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Dedication This  project  is  dedicated  to  my  biggest  supporters  Tia,   Dharma,  Callie  and  Cathy  as  well  as  Margret  Ann  and   the  92%!  Thanks  for  your  support  and  this  work  will  be   our  legacy  in  the  Down  syndrome  community.     Clint  Justin  Robinson  

University of  Florida  

University of  Florida     Department  of  Visual  Art  

Art Education  

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What Down  Syndrome  Has  to  Offer  Art  Education  

How is  Down  syndrome   connected  to  Art  Education?   Beginning     In  2000  I  finished  my  degree  in   Art  Education  and  was  qualified  to   teach.  Finding  a  job  as  an  art  teacher   can  be  difficult  but  Fulton  County   Schools  interviewed  me  at  a  teacher’s   job  fair  in  Hammond  Louisiana.  I  was   told  that  if  I  presented  my  resume’  at   the  Fulton  County  Schools  job  fair  I   would  indeed  have  a  job.       At  the  Fulton  County  Schools   job  fair  I  was  offered  two  teaching   positions.  One  in  an  elementary  school   and  one  teaching  Adaptive  Art  as  an   intenerate  art  teacher  for  the  South   side  of  Fulton  County.  After   interviewing  with  the  other  Adaptive   Art  teachers  in  the  county  I  accepted   the  position  of  teaching  Adaptive  Art.  

This began  my  lifelong  journey  with   Special  needs.       Working  as  an  Adaptive  Art   teacher  introduced  me  to  a  range  of   disabilities  or  as  I  like  to  call  it   “abilities”.  One  of  these  was  called   Down  syndrome.  Before  teaching  I  had   heard  the  term  and  have  a  cousin  with   Down  syndrome  but  I  never  gave  the   diagnosis,  the  terminology  or  the   physical  characteristics  any  special   attention.  I  had  a  cousin  and  some   students  with  Down  syndrome;  I   worked  and  interacted  with  them  as  I   do  anyone  else.  In  fact  most  individuals   with  Down  syndrome  were  extra  fun  to   work  with.  Always  cheery  and  happy   they  were  always  welcoming  to  my  art   lessons  and  the  time  we  spent   together.  


In 2007  we  were  expecting  our   second  child  and  my  wife  Tia  came   home  from  work  early  one  day  very   upset.  During  her  last  prenatal  visit  she   opted  to  have  the  Maternal  Serum   Screening.  Her  physician  called  to  tell   her  the  baby  tested  positive  for  Down   syndrome  and  we  had  a  1  in  21  chance   of  having  a  baby  with  Down  syndrome.       Tia  was  visibly  upset  and   unsure  of  what  Down  syndrome   meant.  I  assured  her  that  everything   would  be  okay  and  I  felt  if  we  had  a   child  with  Down  syndrome  we  were   lucky  considering  all  of  the  other   possibilities.    -­‐  Attribution  

“The day  Callie  was  born  and  the  moment  I   saw  her  I  was  in  LOVE!”   Education     We  immediately  started  to  

educate ourselves  on  the  facts,  stories,   support  and  services  available  for   parents  of  children  born  with  Down   syndrome.  We  found  an  unbelievable   community  and  a  wealth  of  resources   that  offered  support,  education  and  a   general  acceptance  of  Down  syndrome.     As  a  family  we  went  to  an   ultrasound  specialists  that  looked  for   physical  markers  of  Down  syndrome   and  none  were  detected.  We  again  as  a   family  elected  to  forego  the   Amniocentesis  to  avoid  any  danger  to   Callie  or  Tia  (our  baby  now  had  a   name).     We  continued  to  educate   ourselves  on  Down  syndrome  and   started  to  connect  with  the  Down   syndrome  community.  We  started   introducing  our  older  daughter   “Dharma”  to  what  it  meant  to  have  a   little  sister  with  Down  syndrome  and   we  excitedly  waited  the  arrival  of  Callie!  


The  day  Callie  was  born  and  the   moment  I  saw  her  I  was  in  LOVE.  I   could  see  immediately  that  she  had   Down  syndrome  by  the  shape  of  her   eyes  and  was  relieved  that  we  finally   knew  the  answer.       Once  we  got  her  home  we  joined   the  Down  Syndrome  Association  of   Atlanta  and  became  active  members  in   our  community  of  Down  syndrome   families,  online  forums  and  educators   to  anyone  that  would  listen.    

