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faculty of Engineering Technology

Industrial Design Engineering RESEARCH OVERVIEW


This research overview was created as a visual addendum to the scientific report for the periodic assessment of research quality under auspices of the QANU (NVAO/VSNU). Š 2010 University of Twente University of Twente Faculty of Engineering Technology Industrial Design Engineering PO Box 217 7500 AE Enschede The Netherlands T +31 53 4892547 F +31 53 4893471 W www.ide.utwente.nl

Industrial Design Engineering RESEARCH OVERVIEW April 2010

Editors W.A. Poelman A. O. Eger F.J.A.M. van Houten Data collection & editor Anne-Marie Klijnstra Design and layout Rob Hulsbosch ISBN 978-90-365-3025-5

This book gives an overview of research projects related to the domain of Industrial Design Engineering research conducted at the University of Twente. It has been created to serve as a visual addendum to the scientific report for the first peer review of the IDE research programme. The policy behind the programme, as well as the content and results are comprehensively explained in the scientific report. The Standard Evaluation Protocol (SEP) requires a lay out and text format that is very informative, but visually not very challenging from an Industrial Design point of view. Therefore this book is presented to give a more intuitive impression of the type of research being carried out. The somewhat unusual format was chosen because it complies with present standards for TV screens and computer monitors which makes it possible to show the contents on other media. The projects are published under the responsibility of the three main chairs Design Engineering, Product Design and Product Realisation. We hope that this book will be of use for everyone who is interested in getting an impression about the scope and style of the research programmes carried out in the context of Industrial Design Engineering at the University of Twente. One last remark: this book is already out of date when printed. New projects are initiated all the time; we are growing quickly and moving forward in challenging new directions.

Industrial Design Engineering


1.1.1.A CNC Worknet 1.1.1.B Information- and knowledge-based support 1.1.1.C Intelligent clothing 1.1.1.D Structuring unstructured information 1.1.1.E Virtual tools 1.1.1.F What-if design 1.1.2.A Integration of scenario-based design with the use of virtual reality and gaming techniques 1.1.2.B Supporting designers in dealing with the dynamics of a use situation 1.1.2.C Supporting the design process 1.1.2.D Supporting scenario generation in practice 1.1.2.E Reducing usability problems with electronic consumer products 1.1.2.F Developing a driver interface for transitions between automated and non-automated driving 1.1.2.G Incorporating human factors as an integral part of the design process of advanced driver assistance systems 1.1.2.H Facilitating user participation in the design of medical appliances 1.1.2.I Developing a surgical robotic manipulation system 1.1.2.J Resolving the paradox in user-centred design through flexible prototyping (RePar) 1.1.3.A Knowledge engineering for design automation 1.1.3.B Managing complexity in artifactual design for design automation 1.1.3.C From fuzzy requirements to clear solution spaces 1.1.3.D Toward an effective shaping process is a hybrid research activity with roots both in VR and synthesis 1.2.1.A Exergetic system approach in the built environment 1.2.1.B Improved mechanical design of PV modules 1.2.1.C Integration of thermal, irradiance and performance models for photovoltaic/thermal solar products 1.2.1.D Development of a large area persons cooler, based on evaporation of water and without draught 1.2.1.E PV-boats: design issues in the realisation of PV powered boats 1.2.1.F Solar Chandelier project: design and production of a solar powered LED lamp 1.2.2.A Applying lifecycles to support the development of innovative products 1.3.1.A Integrated cooling concepts for printed circuit boards 1.3.1.B CAD implementation of design rules for aluminium extrusion dies 1.3.1.C 3D printing of ceramic microreactors 1.3.1.D Mass production technologies for flexible thin film photovoltaics 1.3.2.A FunKey Architecting - an integrated approach to system architecting using functions, key drivers and system budgets 1.3.2.B Evolvability in designing medical imaging devices 1.3.2.C Design patterns in mechatronics design 1.3.2.D Autonomous litter-collecting robot 1.3.2.E Mechatronic features 1.3.3.A Design methods of product packaging combinations 1.3.3.B Food supply chain 2015 1.3.3.C The packaging line of the future 1.3.3.D The intuitive packaging 1.3.3.E Unpredictable consumer behaviour

Research programME DESIGN Engineering


MANAGEMENT OF PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

1.1.1.A CNC Worknet

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.1 Design Methods and Tools SUB-PROGRAMME 1.1.1 MANAGEMENT OF PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

PROGRAMME

Background The supply chain for manufacturing (simple) milled products is often unnecessarily complex, both for producers and customers. In focusing on ‘shoebox’-type products, this supply chain can be made more efficient and effective. The process chain will be shortened dramatically by CNC Worknet.

research subject

CNC Worknet Researcher

Ir D.C. (Dennis) ten Dam - d.c.tendam@utwente.nl

 Simplified representation of the CNC-Worknet supply chain

 Typical ‘shoebox’ product  Standardised CNC-Worknet cell

Approach The steps from sales to process planning are integrated and automated in the CNC Worknet portal. Production and inspection are integrated and standardised in a generic manufacturing facility called a McMill. The Internet portal deals with all the communication between the customer and the standardised fabrication facility. Goal The research project develops the backbone for the CNC Worknet system, focusing on the synthesis between the quality and workflow management systems, as well as on the effective and structured implementation based on a transparent and flexible architecture.

Supervisor

Dr ir D. Lutters Project type

PhD project Resources

Contract research / 3rd money stream Status

Ongoing November 2007 - November 2011

Partners

CNC Worknet BV Keywords

supply chain, workflow management, franchise, quality management, milled products. CNC (computer numerical control)

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


1.1.1.B

MANAGEMENT OF PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

Information- and knowledge-based support

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.1 Design Methods and Tools SUB-PROGRAMME 1.1.1 MANAGEMENT OF PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

PROGRAMME

Background This research project has its focus on the way in which knowledge and information based techniques can be used to support product development cycles. Not only the capturing and reuse of both structured and unstructured information resulting from development trajectories is important for this purpose. Especially information on this information (so-called metainformation) is able to provide support by giving insight in the applicability of specific working methods. research subject

Information- and knowledge-based support Researcher

Ir W. (Winnie) Dankers - w.dankers@utwente.nl Supervisor

Dr ir D. Lutters Project type

Goal & perspective During the research project it is attempted to develop a holistic approach, rather than developing dedicated information management tools. This approach should aim at utilising the entire potential of (meta-)information to support product developers in more effectively and efficiently executing product development projects.

PhD project Resources

Direct funding / 1st money stream Status

Ongoing July 2009 - July 2012 Partners

Keywords

knowledge & information management, design methodology, product development

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


1.1.1.C

MANAGEMENT OF PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

Intelligent clothing

research subject

Intelligent clothing Researcher

Ir R.G.J. (Roy) Damgrave - r.g.j.damgrave@utwente.nl Supervisor

Dr ir D. Lutters Project type

PhD project Resources

Research funding / 2nd money stream

Background Current technical and electronic products often force the user to interact using buttons, keyboard and pointers. To let the product perform an action, the mental thoughts of the user have to be converted to the language of the product: buttons and clicks. This conversion can cause noise (translation errors), ignores body language and emotions, and often results in interaction with a small piece of the human body: mainly the hand. This causes a constant user awareness of the given input, resulting in interaction possibilities limited to the translation skills of the user. New electronic technologies are capable of sensing the environment and adapt to that information, leading up to intelligent systems. Similar technological developments in the textile industry make it possible to integrate these intelligent systems into clothing.

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.1 Design Methods and Tools SUB-PROGRAMME 1.1.1 MANAGEMENT OF PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

PROGRAMME

Examples of full body motion capturing

Goal The goal of the project is to develop design strategies and guidelines to support designers in developing new interactive products and services that aim to increase the use of human motion and the human’s emotional state, and indicate to what extend the use of new interaction methods is desirable.

Status

Ongoing July 2009 - July 2012 Partners

3TU, Adidas, XSens Keywords

intelligent systems, motion capturing, wellbeing

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


MANAGEMENT OF PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

1.1.1.D Structuring unstructured information

research subject

Structuring unstructured information Researchers

Ir W. (Winnie) Dankers - w.dankers@utwente.nl Dr ir D. (Eric) Lutters - d.lutters@utwente.nl Supervisor

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.1 Design Methods and Tools SUB-PROGRAMME 1.1.1 MANAGEMENT OF PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

PROGRAMME

Background With the increase in the extent and nature of the product and service offerings of organisations - driven by increasing customer expectations and competition - the amount of information required and generated by the business processes of a typical organisation is increasing at a startling rate. A great challenge today is countering the effects of the information overload phenomenon in organisations in order for employees to find the information appropriate to their needs without having to sieve through excessively large quantities of information to do so. Goal The project aims at developing a framework that can be used to provide a unified, dynamic view of an organisation’s development-related information of both the structured and unstructured kind. To ensure the applicability of the project results, several subprojects are defined and executed to test the developed tools and working methods. Moreover, these subprojects fuel the development of those tools and working methods.

Dr ir D. Lutters Project type

Research project Resources

Contract research / 3rd money stream Status

Started October 2009 Partners

Textinfo BV, Novay Keywords

semantics, clustering, data mining, information structuring

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


MANAGEMENT OF PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

1.1.1.E Virtual tools

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.1 Design Methods and Tools SUB-PROGRAMME 1.1.1 MANAGEMENT OF PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

PROGRAMME

Background A critical issue in current research and development projects is the information exchange and collaboration between the team members. Current research tools lack the support and possibility to work conjointly and simultaneously on the same research items by people from different backgrounds; whereas this multi-stakeholder collaborative work is the key factor for synergy during the project. research subject

Virtual tools Researcher

Ir R.G.J. (Roy) Damgrave - r.g.j.damgrave@utwente.nl Supervisor

Dr ir D. Lutters Project type

Research project Resources

Direct funding / 1st money stream

 Examples of multi-touch graphical user interfaces

 Prototype of large multiuser graphical interface

Goal This project aims at project teams consisting of people from different (educational) backgrounds working individually on different aspects of a product at the same time at different places. The goal is to develop a framework, enabling team members to work together with multiple users on the same information at the same time, independent of their physical location. The framework guides the development, implementation and use of virtual tools and methods in research and development projects. It should also cover the version history and status management of the project, whereby the project focus is on visualisation and interaction with virtual information.

Status

Started August 2009 Partners

Keywords

multi-stakeholder, multi-touch user interface, product development

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


1.1.1.F

MANAGEMENT OF PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

What-if design

Background In product development, many different aspects simultaneously influence the advancement of the process. Many specialists contribute to the specification of products, whilst in the meantime the consistency and mutual dependencies have to be preserved. Consequently, much effort is spent on mere routine tasks, which primarily distract members of the development from their main task: creating the best solution for the design problem at hand. research subject

What-if design Researchers

Ir W. (Winnie) Dankers - w.dankers@utwente.nl Dr ir D. (Eric) Lutters - d.lutters@utwente.nl Supervisor

Dr ir D. Lutters Project type

Research project Resources

Direct funding / 1st money stream Status

Ongoing 2004 Partners

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.1 Design Methods and Tools SUB-PROGRAMME 1.1.1 MANAGEMENT OF PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

PROGRAMME

Oversimplified examples of ‘what-if’ questions in the mechanical domain

Goal Many of these routine tasks can be translated into problems with a more or less tangible structure: often it is in fact an attempt to assess the consequences of a certain design decision on the rest of the product definition. What-if questions aim at structuring the steps that lead to design decisions in such a way that the product definition evolves in a transparent manner. As the structure of a ‘what-if’ question is independent of the domain under consideration, the ‘what-if’ questions can relate to any aspect in the information content at any level of aggregation. Perspective Such a way of looking at products under development strongly binds different domains and downstream processes under consideration, thus enabling a more integrated approach of the design process.

Keywords

versatile design, product development, design by least commitment, information structuring

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


Use anticipation in product design

1.1.2.A Integration of scenario-based design with the use of virtual reality and gaming techniques

research subject

Integration of scenario-based design with the use of virtual reality and gaming techniques Researcher

Ir M.(Martijn) Tideman - martijn.tideman@tno.nl Supervisor

Dr ir M.C. van der Voort & prof dr ir F.J.A.M. van Houten Project type

PhD project Resources

Direct funding / 1st money stream Status

Completed 2004 - 2008 Partners

AIDA, TNO Human Factors Keywords

scenario based design, user centred design, virtual reality, gaming, driving simulator, driver support systems (ADAS)

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

This research concerns the development of a method for scenario based product design. The aim of scenario based design is facilitating a joint understanding among all actors (such as design engineers, marketing managers and intended users of the future product) in a design process. By employing high-end simulation techniques (such as virtual reality), design information is made explicit and verifiable. Through a personalised interface, all actors are enabled to directly influence design information and directly assess the consequences of their decisions. Because of the synchronous and direct communication between actors, it is expected that they learn about (and even empathise with) each other’s goals and motives, that they are triggered to make implicit/latent information explicit, and that their creativity is stimulated.

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.1 Design Methods and Tools SUB-PROGRAMME 1.1.2 USE ANTICIPATION IN PRODUCT DESIGN

PROGRAMME

 The initial design environment  Generating a candidate design  Evaluating a candidate design

The research revealed that application of the scenario based design approach is especially beneficial in the design of products: - That are used in a complex, (partly) unknown, and potentially dangerous context; - Of which the functionality is (partly) determined by the behaviour of the human operator (and his or her behaviour is likely to change as a result of using the product); - Of which the design and/or the use involves many different actors and/or many different users. An example of this product type is ‘Advanced Driver Assistance Systems’ (ADAS). In order to further develop and test the scenario based product design method, the design of a lane change support system has been selected as a use-case. A design environment has been created that consists of a driving simulator that is enhanced with ‘gaming facilities’. These are interfaces for the driver to configure his or her own support system and directly apply it to the traffic scenario.

 

The design environment also incorporates a simulation model that contains (1) the parameters that describe the world relevant to using a lane change support system, as well as (2) the design parameters of a lane change support system. By letting drivers and other actors ‘play’ with these two sets of parameters, designs emerge that behave and perform according to drivers’ expectations and preferences.

