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Research on Gadget Lovers Motivations for the Use of High Tech Gadgets Prepared for Dr. John Summey of Southern Illinois University Carbondale Department of Marketing

Prepared by

Seis Research Group Matt Adel Henry McGee Michelle Noceda John Thuline Kaylee Gates Luke Bonacorsi April 2009  

 

1   


Motivations for the Use of High Tech Gadgets

Prepared for: Dr. John Summey Southern Illinois University Carbondale Department of Marketing

Prepared by:

Seis Research Group Matt Adel Henry McGee Michelle Noceda John Thuline Kaylee Gates Luke Bonacorsi  

 

2   


4/20/2009 Dr. John Summey Associate Professor and Distinguished Teacher Department of Marketing Southern Illinois University Carbondale

Dear Dr. John Summey: Seis Research Group has completed the marketing research for gadget lovers’ motivations for using gadgets, which was requested at the beginning of the semester. The information about these gadget lovers’ is found within the report. The report is the result of the analysis of referral surveying of 476 respondents by emailing and telephone. The information that Seis Research Group collected from the survey about the gadget lovers’ service should be useful to you. Our report will show what most respondents use as motivations for gadget use; whether it be who uses, what causes them to use, and why they use gadgets.

Seis Research Group would like thank you for this opportunity to work with you on this research project. We have assurance that the information we have provided will be useful to you and your students to come. Sincerely, Matt Adel Henry McGee Michelle Noceda John Thuline Kaylee Gates Luke Bonacorsi   3   


Executive Summary Dr. John Summey of Southern Illinois University Carbondale requested us to perform marketing research to determine how economic motivations and technological innovativeness influence high tech gadget lovers use and/or purchase decisions. Seis Research Group conducted an online survey of 476 people. The data collected included information regarding respondents’ view on statements within each construct such as the importance of price, convenience, time-saving ability, and being the first to own a high tech gadget. The report begins by differentiating between the two constructs of economic motivation and technological innovativeness. The statements provided for response were grouped together by construct to achieve an overall understanding of each construct’s influence. We then separated our respondents by demographics to discover a difference in means based on a seven point Likert scale. The separate groups within each demographic were comparatively analyzed which isolated certain groups by their level of agreement/disagreement. The analyzed data suggested firstly that economic motivations played an important role in determining gadget lover’s behavior to use or purchase high tech products. This particular motivation exceeded the influence of technological innovativeness. The majority of the respondents ( 71.1%-90.0%) agreed with statements concerning economic motivations while the majority (44.62%-75.8%) of the respondents disagreed with statements portraying technological innovativeness as a key factor After addressing each respondent by their demographic data, we had learned that age was an important segment to address. Within this demographic, more statistically significant differences were evident. Specifically, the age group 55-65 years yielded a greater amount of disagreement towards technological innovativeness. This particular group also agreed but to a significantly lesser degree that they enjoyed gadgets because they found them convenient. This indicates that the older respondents did not find a desire to be the first to own the newest high tech gadgets. Another demographic worth addressing is level of income. Regarding economic motivations, the income level $100,000 or more had a higher level of disagreement than the income level of $24,999 that high tech gadgets were used to save time. Regarding technological innovativeness, respondents within the income level $50,000-$99,999 would rather wait to see how others liked a product before they bought it. The income level of $25,000-$49,999 was statistically different in that they would not wait to see how others liked a product before purchasing. This information may be used to recognize that the higher income gadget lover does not use these products to save time. Also, those within the upper-middle class ($50,000-$99,999) are more cautious to buy new gadgets than their neighboring lower middle class ($25,000-$49,999).

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Biography Michelle Noceda is a senior at Southern Illinois University Carbondale. She is expecting to graduate in December 2009 with her Bachelors of Science in Marketing. She has been very involved with her sorority, Delta Phi Mu, as well as with Hispanic Student Council. Michelle has held various positions in each council causing her to be a very well rounded individual and great with time management. Michelle also enjoys giving back to the community averaging over thirty hours of service a semester. She participated in the Habitat for Humanity Collegiate Challenge spring 2009 where she worked on houses for lower income families in the Greater Miami area of Florida. Michelle’s prior experiences allowed her to bring a high level of time management and planning skills to Seis Research Group. 

 

  Henry McGee is a senior at Southern Illinois University Carbondale. He is expecting to graduate in May 2010 with a Bachelor of Science in Marketing. In the past Henry has worked on projects that involved developing a beneficial product to aid a foreign nation and a new cereal marketing and advertising campaign. These experiences strengthened Henry’s leadership abilities and allowed him to lead Seis Research Group during this project. He enjoys physical activities of all types and is an active musician within the Carbondale, IL music community.  

 

 

Matt Adel is a Senior at Southern Illinois University Carbondale. He is expected to graduate in December ’09 with a Bachelor of Science in Marketing. He has worked for two different billion dollar corporations (Avalon Bay & Caterpillar). He brought great familiarity with SPSS which help aid others in the group. He has volunteered for events in his area such as the pig out and also has raised money in order to create a tshirt for AMA. He also is highly involved in outdoor recreation and basically anything physical 

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Kaylee Gates is currently a senior at Southern Illinois University Carbondale graduating in December 2009 with a Bachelor of Science in Marketing. She currently holds two positions as Director of Recruitment and Director of Philanthropy in the professional sales and marketing fraternity, Pi Sigma Epsilon. Kaylee is also an active member of the American Marketing Association on campus where she worked with other members to develop a marketing strategy for a local business opening in Carbondale, IL. She has been involved in peer group work creating a strategic promotions plan to boost sales for an existing business in Carbondale. Kaylee incorporated her marketing experience to analyze data provided in SPSS graphs, and interpret them into a written, organized format.  

John Thuline is a senior at Southern Illinois University Carbondale graduating in May 2010 with a double Bachelor of Science degree in Marketing and Finance. John is an active member of the American Marketing Association. Being a member of the AMA, he helped create a promotional strategy for the opening of the Stadium Bar & Grille. He has also helped create a new promotional strategy for Mike’s Music Store of Carbondale previously in the year. John is very proficient working with SPSS and very analytical when it comes to calculations. This helped with the analysis of the SPSS outputs. He is very goal driven and uses his time very efficiently.