Changes   Before  the  birth  of  Callie  I  had  to  

switch jobs  and  began  teaching  regular   art  classes  in  a  local  high  school,   missing  my  time  as  an  Adaptive  Art   teacher.  I  sought  to  create  an  Adaptive   Art  program  in  my  current  district  and   am  still  trying.  I  decided  to  get  a   Masters  degree  in  art  education  and   discovered  a  means  to  marry  the  ideas   of  art  education  and  Down  syndrome   through  this  project.   Clint  Justin  Robinson  

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What Down  Syndrome  Has  to  Offer  Art  Education  

Connections Course  of  Study  


In  2011  I  started  course  work   through  the  University  of  Florida’s   online  Master  of  Art  Education   program  with  no  idea  of  where  my   studies  would  lead  me.  I  had  no   expectations  that  I  would  focus  my   course  work  on  a  specific  topic.  Instead   I  assumed  I  would  learn  how  to   reshape  what  I  am  currently  doing  as  a   High  School  Art  educator.  What  I   discovered  several  weeks  in  was  quite   the  opposite  of  my  assumptions.   Reshaping  current  teaching  methods   became  necessary  but  the  idea  of   wanting  to  incorporate  special  needs   into  my  studies  was  the  focus.  

I  decided  a  focus  on  special   needs  art  education  would  be  my   direction.  What  I  did  not  expect  was   the  lack  of  resources  specifically  aimed   at  Down  syndrome  within  Art   education.  

I  made  it  my  goal  at  this   realization  to  create  a  reference  for   educators,  parents  and  advocates  with   examples  and  suggestions  for  modifying   curriculum  specifically  to  the  strengths   of  learners  with  Down  syndrome.   During  this  study  I  also  found  an   important  characteristic  associated   with  Down  syndrome  individuals  that  is   given  insufficient  attention.  This   characteristic  is  the  ability  of   individuals  with  Down  syndrome  to   interpret  emotional  cues  from  other   individual  and  respond  in  an   affectionate  manner.  I  have  labeled  this   as  Acute  Emotional  Perception  (A.E.P.).    

A.E.P. –  Acute  Emotional  Perception  

I started  my  research  on  Special   needs  and  art  education  by  looking   through  online  resources,  periodicals   and  journals.  Available  is  a  plethora  of   information  on  teaching  art  to  special   needs  students.  Experts  have  written   numerous  resources  and  conducted   extensive  studies  on  how  best  to  serve   the  special  needs  population.  However,   there  is  a  tendency  in  the  literature  to   focus  on  the  more  common  disabilities   such  as  Learning  Disabled  (LD),  Autism,   and  Orthopedically  Impaired  (OI)   students.  Lacking  is  a  focus  on  the  less   common  disabilities  such  as  Down   syndrome.  

Evidence   Current  Academic  Publications  

-­‐  Attribution  

provides a  lack  of  support  for  the  idea   of  A.E.P.  In  contrast  ideas  surrounding   the  Emotional  Understandings  of   individuals  with  Down  syndrome  are   conflicting.  Some  researchers  claim   individuals  with  Down  syndrome  have   a  delayed  or  lack  the  ability  to  interpret   emotions.  Other  researchers  claim   individuals  with  Down  syndrome  can   perform  similarly  when  compared  to   learners  labeled  “typical”.       Misunderstanding  comes  in   when  you  compare  how  the  studies  are   performed  to  the  specific  learning   characteristics  of  individuals  with   Down  syndrome.  Published  research  on   Emotional  recognition  in  children  with   Down  syndrome  limits  the  possible   outcomes  by  only  studying  younger   children  and  arranging  the  studies  in   clinical  settings.    It  is  widely  accepted   that  individuals  with  Down  syndrome   respond  better  in  familiar   environments  and  with  other   individuals  they  have  a  close   connection  or  relationship  with.    

Definition of  A.E.P.  