Industrial Design Engineering


Use anticipation in product design

1.1.2.B Supporting designers in dealing with the dynamics of a use situation

research subject

Supporting designers in dealing with the dynamics of a use situation Researcher

Ir M. (Mieke) van der Bijl-Brouwer m.vanderbijl-brouwer@utwente.nl Supervisor

Dr ir M.C. van der Voort & prof dr ir F.J.A.M. van Houten Project type

PhD project (part-time) Resources

Direct funding / 1st money stream & IOP-IPCR Design for Usability Status

Ongoing 2004 - end 2010 Partners

TUDelft, TU/e, Philips, Oce, Indes, Thales

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.1 Design Methods and Tools SUB-PROGRAMME 1.1.2 USE ANTICIPATION IN PRODUCT DESIGN

PROGRAMME

Background This research deals with the usability problems that can arise when products are used for varying purposes, by varying people and or in varying contexts. We define these situations as dynamic use situations. Examples are a mobile phone that is used in varying environments under varying circumstances or a ticket vending machine that is used by many different people with varying skills and expectations. Products that are used in dynamic situations are difficult to design with regard to usability because requirements from different use situations can conflict. Moreover it is hard to predict the various use situations that a product will meet. Objective The objective of this research is to give designers insight in the consequences of dynamic use situations and to develop a method or tool that supports designers in dealing with dynamic use situations. Results A retrospective analysis of three design projects has given insight in strategies that design teams currently apply to deal with dynamic use situations. Products can be accommodated to dynamic use situations by principles such as ‘one size fits all’ or making products adjustable. Besides these strategies at ‘product level’ we can distinguish strategies at process level. These strategies are firstly aimed at the sources that designers use to get insight in the use situations that a product will meet and secondly at the means that are applied to evaluate and reflect on design solutions with regard to these use situations.

 Levels of dynamics in use situations

 Examples of products with dynamic use situations at product level  Example of dynamic use situation aspects of a bike

 

Keywords

usability, dynamic use situations, consumer products

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


Use anticipation in product design

1.1.2.C Supporting the design process

Background Developers of complex products these days face increasing challenges to keep pace with the market. Strong competitors require minimal time-tomarket and development costs, whilst consumers impose increasing demands on product performance, safety and usability. Under these circumstances, successful product development becomes increasingly dependent on a company’s power to support its development process with innovative and distinguishing tools and methods. research subject

Supporting the design process Researcher

Ir J.(Jan) Miedema - j.miedema@utwente.nl Supervisor

Dr ir M.C. van der Voort & prof dr ir F.J.A.M. van Houten Project type

PhD project Resources

IOP-IPCR Status

Completed 2005- 2009 Partners

TU Delft - IDE & UT - CPE Keywords

synthetic environment, virtual reality, design support, stakeholder participation, product development processes, rapid prototyping, product evaluation

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.1 Design Methods and Tools SUB-PROGRAMME 1.1.2 USE ANTICIPATION IN PRODUCT DESIGN

PROGRAMME

 Case study: Judging subtle behavior of a machine cover without physical prototypes  Case study: stimulating user’s design discussions about furnishing a living room.

Design support Making early substantiated assessments of the implications of design decisions is a critical activity in complex product development processes. It makes high demands on the capabilities of stakeholders to imagine future product behaviours. This brings about a risk for misinterpretations, misunderstandings and false estimations. Costly back loops in the course of the process or even failing market introductions are the result. To lower these risks, we propose to introduce dedicated employments of Virtual Reality tools early in the course of the development process. In so-called Synthetic Environments, involved stakeholders then can share and experience explicit virtual product behaviour. Research results Due to the enormous differences between companies and their individual design processes, the effects of introducing specific Virtual Reality tools in a development process will differ greatly. On the other hand, the opportunities are merely limited by the creativity of a company’s employees. The key to finding advantageous employments is to make efficient use of documented knowledge gained with Virtual Reality in product development. Within the project, a knowledge analysis procedure is developed that describes the course of actions needed to define well-supporting Synthetic Environments.

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


USE ANTICIPATION IN PRODUCT DESIGN

1.1.2.D Supporting scenario generation in practice

With a more competitive market, consumer product design will most likely thrive by shifting the design focus to users. Design projects no longer mean designers doing their work on top of the ivory tower, but rather are occasions that bring many individuals from varied backgrounds and their knowledge into the process. This composition represents a multi-disciplinary design team where team building and communication could potentially become problems.

research subject

Supporting scenario generation in practice Researcher

I. (Irene) Anggreeni, MSc - i.anggreeni@utwente.nl Supervisor

Dr ir M.C. van der Voort Project type

PhD project Resources

CTIT (UT research institute) Status

Ongoing September 2006 - 2010 Partners

Keywords

product design, consumer product, scenario based product design, scenario generation, design tool

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.1 Design Methods and Tools SUB-PROGRAMME 1.1.2 USE ANTICIPATION IN PRODUCT DESIGN

PROGRAMME

The basics of our research framework

Scenario-Based Product Design: Benefits and Challenges Using concrete stories about product or technology uses, in our term ‘scenarios’, has the potentials to improve communication, encourage stakeholders’ participation and afford early evaluation of design ideas. The knowledge base of scenario-based design is quite mature in domains such as information systems design and human-computer interaction. However, due to the more dynamic characteristics of consumer products, an adaptation of the existing knowledge on scenario-based design is necessary to apply it in a product design process. Furthermore, this knowledge has not been thoroughly explored for its fittingness in the real ‘battlefield’ of product designers. The adoption of scenarios in product design is in need of a more solid framework of scenario use in practice. Hypotheses ‘Sustaining scenario uses throughout a design process is more useful than sporadically using scenarios only then needed’ and ‘a sustainable scenario practice needs a good foundation in identifying, creating and selecting scenarios’. Approach We combine literature and practice of scenario based design to develop a design tool to guide scenario generation. Steps: 1 Overview of scenario use in design-related domains 2 Observation of scenario uses in established design practices 3 Collaboration with industrial partners during the development of the tool 4 Evaluation (and possibly implementation) of a new approach using the tool Expected Contribution We expect this tool to guide product designers in applying scenario based design and generating useful scenarios.

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


Use anticipation in product design

1.1.2.E Reducing usability problems with electronic consumer products

research subject

Reducing usability problems with electronic consumer products Researcher

Ir F.W.B. (Frederik) Hoolhorst - f.w.b.hoolhorst@utwente.nl Supervisor

Dr ir M.C. van der Voort Project type

PhD project Resources

IOP IPCR Project Status

Ongoing June 2007 - 2011 Partners

TU Delft, TU/e, Philips, Océ, Thales, Indes Keywords

usability, user-centred design, design methodology

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.1 Design Methods and Tools SUB-PROGRAMME 1.1.2 USE ANTICIPATION IN PRODUCT DESIGN

PROGRAMME

Introduction This research project is part of the Design for Usability research program, which is a cooperation of the three technical universities within The Netherlands and the following four industrial partners: Philips, Thales, OCE and Indes. The research programme focuses on manufacturers of electronic products and systems. These are more and more confronted with complaints from both consumers and professionals that are not related to technical or functional failures, but to an unexpected mismatch between the actual product use and the intended product use by the manufacturer. Due to this lack in usability, manufacturers for instance notice an increase in customer service costs and dissatisfied customers. Research focus In industry, industrial design engineers in particular are dealing with product usability aspects. It is one of their main tasks to make complex technology understandable and accessible for users. However, up till now it seems that no design methodology exists that incorporates the knowledge and tools (techniques, methods) with regard to use problems, the influence of user characteristics and (future) product impact into one framework that allows adaptation to the design practice its being used in. Therefore, Frederik’ research focuses on the development of a method that incorporates above enounced aspects on the one hand and fits the applicability needs of design engineers on the other. In here ‘applicability needs’ refer to the typical way in which industrial design engineers approach design problems and the context in which design is performed.

 Example of consumer electronics

 Concept of the new user centered design method

 Concept of the core of the user centered design method: A design approach selection toolbox

 

Industrial Design Engineering


Use anticipation in product design

1.1.2.F Developing a driver interface for transitions between automated and non-automated driving

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.1 Design Methods and Tools SUB-PROGRAMME 1.1.2 USE ANTICIPATION IN PRODUCT DESIGN

PROGRAMME

Background Mobility is rudimentary for the economy and society. Therefore mobility problems, like congestion, need to be reduced. For increasing road efficiency high expectations rest on assistance systems; their precision of operation is presumed to enable a more stable traffic flow.

research subject

Developing a driver interface for transitions between automated and non-automated driving Researcher

Ir A.P. (Arie Paul) van den Beukel a.p.vandenbeukel@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof dr ir A.O. Eger & dr ir M.C. van der Voort Project type

PhD project Resources

Direct funding / 1st money stream Status

Ongoing June 2007 - December 2013 Partners

AIDA, TNO Keywords

driver interface, transitions between supported and notsupported driving, Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS)

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Scope of the project Although today’s Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) improve comfort and safety for individual drivers, they do not provide the desired advantages yet. Nonetheless, studies show the potential of assistance systems to reduce congestion. Traffic simulations showed for example that full range adaptive cruise control can lead to 30% delay reduction if 10% of the vehicles are equipped. To achieve the desired advantages, assistance systems need to be especially developed for improving traffic efficiency. Due to technical constraints and the diversity of driving situations, assisted driving will always be depending on specific circumstances. For this reason there will exist transitions between human (driver) operation and support by the system (vehicle). A key factor in the success of assistance systems is an interface which evokes the appropriate human behavior, especially for those circumstances in which the transitions take place. The goal within this PhD-research is therefore to develop a driver-interface for assistance that increases traffic efficiency, optimised for user-acceptance - especially with regard to the transitions between supported and not-supported driving.

 Task performance is a series of control loops, performed by both man and machine  For increasing road efficiency high expectations rest on cooperative driving systems  Possible driving support varies in the level in which control loops on either the human‘s or machine‘s side are being automated

 A supported driver model has been introduced with preferred support

 

types dependent on driving task type and level of task performance

Objective To find out in which circumstances, what type of support enhances the driver’s ability to control the vehicle, this research started with developing a supported-driver model for desired allocation of tasks between human and technology performance. The answers are the basis for the development of the required interface. The result of this research will answer what impact the designed interface has in terms of traffic efficiency, driving behavior, comfort and acceptance.

Industrial Design Engineering


1.1.2.G

Use anticipation in product design

Incorporating human factors as an integral part of the design process of advanced driver assistance systems Background The emerging trend in automotive is aimed at reducing the cognitive requirements placed on the human driver. By equipping vehicles with sensors, navigation and motion planning, the driving task is shared between human actors and the supporting assistance systems. Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are currently supporting the driver by means of sensory information (e.g. lane departure warnings), correction (e.g. anti-lock braking system) or even control (e.g. automatic parking).

research subject

Incorporating human factors as an integral part of the design process of advanced driver assistance systems Researcher

B.M. (Boris) van Waterschoot, MSc b.m.vanwaterschoot@utwente.nl Supervisor

Dr ir M.C. van der Voort Project type

PhD project Resources

AIDA Status

Ongoing Spring 2008 - 2012 Partners

TNO Human Factors, Centre for Transport Studies (UT) Keywords

design support, engineering psychology, cognitive ergonomics, human factors engineering, Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), interaction design, complex systems, automotive

The increase of in-vehicle systems however, exposes both users and developers with potential unwanted consequences concerning the possible adverse effects of embedded automation and its contribution to controlling the driving task. The main reason for these potential adverse effects lies in the (often unknown) behavioural consequences related to changes in the nature of the driving task. Problems can arise due to improper levels of driver’s cognitive workload, when the implications of design choices remain unknown or when the true needs of the driver-vehicle system are not well understood.

Although car manufacturers aim to reduce the requirements placed on the human driver by providing different types of driver assistance , potential problems arise when possible adverse effects are not accounted for during the design process, as exemplified by this extraordinary cockpit design . Although  is an idealised and simplified picture of the relationship between driver and vehicle within a human-vehicle system, it shows how the context of car driving changes with the introduction of automation. The available ‘toolbox’ to support design research is varied and ranges from representing the driving task with driving simulators  to assessing behavioral impacts using psychophysics and psychometrics.

Goals The present research is aimed at supporting ADAS design by showing the effects of information and automation. For this, we intend to set up an adaptive design approach in which both the human factor and the system’s driving performance are being assessed. Perspectives Traditional research approaches typically involve limitations concerning the applicability and generalisability of results. An adaptive design approach that reveals a system’s performance and accounts for the human factor in the early stages of the design process, provides a more ‘naturalistic’ research environment that enables the evaluation of design choices.

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.1 Design Methods and Tools SUB-PROGRAMME 1.1.2 USE ANTICIPATION IN PRODUCT DESIGN

PROGRAMME

Industrial Design Engineering


1.1.2.H

Use anticipation in product design

Facilitating user participation in the design of medical appliances

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.1 Design Methods and Tools SUB-PROGRAMME 1.1.2 USE ANTICIPATION IN PRODUCT DESIGN

PROGRAMME

This project’s goal is to develop an approach for participatory design of high-tech workplaces for professionals, with an integrated focus on quality, safety, and efficiency.

 Participatory design game  Design decision making supported by virtual reality & scenarios  Design of new medical workplace (NICU)

Our approach will be based on an in-depth case study of the design of endoscopic operating theatres (OT).

research subject

Facilitating user participation in the design of medical appliances Researcher

J.A. (Julia) Garde, MSc - j.a.garde@utwente.nl

Background The design of OTs is traditionally based on a concept that aims at optimal use by providing maximum flexibility. In the era of high-tech surgery, this concept is no longer valid. Complex and computer steered surgical tools can only be utilised with optimal safety and efficiency if they are integrated in a dedicated workplace.

PhD project (part-time)

The process to design such a dedicated workplace is complicated. Hospitals vary in their profiles and many interacting stakeholders are involved. Manufacturers cannot deliver optimal customer specific solutions because stakeholders find it difficult to express their needs. Consequences of design decisions for product use are often not apparent to all stakeholders during the design process.

Resources

Disappointment with the final outcome is common in relation to the investments.