 

Luke Bonacorsi is a senior at Southern Illinois University Carbondale. His expected graduation date is in December of 2009. Luke is a marketing major at SIUC and a member of the Alpha Tau Omega fraternity. He recently worked with a small group to develop a marketing strategy for the locally owned Bank of Carbondale. Responsibilities included in the development of the marketing strategy were planning and budgeting promotional events, and identifying which media vehicles would best reach the target market. Luke aided Seis Research Group in the analysis of various tables generated on SPSS. His organizational skills were much improved from the work done on this project and helped in its’ completion. 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Section Title

Page Number

COVER PAGE

1-2

COVER LETTER

3

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

4

BIOGRAPHY

5-6

TABLE OF CONTENTS

7-8

INTRODUCTION

9

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

10

DEMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS

11-17

RESEARCH OBJECTIVE ONE SUB-OBJECTIVE I: UNDERSTAND THE DIFFERENCE

18-22

OF INFLUENCE BETWEEN THE MOTIVATING FACTORS TO PURCHASE AND/OR USE HIGH TECH GADGETS: ECONMONIC MOTIVATION VS. TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIVENESS

SUB-OBJECTIVE II: DETERMINE HOW THESE

23-35

MOTIVATING FACTORS RELATE TO THE DEMOGRAPHICS OF THE RESPONDENTS

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

36

LIMITATIONS

37 7 

 


APPENDIX PROPOSAL

38-39

QUESTIONAIRE

40-43

SUMMARY QUESTIONNAIRE

44-62

CLIENT APPROVAL

63

CONFIDENTIALITY AGREEMENT

64

SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT

65

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Introduction This proposal responds to a request from Dr. John Summey of Southern Illinois UniversityCarbondale Department of Marketing. The primary objective of this proposal is to identify the motivations that drive gadget lovers to make high tech purchases. By conducting marketing research we will determine the influence behind these purchases in regards to economic benefit and technological innovativeness. This proposal is submitted by the Seis Research Group. The term gadget is defined as a technological object that has a distinct function and is considered to be ahead of the current technological standards. Gadget lovers are consumers driven by high intrinsic motivation to purchase these products. To collect our sample we surveyed friends and family between the ages of 25 and 65. These respondents were non-students that own a high tech gadget. After reviewing the possible motivations for high tech gadget use, we have decided to focus on the following: Objective One: Sub-objective I •

Understand the difference of influence between the two motivating factors to purchase and/or use high tech gadgets: Economic motivation vs. Technological innovativeness. a. Determine the economic motivations of respondents to purchase/use gadgets b. Determine how technological innovativeness affects purchasing/using gadgets

Sub-objective II •

Determine how these motivating factors relate to the demographics of the respondents a. Identify correlation between specific motivating factors and gender b. Identify correlation between specific motivating factors and age c. Identify correlation between specific motivating factors and education d. Identify correlation between specific motivating factors and occupation e. Identify correlation between specific motivating factors and race f. Identify correlation between specific motivating factors and income 9 

 


Research Methodology Our first step towards achieving our research objectives was to meet with our client, Dr. John Summey, Southern Illinois University-Carbondale Department of Marketing. Dr. Summey provided our group with a set of constructs for us to analyze and explore. Chiefly, he was interested in the development of a survey that would address how economic motivations and technological innovativeness affects the purchase and use of high tech gadgets. We developed an original questionnaire that explored our two constructs. Upon completion of our questionnaire we conducted a pre-test with our peers. After our pre-test Dr. John Summey edited and reviewed our questionnaire. Once returned from Dr. Summey we made the necessary revisions to the questionnaire. After repeated revisions by our group and Dr. Summey we were able to develop a final questionnaire. The survey was made available via the internet. This created a challenge by reducing the total number of respondents due to lack of internet access. We approached this obstacle by using a referral method of choosing our respondents. Through email referral, we were able to collect a total of 476 respondents. For all the statistical tests we performed, we used a 95% confidence interval. We ran the following statistical tests: one-way ANOVA, independent sample t-test, cross-tabulation, Chi Square, and Duncan. All of these test aided in our analysis of the data collected.

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Demographic Analysis

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Figure D-1

What is your Gender? Figure D-1 shows the percentage of males and females of the total respondents. Females are the majority with 59.47% of total respondents. This represents that we had 18.94% of females than males.

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Figure D-2

What is your age? Figure D-2 represents the different age groups that responded to our survey. Age 55 to 65 had the lowest percentage (13.15%). Age 25 to 34 had the highest percentage (38.03%).

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Figure D-3

Figure D-3 shows the highest level of education the respondent has completed. The highest percentages of respondents’ have a 4 year college degree at 30.7%. While the second highest percentages of respondents’ have a Masters degree or higher level of education at 26.6%.

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Figure D-4

Figure D-4 shows the respondents’ occupations. The highest percentage is the professional occupation at 41.1%

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Figure D-5

Figure D-5 shows the level of household income for the respondents. The largest income percentage was $50,000 to $99,999 at 35.8%. A majority of 62.9% have an income of $50,000 or more.

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Figure D-6

Figure D-6 shows that the majority of our respondents were White/Caucasian with 86%. The second largest percentage of respondents were African American at 11.3%.

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Objective One: Sub-Objective I Understand the difference of influence between the motivating factors to purchase and/or use high tech gadgets: Economic motivation vs. Technological innovativeness.

We were given two specific constructs to evaluate how they affected consumers’ decisions to purchase and/or use gadgets: economic factors and technological innovativeness. To begin, we separated the statements given to the respondents into these two constructs. To achieve a broad understanding of what role these factors played in our respondents’ decision to purchase/use gadgets, we grouped all levels of agreement into one category of agreement, and all levels of disagreement into another category of disagreement. From there, we graphed the data, and were able to see the general consensus of all our respondents.

Economic Motivations After grouping the data into groups of agreement, we can begin to understand that economic motivations play a key role in why people choose to purchase and/or use high tech gadgets. Looking at these graphs, one can see that there was an overall high percentage of agreement (90% of respondents) that high tech gadgets are enjoyable because of their convenience. Respondents also generally agree (84.9% of respondents) that they use high tech gadgets because they save time. 71.1% of respondents answered that they buy high tech gadgets if they are less expensive. Almost half of respondents disagreed that their purchase of high tech gadgets was for research purposes, while 31% agreed that they do buy high tech gadgets to aid in research. We can gather from this data that people generally enjoy high tech gadgets because they find them convenient, that they are used as tools to save time, and that people buy gadgets if they are less expensive. Most people did not respond that their use for high tech gadgets was for research purposes.