"What  Down  Syndrome  Has  to   Offer  Art  Education"  is  a  study  of  the   current  information  available  about   teaching  visual  arts  to  learners  with   Down  syndrome?    My  study  examines   the  literature  on  this  topic,  shares  my  

own knowledge  and  insights  about   teaching  individuals  with  Down   syndrome,  my  experiences  as  a  father   to  Callie  (who  has  Down  syndrome),  an   advocate  for  Down  syndrome,  and   offers  strategies  and  lesson  adaptations   and  discrimination  for  successfully   using  art  education  to  give  students   with  Down  syndrome  a  voice.     ©  Clint  Justin  Robinson    

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What Down  Syndrome  Has  to  Offer  Art  Education   Important  Down  Syndrome  Information   Awareness   Professional  Support     Due  to  the  discrepancies  in   published  studies  and  published   learning  characteristics  of  learners   with  Down  syndrome  I  sought  proof  of   A.E.P.  elsewhere.  I  sought  the  ad-­‐hoc   stories,  ideas  and  considerations  of  my   claims  from  individuals  considered   experts  in  the  field  of  Special  needs  art   education,  Down  syndrome  and   parent-­‐advocates.  In  our  conversations   I  presented  my  findings  and  my  idea  of   A.E.P.,  it  was  unanimously  agreed  that   one,  my  claims  of  A.E.P.  were  justified   and  two,  further  study  on  emotional   recognition  in  individuals  with  Down   syndrome  needs  attention.     Parent  advocate  Linda   Thompson  was  my  first  contact  and   she  discussed  her  son  Erik’s  ability  to   appropriately  respond  to  her   emotional  state  when  needed.    “He   knows  where  I’m  at  all  the  time”   (L.Thompson).  

Special  needs  researcher  Alice   Wexler  provided  a  similar  experience.   In  her  latest  study  she  worked  with   three  young  adult  students  with  Down   syndrome  in  an  art  enrichment   program.  Ms.  Wexler  stated  that  after   the  students  became  familiar  with  the   staff,  they  began  to  expressively   respond  to  the  art  and  the  staff.       Down  syndrome  researcher  Sue   Buckley  supported  my  claims  and   provided  links  to  new  studies  that   suggest  certain  disabilities  may   compensate  for  shortcoming  by   heightened  abilities  in  other  areas  like   emotional  perception  (social  skills).  

Why?   I  asked  the  experts  and  myself   why  is  there  a  lack  of  information  on   specific  learning  strategies  for  learners   with  Down  syndrome  and  why  are   there  contradictions  on  the  abilities  of   learners  with  Down  syndrome?     Answers  can  be  found  in  the  frequency   of  children  born  with  Down  syndrome   compared  to  the  frequency  of  children   born  with  other  disabilities  such  as   Autism.    

92%   One  statistic  that  I  learned  from  

this research  is  the  number  of  Down   syndrome  births  every  year.  Compared   to  other  disabilities  Down  syndrome  is   one  that  can  be  tested  prenatally   through  Maternal  Serum  Screening   (M.S.S.).  Although  the  tests  are  not   100%  accurate  mothers  are  given  the   opportunity  to  terminate  their   pregnancies  after  a  positive  reading  on   the  M.S.S.  Due  to  this  92%  of   pregnancies  with  a  positive  M.S.S.   screening  terminate  before  birth.  This   surreal  statistic  defines  why  the   frequencies  of  Down  syndrome  births   are  so  low  compared  to  other   disabilities.     Ability     Contrary  to  misconceptions   about  Down  syndrome,  individuals   with  Down  syndrome  can  lead   active-­‐  meaningful  lives.  This  has   been  realized  in  recent  years  due  to   the  acceptance  of  individuals  with   disabilities,  the  inclusion  and  social   acceptance  of  differences  promoted   in  most  western  cultures.       Advocacy  and  ongoing   development  in  research,  education,   and  potential  of  individuals  with   Down  syndrome  is  also  leading  to   opportunities  for  life  long  learning.     Schools  and  programs  have  been   created  and  re-­‐designed  to  develop  

individuals with  Down  syndrome   through  their  strengths  and  abilities   changing  the  focus  from  what  they  can’t   do.      

People First  

  “People  first”  is  a  campaign  to   promote  changing  the  focus  of  a   disabled  person  from  that  of  his   disability  to  that  of  his  human  nature.   When  speaking  or  writing  in  a  “people   first”  manner  it  is  imperative  to  put  the   individual,  his  name,  his  occupation  or   talent  BEFORE  his  disability.  Ex.  Artist   with  Down  syndrome  not  Down   syndrome  artist.  