Supervisor

Dr ir M.C. van der Voort Project type

Direct funding / 1st money stream Status

Ongoing 2008 - 2013 Partners

Keywords

user participation, (dedicated) operating theatres, workplace design, design for usability, requirement finding, scenario based design

Objective Thus there is a strong need for professional guidance of the design process of specialised workplaces. The objective of this project is to provide this guidance by developing an innovative participatory design approach that enables active participation of involved professionals. The project will be conducted in cooperation with other researchers. Our part of the project aims at: - Incorporating specialist knowledge by means of participation of end-users - Enabling end-user to make sound decisions by providing insights into daily consequences of specific design choices using scenario based design techniques

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


Use anticipation in product design

1.1.2.I Developing a surgical robotic manipulation system

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.1 Design Methods and Tools SUB-PROGRAMME 1.1.2 USE ANTICIPATION IN PRODUCT DESIGN

PROGRAMME

Background The TeleFLEX project targets the research, design and construction of a tele-manipulation system that controls flexible instruments for minimal invasive surgery. A tele-manipulation device will generally contain a master interface console and a slave robot. The main focus in this project is directed towards the master console, aiming at intuitive and ergonomic control of the instruments with computer support of the motion (multi-DOF) and the feedback. research subject

Developing a surgical robotic manipulation system Researcher

Ir J.G. (Jeroen) Ruiter - j.g.ruiter@utwente.nl Supervisor

Dr ir M.C. van der Voort & dr ir G.M. Bonnema Project type

PhD project Resources

Contract research Pieken in de Delta Oost-Nederland Status

Ongoing November 2008 - November 2012 Partners

University of Twente, DEMCON, Meander Medical Center Amersfoort, University Medical Center Groningen Keywords

 Total system set up  Functionality of master console  Operating room of the future?

Goal TeleFLEX’s objective is to define a system that allows the surgeon to use the full potential of the flexible instruments. The aim is to improve surgeon’s existing sensing and manipulation, and to increase the number of sensors and manipulators available by creating a multimodal user interface containing augmented reality. Research is done to investigate which (combination of) sensory modalities allow the surgeon to use the full potential of flexible instruments, and thereby increases dexterity and confidence to bridge the gap between minimal invasive surgery and open surgery. Perspective Besides new knowledge the project must result in a technology demonstrator with integrated functionality for input controls, feedback devices, signal conversion and data processing. The realised research setup will be used to test the effectiveness of the integrated functionalities in a series of clinical evaluations.

multimodal, human machine interface, flexible instruments, augmented reality, ergonomics

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


Use anticipation in product design

1.1.2.J Resolving the paradox in user-centred design through flexible prototyping (RePar)

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.1 Design Methods and Tools SUB-PROGRAMME 1.1.2 USE ANTICIPATION IN PRODUCT DESIGN

PROGRAMME

Introduction With user centred design (UCD), a design team likes to obtain information on end user needs, user values and desired functionality in the early stages of the design process. However, in those stages the proposals to users are often so little concrete that users have trouble getting a good understanding of the use experience and are hardly able to provide pertinent input/feedback to the design process. research subject

Resolving the paradox in user-centred design through flexible prototyping (RePar) Researcher

Jos P. Thalen - j.p.thalen@utwente.nl Supervisor

Dr ir M.C. van der Voort Project type

PhD project Resources

IOP-IPCR Status

Ongoing October 2009 - April 2013 Partners

TU/e, DAF, Philips, Oce, Rademaker Keywords

flexible prototyping, virtual reality, user centred design

 VR lab at the University of Twente

 Addressed paradox: feedback from the user concerning the levels that are addressed earliest in the design phase becomes available latest

Goals The more concrete the proposal to the user, the more accurate and concrete the information the designer receives from the user; the downside is that in order to make concrete proposals the designer has to fix many properties in advance without adequate foundation from user information. To solve this paradox, the REPAR project aims to combine low-fidelity prototyping (i.e. 2-D or 3-D sketching) and high-fidelity prototyping (i.e. virtual reality) into ‘flexible prototyping’. Focus This research focusses on the high-fidelity aspects. One of the challenges is to make high-fidelity tools more effective in an early stage of design. This requires the tools to be able to cope with unstructured domains. Interaction with other (low-fidelity) tools is anticipated and stimulated by cooperating with the ‘low-fidelity’ REPAR subproject. The research should result in a (collection of) design tool(s) and methods that can facilitate the UCD dialogue between users and developers in different phases of the development of products in various applications domains.

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


1.1.3.A

Knowledge Engineering of Expert Knowledge

Knowledge engineering for design automation

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.1 Design Methods and Tools SUB-PROGRAMME 1.1.3 COMPUTATIONAL SYNTHESIS

PROGRAMME

Research in computational synthesis involves knowledge from multiple domains being automated into a single tool. Modelling knowledge has been a specialised area of expertise, being a process deriving a mathematical model from (tacit) knowledge: knowledge engineering (KE).

 Goal: from expert to virtual expert Approach - Standardisation of knowledge - Methods for knowledge acquisition - Standardisation of software  Results: 6 software prototypes Tool development - From 9 months to 4 days - Students can do it Industrial verification - Hundreds of solutions per minute - Up to 10X faster engineering

Problem Large scale development of design automation software requires a standardised and methodological approach to the modelling of expert knowledge.

research subject

Knowledge engineering for design automation Researcher

W.O. (Wouter) Schotborgh - w.o.schotborgh@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof dr ir F.J.A.M. van Houten, ir F.G.M. Kokkeler Project type

Goal This research concerns elicitation and modelling of knowledge from experts in technical domains. It answers the questions: 1 how can expert knowledge be used in a CSS and 2 how can this knowledge be acquired.

Result The result is a theoretical description of expert knowledge and a set of methods derived from the theory. The methods enable non-KE experts to develop mathematical models of (tacit) expert knowledge.

PhD project Resources

IOP-IPCR Status

Completed May 2005 - April 2009

Partners

VanderLande Industries; Océ; PANalytical; Philips Consumer Lifestyle; Discrete Wiskunde en Programmering, Universiteit Twente; Intelligente Mechanische Systemen, TU-Delft Keywords

knowledge, design automation, routine design

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


1.1.3.B

COMPUTATIONAL SYNTHESIS

Managing complexity in artifactual design for design automation

research subject

Managing complexity in artifactual design for design automation Researcher

J.M. (Juan Manuel) Jauregui-Becker, MSc j.m.jaureguibecker@utwente.nl Supervisor

Ir H. Tragter Project type

PhD project Resources

Research funding / 2nd money stream Status

Completed January 2005 - December 2009 Partners

Philips ATC Keywords

design automation, design structuring, computational representations, design complexity, computational synthesis.

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Background Research in Computational Synthesis (CS) studies algorithmic procedures to automate the generation of designs. The idea is that by combining “lowlevel” building blocks “high level” functionalities can be achieved. The first challenge encountered when developing CS system is the definition of the building blocks, or representations, upon which the candidate designs can be generated. This is motivated by the fact that representations depend on the complexity of the problem formulation as well as on the desired level of detail of the solutions. Although a great diversity of representation schemes can be found in CS design literature, few methods describe how to develop them and what their relation is with the degree of complexity of the problem. Focus This research focused on artifactual routine design problems. Routine design problems proceed within a well-defined space of possible solutions. As around 80% of industrial design processes are routine, counting with clear mechanisms for understanding their complexity is considered a relevant topic in the field of design theory and methodology.

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.1 Design Methods and Tools SUB-PROGRAMME 1.1.3 COMPUTATIONAL SYNTHESIS

PROGRAMME

 Model of complexity  Complexity map  Case study: computer generated cooling system in mould

Results The research resulted in: (a) a framework to structure and represent design problems, (b) a model of design complexity, (d) methods to manage different types of design complexity, and (e) case studies demonstrating the usage of the method. Furthermore, the following design problems were automated: - Cooling systems for injection moulding - Heat pipes for Printed Circuit Board cooling - Factory layouts - Gate-runner systems for injection molding

Industrial Design Engineering


1.1.3.C

COMPUTATIONAL SYNTHESIS

From fuzzy requirements to clear solution spaces

research subject

From fuzzy requirements to clear solution spaces Researcher

Ir H. Tragter - h.tragter@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof dr ir F.J.A.M. van Houten Project type

Pre-investigation Resources

Research funding / 2nd money stream Status

Ongoing 2008 - 2011 Partners

Keywords

Background Product development practices are under pressure as product costs, quality and time-to-market have each progressively gained importance. In parallel, product complexity increases and the rapid pace of technology development leads to shorter product life cycles. To support the designers and engineers in this changing environment, we work on technology that could power a new generation of design-support systems. In Computational Synthesis (CS) systems, a computer programme generates solutions from requirements entered by a designer.

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.1 Design Methods and Tools SUB-PROGRAMME 1.1.3 COMPUTATIONAL SYNTHESIS

PROGRAMME

 The design process with computational synthesis

 Example synthesis tools  A visualisation of the solution space

 3D Pareto efficient points  Synthetic design of an airport’s

baggage handling system

Goals This research aims to provide users of a CS-system with insight in the relations between requirements and performances. We will try to accomplish this by accepting fuzzy specifications and show consequences thereof in the presented solutions and their performances. The research will be related to many aspects of a CS-system: User Interface questions, candidate solution generation and optimisation techniques. As such it will support formulation of research questions in these specific areas. Perspectives This CS-system will provide visual representations of solution spaces, and correlate bandwidths of specifications with the generated solutions. This will enhance the designer’s insight and lead to better solutions in shorter design times.

computational synthesis, routine design, CAD, engineering design

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


COMPUTATIONAL SYNTHESIS

1.1.3.D Toward an effective shaping process is a hybrid research activity with roots both in VR and synthesis

research subject

Toward an effective shaping process is a hybrid research activity with roots both in VR and synthesis Researcher

R.E. (Robert) Wendrich - r.e.wendrich@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof dr ir F.J.A.M. van Houten, prof dr ir A.O. Eger, prof dr ir A. de Boer Project type

PhD project Resources

Direct funding / 1st money stream Status

Started spring 2009 Partners

Sony, DuPont Inc., Apple Inc. Keywords

raw shaping, form finding, augmented reality, design synthesis, hybrid, intuition, design tools, manual dexterity, tangible media

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Raw Shaping Form Finding (RSFF) Our [re]search is aiming at the identification of essential voids in the support of design processes offered by commonly available methods and tools. Some remarkable results were obtained during design sessions with novices and experts by engaging them in tangible experiments that were designed to stimulate and enhance their skills, tacit knowing and creativity that enable them to represent their ideas and concepts in an intuitive way. We explored and captured the differences in designer’s behavior during use of “analogue” and digital representation tools. We will explain our laboratory experiments, test results, educational embedding and creative opportunities that emerge from hybrid design tools. Furthermore we propose an exciting hybrid design tool to bring the tacit and tangible elements of design back into CAD systems.

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.1 Design Methods and Tools SUB-PROGRAMME 1.1.3 COMPUTATIONAL SYNTHESIS

PROGRAMME

 Workbench and virtual design assistant  Haptic test benches for 3D design representation  Scaling and 2D to 3D transformation from orthogonal projections of artifacts into tangible wireframes

 Virtual shaping tool creating polygon mesh iterations in synthesised environment

We follow two different routes in our attempt to identify and fill the voids. The first procedure is a set of observations to measure the effectiveness, various shaping and representation techniques. Knowledge about learning curves, time constraints, idiosyncrasy, quality of design results and focus of particular design methods gives insight in peoples abilities to improve and support decisions about the structure and content of the “best” curriculum for industrial design engineering students. The second procedure is the creation of a prototype of a hybrid design tool to stimulate intuitive and imaginative skills. For the experiments, we used nine haptic representational configurations and set-ups, and involved over 95 participants per experiment. In these configurations the participants’ performance of form giving and shaping techniques were captured, observed and rated.

Industrial Design Engineering


SUSTAINABLE ENERGY DESIGN

1.2.1.A Exergetic system approach in the built environment

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.2 Energy and Sustainability SUB-PROGRAMME 1.2.1 SUSTAINABLE ENERGY DESIGN PROGRAMME

Background Sustainable development receives worldwide attention. Decreasing the energy consumption in real estate is an important component to realise sustainable building. This PhD-research project aims to contribute to sustainable building by investigating the potential financial benefits of exergy saving techniques.

research subject

Exergetic system approach in the built environment Researcher

Ir A.G. (Bram) Entrop - a.g.entrop@utwente.nl Supervisor

Dr ir A.H.M.E. Reinders, prof dr ir H.J.H. Brouwers, prof dr G.P.M.R. Dewulf, prof dr ir J.I.M. Halman Project type

PhD project Resources

Contract research / 3rd money stream SenterNovem Status

Ongoing until December 2012 Partners

Delft University of Technology and Eindhoven University of Technology Keywords

energy saving, investment appraisal, built environment

Exergy is a concept used in the field of thermodynamics to express the maximum amount of mechanical work that can be obtained from an energy flow or a change of a system in relation to its environment. In contrast to energy, exergy can be destroyed and by that means exergy can express the finiteness of resources better than energy can.

 Decision model for energy saving techniques

 Energy costs as part of the facility costs in offices

 Thermal research of dwellings using IR-camera

 Testing LOWEX measures using PCM in concrete floors

Little is known about the potential financial benefits of exergy saving techniques. In the building process investors currently use life cycle costing to calculate the return on their investments in buildings. The life cycle costing method however does not take into account, that the stakeholders who benefit from exergy saving techniques not necessarily include the investing stakeholders. A third problem concerns the calculation method itself, since it fails to address the increase of the value of real estate due to applied exergy saving techniques. Perpectives The obtained insights in financial benefits can result in a better adoption of exergy saving techniques. The possibilities to interfere effectively in the building process will be enlarged by specifying the benefits and costs for specific stakeholders involved in the development of commercial and residential real estate. In this PhD project attention is paid to a case on Phase Changing Materials (PCM)s in combination with passive solar energy in an experimental set-up which represents dwellings with different manners of isolation and day-light entries.

Case  1

Case  3

1964 1972 1982 

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Case  2

Industrial Design Engineering


1.2.1.B

SUSTAINABLE ENERGY DESIGN

Improved mechanical design of PV modules

research subject

Improved mechanical design of PV modules Researcher

Dr ir A.H.M.E. (Angèle) Reinders a.h.m.e.reinders@utwente.nl & vacancy Supervisor

Dr ir A.H.M.E. Reinders, dr L. Warnet Project type

Post-doc project Resources

Contract research / 3rd money stream Status

Temporarily ceased Partners

Production Technology (CTW) and PV Module Group ECN Keywords

photovoltaics, fibre reinforced polymers, production technology, optical and mechanical engineering.

