemsdam offers an interesting and exciting space

experience of the dam and its environment. The experience at the end

to the recreating public.

of a dam is in itself spectacular enough and does not need additional

Zone 5 "The End" will lead to the outer end of the dam. A walk from

design measures. The challenge is more to seduce people to take a walk

breakwater 43 to the end point of the Eemsdam in the Wadden Sea will

to the end.

induce an increasing tension along the route. In these last five kilometres

By constructing the Eemsdam two types of landscapes will develop,

all human dimensions disappear. One feels small and vulnerable on the

a slow and a fast landscape. In the design and materialisation of the

long but narrow profile of the dam. At the endpoint, however, you will be

Eemsdam itself, this concept is further elaborated. If you look at the

rewarded with a fantastic view. The waves and crests stretch up to the

48


Selected Works of IFLA International Student Design Competition

horizon and you can see the curvature of the earth.

estuary and will improve the protection of Germany and of the Netherlands against the rising sea. Nowadays the Dutch attitude towards water safety

9 Designing Empty Spaces

seems to be changing. In the last couple of years new types of plans are

I have made a detailed design of Breakwater 43 as a final clarification

being presented. Instead of fighting the water, the tendency seems to

of the Eemsdam design. Breakwater 43 is the last concrete breakwater

change towards working with the water, allowing it to take its course. A

connected to the Eemsdam. The area has a recreational function,

recent example of this changing attitude towards water safety is the 'Sand

which is different compared to the rest of the dam. Breakwater 43 is

motor', a coastal defence project. In this project, a sand flat has been

easily accessible by car and all basic recreational facilities are present

created in front of the beach leaving it to the sea currents to divide the sand

here. Consequently, the remaining part of the dam may stay simple and

along the coastline, instead of strengthening the North Sea coast with hard

pure. People can walk from breakwater 43 to the end of the dam until

dams to break the waves. Although this is still a pilot project, it seems to

gradually all elements and human dimensions have disappeared and one

mark a change in thinking about defence against water. This will affect the

is exclusively surrounded by the sea, feeling small and vulnerable. The

development possibilities for nature as well as our appreciation of natural

parking place is the central point in the design. All other functions are

processes. Likewise, my proposal tries to use the natural dynamics of the

designed around this parking place. The area around breakwater 43 will be

Eems-Dollard estuary. In my opinion this project demonstrates the potential

characterized by emptiness. I am convinced that designing empty spaces

role of landscape architects and landscape architecture in the future.

and areas will stimulate people to feel free to give their own meaning

Together with technical solutions designed by other disciplinesfor rising

to these areas and that they will do this naturally. The appearance of

problems and threats, landscape architects may combinethese technical

Breakwater 43 will be robust, reliable and straightforward. There are only a

designs with increased opportunities for ecology, sustainability and quality

few basic facilities designed: parking space, a harbour, observation point

of life. Pure functionally, the dam could have been designed very differently,

and a building with basic sanitary facilities. Here the design challenge is not

more simple and clean. However, I tried to create new, attractive and

to find the perfect organic shape or line, but to find the most civil, technical

inspiring living environments for humans. The Eemsdam project shows that

and most functional shape. The same story applies for materialization.

this may well be combined with the stimulation and extension of economic

Cheap but reliable materials will be used, mainly basalt and concrete.

functions in the region and increased human profits from nature. Thus, it offers important new incentives for developing landscape quality for the

10 Concrete Observation Point

region as a whole.

I have included a concrete objectbased on a design of Fokke de Kam as final detail of the Eemdam design. This object functions as observation

(Editor / CAO Juan)

point and is located on top op the viewpoint hillat breakwater 43. This object is intended to strengthen the purpose and function of my concept. Similar to the total Eemsdam design, I want to provoke wonder with this object as well as to show the duality of this border landscape. In this way I hope to inspire people to think about the future development of the EemsDollard estuary. The object is based on the duality between openness versus confined space and orientation versus disorientation. The viewpoint hill allows for a good overview of the Eems-Dollard estuary. From this height, you can orient yourself properly, but when you walk through the concrete object you will suddenly loose all sense of scale and orientation. The concrete walls and the confined space between them force you to reflect on yourself. Then suddenly your view escapes the concrete walls, attracted by the vast and endless landscape of the Eems-Dollard estuary again.

11 Shifting Tides and Times; the Future Role of Landscape Architects

Biography: Roeland Meek was born September 04, 1986 and grew up in the little village Altforst, Gelderland, the Netherlands. When he was 16 years old, he moved to Nijmegen to study traditional landscaping. As a qualified landscaper he continued his education at the University of Applied Sciences Van Hall Larenstein, part of Wageningen UR, where he graduated Cum Laude in 2012 in landscape architecture. Roeland Meek worked in 2009 as a trainee and in the summer of 2011 as employee at H+N+S Landscapearchitects in Amersfoort. In 2011 he started the design group Happyland Collective with ten other landscape designers, which still flourishes and exploits a common studio and project space in Arnhem. Besides, he works as independent garden designer. In 2012 he started as an instructor at the University of Applied Sciences Van Hall Larenstein. In April 2013, his graduation project ‘The tidal

The Eemsdam can function as stimulator or motor for further

landscape of the Eemsdam’ has won the 3rd Prize of the IFLA

development of the region in the future. By building a single dam, the

student competition, awarded at the 50th IFLA world congress in

project 'Eemsdam' gives an enormous boost to the ecological value of the

New Zealand.

49


Chinese Landscape Architecture  

Publication in the Chinese Journal of Landscape architecture,of my submission as winner of the Merit Award, awarded at the 50th IFLA world c...

Chinese Landscape Architecture  

Publication in the Chinese Journal of Landscape architecture,of my submission as winner of the Merit Award, awarded at the 50th IFLA world c...

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