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I use high tech gadgets because they save time.

  

I buy high tech gadgets for research purposes.

I buy high tech gadgets if they are less expensive.            

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I enjoy high tech gadgets because I find                         them convenient.


Technological Innovativeness Concerning the motive of technological innovativeness, the data collected shows that overall, “newness” or being the first to own high tech gadgets it is not of great importance to respondents. While the majority of people did not agree with the following statements regarding technological innovativeness, 44.64% disagreed that new technologies are usually gimmicks. This shows that while people are not so apt to buy a high tech gadget right away, it is not necessarily because they believe them to be misleading or unreliable.

I get a kick out of buying new high tech items before most other people know they exist.

I get a thrill out of being the first to purchase a a high technology item.

It is cool to be the first to own high tech products.

Being the first to buy new technology device is very important to me.

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I want to own the newest technological products.

New technologies are usually gimmicks.

In general, if a new technology were introduced, would not wait to see how others liked the product before I would buy it.

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When I see a new technology in the I store, I often buy it because it is new.


ECONOMIC MOTIVATIONS vs. TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIVENESS Proven from these bar graphs, economic motivation plays a much bigger role in determining whether or not gadget users purchase high tech products than technological innovativeness. To prove this point further, a crosstab analysis was run for the statements: “In general, if a new technology were introduced, I would not wait to see how others liked the product before I would buy it” and “I buy high tech gadgets if they are less expensive.”

Early Adopters * Economic Factor I buy high tech gadgets if they’re less expensive. Disagree In general, if a new Disagree technology were introduced, I would not wait to see how others liked the product before I Neither would buy it.

Count

Total 198

273

% within NewOthers

15.4%

12.1%

72.5%

100.0%

% within NewExpensive

59.2%

53.2%

61.5%

60.0%

9.2%

7.3%

43.5%

60.0%

10

15

39

64

% within NewOthers

15.6%

23.4%

60.9%

100.0%

% within NewExpensive

14.1%

24.2%

12.1%

14.1%

2.2%

3.3%

8.6%

14.1%

19

14

85

118

% within NewOthers

16.1%

11.9%

72.0%

100.0%

% within NewExpensive

26.8%

22.6%

26.4%

25.9%

4.2%

3.1%

18.7%

25.9%

71

62

322

455

15.6%

13.6%

70.8%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

15.6%

13.6%

70.8%

100.0%

% of Total Count

Count

% of Total Total

Agree 33

% of Total Agree

Neither 42

Count % within NewOthers % within NewExpensive % of Total

Here we can see that 72% of early adopters who agreed that they would NOT wait to see how others liked the product before purchasing still felt that price played an important role in their decision. This reiterates that economic factors provide a motivation to purchase regardless of whether or not buyers are driven by technological innovativeness. Specifically, the majority of high tech users will purchase gadgets that are less expensive.

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Objective One: Sub-Objective II Determine how these motivating factors relate to the demographics of the respondents.

AGE and Economic Motivations After conducting Anova tests of the various demographics with the statements pertaining to the economic motivation construct, the age demographic provided more of a significant difference between groups with a sig value of .004. The respondents’ answers to statements within the construct of economic motivation differed in response to the statement: “I enjoy high tech gadgets because I find them convenient.” A Post-Hoc Duncan test was run to isolate the age group(s) that offered statistically significant difference.

I enjoy high tech gadgets because I find them convenient.

Duncan Subset for alpha = 0.05 Age of Respondents

N

1

2

55-64 years old

56

45-54 years old

129

5.77

35-44 years old

79

5.87

25-34 years old

162

5.96

Sig.

5.25

1.000

.348

  The age group of 55-65 years yielded a statistically significant difference in their answers. They responded more negatively to this statement with a mean of 5.25 on a 7 point Likert scale. The other age groups had a more positive response with means ranging from 5.77 to 5.96. This means that while even though more respondents, regardless of

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age, agreed that gadgets were enjoyable because of convenience. The age group 55-65 did not agree as strongly as the other groups.   We can infer that this age group is less likely to see convenience as a primary determinant of whether or not they purchase and/or use high tech gadgets. This may be because people within the age group 55-65 do not use high tech gadgets to make tasks more convenient, or they do not perceive them to be convenient to use. The bar graph below shows how the age group of 55-65 years are less likely to agree, but also shows that they are more likely to disagree with the statement regarding convenience.

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AGE and Technological Innovativeness The demographic of age was tested for statistically significant difference of means between groups using an Anova test. The statements addressed in the following analysis fall within the construct of technological innovativeness. Five out of the eight statements have shown a statistically significant difference of means between age groups. “I get a kick out of buying before most other people know they exist.” “It is cool to be the first to own high tech products.” “I get a thrill out of being the first to purchase a high technology item.” “Being the first to buy new technology devices is very important to me.” “I want to own the newest technological product.” These particular statements all are alike in that they offer a sig value of less than .05. This may have occurred because these statements are all specifically concerned with being the “first to buy the newest gadgets.” Respondents may have seen these statements to be so alike that the responses were similar. Post- Hoc Duncan tests were conducted on these five statements which allowed us to isolate the age group 55-65 years as being the group statistically significantly different from the other age groups. We can see a difference in means in the following tables:

I get a kick out of buying new high tech items before most other people know they exist.

It is cool to be the first to own high tech products.

Duncan

Duncan

Age of Respondents

Subset for alpha = 0.05 N

1

55-64 years old

56

45-54 years old

129

35-44 years old 25-34 years old Sig.

2

Respondents

2.00

N

1

2

55-64 years old

56

2.82

45-54 years old

129

3.10

79

2.96

35-44 years old

79

3.23

162

3.10

25-34 years old

162

3.38

.345

Sig.

1.000

25   

Subset for alpha = 0.05

Age of

2.21

1.000

.354


Being the first to buy new technology devices is very

I get a thrill out of being the first to purchase a high technology item.

important to me.

Duncan Age of Respondents

Duncan Subset for alpha = 0.05 N

1

2

Respondents

55-64 years old

56

45-54 years old

129

2.87

35-44 years old

79

25-34 years old

162

1.98

Sig.