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.2 Energy and Sustainability SUB-PROGRAMME 1.2.1 SUSTAINABLE ENERGY DESIGN PROGRAMME

Background In this project we consider new PV product concepts that could be enabled by combining the properties of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology and fiber reinforced polymers (FRP), because their combination seems promising. Compared to existing PV modules based on glass sheets, FRP can provide a light-weight and cost-efficient alternative while improving mechanical strength and stiffness and maintaining the required optical transmittance for light that is converted to electricity by PV cells. Moreover FRP allow for integral production processes such as resin transfer molding or injection molding that could be favorable modifications compared to batch processes applied to PV modules based on glass sheets. Approach In this project we focus on the mechanical and optical properties of PV products based on glass fiber reinforced polymers. It was found that measured transmittance of GFRP is roughly equal to usually applied special hightransmittance glass and Ethylene-Vinyl-Acetate. Mechanical tests of laminates of PV cells and FRP were performed in the framework of the international standards of IEC (IEC61215 and IEC61730) for design qualifications of PV modules and the requirements for their construction. Besides this a design project was executed to show the potential of integration of PV technology in FRP. Three conceptual designs were developed for applications in the built environment (1) a thin film module serving as a structural element for geodetic roofing structures, (2) a PV lamella with singleaxis tracking and low concentration, and (3) a PV-textile for easy shaping and impregnation during the production of PV modules with complex geometries Perspectives For future research it will be relevant to pay attention to material characteristics of FRP such as mechanical strength, UV stability and transmittance. As well as that, PV products using FRP and the manufacturing of these products will be further explored to develop innovative and cost-efficient PV products that can be easily produced compared to existing PV modules.

 Sample of a PV-cell embedded in a glass fibre laminate

 A bundle of glass fibres  FRP PV lamellas mounted in a blind system

 Resin transfer moulding  A triangular FRP PV module for geodesic structures

Industrial Design Engineering


1.2.1.C

SUSTAINABLE ENERGY DESIGN

Integration of thermal, irradiance and performance models for photovoltaic/thermal solar products

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.2 Energy and Sustainability SUB-PROGRAMME 1.2.1 SUSTAINABLE ENERGY DESIGN PROGRAMME

Background To evaluate the energy performance of solar photovoltaic (PV) products during the design phase, we develop software that can be implemented in a CAD tool.

research subject

Integration of thermal, irradiance and performance models for photovoltaic/thermal solar products Researcher

Dr A. (Arvind) Tiwari Supervisor

Dr ir A.H.M.E. Reinders, prof dr ir T.H. van der Meer Project type

Postdoc project Resources

Research funding / 2nd money stream IMPACT Status

Completed 2008 Partners

IMPACT, Utrecht University Keywords

photovoltaics, energy simulation, CAD models

from section of solar PV lamella, Concentration of light with factor 1,2  Design of the simulation procedure in 3D Studio Max  Modeled 3D-shapes used in CAD based PV simulation approach

Designing and evaluation of PV products in computer aided design (CAD) system will have following advantages: I By knowledge included in the programme PV products can be designed faster and more efficiently. II It enables a scenarios based evaluations of PV products before prototyping. III As such the effects of the dynamic use of PV products can be better estimated in advance. Modeling of irradiance and performance targets different categories of PV products, among others, building integrated PV(BIPV), PV powered vehicles, PV greenhouses, PV powered LED lights and consumer products meant for indoor use. Approach To make CAD tools suitable for PV products, solar irradiation in the model must be quantified well. Therefore the following three aspects have been integrated into CAD environment I Quantitative irradiance models for sunlight and indoor light. II Products with (curved) surfaces with PV cells. III Shading due to surroundings of products.

Since most CAD tools emphasise the visual output, for irradiance models transformations of photopic units to radiometric units of irradiance are essential for the evaluation of the energy performance and should be included in an algorithm for irradiance modeling Perspectives For 3D Studio Max a tool for modeling of irradiance was developed to be used as a plug-in. Due to ray-tracing techniques the simulations can be timedemanding for complex geometries. Therefore at present a new approach is being developed which has a focus on irradiance modeling in Quest3D.

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

 Cell surface lighting map rendered

Industrial Design Engineering


SUSTAINABLE ENERGY DESIGN

1.2.1.D Development of a large area persons cooler, based on evaporation of water and without draught

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.2 Energy and Sustainability SUB-PROGRAMME 1.2.1 SUSTAINABLE ENERGY DESIGN PROGRAMME

Background Cooling is Hot aims to develop a new way of evaporative cooling, suitable for cooling persons and animals, rather than processes. It does so by focusing on absorption of dissipated radiant heat, as close to the user as comfort perception allows and so minimising the volume of air to be cooled to provide additional convectional cooling to minimise needed cooling capacity, material and energy consumption. The usual cold stream of air associated with conventional air conditioners will be absent.

research subject

Development of a large area persons cooler, based on evaporation of water and without draught Researcher

M.D. (Matthijs) Meulenbelt - matthijs@avionsvoisin.nl Supervisor

Prof dr ir A.O. Eger Project type

PhD project Resources

Research funding / 2nd money stream & contract research / 3rd money stream Status

Ongoing May 2008 - May 2012 Partners

Goal To develop the first generation of the cooler, for use in for example automobiles and schools. Therefore, the system parameters will be established, maximum capacities will be assessed, best suitable materials determined and the subjective perception of coolness established to come to a well adjustable system, apt for energy efficient cooling of people, livestock and other animals. Perspective The perspective of the first generation of the product to be designed and engineered is vast: Smaller schools, for instance, can hardly use conventional centralised air-cooling because of lack of space for ducting. Smaller units will not give a good result because schools need lots of ventilation to reduce CO2 levels.

 Cooling is Hot!  First lab model  Mollier diagram for water and water vapour

The concept of the Cooling is Hot! cooler will suit these circumstances well and is essentially simple and intrinsically inexpensive.

Avions Voisin BV Keywords

evaporative cooling, energy efficient cooling

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


SUSTAINABLE ENERGY DESIGN

1.2.1.E PV-boats: design issues in the realisation of PV powered boats

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.2 Energy and Sustainability SUB-PROGRAMME 1.2.1 SUSTAINABLE ENERGY DESIGN PROGRAMME

Background Electric propulsion is an energy efficient, environmentally sound and silent way to provide power to boats. It has already been shown that the application of solar photovoltaic (PV) modules in electrically powered boats can be a technically and financially feasible concept. Therefore in this project we focus on how to better translate this technical experience into the design of commercial boats for use in recreational zones in Friesland. research subject

PV-boats: design issues in the realisation of PV powered boats Researcher

T. (Tim) Gorter - t.gorter@utwente.nl Supervisor

Dr ir A.H.M.E. Reinders Project type

contract research and PhD project Resources

Research funding / 2nd money stream and Contract research / 3rd money stream Status

Ongoing November 2010 - December 2014 Partners

NHL Hogeschool, Kenniscentrum Jachtbouw, Leeuwarden Keywords

photovoltaic (PV) systems, electric propulsion, sustainable transportation

 Attendee of the Frisian Solar Challenge (2008)

 Applications of PV cells in boats  Boats and PV integration – many unknown parameters

Approach When adding PV to boats, several design problems are encountered. 1 The energy balance between PV components, storage batteries and loads is an important issue to ensure availability of electric power at all times. 2 The application of PV products in boats requires special attention for placing, sizing and forming on or into the geometry of the boat. 3 Contests such as the Frysian Solar Challenge - a race amongst PV powered boats - provide knowledge to add or integrate PV as a power source. However a translation of this knowledge towards commercial product applications must still be made. Perspective In this project focus will be on 1 Simulation of the energy balance of PV powered boats, which takes into account the boat’s geometry, local irradiance conditions and load patterns of electric propulsion. 2 Different solutions to encapsulate PV into composite materials of boat constructions. 3 Design processes of boats and how they can be adapted and accelerated for PV applications.

Structural  integrity

Regional  context   (Fryslân)

Boat  geometry

PV  lamina)on  /   encapsula)on Design  &  styling

external  influences

The Frysian Solar Challenge will be considered a case study which can provide useful information in these matters.

Energy  balance

Technology PV  integra)on

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Irradiance   simula)ons

User  aspects  /   scenario  of  use

Industrial Design Engineering


SUSTAINABLE ENERGY DESIGN

1.2.1.F Solar Chandelier project: design and production of a solar powered LED lamp

research subject

Solar chandelier project: design and production of a solar powered LED lamp Researcher

Ir E. (Erik) Hop - e.hop@utwente.nl, dr ir A.H.M.E. (Angèle) Reinders - a.h.m.e.reinders@utwente.nl, a.o. Supervisor

Dr ir A.H.M.E. Reinders Project type

Pre-investigation Resources

DeMakersVan Status

Ongoing Partners

DeMakersVan, Rotterdam Keywords

photovoltaics, LED, lighting, energy balance, production technology design and styling

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.2 Energy and Sustainability SUB-PROGRAMME 1.2.1 SUSTAINABLE ENERGY DESIGN PROGRAMME

The Solar Chandelier is a chandelier that generates energy with PV cells during the day, and which emits light by LEDs in the evening. The chandelier consists of a glass bulb around which butterfly shaped solar cells are arranged in an aesthetic way. The butterflies are attached to a frame which is fixed to the glass bulb which comprises the LEDs and other electronics The Solar Chandelier project is executed together with the design studio DeMakersVan, where the DeMakersVan emphasises design and styling and University of Twente focusses on technical issues. The Solar Chandelier is a highly complex product, realisation of which requires a lot of new knowledge about electrical and mechanical aspects of solar cells. For this reason a short term research project was established for a team of researchers, designers and students. Some important design choices will depend on the total amount of energy generated by the chandelier, for example the light intensity of the chandelier. Therefore the total energy yield of the chandelier has to be known, which is related to the amount of light incident on the chandelier. Therefore one part of this project consists of simulating irradiance conditions with specialised software, so that the total energy yield by the PV cells of the chandelier can be estimated. Another important design aspect is to measure the characteristic performance of PV-cells in the form of butterflies. These characteristics are also required to calculate the energy yield when the amount of light incident on the chandelier is known. With these measurements the most suitable electrical circuit can be designed. This electrical circuit will be processed in the frame, which is another important design aspect of the project. The butterflies are spread around the light bulb in the form of a traditional chandelier; all the butterflies have to stay in a predefined position supported by the frame. In this project other mechanical issues such as the electronics in the light bulb and the assembly of the chandelier are addressed as well. The results are expected to be translated into a production plan by DeMakersVan on the basis of the research and the design support of the University of Twente in 2010.

 Visual impression of the Solar Chandelier

 Butterfly shaped solar cells attached to aluminum support structure  Simulation of irradiance on solar cells  Measurements of current and voltage with 6 solar cells in parallel, see scheme  Daylight simulation of surroundings of use

 160   140   0%  

16,67%  

33,33%  

50%  

120   100   80   60  

40   20  

0   0  

50  

100  

150  

200  

250  

300  

350  

400  

450  

500  

Industrial Design Engineering


PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE MANAGEMENT

1.2.2.A Applying lifecycles to support the development of innovative products

research subject

Applying lifecycles to support the development of innovative products Researcher

Ir M.E. (Marten) Toxopeus - m.e.toxopeus@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof dr ir F.J.A.M. van Houten Project type

PhD project (part time) Resources

Direct funding / 1st money stream & supported by Pioneering group IDF Status

To be started Partners

Group IDF part of Pioneering Keywords

Product lifecycles, flexibility, sustainability, environmental impacts, building innovations

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.2 Energy and Sustainability SUB-PROGRAMME 1.2.2 PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME

Innovation in the building industry Special funding and supporting organisations to increase innovations prove the need of the building industry to change itself from the traditional approach for constructing buildings to a more controlled, organised and efficient way of working. Or in other words, a more industrialised approach to constructing buildings. In one of these pioneering projects special attention is paid to flexible buildings. It is not only to increase the flexibility within the building companies, but also in the design process, the development of building components, the actual construction of buildings and to facilitate a more flexible usage of the buildings and the end of life processes. Instead of the current approach of material recycling, building components from this flexible building notion seem suitable for an increased level of reuse. Advanced LCA for flexibility An advanced lifecycle analysis approach needs to be developed to support this notion of flexible building. This research is therefore focussed on ways to adjust and extend the current theory of lifecycle assessment to include, for example also dynamic elements. Especially with flexible buildings the usage will change over time, and therefore the functional unit will become time depended. Another important issue that needs to be solved is a method to support the development process of such flexible buildings. Such a method should be able to support designers, architects, builders, local governments, building associations, users and others in their decisions when, how and which flexible building systems to apply. Cooperation with industry This research will be done in close cooperation with, and with support from the Pioneering project of the national programme for building innovations.

Development  

Building  industry  

Adding  

Building   Components    

L.C.    Model  

Designers  &   Architects  

database  

I.A.M.  

“Sustainable”   Clients  &   Principals  

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Results  from  Analysis  

Industrial Design Engineering


1.3.1.A

INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT OF NEW PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES

Integrated cooling concepts for printed circuit boards

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.3 INTEGRATION AND HYBRID SYSTEM DESIGN SUB-PROGRAMME 1.3.1 INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT OF NEW PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES PROGRAMME

Background Thermal management plays an increasingly important role in the design process of electronic products. Component sizes decrease while performance and functional demands increase, resulting in more power dissipation on smaller surfaces. To cope with these growing thermal problems, industry continuously seeks cooling equipment with improved heat transfer performance. research subject

Integrated cooling concepts for printed circuit boards Researcher

W.W. (Wessel) Wits - w.w.wits@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof dr ir F.J.A.M. van Houten Project type

Research and development of production techniques Resources

Senter Novem Status

Completed September 2004- September 2008 Partners

Thales Netherlands, ASTRON, TU/e Keywords

thermal management, electronics cooling, PCB cooling, jet impingement cooling, heat pipe cooling

Goal This project researches the development of innovative cooling concepts for electronic products. Thermal criteria are already considered during the conceptual design phase, in order to find more integrated solutions. This multidisciplinary approach strives to develop improved thermal management systems for electronic products, in terms of thermal performance, compactness and flexibility. To develop a cost efficient solution focus is also put on utilising standardised electronic manufacturing processes, such as Printed Circuit Board (PCB) and Surface Mounted Device (SMD) production technologies. Cost considerations for high product volumes, enabling massmarket applications, are especially taken into account. Result Detailed analysis and experimental investigation have been conducted. The developed concepts show promising results compared to state-ofthe-art cooling systems, in terms of thermal performance and flexibility. The integrated design also leads to a lighter and more compact electronic product. In the future, this will allow engineers to design electronic products featuring full integration of thermal management systems and electronic circuitry.

 Cooling concept based on two-phase principles

 Cooling concept based on jet impingement techniques

 Integrated conceptual design theories applied in this research (E: electronics, M: mechanics, T: thermal)

This research pushes the boundary further toward more functionality in a smaller form factor for electronic products at a lower cost. Also, two patents were obtained as a result of this research.