   -­‐  Attribution  

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What Down  Syndrome  Has  to  Offer  Art  Education    

Lesson Suggestions  and  Adaptations  

Why so  many  tulips,  because  of  the  poem  “welcome  to  Holland”   which  has  led  the  tulip  to  become  a  symbol  of  Down  syndrome.  You   can  find  the  poem  here  http://welcometoholland.net/  

What to  look  for?     Learners  with  Down  syndrome  have  certain  strengths  that  we  as  educators   can  use  to  their  benefit.  Exploiting  their  uncanny  ability  to  understand  emotions  and   naturally  being  very  expressive  is  the  first  characteristic  to  look  for  in  an  art  lesson.   Lessons  geared  towards  detailed  copying  or  specific  outcomes  should  be  avoided.   Favorable  are  lessons  that  allows  for  personal  interpretation,  physical  interaction   (manipulation),  motor  skill  development  and  the  ability  to  be  broken  into  small   segments.  

Gross  Motor  Skills  –  those  skills  that  make  a  person  mobile  and  able  to  sit,   stand,  walk  and  jump.   Patricia  Winders  suggests  the  following  considerations  when  working  with   individuals  with  Down  syndrome  to  develop  Gross  motor  skills.   Hypotonia  –  is  a  condition  where  the  muscle  tone  (strength)  is  lower  influencing  the   amount  of  motor  control  an  individual  with  Down  syndrome  has.   Environment  –  Simple  things  like  desk  height  and  angle  can  influence  the  student’s   success  by  counteracting  the  affect  of  Hypotonia.   Strength  –  repetition  can  counteract  the  affects  of  Hypotonia,  attention  to  physical   health  and  the  avoidance  of  over  exhaustion.   Motivation  –  appropriate  non-­‐food  rewards  should  be  considered  due  to  a  lower   metabolism.   Quality  –  Learning  experiences  should  be  relevant  to  the  student’s  abilities  and  aid  in   development.   Strategy  –  Finding  a  way  to  encourage  student  growth  and  development  through   variation,  repetition  and  motivation.      

-­‐  Attribution  

What Down  Syndrome  Has  to  Offer  Art  Education  

SGRAFFITO Abstract  Ceramic  Sculpture/  Scraffito  

Ceramics and  Scraffito  are  both  great  exercises  that  focus  on   tactile  qualities  while  building  both  gross  and  fine  motor  skills.  Ceramics   requires  the  students  to  physically  manipulate  clay  into  an  object.  In  this   instance  we  are  not  asking  the  students  to  make  a  specific  item  like  a   teapot  rather  we  want  them  to  explore  the  medium  and  practice  the   technique  both  of  which  will  aid  in  developing  the  gross  and  fine  motor   skills.  When  we  introduce  the  idea  of  Scraffito  into  the  project,  we  are   further  increasing  the  student’s  exposure  to  tactile  experiences  and   giving  them  an  opportunity  to  choose  what  tools  they  want  to  use  and   how  to  manipulate  these  tools  to  create  texture.  These  practices  will   encourage  higher  order  and  choice  based  decision-­‐making.  In  this  lesson   I  address  the  following  characteristics.   1. Physical  motion,  manipulation  of  the  clay  (gross  motor).   2. Manipulating  the  clay  tools  for  Scraffito  (Fine  motor).   3. Expression  /  Emotion  (through  choice  based  decision  making).   4. Higher  thinking  Skills  (Choice  based  decision  making).     Resources:   http://tnurl.eu/LT   http://tnurl.eu/27      


-­‐  Attribution  


What Down  Syndrome  Has  to  Offer  Art  Education      


Starry  Night  is  one  of  the  most  beloved  and  recognized  paintings   within  modern  art.  Van  Gogh  created  this  masterpiece  focusing  on  the   shimmering  affect  of  the  stars  on  a  clear  night.  In  this  lesson  the  students   are  given  time  to  explore  and  study  the  painting  Starry  Night  followed  by   the  creation  of  their  own  interpretation  of  a  starry  night.  In  this  lesson   we  can  bring  in  the  emotional  understandings  and  have  them  focus  on  a   calm  cool  night,  or  a  hot  summer  night,  or  any  other  “feeling  descriptors”   we  can  relate  to  a  clear  night  sky.    Students  then  can  have  the   opportunity  to  choose  how  they  want  to  interpret  or  create  their  own   starry  night.  Focusing  on  a  common  theme  allows  the  students  the   opportunity  to  experiment  and  work  on  both  fine  and  gross  motor  skills.   Gross  motor  skills  can  be  practiced  by  simply  sitting  at  the  table  in  order   to  complete  the  work  as  well  as  major  arm  movements  to  make  the   signature  Van  Gogh  brush  marks.  Fine  Motor  skills  can  be  practiced  by   manipulating  the  writing  and  painting  utensils  the  students  choose  to   use  in  making  their  marks.    In  each  scenario  we  see  the  students  are   given  choices  and  asked  to  apply  their  knowledge  of  emotions,  art  and   Van  Gogh  to  make  an  original  painting.       In  this  lesson  I  address  the  following  characteristics.   1. Physical  motion,  sitting  at  table,  major  body  movement  (gross   motor).   2. Mark  making,  manipulating    (Fine  motor).   3. Collaboration  with  others  (Social  skills).   4. Expression  and  Emotion  (Moving  lights  around).   5. Higher  thinking  Skills  (Planning  movements).    