1.000

Subset for alpha = 0.05

Age of N

1

55-64 years old

56

1.75

45-54 years old

129

2.18

2.91

35-44 years old

79

2.28

3.12

25-34 years old

162

2.65

.385

Sig.

.072

I want to own the newest technological product. Duncan Subset for alpha = 0.05

Age of Respondents

N

1

2

55-64 years old

56

2.52

45-54 years old

129

2.76

35-44 years old

79

25-34 years old

162

3

2.76 3.28

3.28 3.44

Sig.

.373

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2

.056

.556

2.18

.061


In general, most respondents regardless of age disagreed with these five statements. However, the age group 55-65 shows a greater level of disagreement than the other age groups.

*The trend evident in this graph mirrors the graphs of the other four statements. We can then infer that people within the age group 55-65 have a stronger disagreement, compared to other age groups, that technological innovativeness is a driving factor in their decision to purchase and/or use high tech gadgets.   INCOME and Economic Motivations Overall, our respondents, regardless of level of income, agreed that economic factors played a role in influencing them to use and/or purchase high tech gadgets. We conducted multiple Anova tests with statements from both constructs (economic motivations and technological innovativeness) and the levels of income. From these tests, we can see that there are only two specific statements (one from each construct) that offered low sig levels less than .05. This

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allowed us to differentiate between levels of income and the degree to which they agree for these particular statements: “I use high tech gadgets because they save time.” This statement offered a sig value of .008. Because the sig value was less than .05, we recognized a significant difference. A Post-Hoc Duncan test was run to find out if there was a statistically significant difference between the levels of income “$100,000 or more” and “$24,999 or less.” The means generated from the respondents of the levels of income “$100,000 or more” and “$24,999 or less” were 2.09 and 2.91 on a 7 point Likert scale, respectively. This difference of means is 11.7% and is therefore “probably meaningful.”

I use high tech gadgets because they save time. Duncan Subset for alpha = 0.05 Household Income

N

1

2

$100,000 or more

118

2.09

$25,000 to $49,999

127

2.39

$50,000 to $99,999

156

2.50

$24,999 or less

35

Sig.

2.50 2.91

.078

.058

INCOME and Technological Innovativeness “In general, if a new technology were introduced, I would not wait to see how others liked the product before I would buy it.” This statement offered a sig value of .026. Because the sig value was less than .05, we recognized a significant difference. A Post-Hoc Duncan test was then run to find out if there was a statistically significant difference between the levels of income “$50,000 to $99,999” and “$25,000 to $49,999.” The means generated from the respondents of the 28   


levels of income “$50,000 to $99,999” and “$25,000 to $49,999” were 2.82 and 3.47 on a 7 point Likert scale, respectively. This difference of means is 9.2% and is therefore “not meaningful.” In general, if a new technology were introduced, I would not wait to see how others liked the product before I would buy it. Duncan Subset for alpha = 0.05 Household Income $50,000 to $99,999

N

1

2

156

2.82

35

3.00

3.00

$100,000 or more

118

3.10

3.10

$25,000 to $49,999

127

$24,999 or less

Sig.

3.47 .360

.121

EDUCATION and Economic Motivation As discovered in prior analysis done in sub-objective I, there is an overall agreement that people use and/or purchase high tech gadgets because of economic factors. More specifically, we found that everyone, regardless of education level, agreed to a certain extent that economic factors played an important role.

We conducted multiple Anova tests with statements from both constructs (economic motivations and technological innovativeness) and the demographic of education. From these tests, we can see that there are only two specific statements that offered low sig levels around or less than .05. These statements were found within the construct of “economic motivations.” This allowed us to differentiate between education levels and the degree to which they agree for the five statements.

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ANOVA Sum of Squares I use high tech gadgets because they save time.

Between Groups

df

Mean Square

26.001

5

5.200

Within Groups

838.433

441

1.901

Total

864.434

446

18.737

5

3.747 1.720

I enjoy high tech gadgets

Between Groups

because I find them

Within Groups

758.650

441

Total

777.387

446

convenient.

F

Sig.

2.735

.019

2.178

.056

“I use high tech gadgets because they save time.” This statement offered a sig value of .019. Because the sig value was less than .05, we recognized a significant difference. A Post-Hoc Duncan test was run to conclude that there was a statistically significant difference between education levels of a two-year degree and a Ph.D. and beyond. The mean generated from respondents having a two-year degree was 5.93 on a 7 point Likert scale, while the mean from respondents having a doctoral or professional degree was 5.10. We can use this information presented to understand that while there is agreement across all levels of education, people with a doctoral or professional degree have a stronger level of agreement that they use high tech gadgets to save time. I use high tech gadgets because they save time. Duncan Subset for alpha = 0.05 Highest Education Level

N

1

3

Doctoral degree (Ph.D.) and beyond

29

5.10

High School (or its equivalent)

30

5.33

5.33

Some college work

99

5.34

5.34

Master's degree

88

5.59

5.59

5.59

5.76

5.76

4-year college degree

140

2-year college degree

61

Sig.

5.93 .097

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2

.151

.228


“I enjoy high tech gadgets because I find them convenient” This statement offered a sig value of .056. We decided that while this value did not qualify this statement to provide a statistically significant difference, it would be beneficial to look at because of its close proximity to .05. A Post-Hoc Duncan test concluded that there was yet again a difference between education levels of a two-year degree and a Ph.D. and beyond. The Duncan test categorized the levels of education into two subsets. The education level groups of high school, some college work, Master’s Degree, and 4-year degree all fell within subsets one and two. The group of Doctoral degree (Ph.D.) and beyond was isolated from the 2-year college degree group. We can understand from this data provided that people with a doctoral or professional degree agree more intently than those with only a two-year degree that they enjoy gadgets because they are convenient. I enjoy high tech gadgets because I find them convenient. Duncan Subset for alpha = 0.05 Highest Education Level

N

1

2

Doctoral degree (Ph.D.) and 29

5.28

High School (or its equivalent)

30

5.43

5.43

Some college work

99

5.61

5.61

Master's degree

88

5.81

5.81

beyond

4-year college degree

140

5.93

2-year college degree

61

5.95

Sig.