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT OF NEW PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES

1.3.1.B CAD implementation of design rules for aluminium extrusion dies

research subject

CAD implementation of design rules for aluminium extrusion dies Researcher

Dr ir G. (Gijs) Van Ouwerkerk - gijs@gijsvofoto.nl Supervisor

Background Aluminium extrusion is an industrial forming process that is used to produce long profiles of a constant cross-section. This cross-section is shaped by the opening in a steel tool known as the die. The understanding of the mechanics of the aluminium extrusion process is still limited. The flow of aluminium within the die is governed by tribomechanical and rate- and temperature-dependent effects that have not yet been fully mathematically modelled. As a result, it is difficult to design the die geometry in such a way that the aluminium profile complies with high customer demands regarding dimensional accuracy and surface quality. Objective To develop a novel design method that allows for efficient balancing of the exit velocity of flat dies. by using a combination of variable sink-in and bearing geometry. Furthermore acceleration of the design process by development and implementation of design rules in CAD software thus allowing for knowledge capturing and re-use.

Dr ir T.H.J. Vaneker Project type

PhD project Resources

SenterNovem Status

Completed April 2009 Partners

Boal BV De lier (NL), Applied Mechanics (University of Twente) Keywords

aluminium extrusion, die design

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.3 INTEGRATION AND HYBRID SYSTEM DESIGN SUB-PROGRAMME 1.3.1 INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT OF NEW PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES PROGRAMME

Results During the course of the project several new design approaches and rules have been developed, which were implemented both in Solidworks and Autocad. With the help of these applications significant reductions in die designing times have been recorded. These for a large extend can be contributed to the increased support of the die design process and the decreased necessity of intensive FEM calculations. The preprocessing steps of FEM calculations that were executed are supported by the CAD application.

 Bearing area on a flat die for extruding u-shaped profiles

 Macro-waves in a extruded product based on poor velocity balancing in the bearing area

 CAD support for the automated generation of the improved geometry of the bearing area

 Comparison between the results of FEM based die deflection calculation (left) and the die deflection as predicted by newly developed design rules (right)

 

 

Next to decreased design lead times a significant productivity increase has been recorded for flat dies of which the flow profile has been balanced based on the design rules developed in the project. For a test series of dies the productivity increase included a 500% gross production increase, a 37% scrap production decrease whilst increasing the gross production rate with 17%.

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


1.3.1.C

INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT OF NEW PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES

3D printing of ceramic microreactors

research subject

3D printing of ceramic microreactors Researcher

Dr ir D. (David) Salamon - d.salamon@utwente.nl Supervisor

Dr ir T.H.J. Vaneker Project type

Pre-investigation Resources

Impact Status

Ongoing April 2010 - April 2011 Partners

Inorganic Membranes - Membrane Technology Group, Catalytic Processes and Materials Group & Fundamentals of Chemical Reactor Engineering Group (all University of Twente)

Background An evergreen challenge in chemical conversions is to achieve high selectivity when the product molecules are converted far more easily as compared to the reactant molecules. A classical example is selective oxidation reactions of alkanes to oxygenates or olefins, e.g. oxidation of methane to methanol. In case the conversion level is increased, selectivity collapses because of consecutive conversion of the product. Therefore, even commercial processes (e.g. cyclohexane oxidation to cyclohexanone) are operated at relatively low conversion levels, resulting in significant costs for separation and recycling. In many cases no processes exist because the combination of conversion and selectivity is much too low. A typical example is catalytic oxidation of methane to methanol; high selectivity is only possible at 0.5% conversion or so, preventing any practical application. Objective Microreactors typically contain small parallel channels (diameter < 100 μm), separated by thin, porous, walls (thickness 50 - 100 μm). The porosity of the walls is 30 - 40 %, while pore sizes are in the sub-micrometer range. These key functionalities rely on tailor-made 3D geometries. The project will focus on 3D-printing and subsequent sintering of a these monolithic ceramic devices made of alumina. With that the primary goal of this project is to explore whether such structures can indeed be produced via 3D-printing techniques.

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.3 INTEGRATION AND HYBRID SYSTEM DESIGN SUB-PROGRAMME 1.3.1 INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT OF NEW PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES PROGRAMME

 Different designs of ceramic microreactors with a variety of exchangeable inserts. (Knitter, 2004)

 This photo shows a ceramic filter made by 3D Printing. The cut away shows the internal passages created as part of the printing process. (MIT 3D Lab)  Principles of 3D printing system  Partially sintered ceramic nanopowder for a catalyst support

Results The project is in the start-up phase.

Keywords

layered manufacturing, membranes, microreactors

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


1.3.1.D

INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT OF NEW PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES

Mass production technologies for flexible thin film photovoltaics

For large-scale implementation of photovoltaic (PV) technology further reduction of costs, improved ability to adapt to various applications, and increase of manufacturing capacity are essential. Thin film silicon technology is expected to play a substantial role in the required developments because of its typical characteristics. The objective of this project is to specify and verify integral options for product concepts, materials requirements, and manufacturing technologies that fully exploit the potential advantages of flexible thin film silicon PV technology.

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.3 INTEGRATION AND HYBRID SYSTEM DESIGN SUB-PROGRAMME 1.3.1 INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT OF NEW PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES PROGRAMME

 Solar Energy Application (www.howardhallfarm.com)  Flexible thin film solar laminates (www.examiner.com)  R2R processing (www.nanosolar.com)  Thin film processing (www.treehugger.com)

research subject

Mass production technologies for flexible thin film photovoltaics Researcher

Vacancy

Supervisor

Dr ir T.H.J. Vaneker Project type

PhD project Resources

ADEM Status

Medio 2010 – 2014

Partners

ECN Netherlands

Keywords

production technologies, photovoltaics

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


SUPPORT FOR MECHATRONIC SYSTEMS

1.3.2.A FunKey Architecting - an integrated approach to system architecting using functions, key drivers and system budgets

Researcher

Dr ir G.M (Maarten) Bonnema - g.m.bonnema@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof dr ir F.J.A.M. van Houten Project type

PhD project Resources

Direct funding / 1st money stream Status

Completed August 1999 - April 2008 Partners

MAPPER Lithography, BOA Recycling equipment (cases) Keywords

system design, system architecting, system budgets, key drivers, complex systems, multidisciplinary research

Goal The goal is threefold: achieve insight, create and maintain overview, and stimulate innovation. For this the FunKey Architecting procedure is developed. Here Functions are coupled to Key drivers using a coupling matrix. When there are contradictions, or when improvement is requested, a direct connection with the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) is possible. This helps to create innovative solutions. With the information in the matrix, system budgets for i.e. power consumption, accuracy and mass can be generated. These serve as requirements for the detail designer, and help the system designer to monitor technical progress.

create successful systems

 The research context  The research goal  The coupling matrix showing functions and key drivers

 Power budget for a “Personal Urban Transporter”

 Key  driver  1  

Func%on  1   Func%on  2  

Func%on  n  

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Key  driver  2  

…  

Key  driver  m  

X   X  

…  

Perspectives As Dutch industry has shown to be able to produce successful complex systems (ASML, Thales, Océ, etc.) it is paramount that Dutch industry keeps its leading role. The research shows that to handle complexity the use of functions, key drivers and system budgets help to achieve insight, create and maintain overview and innovate in the process.

 System design is needed to

Design  

FunKey Architecting - an integrated approach to system architecting using functions, key drivers and system budgets

Background: Present state of the art products consist of integrated electronic, mechanical and software modules. Integration is present both within and between modules; even more so for complex systems like wafer steppers, aircraft, and medical imaging systems. Designing such systems requires close cooperation of electrical, mechanical and software engineers. However, these engineers speak different languages, and are presently ever more spread around the world. These specialist engineers often have a view of their own task only. Therefore the context information the specialists have is too limited or even lacking. The system designer, on the other hand, lacks the detail information needed to supervise the system integrity during the entire process.

X   X  

X  

X  

Теория Решения Изобретательских Задач (ТРИЗ) = Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ)

Monitoring  

research subject

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.3 INTEGRATION AND HYBRID SYSTEM DESIGN SUB-PROGRAMME 1.3.2 SUPPORT FOR MECHATRONIC SYSTEMS PROGRAMME

Industrial Design Engineering


SUPPORT FOR MECHATRONIC SYSTEMS

1.3.2.B Evolvability in designing medical imaging devices

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.3 INTEGRATION AND HYBRID SYSTEM DESIGN SUB-PROGRAMME 1.3.2 SUPPORT FOR MECHATRONIC SYSTEMS PROGRAMME

Since developing a system from scratch is time consuming and costly, new systems are often created by evolving an existing system. The knowledge that the company has about the system and the consequences of introducing changes determines its ability to effectively cope with system evolution.

research subject

Evolvability in designing medical imaging devices Researcher

P.D. (Daniel) Borches - p.d.borches@utwente.nl Supervisor

Dr ir G.M. Bonnema Project type

Industrial Research Resources

Contract research / 3rd money stream Status

Ongoing June 2006 - June 2010 Partners

Embedded Systems Institute, Philips Healthcare Keywords

evolution, system, architecting, complex system, overview

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

However, the main architecture knowledge resides in the expert’s minds, and only part of that knowledge is documented. Some key knowledge regarding the system architecture and design decisions may be lost, especially in long-lived systems, due to experts leaving the company, design decisions not being documented and so on. Study Case - MRI System An MRI system requires a multidisciplinary design team with competences in areas such as mechanics, electronics, physics, material science, software and clinical science. Typically people are specialised in a single discipline, and each discipline uses its own vocabulary. Besides this, all the disciplines have to work together on different aspects of the design.

 MRI as a complex system  MRI evolution  Reverse architecting  Information extraction  Abstraction and presentation:

Value  

Developers  

~400  

Disciplines  

Physics,  Mechanics,   Electronics,  So6ware,   Medical  applica:ons  etc.  

 A3 architecture overview example

Development  sites   3   Subsidiary  sites  

All  around  the  world  

Technologies  

~50  

Lines  of  SW  code  

Goal To cope with those problems we present an approach to collect, abstract and present architectural information in a fashion that can be understood and used by a broad set of stakeholders. A3 Architecture Overviews For the information collection phase, a systematic approach to recover architectural knowledge is provided. For the abstraction and presentation phase, the concept of an A3 architecture overview is introduced. An A3 architecture overview helps to provide a broad, comprehensive and easy to handle view of the system aspect under study. The A3 Architecture Overview is a set of two A3 sheets of paper. The A3 format has been chosen as it is the maximum unit of information that people are willing to read. The A3 Overview provides a model-based description of the system aspect, while the A3 Summary provides a compact text-based description to support the overview, structured for efficiency.

architecture overview

Parameter  

7*106     (~10  different  languages)    

1979:  first  prototype  (Proton)   1983:  first  product:  S-­‐line.  Architecture   based  on  prototype   S-­‐  Line  

 Informa(on   Extrac(on  

1989:  T-­‐line:  First  issue  of  presented   architecture;  ADAS     1994:  NT-­‐line:  parallel  task-­‐execuCon;  X-­‐ Windows  UI;  BDAS   2000:  Intera-­‐line:  interacCve  

Intera  

2002:  WNT  plaKorm;  WNT-­‐UI  (VT-­‐ emulator  for  Scan-­‐UI)  

Presenta(on  

2004:  opCmized  workflow;  opCmized  GUI;   CDAS   Achieva  

Abstrac(on  

2010:  ?;  DDAS  

A3 Sheet - Text

A3 Sheet - Model

Industrial Design Engineering


SUPPORT FOR MECHATRONIC SYSTEMS

1.3.2.C Design patterns in mechatronics design

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.3 INTEGRATION AND HYBRID SYSTEM DESIGN SUB-PROGRAMME 1.3.2 SUPPORT FOR MECHATRONIC SYSTEMS PROGRAMME

Multi Domain Design Process Patterns (DPPs) are abstractions of design processes, which are repeated or iterated often during product development. In a design process, multiple actors (People, Software, Models) work together to develop a system. DPP’s should help formalise the design process, facilitating communication between the actors and provide a mechanism to integrate their inputs into a multi-domain design.

research subject

Design patterns in mechatronics design Researcher

K. (Krijn) Woestenenk - k.woestenenk@utwente.nl Supervisor

Dr ir G.M. Bonnema & ir H. Tragter Project type

PhD project Resources

Contract research / 3rd money stream Status

Ongoing May 2008 - May 2012 Partners

SenterNovem; Océ; Vanderlande; Philips; S&T; ASML Keywords

mechatronics design; design automation

ASML, Vanderlande, and OCE

 Design process pattern modeling language

 Communication framework, combining Muller pyramid and V model

Goals The goal of applying DPP’s is mainly to reduce development time by reducing the amount of routine work for the human actors, thus freeing them for more creative work. The freed time will enable them to put more effort into innovative product development, or to explore multiple solutions. As an added benefit, the design process can be kept consistent and valid by testing the design progress against key architectural concerns and requirements also captured in the DPP’s. Automated tools work with the DPP, providing automated model transformation and information management. To make this possible, the DPPs must span across an organisation, a system and a design process. A layered framework is needed to ‘package’ such information into patterns. Approach Architecture Layer. Capturing and managing the goals, requirements and functionality of a system, and how these are connected to domain or discipline specific information, is essential to facilitate aforementioned goals. Systems architecting often lacks a tool able to keep living architecture models throughout the design process. This research programme has developed such a tool.

Communication Layer. Information can be abstracted to a semantics-free, ‘shared’ level, which can be mapped between actors. This information map is the basis for automated model transformation (code generation, synthesis and analysis models), as well as visualisation, data basing, versioning, and other information management functionalities. Mono-Domain Layer. While they are not the same everywhere, design process patterns can be found in any organisation. Case studies develop examples of these patterns. Case specific tools called Knowledge Bases enable automation of the DPP at industrial partners. These knowledge bases can ‘understand’ the semantics that are captured in the information map of the communication layer, providing integration across the domains.