-­‐  Attribution  

What Down  Syndrome  Has  to  Offer  Art  Education  


In this  lesson  I  address  the  students  identity  allowing  them  an   opportunity  to  express  what  they  consider  important  in  their  lives.  They   can  explore  what  makes  them,  unique.  In  this  exercise  the  students  can   draw  and  outline  of  themselves,  trace  their  silhouette  or  use  a  printout   of  themselves  to  create  a  basic  drawing  or  frame  in  which  they  will  find   and  paste  or  draw  images  that  represent  their  idea  of  self.  In  the  event   that  cutting  and  drawing  are  too  complicated  the  images  can  be  torn  and   pasted  into  the  silhouette.  This  lesson  is  more  of  a  fine  motor  skill  but   introduces  abstract  ideas  like  “self”  into  the  curriculum.  In  this  lesson  I   address  the  following  characteristics:   1. Physical  motion,  sitting  at  table,  major  part  movement  (gross   motor).   2. Mark  Making,  manipulation/tearing  and  gluing  (fine  motor).   3. Expression  /  abstract  connections  between  self  and  objects.   4. Higher  order  thinking  skills  (representations  of  self).   5. Choice  in  how  to  make  frame.  Drawing.     Resources:   http://tnurl.eu/W-        

-­‐  Attribution  

What Down  Syndrome  Has  to  Offer  Art  Education  

Pop Art  Prints   In  this  lesson  we  discuss  the  work  of  Andy  Warhol  and  how  he   would  copy  a  portrait  multiple  times  changing  the  color  each  time  to   represent  certain  characteristics  of  the  person.  Students  will  use  a   printout  of  their  own  portrait  and  trace  it  with  white  school  glue   creating  a  frame  or  border  around  their  facial  features.  Students  will   then  be  instructed  to  choose  colors  for  each  portrait  (minimum  of  four   portraits)  and  paint  inside  the  glue  borderlines.  Each  portrait  could   represent  a  different  feeling  or  emotion  and  become  an  expression  of   how  they  feel  during  different  moments  of  their  lives.  In  this  lesson  we   address  the  fine  motor  skills  by  tracing  the  glue  and  deeper  more   personal  meaning  associated  with  colors  and  emotions.  In  this  lesson  I   have  addressed  the  following  characteristics:   1. Physical  motion,  sitting  at  table,  major  part  movement  (gross   motor).   2. Glue  tracing  and  painting  in  the  lines.    (Fine  motor).   3. Discussion  of  emotion/color  relationships  with  teachers  (Social   skills).   4. Expression  and  Emotion  (color  association).   5. Higher  thinking  Skills  (assigning  colors  to  emotions).     Resources:   http://tnurl.eu/dp    

-­‐  Attribution  

What Down  Syndrome  Has  to  Offer  Art  Education  


Light Painting  is  a  relatively  new  idea  even  though  it  has  existed   throughout  the  history  of  photography.  In  simplified  terms  the  camera   catches  light  that  is  moving  by  holding  the  shutter  open  for  an  extended         period  of  time.  This  records  an  abstract  looking  light  trail.  In  this  lesson   we  are  getting  the  student  moving  around,  working  on  those  gross   motor  skills.  By  moving  the  lights  around  in  a  random  fashion  or  even  in   a  specific  motion  (an  example  would  be  in  the  shape  of  a  letter)  having   the  students  create  a  light  trail  or  light  painting.  Other  students  or  the   teacher  could  take  the  picture  to  record  the  motion  and  create  the   artwork.  In  this  lesson  I  address  the  following  characteristics.   1. Physical  motion  (gross  motor).   2. Taking  pictures  and  manipulating  the  camera  (Fine  motor).   3. Collaboration  with  others  (Social  skills).   4. Expression  and  Emotion  (Moving  lights  around).   5. Higher  thinking  Skills  (Planning  movements).     Resources:   http://tnurl.eu/v5      