.056

31   

.070


RACE and Economic Motivation Overall, our respondents, regardless of race, agreed that economic factors played a role in influencing to use and/or purchase high tech gadgets. We conducted an Anova test to determine whether or not there was a significant difference in the level at which people agreed. There was no statistically significant difference between the different races regarding technological innovativeness. There was, however, two statements in which a difference was present regarding economic motivations. ANOVA Sum of Squares I use high tech gadgets because they save time.

Between Groups

df

Mean Square

24.196

2

12.098

Within Groups

837.721

441

1.900

Total

861.917

443

14.535

2

7.267 1.725

I enjoy high tech gadgets

Between Groups

because I find them

Within Groups

760.679

441

Total

775.214

443

convenient.

F

Sig.

6.369

.002

4.213

.015

“I use high tech gadgets because they save time.” This statement offered a sig value or .002. Because the sig value was less than .05, we recognized a significant difference. A Post-Hoc Duncan test was then run to establish that there was a statistically significant difference between the races of White/Caucasian and African American compared to the race group “other.” The means generated from the respondents of the races White/Caucasian and African American were 5.65 and 5.42 respectively. The mean of the respondents who fall into the category of “other” was 4.25. From the statistically significant difference in means, we can gather that the respondents who fall into the category of “other” regarding race do not agree as strongly as those within either the White/Caucasian or African American race category.

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I use high tech gadgets because they save time. Duncan Subset for alpha = 0.05 Race

N

1

2

Other

12

4.25

African American

50

5.42

White/Caucasian

382

5.65

Sig.

1.000

.536

“I enjoy high tech gadgets because I find them convenient” The Anova test identified this statement as having a sig value of .015. Because the sig value was less than .05, we recognized a significant difference. A Post-Hoc Duncan test was run to conclude that there was a statistically significant difference between the races of White/Caucasian and African American compared to the race group “other.” The means generated from the respondents of the races White/Caucasian and African American were 5.81 and 5.6 respectively. The mean of the respondents who fall into the category of “other” was 4.75. From the statistically significant difference in means, we can conclude that the respondents who fall into the category of “other” do not agree as strongly as those within either the White/Caucasian or African American category. I enjoy high tech gadgets because I find them convenient. Duncan Subset for alpha = 0.05 Race

N

1

Other

12

African American

50

5.60

White/Caucasian

382

5.81

Sig.

4.75

1.000

33   

2

.545


GENDER and Technological Innovativeness In general, all respondents disagreed that technological innovativeness was a primary motivation to purchase and/or use high tech gadgets. Particularly, everyone, regardless of sex, disagreed that technological innovativeness did not play a key role. Independent Samples Test Levene's Test for Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means 95% Confidence Interval of the Sig. (2-

F Being the first

Equal

to buy new

variances

technology

assumed

devices is very important to me.

4.282

Sig. .039

t

df

2.610

Mean

Std. Error

Difference

tailed) Difference Difference Lower

Upper

445

.009

.399

.153

.099

.699

2.586 376.259

.010

.399

.154

.096

.702

Equal variances not assumed

After conducting Anova tests to differentiate between gender, we found that one statement provided a statistically significant difference: “Being the first to buy new technology devices is very important to me.” This statement provided a sig value of .039. Because this value is less than .05, we looked at the mean of the responses for each gender and found that females disagreed more with this statement. The mean of the males’ responses was 2.54 while the female mean was 2.14 based upon a 7 point Likert scale. We can gather from this difference that it is of less importance to females to be the first to buy new technology devices than males.

34   


Group Statistics What is

Mean

your gender? Being the first to buy new technology devices is very important to me.

 

Male Female

N

Std. Deviation 182

2.54

1.634

.121

265

2.14

1.554

.095

 

35   

Std. Error Mean


CONCLUSIONS and RECOMMENDATIONS

Our analysis found that the primary driving force for gadget lovers to buy had to do with economic motivations. We had initially thought that income would be more closely associated with this construct than the other demographics. This, however, was not the case. Regardless of demographic data, economic factors were still a crucial motivation. Even those who were early adopters or willing to buy products before getting feedback from previous users had agreed that economic motivations were important to them. A recommendation to those receiving this report would be to consider how their product is convenient to use or makes tasks convenient, the price of the products, and how the product may be used to save time. These considerations should be applied to all demographics. Regarding the motivation of technological innovativeness, most did not agree that it was an important factor. Despite the differences in demographic data of respondents, the overall message was clear that being the first to buy high tech gadgets or owning the latest technological product was not essential in determining their action to purchase. The oldest of our respondents within the age group of 55-65 years, had the most negative responses to statements regarding technological innovativeness. We can recommend that while some may still seek to buy high tech gadgets because of their newness, or to be the first to buy, it should not be addressed as a key driving factor. More specifically, the older the consumer, the less likely these innovations will motivate them to purchase. If technological innovativeness is used to lure gadget lovers, they should be geared toward the younger age groups.

36   


Limitations Method of Survey Distribution This survey was only made available to participants online. This limited the number of possible respondents as some did not have internet access. Age requirement The required age range for respondents was 25 to 65 years old. The average age of members within our research group is 22. Because of this we found it difficult to find the required number of respondents among our peers. Tracking Respondents Upon completion of the survey, our respondents were asked to enter a code corresponding to the group member that referred them. The results of this tracking method were made available only to Dr. Summey thereby making it difficult for Seis Research Group to monitor the number of our respondents at any given time.

37   


Seis Research Group Gadget Lovers Motivations For Purchases

Introduction This proposal responds to a request from Dr. John Summey of Southern Illinois UniversityCarbondale Department of Marketing. The primary objective of this proposal is to identify the motivations that drive gadget lovers to make high tech purchases. By conducting marketing research we will determine the influence behind these purchases in regards to economic benefit and technological innovativeness. This proposal is submitted by the Seis Research Group. Background The term gadget is defined as a technological object that has a distinct function and is considered to be ahead of the current technological standards. Gadget lovers are consumers driven by high intrinsic motivation to purchase these products. Questions of Concern A meeting with Dr. Summey resulted in the following areas of concern: 1. What are the different groups of users of high tech gadgets? a. Does gender influence the use of high tech gadgets? b. Does age influence the use of high tech gadgets? c. Does the level of education influence the use of high tech gadgets? d. Does occupation influence the use of high tech gadgets? e. Does the level of income influence the use of high tech gadgets? 2. What are the users’ purposes for using high tech gadgets? 38   