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

 Cases at industrial partners:

Industrial Design Engineering


SUPPORT FOR MECHATRONIC SYSTEMS

1.3.2.D Autonomous litter-collecting robot

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.3 INTEGRATION AND HYBRID SYSTEM DESIGN SUB-PROGRAMME 1.3.2 SUPPORT FOR MECHATRONIC SYSTEMS PROGRAMME

Background Litter is a serious problem in inhabited areas. Not only does it look bad, it attracts criminality and decreases social coherence. In fact demands for cleanliness are increasing, while more litter is produced.

research subject

Autonomous litter-collecting robot Researcher

Dr ir G.M (Maarten) Bonnema - g.m.bonnema@utwente.nl & master students: Rogier Kauw-A-Tjoe, Ruben Nahuis, Douwe Dresscher, Hans de Boer, Koen van der Heiden, Menno Bouma, Alexandros Frantzis Gounaris Supervisor

Dr ir G.M. Bonnema & dr ir J.F. Broenink (EWI) Project type

Pre-investigation Resources

Contract research / 3rd money stream Status

 The ultimate use context for the cleaning robot

 May demo robot  System design showing the modules and interactions

Goals This project aims at improving cleanliness without making the cleaner man superfluous. By providing one or several robots to the cleaner man, cleaning can be done better and with less human effort. Even more, the job satisfaction for the cleaner may increase. Approach The project combines state of the art image recognition, control, mechanics, industrial design and ergonomics in the design of a robotic cleaner. Particular interests for the project are mulitidisciplinary cooperation, system design and system engineering. Further, implementation of image recognition for litter detection, navigation strategies and methods to pick up litter are researched.

A functional model has been presented in May 2009, a proof of principle has been presented in January 2010. Based on test results thereof, further improvements will be developed. Final result is a design that will be handed over to Hako to be prepared for market introduction.

Completed January 2009 - January 2010 Partners

Stichting Nederland Schoon, Hako Germany, Hako Benelux, RAI vereniging, Demcon Keywords

robotics, litter, image recognition, multidisciplinary cooperation

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


1.3.2.E

SUPPORT FOR MECHATRONIC SYSTEMS

Mechatronic features

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.3 INTEGRATION AND HYBRID SYSTEM DESIGN SUB-PROGRAMME 1.3.2 SUPPORT FOR MECHATRONIC SYSTEMS PROGRAMME

Background In many of today’s products, components stemming from the mechanical, electrical and/or software domain are combined. Therefore, it is essential that the product development process can adequately integrate those different domains. An example of the relation between domains is the association between product functions and the solutions from the different domains. Such associations lead to exponentially increasing complexity in product development processes. The reason for this lies in the fact that the hierarchical decomposition of product functionality does not allow for a oneto-one mapping with any hierarchical decomposition of the resulting solution for the overall problem.

research subject

Mechatronic features Researcher

Ir I.F. (Illanit) Lutters-Weustink - i.f.lutters-weustink@ utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof dr ir F.J.A.M. van Houten Project type

PhD project (part-time) Resources

Contract research / 3rd money stream

Perspective Mechatronic features are depicted as a method to map m elements in one domain to n elements in another domain. The introduction of mechatronic features results in adequately supporting the designer both in the conceptual design phase as well as in later phases of the design process. Therefore, the designer can use them as meaningful entities that aid in establishing purposeful product definitions.

 Print head assembly  Solution structure of the print head assembly showing the mechatronic features  Generic framework for function performers

Status

Ongoing January 2002 Partners

DaimlerChrysler Keywords

geometric modelling, features, mechatronics, product structuring

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


PACKAGING DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT

1.3.3.A Design methods of product packaging combinations

research subject

Design methods of product packaging combinations Researchers

Prof dr ir R. (Roland) ten Klooster - r.tenklooster@utwente.nl Dr ir D. (Eric) Lutters - d.lutters@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof dr ir R. ten Klooster

Background Product and packaging have to be designed together at the same time in cooperation with each other. This means that developers with different nature have to communicate and have to know what to bring in at what moment of the development process. This asks for insights into the development process, communications skills, the ability to communicate with developers of other fields like food technologists, product designers, pharmaceutics, etc. (product as broad as possible: food, non-food, fast moving consumer goods, durables, medical, industrial).

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.3 INTEGRATION AND HYBRID SYSTEM DESIGN SUB-PROGRAMME 1.3.3 PACKAGING DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME

 Functionality model for packaging design  Product, packaging and protection triangle  Steps in the design process of a packaging with allocation of functions between product and packaging  Decision Chain in packaging design

Goals To find models and communication means to optimise the design process. Maybe software could help in the decision process of packaging design. Insights in the hierarchy of the many decisions that have to be made can help in modelling these issues.

Perspectives Functional specification is a way to overcome possible mistakes and to communicate with specialists involved in the development.

Project type

Research project Resources

Direct funding / 1st money stream Status

To be completed: 2013

Differences in field of education and educational level of product designers and packaging designers but also language and terminology are bottlenecks. A packaging fulfils the functions in a shorter time than the product does; this asks for modelling as well.

Partners

Keywords

design methods, design process, packaging design

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


PACKAGING DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT

1.3.3.B Food supply chain 2015

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.3 INTEGRATION AND HYBRID SYSTEM DESIGN SUB-PROGRAMME 1.3.3 PACKAGING DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME

Background Food supply has become totally different compared with ten to fifteen years ago. Many products are ready meals or partly prepared and only need finishing. The retailers and food services approach each other more and more. This leads to suboptimal chains with a lot of players. One of the causes that a lot of food is spoiled both in the chain and at peoples homes.

 Fresh meals can be found in the retail chain more and more

 More over food, also luxury food, is being ordered by internet  Solutions can only be found by integration of many aspects

Goals This research aims to get insight in trends and developments and wants to sketch scenarios with solutions for food supply in the future. The use of software and intelligent and/or active packaging can be part of this.

research subject

Food supply chain 2015 Researcher

Prof dr ir R. (Roland) ten Klooster - r.tenklooster@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof dr ir R. ten Klooster Project type

Research project Resources

Direct funding / 1st money stream Status

To be completed 2013 Partners

-

Health, for instance overweight, is also becoming a problem and people want to know what they eat.

Packaging plays an important role in this and finally design rules for food packaging have to be set up. Perspectives Food and retail will become competitors more and more. ICT plays an important role in getting information about where, what and when to buy. The balance of the functions of the food packaging could change dramatically. Reduction of waste and health issues can play an important role in this theme.

  

Keywords

food supply chain, food packaging

 

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

 

Industrial Design Engineering


PACKAGING DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT

1.3.3.C The packaging line of the future

research subject

The packaging line of the future Researcher

Prof dr ir R. (Roland) ten Klooster - r.tenklooster@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof dr ir R. ten Klooster Project type

Preliminary research, master theses, literature study, small tests Resources

Direct funding / 1st money stream

Background There is hardly any detailed knowledge available on how to manage the design process of a packaging line. A packaging line is a sequence of a lot of different machinery with several parameters. In between the machinery there are buffers. Normally so called V-curves are being used to set the speed over the line. In practice the design of the packaging plays a major role, but this is neglected or unknown. These design processes can be optimised in many ways, for example with software. This research field aims to develop tools like a software programmes to get a grip on this design process. Goals The results can be diverse like higher Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE), insights into design rules to optimise the relation between packaging design and efficiency, higher flexibility, standardisation. Perspectives A master thesis showed that with the use of software packaging lines can be optimised. Nevertheless the project also generated many questions like the influence of the many stops during the packaging process and the fact that the bottleneck was another machine, according to the engineering of the line. Insights in the relation between packaging design and efficiency start to grow. Aspects that are not taken up in the specification like friction, stiffness, temperature, can influence the efficiency and should be part of the line engineering and packaging design process.

Status

Started May 2007 Partners

Keywords

packaging lines, efficiency, methodology

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.3 INTEGRATION AND HYBRID SYSTEM DESIGN SUB-PROGRAMME 1.3.3 PACKAGING DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME

Already several companies showed their interest in this research project. The problem with funding the research is that all interested companies are working on different products, with their own equipment and processes. So it is hard to find a common definition of the research.

 Local optimisation  Basic line lay-out  Line layout example line  Confidence interval utilisation method

 Picture of a running packaging line

 

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


PACKAGING DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT

1.3.3.D The intuitive packaging

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.3 INTEGRATION AND HYBRID SYSTEM DESIGN SUB-PROGRAMME 1.3.3 PACKAGING DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME

Background Openability of packaging is a big problem for many consumers. With the aging society and many people with fewer functions especially in their hands, opening packaging can become a frustrating action. People do not understand where to start, how to pull, push, turn or twist, and therefore are not able to open many types of packaging. The problem has more aspects like knowing what to do (the concept of opening), the required forces, the grip, etc. research subject

The intuitive packaging Researchers

Prof dr ir R. (Roland) ten Klooster - r.tenklooster@utwente.nl Ir N. (Nienke) Peeters - n.peeters@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof dr ir R. ten Klooster Project type

Preliminary research Resources

Students by exercises and consumers by tests executed by students for the subject Packaging Design and Management or for Capita Selecta, also master theses Status

Started May 2007 Partners

Several companies by graduation projects Keywords

 Way of opening can be a ritual, like confectionery, cigarettes, chewing gum...

 Schematic overview of aspects that play a role in the model

 Pictures of a test to analyse how packaging is opened  Presentation of different ways to open the packaging

Goals This project wishes to give insights into aspects that are related to openability of packaging and to come up with design rules to optimise packaging convenience. There is not much data available on forces people need to open packaging. Ways to get insight in forces and to collect data are being researched. Perspectives Convenience is perhaps the most used word in the packaging industry, but strangely enough there is no commonly accepted definition of convenience. Therefor all the aspects that have to be part of a definition of convenience are collected and are set in a scheme. The scheme has been the start of several exercises done by students, or done by consumers supervised by students. The gathered and analysed information showed that rituals are part of openability. Besides that there are ideas that concepts people learned in the first part of their lives influence their way of looking at packaging. This has to be researched more in depth.

openability, packaging, convenience, easy opening

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


PACKAGING DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT

1.3.3.E Unpredictable consumer behaviour

1 Design Engineering THEME 1.3 INTEGRATION AND HYBRID SYSTEM DESIGN SUB-PROGRAMME 1.3.3 PACKAGING DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME

Background Obesity is a growing problem in The Netherlands and the rest of the world. Intervention is the approach to change consumer behaviour, but in most occasions this doesn’t function. Given the fact that most buying decisions are made in front of the shop shelf, these decisions can be influenced by the design of the packagings that are on the shop shelf.

research subject

Unpredictable consumer behaviour Researcher

M.M. (Marjana) Gelici-Zeko, MSc.- m.m.zeko@utwente.nl Supervisor

Dr ir D. Lutters Project type

PhD project

 Example of a virtual shelf  Moodboards for different types of packaging

Goal The project aims at understanding the relation between packaging design and shopping behaviour. With this, it can be made easier for consumers to choose more healthy food. Applying various ways to analyse how consumers make buying decisions, the project will engender tools and working methods to support packaging designers more effectively. The analyses and the development of tools and working methods are performed simultaneously, to allow for maximum synthesis between the two.

Resources

Contract research / 3rd money stream Status

Ongoing Jan 2009 - Jan 2013 Partners

FrieslandCampina, UMT Utrecht Keywords

packaging design, consumer behaviour, health, biomarkers, synthetic environments

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


2.1.A 2.1.B 2.1.C 2.1.D 2.1.E 2.2.A 2.2.B 2.2.C 2.2.D 2.2.E

Evolutionary product development An innovation tool for the SME Design by men and women - Gender differentials in the way products are designed and styled Design for women - The development of design guidelines based on the gender differences Do-it-yourself and co-creation: representatives of a democratising tendency Evolutionary explanations in the development of products and institutions Unruly product design History of the University of Twente History of the science centre NEMO 19th century tourism: space, time and matter

Research programME Evolutionary Product Development


2.1.A

Evolutionary Product Development

Evolutionary product development

2 SUB-PROGRAMME PROGRAMME

Evolutionary Product Development 2.1 Evolutionary Product Development

Background Starting from the economic product life cycle six product phases were developed: performance, optimisation, itemisation, segmentation, individualisation and awareness. The six phases are placed in a chronological order such that predictions about new or future products can be made.

research subject

Evolutionary product development Researcher

Prof dr ir A.O. (Arthur) Eger - a.o.eger@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof dr ir A.O. Eger Project type

Research project Resources

Direct funding / 1st money stream Status

Ongoing September 2007 Partners

IBR, Prof dr J.W. Drukker Keywords

product development, product design, evolution of products, emotional benefits, functionality, marketing, methodology, design history

Goals The Evolutionary product Development model is suitable in its current form to undergo further improvement, through finding a better foundation in recent literature about evolutionary technological development and by further empirical testing through historical case studies. The following two aspects have priority because they will hopefully remove any uncertainty concerning the last two phases (individualisation and awareness) and may also further improve the usability of the theory. - Research to what degree the last two product phases form a part of the segmentation phase, or should they be considered as separate product phases? - A study to find out to what extent designers are able to make ‘correct predictions about future products’ based on the theory of the product phases (i.e., how many developed products based upon the proposed theory have actually been successful).

 Motorola 1983  Ericsson 1999  Samsung Lady-phone 2002  Xelibri Siemens 2003  Vertu 2004  “Pokia” Holborne 2005  “Pokia” Mayfair 2005  Product phases

Perspectives The study will result in improved understanding of the evolution of products and better methods to develop successful new products based on the theory.

Awareness Individualisation Extended segmentation Segmentation Itemisation Optimisation Performance

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


EVOLUTIONARY PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

2.1.B An innovation tool for the SME

research subject

An innovation tool for the SME Researcher

Ir F.G.A. (Ferry) Vermeulen - ferry@fever.nl Supervisor

Prof dr ir A.O. Eger, prof dr J.W. Drukker Project type

PhD project Resources

Research funding / 2nd money stream Status

Ongoing 2008 - 2012 Partners

Cartesius Institute Keywords

innovation, evolutionary product development, economic growth

2 SUB-PROGRAMME PROGRAMME

Background The small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the Netherlands form a large group of businesses with an enormous innovation potential. Despite this, just a small group of the SMEs is truly innovative. Innovations from SMEs seem to be limited by the ‘gap’ between the generation of knowledge and the implementation of this knowledge by the businesses: the so called innovation paradox. After a while, no innovation will lead to a companies’ end. With the help of ‘product phases’ it is possible to make overall predictions for the development of a product after its market introduction (Eger, 2007). The model of product phases can be translated to a tool to help a designer or a company in creating the next generation of a product.