-­‐  Attribution  

What Down  Syndrome  Has  to  Offer  Art  Education   FUTURE  CONSIDERATIONS  

It  is  my  goal  through  this  project  to  bring  awareness  to  the  potential  of   individuals  with  Down  syndrome  as  well  as  the  lack  of  support  for  the  Down   syndrome  community  within  research  and  published  literature  on  the  specifics  of   Down  syndrome  learning.  I  challenge  other  educators  and  researchers  to  explore   the  possibilities  of  developing  curriculum  for  other  specific  learning  groups   commonly  mislabeled  as  “special  needs”.  Arts  education  is  growing,  personalizing   instruction  for  special  populations  is  a  logical  progression  for  us  to  explore.     Clint  Justin  Robinson     Resources:   National  Down  syndrome  Society  -­‐  http://www.ndss.org/   National  Down  syndrome  Congress  -­‐  http://ndsccenter.org/   Very  Special  Arts  -­‐  http://www.kennedy-­‐center.org/education/vsa/   National  Association  of  Down  Syndrome  -­‐  http://www.nads.org/     Erik  Behnke  -­‐  brownbearproducts.biz/   Judith  Scott  -­‐  http://hidden-­‐worlds.com/judithscott/     Dick  Blick  Adaptive  Art  Materials  -­‐   http://www.dickblick.com/categories/specialneeds/   ZotArt  -­‐  http://www.zotartz.com/     ClintJustinRobinson   Research  -­‐  https://sites.google.com/site/robinsonindependentresearch/   Blog  -­‐  http://downsyndromeandart.blogspot.com/   Art  –  clintjustinrobinson.com   Pinboards  -­‐  http://pinterest.com/robinsoncj/down-­‐syndrome/        

-­‐  Attribution  

Acute Emotional  Perception     "What  Down  Syndrome  Has  to  Offer  Art  Education"  is  a  study  of  the  current   information  available  about  teaching  visual  arts  to  learners  with  Down  syndrome?     My  study  examines  the  literature  on  this  topic,  shares  my  own  knowledge  and  insights   about  teaching  individuals  with  Down  syndrome,  my  experiences  as  a  father  to  Callie   (who  has  Down  syndrome),  an  advocate  for  Down  syndrome,  and  offers  strategies   and  lesson  adaptations  and  discrimination  for  successfully  using  art  education  to  give   students  with  Down  syndrome  a  voice.     ©  Clint  Justin  Robinson    


The percentage  of  children  that  possibly   have  Down  syndrome  and  never  get  a   chance  to  make  art!  

People First “People  first”,  is  a  campaign  that  stresses  the  importance  of  the  individual  before  his  disability.  When   writing  or  speaking  of  people  with  disabilities  their  name  and  or  specialty  should  always  come  before  their   disability.  Examples  would  be:  Callie  an  Artists  with  Down  syndrome  NOT  Callie  a  Down  syndrome  artist  or   John  a  public  speaker  with  special  needs  NOT  John  a  special  needs  public  speaker.  Importance  should  be   placed  on  the  human  nature,  the   positive,  and  the  abilities   present  within  an  individual.   This  approach  aids  in  avoiding   the  negative  connotations   associated  with  disability  labels.    

Simple Strategies

For the  art  classroom.     1. Environment  (supports  needs  of  Hypotonia)  elevated/  angled   work  surface.   2. Visuals  (aides  in  language  development)  examples,  materials  that   transform  when  used.   3. Steps  (Break  down  the  lesson  into  manageable  steps)  builds  focus   and  attention.   4. Reinforcement  (appropriate)  low  metabolism  leads  to  excess   weight,  reward  with  words  and  actions  instead  of  food.   5. Subject  (appropriate)  should  relate  to  student  interest  to  facilitate   success.  


What Down Syndrome Has to Offer Art Education  

This is a study on the current research in art education on Down syndrome.

What Down Syndrome Has to Offer Art Education  

This is a study on the current research in art education on Down syndrome.

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