a. To what degree does convenience and economic benefit influence a person’s use of high tech gadgets? b. To what degree does technological innovativeness influence a person’s use of high tech gadgets? Necessary Tasks 1. Identify Relevant Publics Determine the demographic proportions of consumers who use high tech gadgets. 2. Determine Attitudes and Perceptions Identify consumers’ perceptions and attitudes towards the use of gadgets. 3. Evaluation of Demographics, Attitudes and Perceptions Determine how these surveyed demographic groups’ attitudes and perceptions affect why they use high tech gadgets. Proposed Strategy 1. Develop a Marketing Research Survey Design a survey to collect data pertaining to the attitudes and perceptions towards gadgets. This data will reflect the motivations behind the respondents’ use of high tech gadgets. 2. Obtain Data Through a Referral Survey Method Collect data using email and telephone surveys. 3. Evaluations of Collected Data With the collected information, the data should infer the respondents’ motivations to use high tech gadgets.

39   


QID1

1

DB

TB

Selected

The purpose of the survey is to gain insights into what motivates people to buy gadgets and how they relate to those devices. A gadget is a small technological object (such as a device or an appliance) that has a particular function, but is often thought of as a novelty. For example: Apple’s iPod mini; Sony’s location free wireless TV; or a PDA phone. Gadget lovers are those consumers whose technology adoption behaviors are driven by nonsocial motivations. The prime motivation for these consumers to adopt a technology is based on the product itself. Their motivation for adoption is intrinsic to the product (for example, involvement with the technology) rather than an extrinsic factor such as being the first to own a product. Your participation is completely voluntary and all information will be kept strictly confidential. If you choose not to participate, you may opt-out at any time during the survey. The survey should take about 9 to 12 minutes or less to complete.  

We are interested in learning more about peoples' motivations for purchasing high tech products. QID3

1|2|3|4

1|2|3|4|5|6|7

Matrix

Likert

SingleAnsw er

Please indicate how strongly do you agree, disagree or neither with each of the following statements: Array

Strongly agree

Moderately agree

Slightly agree

I use high tech gadgets because they save time. I enjoy high tech gadgets because I find them convenient. I buy high tech gadgets for research purposes. I buy high tech gadgets if they are less expensive.

40   

Neither

Slightly disagree

Moderately disagree

Strongly disagree


Selected

Very good! QID14

1|2|3|4|5|6|7|8

1|2|3|4|5|6|7

Matrix

Likert

SingleAnsw er

Now we are interested in learning about your technological innovativeness. Again, on that seven point scale please respond to the following: Array

Strongly Moderately Slightly agree agree agree

Neither

Slightly Moderately Strongly disagree disagree disagree

I get a kick out of buying new high tech items before most other people know they exist. It is cool to be the first to own high tech products. I get a thrill out of being the first to purchase a high technology item. Being the first to buy new technology devices is very important to me. I want to own the newest technological products. New technologies are usually gimmicks. In general, if a new technology were introduced, I would not wait to see how others liked the product before I would buy it.

YToxOntzOjEw O YToxOntzOjEw O

When I see a new technology in the store, I often buy it just because it is new.

YToxOntzOjEw O YToxOntzOjEw O YToxOntzOjEw O YToxOntzOjEw O YToxOntzOjEw O

41   


YToxOntzOjEw O

 

You have done a great job! section.

One last important

The following information will help us analyze the results of the survey.

Your information will be aggregated with other data for the analysis and your individual information will be kept strictly confidential. QID20

1|2

MC

SAHR

TX

What is your gender? Male

Female YToxOntzOjg6IlFS

QID21

TE

SL

MC

SAVR

What is your age?

QID22

1|2|3|4|5|6|7|8

TX

What is the highest level of education you have completed? Less than high school High school (or its equivalent) Some college work 2-year college degree 4-year college degree Master's degree Doctoral degree (Ph.D.)

Professional degree (JD, MD)

QID24

YToxOntzOjg6IlFS

1|2|3|4|5|6|7|8|9|10 MC

SAVR

42   

TX


Please choose one statement that best characterizes your occupation? Full time student Managerial Professional Clerical Teacher Manual worker Homemaker Retired Unemployed

Other

YToxOntzOjg6IlFS

QID26

1|2|3|4|5|6|7

MC

SAVR

TX

MC

SAVR

TX

What is your race? White/Caucasian African American Hispanic Asian Native American Pacific Islander

Other

YToxOntzOjg6IlFS

QID25

1|2|3|4|5

Which of the following categories includes your total household income from all sources in 2008? Less than $9,999 $10,000 to $24,999 $25,000 to $49,999 $50,000 to $99,999

43   


YToxOntzOjg6IlFS

$100,000 or more

QID37

 

1

DB

TB

 

44   


Summary Questionnaire Question 1 Statistics I use high tech gadgets because they save time N