Evolutionary Product Development 2.1 Evolutionary Product Development

 Evolutionary development of the shoe

 Product phases in relation to the product lifecycle

 Evolutionary development of the laptop

Goals There are several different perspectives for a tool based on the product phases. First of all will the tool be able to describe - in a more qualitative manner - the future development of the product in time. Secondly, the attention of the government and innovation institutions like the Cartesius Institute for innovation and SMEs is increasing rapidly. These institutions can use the tool for helping companies with their innovation problems. Thirdly, innovation is characterised by trial and error, which makes an innovation process expensive. With the tool, the process can occur in a more structured (and more inexpensive) way. Perspectives The expected result of the research will be an innovation tool for small and medium enterprises, based on the model of product phases, to help them determine the status quo and future of a companies’ product. In this way innovation strategies for the future development of a product can be made.

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


Evolutionary Product Development

2.1.C Design by men and women - Gender differentials in the way products are designed and styled

research subject

Design by men and women - Gender differentials in the way products are designed and styled Researcher

Ir M.D.C. (Margot) Stilma - m.d.c.stilma@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof dr ir A.O. Eger, prof dr J.W. Drukker Project type

PhD project Resources

Direct funding / 1st money stream Status

Ongoing 2005 - 2011 Partners

IBR Keywords

product design, gender, women, designer, design characteristics

Background Design & Gender can be brought under the scope of the product phase model by considering ‘gender specific design’ a form of segmentation, individualisation and awareness. Differentiation of product designs is an important factor and is combined with gender differentials in the design process. Gender (not sex differences, as different types of masculinity and femininity can be found in both women and men) is related to differences in opinion, experience and personality. Different thinking influences the absorption of, and reflection on information. Social and economic positioning shows that the assumed male consumer is actually mainly a female consumer. And purchasers, in our experience economy, often rely on emotional decisionmaking with the appearance of products influencing these choices in several ways.

2 SUB-PROGRAMME PROGRAMME

Evolutionary Product Development 2.1 Evolutionary Product Development

 Femmeden apple: the “features” approach is common in consumer electronics, picture by FemmeDen

 Design by women: internetsite from research by Gloria Moss et.al, Chest compression Measuring Device by Inger Pedersen, MSc-IDE Delft, Child and Parent Friendly Incubator by Heleen Willemsen,MSc-IDE Delft, Flippers by Lisa Carney making shoes useful beautiful & elegant as well  Design by men: internetsite from research by Gloria Moss et.al, Compact Coffee Filter Mechanism by Antoine van der Heijden, MSc-IDE Delft, Versatile Marine Drive-Fuel cell by Thomas Jensen, MSc-IDE Delft.

 

Goals Designers have a large impact on product designs and two-dimensional design research has shown that a ‘mirroring principle’ or an ‘own-sex preference’ exists, in that women prefer designs made by women and men by men. This research uses three-dimensional consumer products - showing more complex design characteristics than two-dimensional designs -, analysing differences in the designed products. The total influences on the design process are reviewed as reference for the design criteria. The main focus of the research is on design criteria. Perspectives Deriving designer’s gender based differentials in product design and styling, via product analysing studies and expert interviews in the field of product design.

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


Evolutionary Product Development

2.1.D Design for women - The development of design guidelines based on the gender differences

research subject

Design for women - The development of design guidelines based on the gender differences Researcher

Ir A. (Annemieke) Raven - a.raven@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof dr ir A.O. Eger, prof dr J.W. Drukker Project type

PhD project Resources

Direct funding / 1st money stream Status

Ongoing 2008 - 2014 Partners

IBR Keywords

product development, product design, gender inclusive design, design guidelines, women, female consumer

2 SUB-PROGRAMME PROGRAMME

Background Women and men experience products differently; still most products are directed towards men. This is changing since more and more products are introduced, especially targeted at women. Companies use styling to match the interests, lifestyles and values of women since they are an influential target group, determining or influencing 80% of all purchase decisions. However, segmentation based on gender seems to be based on stereotypes; ‘thinking pink’. Of course there are women that like pink products, but many women don’t. And there are certainly more ways to develop attractive products for women, on more levels than styling alone. Goals To analyse the differences between men and women in product experience and consumer behaviour. To develop design guidelines on more levels than styling alone (interaction, values, construction) and to test these guidelines by applying them in different case studies. A first research and case study shows that the invisible, inner differences play an important role, that women and men have a different aesthetic value set, but also that adding feminine values on an interaction level makes products not only more attractive to women, but also to men. The next step is to do more research and case studies based on the differences, using different design models, to develop the final design guidelines.

 Current segmentation based on gender  Re-design PDA based on feminine design guidelines  Since pre-history women and men have ‘specialised’ themselves in different ways

 There are also many different female target groups  The re-design PDA based on feminine values is preferred above the existing masculine and pink PDA’s

Perspectives The study will result in design guidelines for product design in order to make it possible to design products with more attractiveness to the female consumer.

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Evolutionary Product Development 2.1 Evolutionary Product Development

Industrial Design Engineering


Evolutionary Product Development

2.1.E Do-it-yourself and co-creation: representatives of a democratising tendency

research subject

Do-it-yourself and co-creation: representatives of a democratising tendency Researcher

ir J.W. (JanWillem) Hoftijzer - j.w.hoftijzer@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof dr ir A.O. Eger, prof dr J.W. Drukker Project type

PhD project Resources

Direct funding / 1st money stream Status

Ongoing 2007 - 2012 Partners

IBR Keywords

co-creation, co-design, product design, do-it-yourself, DIY, product development, mass customisation, user design, participation

Background Co-creation tends to represent an era in which the user of a product is in charge of the design. Although co-creation is new, users have indeed played an active and decisive part in the product development process earlier in history: Do-It-Yourself (DIY). Like co-creation does, this DIY culture represents a convergence of design and consumption. In this co-creation research programme the two phenomena will be explored, searching for answers to the research questions: which are the factors that make people want to participate: which product categories and what features, to what extend? What are the implications? Goals Literature research seems to validate the assumption that people would rather design their products themselves, if only there is a possibility to do so. What are the implications of these DIY developments, concerning which product categories, and how should today’s suppliers and designers respond to the changes in the traditional structures of product design and development? Perspectives Co-creation could very well be regarded as a new type of DIY, adapted to modern times: 1 in both cases, the user takes part in the (product) development process, formerly done by a professional, 2 people’s reasons to do things themselves or to co-create are alike (e.g. joy, a sense of democratisation and control: ‘being your own boss’), and 3 both phenomena have always been preceded by the availability of the right tools, toolkits, and mediation, (technologically) allowing us to do the trick ourselves: consumer power tools and kits in the 1950s, and today’s Internet and web applications.

2 SUB-PROGRAMME PROGRAMME

 DIY magazines  People are doing it for themselves  Time Magazine covers: Do-It-Yourself: the new billion dollar hobby in 1954, and ‘You’ as person of the year in 2006  Shapeways.com, providing a toolkit for designing, creating and selling your own tableware (e.g.)  Instructables: today’s DIY magazine  Freitag.ch, providing the opportunity to design your own unique bag made from old truck tarpaulins

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Evolutionary Product Development 2.1 Evolutionary Product Development

Industrial Design Engineering


2.2.A

HISTORY / DESIGN HISTORY

Evolutionary explanations in the development of products and institutions

research subject

Evolutionary explanations in the development of products and institutions Researcher

Prof dr J.W. Drukker - j.w.drukker@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof dr J.W. Drukker Project type

Research project Resources

Direct funding / 1st money stream Status

Ongoing September 2007 Partners

Board of Twente University, Science Centre NEMO, Prof dr ir A.O. Eger Keywords

Description Until the late eighties of the twentieth century, institutional change (of which product development can be considered to be a sub-set) was generally considered as a ‘linear’ process. Successful new (versions of) institutions and products were considered to be the ‘next logic step’ in the continuous improvement with regard to costs, price and performance. In the last quarter of the last century this principle suffered a lot of critique: Institutional change (and thus, also: product development) seemed to be much less predictable and unambiguous than the linear progress model suggested. It is striking that this research, which has very different points of view due to the many research backgrounds, ended with the same kind of explanations: evolutionary models.

2 SUB-PROGRAMME PROGRAMME

Evolutionary Product Development 2.2 HISTORY / DESIGN HISTORY

 Product evolution  Heavier than air flying machines  Magic lantern

Despite of this, those practical implications are far reaching: a number of economic phenomena, such as ‘partial path dependency’, ‘embeddedness’ and ‘technological lock-in’ cannot be explained by the linear model and are therefore considered to be ‘anomalies’. But they can be explained when an evolutionary product development model is used as a framework. Goals This project is aimed at further investigating the possibilities of an evolutionary vision on institutional change, product development and innovation. Perspectives The project intends to reformulate basic principles of design history from an evolutionary perspective.

design history, history of technology, economic history, social history, cultural history, history of ideas

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


HISTORY / DESIGN HISTORY

2.2.B Unruly product design

Background The focus of product design is shifting from primarily offering functionality, towards experience and emotion driven product characteristics. According to the theory of product phases, products will end in a phase characterised by individualisation or awareness. Where the affective, emotional and abstract product values become more and more important. Different authors have different ideas about how to implement this emotion and affection in product design. Some of them even argue that affectivity is not influenced by the design at all, but only through the meaning that the user attaches to the product.

research subject

Unruly product design Researcher

Ir W. (Wouter) Eggink - w.eggink@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof dr ir A.O. Eger, prof dr J.W. Drukker Project type

PhD project Resources

Direct funding / 1st money stream Status

Ongoing September 2007 - September 2011 Partners

Keywords

design history, unruly design, irrational design, demand driven design and author driven design

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

When we can no longer infer the design of the product from its (technical) function, the contemporary designer has to look for other practices for the materialisation of his or her ideas. Seen the earlier successes of movements like Memphis and more recently the Droog Design, an unruly, or non-rational approach to product design might perhaps play an important role here. As Hume stated: ‘No reasoning can ever give us a new, original simple idea‘ Goals A history of unruly product design will be documented. Placed in historic cultural context this will lead to a ‘history of unruly design ideas’ that will be the basis for identifying common ‘unruly’ design practices. Thus providing strategies for implementing emotion and affection into product concepts. Perspectives In the future the set of unruly design practices will be analysed for its use possibilities within other common design theories, especially the Evolutionary Design theory of Eger. In addition, the derived theory will be used for further exploration of the Human-Product relationships in cooperation with the groups of Peter Paul Verbeek and Mascha van der Voort.

2 SUB-PROGRAMME PROGRAMME

Evolutionary Product Development 2.2 HISTORY / DESIGN HISTORY

 Hans Hollein, 1983 and Salvador Dalí, 1936

 Fortunato Depero, 1927; Richard Hutten, 1995 and Wolfgang Laubersheimer, 1986  Ettore Sottsass, 1981; Will Alsop, 2003 and Tejo Remy, 1991  Jurgen Bey, 1999 and George Nakashima 1960s

Industrial Design Engineering


HISTORY / DESIGN HISTORY

2.2.C History of the University of Twente

research subject

History of the University of Twente Researcher

J.J. (Jorrit) de Boer MA - j.j.deboer@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof dr J.W. Drukker, prof dr ir A.O. Eger Project type

PhD project Resources

Contract research / 3rd money stream Status

Ongoing December 2007 - November 2011 Partners

Board of the University of Twente Keywords

Background In 2011 the University of Twente (UT) will celebrate her fiftieth dies natalis. This calls for reflection on the history of this university. Traditionally, the history of universities has been studied from an institutionalist perspective and later also from a social-historical perspective. Although both approaches have their merits, they also tend to overlook certain aspects of the history of universities. However, an approach emanating from the history of ideas may shed an interesting light on the history of the UT. Considering the (establishment of the) UT as a specific answer to a specific situation will create the possibility to grasp the nature of this institution. Goals For what purpose was the UT established? What was the idea behind the experiment with the residential system and the deviating curriculum? How did the UT fare during the social upheaval of the sixties and the seventies? How did the UT respond to the severe austerity policy of the government during the eighties? And what were the consequences of the internationalisation of higher education? Perspectives The research will result in a survey of the history of the UT. Although the main structure of the document will be chronological, several aspects will receive attention. Education, research, the campus and its architecture, the administration and the management of the university are recurrent themes.

2 SUB-PROGRAMME PROGRAMME

Evolutionary Product Development 2.2 HISTORY / DESIGN HISTORY

 Gerrit Berkhoff (Rector magnificus 1963-1967)  Senate and Board of Trustees (1960s)  Cleanroom MESA+ (1990)  Prof dr ir H.H. van den Kroonenberg (Rector magnificus 1979-1982, 1985-1988)

 Waaier (design)

University of Twente, history of ideas, history of higher education, history of education, history of science

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


HISTORY / DESIGN HISTORY

2.2.D History of the science centre NEMO

research subject

History of the science centre NEMO Researcher

Ir J. (Judith) Gussenhoven Supervisor

Prof dr J.W. Drukker, prof dr ir A.O. Eger Project type

External PhD project Resources

Contract research / 3rd money stream Status

Ongoing September 2007 Partners

Science Centre NEMO Keywords

institutional history, history of technology, cultural history, history of ideas

Background Science centre NEMO started as Museum van den Arbeid in 1923 and continued in 1954 as NINT and as newMetropolis in 1997. During these 90 years it has evolved to become the largest science centre in the Netherlands. This evolutionary development is moving parallel to the increasing effects of technological change (industrialisation, mechanisation, electricity, ever increasing computerisation) on Dutch society. One can read this history as an example of the way society thinks about technology, the promotion and education of science and technology and the role that museum visitors play. NINT outlived the Evoluon and reopened in 1997 in a new building and with a new name: newMetropolis, National Centre for Science and Technology. NewMetropolis wanted to be a fourth generation science centre with technological culture as starting point, without a collection and aiming beyond mere attention for contemporary science and technology. Goals The project NEMO 90 aims to write the history of NEMO from 1923 to 2013 by means of a PhD research. Judith Gussenhoven has started with this research in 2008 and intends to finish it in 2013.