Valid

471

Missing Mean

5 2.41

Std. Deviation

1.390

I use high tech gadgets because they save time Cumulative Frequency Valid

Total

Percent

130

27.3

27.6

27.6

Moderately agree

166

34.9

35.2

62.8

Slightly agree

104

21.8

22.1

84.9

Neither

29

6.1

6.2

91.1

Slightly disagree

18

3.8

3.8

94.9

Moderately disagree

14

2.9

3.0

97.9

Strongly disagree

10

2.1

2.1

100.0

471

98.9

100.0

5

1.1

476

100.0

System

45   

Valid Percent

Strongly agree

Total Missing

Percent


Question 2

Statistics I enjoy high tech gadgets because I find them N

Valid

471

Missing Mean

5 2.23

Std. Deviation

1.319

I enjoy high tech gadgets because I find them Cumulative Frequency Valid

31.5

31.8

31.8

Moderately agree

173

36.3

36.7

68.6

Slightly agree

101

21.2

21.4

90.0

Neither

16

3.4

3.4

93.4

Slightly disagree

11

2.3

2.3

95.8

8

1.7

1.7

97.5

12

2.5

2.5

100.0

471

98.9

100.0

5

1.1

476

100.0

Total System

46   

Percent

150

Strongly disagree

Total

Valid Percent

Strongly agree

Moderately disagree

Missing

Percent


Question 3

Statistics I buy high tech gadgets for research purposes. N

Valid

471

Missing Mean

5 4.52

Std. Deviation

1.911

I buy high tech gadgets for research purposes. Cumulative Frequency Valid

Total

Percent

34

7.1

7.2

7.2

Moderately agree

43

9.0

9.1

16.3

Slightly agree

69

14.5

14.6

31.0

104

21.8

22.1

53.1

Slightly disagree

54

11.3

11.5

64.5

Moderately disagree

52

10.9

11.0

75.6

Strongly disagree

115

24.2

24.4

100.0

Total

471

98.9

100.0

5

1.1

476

100.0

System

47   

Valid Percent

Strongly agree

Neither

Missing

Percent


Question 4

Statistics I buy high tech gadgets if they are less expen N

Valid

471

Missing Mean

5 2.98

Std. Deviation

1.592

I buy high tech gadgets if they are less expen Cumulative Frequency Valid

Strongly agree

Total

Percent

17.4

17.6

17.6

Moderately agree

118

24.8

25.1

42.7

Slightly agree

134

28.2

28.5

71.1

Neither

64

13.4

13.6

84.7

Slightly disagree

29

6.1

6.2

90.9

Moderately disagree

18

3.8

3.8

94.7

Strongly disagree

25

5.3

5.3

100.0

471

98.9

100.0

5

1.1

476

100.0

System

48   

Valid Percent

83

Total Missing

Percent


Question 5

Statistics I get a kick out of buying new high tech items N

Valid

455

Missing Mean

21 5.16

Std. Deviation

1.854

I get a kick out of buying new high tech items Cumulative Frequency Valid

Missing Total

Percent

Percent

Strongly agree

20

4.2

4.4

4.4

Moderately agree

22

4.6

4.8

9.2

Slightly agree

60

12.6

13.2

22.4

Neither

66

13.9

14.5

36.9

Slightly disagree

52

10.9

11.4

48.4

Moderately disagree

64

13.4

14.1

62.4

Strongly disagree

171

35.9

37.6

100.0

Total

455

95.6

100.0

21

4.4

476

100.0

System

49   

Valid Percent


Question 6 Statistics It is cool to be the first to own high tech pr N

Valid

455

Missing

21

Mean

4.90

Std. Deviation

1.925

It is cool to be the first to own high tech pr Cumulative Frequency Valid

Missing Total

Percent

Percent

Strongly agree

19

4.0

4.2

4.2

Moderately agree

33

6.9

7.3

11.4

Slightly agree

82

17.2

18.0

29.5

Neither

73

15.3

16.0

45.5

Slightly disagree

43

9.0

9.5

54.9

Moderately disagree

45

9.5

9.9

64.8

Strongly disagree

160

33.6

35.2

100.0

Total

455

95.6

100.0

21

4.4

476

100.0

System

50   

Valid Percent


Question 7

Statistics I get a thrill out of being the first to purch N

Valid

455

Missing

21

Mean

5.15

Std. Deviation

1.858

I get a thrill out of being the first to purch Cumulative Frequency Valid

Missing Total

Percent

Percent

Strongly agree

18

3.8

4.0

4.0

Moderately agree

27

5.7

5.9

9.9

Slightly agree

52

10.9

11.4

21.3

Neither

81

17.0

17.8

39.1

Slightly disagree

47

9.9

10.3

49.5

Moderately disagree

54

11.3

11.9

61.3

Strongly disagree

176

37.0

38.7

100.0

Total

455

95.6

100.0

21

4.4

476

100.0

System

51   

Valid Percent


Question 8 Statistics Being the first to buy new technology devices N

Valid

455

Missing Mean

21 5.70

Std. Deviation

1.592

Being the first to buy new technology devices Cumulative Frequency Valid

Missing Total

Strongly agree

Percent

Percent

8

1.7

1.8

1.8

Moderately agree

15

3.2

3.3

5.1

Slightly agree

24

5.0

5.3

10.3

Neither

63

13.2

13.8

24.2

Slightly disagree

62

13.0

13.6

37.8

Moderately disagree

61

12.8

13.4

51.2

Strongly disagree

222

46.6

48.8

100.0

Total

455

95.6

100.0

21

4.4

476

100.0

System

52   

Valid Percent


Question 9

Statistics I want to own the newest technological product N

Valid

455

Missing Mean

21 4.91

Std. Deviation

1.835

I want to own the newest technological product Cumulative Frequency Valid

Missing Total

Percent

Percent

Strongly agree

18

3.8

4.0

4.0

Moderately agree

25

5.3

5.5

9.5

Slightly agree

82

17.2

18.0

27.5

Neither

73

15.3

16.0

43.5

Slightly disagree

53

11.1

11.6

55.2

Moderately disagree

66

13.9

14.5

69.7

Strongly disagree

138

29.0

30.3

100.0

Total

455

95.6

100.0

21

4.4

476

100.0

System

53   

Valid Percent


Question 10

Statistics New technologies are usually gimmicks. N

Valid

455

Missing

21

Mean

4.48

Std. Deviation

1.608

New technologies are usually gimmicks. Cumulative Frequency Valid

3.4

3.5

3.5

Moderately agree

35

7.4

7.7

11.2

Slightly agree

63

13.2

13.8

25.1

138

29.0

30.3

55.4

Slightly disagree

79

16.6

17.4

72.7

Moderately disagree

53

11.1

11.6

84.4

Strongly disagree

71

14.9

15.6

100.0

455

95.6

100.0

21

4.4

476

100.0

System

54   

Percent

16

Total

Total

Valid Percent

Strongly agree

Neither

Missing

Percent


Question 11 Statistics In general, if a new technology were introduce N

Valid

455

Missing Mean

21 4.92

Std. Deviation

1.799

In general, if a new technology were introduce Cumulative Frequency Valid

Missing Total

Percent

Percent

Strongly agree

14

2.9

3.1

3.1

Moderately agree

37

7.8

8.1

11.2

Slightly agree

67

14.1

14.7

25.9

Neither

64

13.4

14.1

40.0

Slightly disagree

71

14.9

15.6

55.6

Moderately disagree

75

15.8

16.5

72.1

Strongly disagree

127

26.7

27.9

100.0

Total

455

95.6

100.0

21

4.4

476

100.0

System

55   

Valid Percent


Question 12

Statistics When I see a new technology in the store, I of N

Valid

454

Missing Mean

22 5.94

Std. Deviation

1.494

When I see a new technology in the store, I of Cumulative Frequency Valid

Missing Total

Strongly agree

Percent

Percent

6

1.3

1.3

1.3

Moderately agree

12

2.5

2.6

4.0

Slightly agree

23

4.8

5.1

9.0

Neither

39

8.2

8.6

17.6

Slightly disagree

54

11.3

11.9

29.5

Moderately disagree

67

14.1

14.8

44.3

Strongly disagree

253

53.2

55.7

100.0

Total

454

95.4

100.0

22

4.6

476

100.0

System

56   

Valid Percent


Question 13

What is your gender? Cumulative Frequency Valid

Missing Total

Percent

Valid Percent

Male

182

38.2

40.7

40.7

Female

265

55.7

59.3

100.0

Total

447

93.9

100.0

29

6.1

476

100.0

System

57   

Percent


Question 14 What is your age? Cumulative Frequency Valid

Percent

Valid Percent

25

20

4.4

4.7

4.7

26

20

4.4

4.7

9.4

27

19

4.2

4.5

13.8

28

23

5.0

5.4

19.2

29

22

4.8

5.2

24.4

30

15

3.3

3.5

27.9

31

12

2.6

2.8

30.8

32

10

2.2

2.3

33.1

33

10

2.2

2.3

35.4

34

11

2.4

2.6

38.0

35

11

2.4

2.6

40.6

36

7

1.5

1.6

42.3

37

7

1.5

1.6

43.9

38

7

1.5

1.6

45.5

39

10

2.2

2.3

47.9

40

3

.7

.7

48.6

41

9

2.0

2.1

50.7

42

8

1.8

1.9

52.6

43

6

1.3

1.4

54.0

44

11

2.4

2.6

56.6

45

5

1.1

1.2

57.7

46

6

1.3

1.4

59.2

47

18

3.9

4.2

63.4

48

13

2.8

3.1

66.4

49

11

2.4

2.6

69.0

50

16

3.5

3.8

72.8

58   

Percent


51

12

2.6

2.8

75.6

52

16

3.5

3.8

79.3

53

14

3.1

3.3

82.6

54

18

3.9

4.2

86.9

55

8

1.8

1.9

88.7

56

10

2.2

2.3

91.1

57

9

2.0

2.1

93.2

58

5

1.1

1.2

94.4

59

2

.4

.5

94.8

60

8

1.8

1.9

96.7

61

5

1.1

1.2

97.9

62

7

1.5

1.6

99.5

64

2

.4

.5

100.0

426

93.2

100.0

31

6.8

457

100.0

Total Missing Total

System

59   


Question 15

What is the highest level of education you have completed? Cumulative Frequency Valid

High school (or its

6.7

6.7

Some college work

99

20.8

22.1

28.9

2-year college degree

61

12.8

13.6

42.5

4-year college degree

140

29.4

31.3

73.8

Master's degree

88

18.5

19.7

93.5

Doctoral degree (Ph.D.)

17

3.6

3.8

97.3

12

2.5

2.7

100.0

447

93.9

100.0

29

6.1

476

100.0

MD) Total System

60   

Percent

6.3

Professional degree (JD,

Total

Valid Percent

30

equivalent)

Missing

Percent


Question 16

Please choose one statement that best characterizes your occupation? Cumulative Frequency Valid

Total

Valid Percent

71

15.3

16.3

16.3

Professional

179

38.5

41.1

57.5

Clerical

46

9.9

10.6

68.0

Teacher

41

8.8

9.4

77.5

Manual worker

15

3.2

3.4

80.9

Homemaker

12

2.6

2.8

83.7

Retired

18

3.9

4.1

87.8

5

1.1

1.1

89.0

Other

48

10.3

11.0

100.0

Total

435

93.5

100.0

30

6.5

465

100.0

System

61   

Percent

Managerial

Unemployed

Missing

Percent


Question 17

What is your race? Cumulative Frequency Valid

Missing Total

Percent

Percent

White/Caucasian

382

80.6

86.4

86.4

African American

50

10.5

11.3

97.7

Hispanic

5

1.1

1.1

98.9

Asian

5

1.1

1.1

100.0

Total

442

93.2

100.0

32

6.8

474

100.0

System

62   

Valid Percent


Question 18

Which of the following categories includes your total household income from all sources in 2008? Cumulative Frequency Valid

Missing Total

Less than $9,999

Percent

Percent

7

1.5

1.6

1.6

$10,000 to $24,999

28

5.9

6.4

8.0

$25,000 to $49,999

127

26.7

29.1

37.2

$50,000 to $99,999

156

32.8

35.8

72.9

$100,000 or more

118

24.8

27.1

100.0

Total

436

91.6

100.0

40

8.4

476

100.0

System

63   

Valid Percent


Client Approval

64   


Confidentiality Agreement

65   


SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT Survey We believe that the second statement, “I enjoy high tech gadgets because I find them convenient,” is too broad. One could perceive this statement to mean that the gadget itself is easy to operate OR it could be perceived to mean that the gadget makes tasks easier. To reduce ambiguity, the statement may be better stated: “I enjoy high tech gadgets because they are easy to operate,” or “I enjoy using high tech gadgets because they make tasks easier.” Also, the statement: “I buy high tech gadgets if they are less expensive” may present itself to be confusing to the respondent. The statement does not define what the gadget is being compared to concerning price. It may be better worded: “When presented with two similar gadgets, I purchase the less expensive one.” The statements pertaining to the technological innovativeness can be seen as redundant. This may be prevented by replacing words such as “new” with words such as “latest” or “most up-todate”. This would help keep respondent’s attention driven toward the questionnaire at hand. “New technologies are usually gimmicks,” can be confusing to the respondents. Since there is no definition of gimmicks given in the survey, it is up to the respondents to answer the question with their perceived knowledge of the word. A better way to word this statement would be to include a definition of the gimmick or to choose a more precise phrase, such as “attentiongrabber, publicity stunt, etc” Pertaining to the statement, “In, general, if a new technology were introduced, I would not wait to see how others liked the product before I would buy it,” we believe that the statement would be better worded if “not” wasn’t included in the statement. It is confusing that answering agree to the original statement, actually disagrees that they would not wait to see how others liked it before they bought it.    

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Gadget Lovers'