2 SUB-PROGRAMME PROGRAMME

Evolutionary Product Development 2.2 HISTORY / DESIGN HISTORY

 Herman Heijenbrock, founder of the “Museum van den Arbeid” (Museum of Labour) (1923)

 Factory labourers, painting by Heijenbrock  NINT, predecessor of NEMO  Centre for Science and Technology, NEMO

Perspectives The project is structured around the following viewpoints: A Museum as product: importance of the analysis of the use of technology and the interaction with users and creator(s) B Co-creation and co-evolution: The phenomenon that brings customers and producers together as co-workers during product development C Museum as communication instrument: research of the effect of exhibitions on visitors. Analysis of the effectiveness of the exposition instrument’

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


2.2.E

HISTORY / DESIGN HISTORY

19th century tourism: space, time and matter

2 SUB-PROGRAMME PROGRAMME

Evolutionary Product Development 2.2 HISTORY / DESIGN HISTORY

Description This project investigates in what ways technological change in the 19th century affected the human experience of touring.

research subject

Did tourists’ experience of power over personal space and time ‘modernise’ in the 19th century? Researcher

A.P.H. (Anna) Geurts MPhil - anna.geurts@history.ox.ac.uk Supervisor

Prof.dr.J.W. Drukker Project type

PhD project Resources

Direct funding / 1st money stream Status

Ongoing October 2009 Partners

Institute for Behavioural Research (Twente), Faculty of History, University of Oxford

 New York couloured tourist snapshot late 19th Century

 Tourist snapshot of train San Francisco 19th Century

Background First, there is subjective, real-time, on-the-spot experience of each human being. Secondly, next to human relations, health, mentality and identity, the lived experience of materiality forms a central point of view. Thirdly, although travel and tourism are becoming fashionable academic topics, the literature emphasises intercultural contact, identity formation and the tourist’s preoccupation with authenticity, while how tourists dealt with issues like speed, comfort, fatigue and mobility receive little interest.

 Dutch poster of mail boat service 19th Century

Goals This research provides opportunities to answer the main question on the basis of a sample of eighty manuscript and published travel accounts, written by Dutch middle-class tourists of both genders touring through central Europe throughout the long nineteenth century. Perspectives This project provides opportunities to engage the wider public to relate to the daily experiences of people in the past. The investigations could well form the basis of a public exhibition or a radio play. Moreover, they have the power to relate narratives of touring to the perception of human happiness with respect to technological development.

Keywords

history of technology, economic history, social history, cultural history

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


3.1.A 3.1.B 3.2.A 3.2.B 3.2.C 3.2.D 3.3.A 3.3.B 3.4.A 3.4.B 3.5.A 3.5.B 3.5.C 3.5.D 3.5.E 3.5.F 3.6.A 3.6.B 3.6.C 3.6.D 3.7.A 3.7.B 3.8.A 3.8.B 3.9.A 3.9.B 3.9.C 3.9.D 3.9.E

Technology presentation tools Steering adoption of innovative materials with material properties (ECC as a case study) Mobility conveniences for elderly people Domotics in co-housing communities Interactive technology for crime prevention Enriched expression of humanoids Integral foam application in concrete Smart wall systems for climate control Applications of recycled polypropylene in building industry Supply-driven architecture Platform based development in the housing industry Interface design for open building systems Implementation of the IDF concept Implementing the Cradle to Cradle principles in the built environment Cradle to Cradle implementation in construction Systems design integration Materials for safety Smart composites Construction application of composites Ecolonomical manufacturing processes Arm support systems, the design of an active and wearable arm orthosis Man machine interfaces in prosthetics Hearing your design Actively steered perception Friction and tactility in product-user interactions Skin tribology and comfort Functional surfaces Modelling contact in user-product interaction In vivo measurement of skin friction

Research programME Product Realisation


TECHNOLOGY DIFFUSION

3.1.A Technology presentation tools

3 SUB-PROGRAMME PROGRAMME

Product Realisation 3.1 TECHNOLOGY DIFFUSION

Background The nearby availability of design knowledge has considerable influence on the design process and results (Christiaans 1992). However, hardly any research has been carried out with respect to the way design knowledge should be presented to the designer, and depending on that, the way design knowledge bases should be built up.

research subject

Technology presentation tools Researcher

Ir C.M. (Marc) Beusenberg - c.m.beusenberg@utwente.nl

 Small section of the physical browser with product and material samples.

 Example of product information sheet  Links enclosed in the system to indexed and quality controlled information

 Bar code reader for quick user guidance

Goals The development of a physical browser (objects), electronically linked to a database, and the investigation of the functionality, utility, and usability aspects of the system as a design tool which will be realised in the faculty of Engineering Sciences. Perspectives This so-called Technotheque is intended to play a role as a “corporate memory” for the faculty in which physical results of student work will be made accessible.

Supervisor

Prof dr ir W.A. Poelman Project type

PhD project Resources

Direct funding / 1st money stream

Status

Ongoing January 2009 - December 2012 Partners

University of Delft, Saxion Enschede, Hogeschool Utrecht Keywords

technology diffusion, design knowledge, databases

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


TECHNOLOGY DIFFUSION

3.1.B Steering adoption of innovative materials with material properties (ECC as a case study)

research subject

Steering adoption of innovative materials with material properties (ECC as a case study) Researcher

Ir L. (Lukien) Hoiting - l.hoiting@hva.nl Supervisor

3 SUB-PROGRAMME PROGRAMME

Background Materials are used everywhere in daily life as well as industry and can be seen as “general purpose” technology. This type of technology is of interest because of its potential for value creation across a broad range of industries and applications. One material innovation can start different product innovations in different industries. However, despite this potential for value creation, advanced materials face high barriers to commercialisation. For example: one of the problems is the upstream position in the value chain from material producer to consumer.

Product Realisation 3.1 TECHNOLOGY DIFFUSION

 Optimizing a material with multiple constraints and objectives (Ashby)

 Gestation period of new materials (Maine)

 Association process (Poelman)

In current literature, the approach to this problem is from a business point of view useable for product managers. This research will investigate the roll of material properties in the adoption processes of innovative materials. Knowledge useable for a material designer. Goals The main goal of the project is to develop knowledge with respect to a methodic approach to determine the material properties that dominate the adoption of the innovative material.

Prof dr ir W.A. Poelman Project type

PhD project Resources

Scholarship Hogeschool van Amsterdam Status

Ongoing January 2010 Partners

Technische Universiteit Delft, Hogeschool van Amsterdam Keywords

This methodic approach will be tested by the development and introduction of ECC. Perspectives A methodic approach for designing and introducing new materials

A set of tools for successful design of ECC

material design, material properties, adoption of new materials, technology diffusion, product- and process innovation, value chain, relative advantage, complexity, trial-ability, observe-ability

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


MOBILITY, SOCIALITY AND SAFETY

3.2.A Mobility conveniences for elderly people

3 SUB-PROGRAMME PROGRAMME

Product Realisation 3.2 MOBILITY, SOCIALITY AND SAFETY

Background A lot of development effort has been invested in solving mobility problems for elderly people.

research subject

Mobility conveniences for elderly people Researcher

Ir C.M. (Marc) Beusenberg - c.m.beusenberg@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof dr ir W.A. Poelman Project type

Contract research Resources

Research funding / 2nd money stream Status

Ongoing January 2009 - December 2012 Partners

University of Eindhoven, Cartesius Institute, Skewiel Keywords

 Niche application of Neighbourhood Electric Vehicle

 The care institute

These efforts are aimed at physical needs, rather than at mental values. This has resulted in many, stigmatizing products like rollators and elevator chairs. Conveniences for elderly people should be developed from an “inclusive design” point of view, in which products for elderly should be interesting to be used by younger people as well. The research project is built up with some cases in which this approach is tested. One of the first cases is the step-lift, in which each step of a stairway is a small elevator in itself. This project concerns the application of an electric car for regional transport of elderly people.

“Skewiel Trynwâlden”

 The GEMe4 electric vehicle

Goals The development of a means to enable regional mobility for elderly people through a collective system existing of some adapted electric cars, volunteers for driving and an internet community for planning which is appropriate for the special user group. This project will be subject of research of which the results might be applied in other regions. Perspectives The perspective of the project is the design of new, specialised vehicles as well as the introduction of a collective system in other regions where mobility of elderly people is an issue.

mobility, electric transport, elderly, logistics, internet

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


MOBILITY, SOCIALITY AND SAFETY

3.2.B Domotics in co-housing communities

research subject

Domotics in co-housing communities Researcher

Ir J.T. (Jantine) Bouma - j.t.bouma@pl.hanze.nl Supervisor

Prof dr ir W.A. Poelman Project type

PhD project

3 SUB-PROGRAMME PROGRAMME

Product Realisation 3.2 MOBILITY, SOCIALITY AND SAFETY

Background Cohousing has gained renewed interest in the Netherlands, especially for populations of over 50 years of age and as an alternative for professional and family care. This in combination with living independently. In a cohousing community people have the possibility to share daily life activities in a specially developed facility. This project presents the relation between changes in technical and physical characteristics and social interaction in a cohousing community. Research question: Which conditions can be put towards the technical and physical context of a cohousing community in such a way that an optimum base is developed for social interactions of the dwellers?

 Some pictures of shared facilities of cohousing communities

 Example of a product designed for social interaction source:merlinjohnonline

Goals The purpose of this study is to describe the conditions for the physical and technical context which are important for social interactions in a cohousing community

Perspectives Based on first research a model of interaction has been made and it was concluded that the relation between changes in the physical and technical context and social interaction occurs in expected and unexpected ways. Changing interactions can be related to the script or to the change itself.

Resources

HBO funding Status

Ongoing 2010 - 2014 Partners

Research school Integral Design of Structures, Speerpunt Bouw Keywords

domotica, elderly, social capital, media, housing communities

The second part of the project is focused on evaluating the effect of Interactive Whiteboards on social interactions in a class room and the possibility of using new technology for the prevention of negative (most times formal) interactions and to support wanted (most time informal) interactions.

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


MOBILITY, SOCIALITY AND SAFETY

3.2.C Interactive technology for crime prevention

Background Information and communication technology is, in the context of criminality, generally applied separated from the context of entertainment and well being. In the same public spaces you might find technology for safety purposes like cameraâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s and access control, which is developed and delivered by completely different companies than technology in the same space which is meant for entertainment and well being like lighting, music playback, video-screens, etcetera. research subject

Interactive technology for crime prevention Researcher

Vacancy

3 SUB-PROGRAMME PROGRAMME

Product Realisation 3.2 MOBILITY, SOCIALITY AND SAFETY

Clockwise: spectacles for mixed reality, smart cameraâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s, gaming technology and media should work together with police forces

A proposition for this research is that integration of media, and especially interactive media, could be more effective with respect to safety than discrete application. Both quantitative and qualitative methods will be applied for studying the influence of the several parameters. The result should be a set of instructions to designers with respect to the design of interactive technology in environments where vandalism could be expected.

Supervisor

Prof dr ir W.A. Poelman Project type

PhD project Resources

Searching for finance Status

Not yet started Partners

Crime Science research Group UTwente: e.g. prof Marianne Junger, TU Delft: prof David Keyson Keywords

crime science, vandalism, crowd control, smart surroundings, interactive media

Goals Four key-questions will be answered using the knowledge of psychologists and sociologists: - Which parameters are relevant to measure in public spaces (e.g. amount of people, place, concentration, body language and voices) - Which output of the system could contribute to the objectives, e.g. light, music, voice, visual effects? - Which controls by individuals should be possible, like voice input, gesture input and physical controls? - To which extent could main objectives be combined with secondary objectives like entertainment, advertising and art (light architecture, sound design, gaming, etcetera)? Perspectives The perspective of the project is a body of knowledge about the application of interactive technology for crowd control and the integration of crowd control and entertainment.

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


MOBILITY, SOCIALITY AND SAFETY

3.2.D Enriched expression of humanoids

research subject

Enriched expression of humanoids Researcher

Postdoc vacancy Supervisor

Prof dr ir W.A. Poelman Project type

Preliminary study Resources

Probably Route 14 budget Status

Not yet started Partners

Stefano Stramigioli at UT-EEMCS, Willem Verwey at UT-BS, André de Boer, Dik Schipper and Jacques Noordermeer at UT-ET Keywords

expression, communication, human interface, gestures, sound, dynamic materials

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

3 SUB-PROGRAMME PROGRAMME

Background Man-made objects increasingly combine physical functions with IT functions and humanoids form probably the most representative example of this phenomenon. However, between a toaster and a humanoid there are many examples of products which have one thing in common: they form, together with the user, a man-machine system in which an interchange of information is indispensable. Generally spoken, just objective information is exchanged, for which traditional technologies for perception and expressions are applied. Looking at the machine part of the system, mostly simple physical controls (keys) and sometimes touch screens and also voice input are used. For expression mainly sound generators and visual displays are applied. Goals This research project is not just aimed at imitation of a human face, but rather at the general question how we can enrich the expression capabilities of machines, with the large arsenal of expression capabilities of humans in mind. A car does not need to look like a human being to look friendly. Within the field of industrial design engineering a lot of research is carried out to classify experiences of forms (form language). Within psychology and ergonomics we know a lot about man-machine interfaces, and in robotics we know a lot about applied technology to combine IT with physical, changeable objects.

Product Realisation 3.2 MOBILITY, SOCIALITY AND SAFETY

 Robot head with expression options by the University of Twente  Haptic skin application by Philips  Japanese robot heads  Man-machine model by Poelman

 

 

Perspectives Research questions will be answered like: - What kind of subjective information will be necessary to exchange between man and machine? - How can we translate knowledge about human communication capabilities into machines? - How can we apply this knowledge to electromechanical systems which are able to communicate in a richer way?

Industrial Design Engineering


INDUSTRIAL BUILDING INNOVATION

3.3.A Integral foam application in concrete

research subject

Integral foam application in concrete Researcher

Ir J.C. (Jacob) Alkema - jacob@jacobalkema.nl Supervisor

Prof dr ir W.A. Poelman Project type

PhD project Resources

Contract research / 3rd money stream from companies and local government Status

Ongoing October 2009 Partners

Pioneering, Groothuis, Raab Karcher, University of Delft Keywords

CO2-reduction, Cradle to Cradle, sustainability, foamed concrete, aerated concrete

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

3 SUB-PROGRAMME PROGRAMME

Product Realisation 3.3 INDUSTRIAL BUILDING INNOVATION

Description The production of concrete causes a substantial part in the CO2 emission worldwide. The use of lightweight concrete elements diminishes this and helps to solve the ergonomic constraints in the building industry by weight reduction. Concrete elements of which only the kernel is foamed and the outside layer is solid have the advantage of high quality hard surface, no assimilation with water and a better surface strength compared with regular aerated concrete. In a first experiment a proof of principle was carried out successfully to realise such a concrete element. With this method the weight of a prefab element could be reduced by more than 50%. Goals This experimental research project aims to develop a so-called integral foaming system. The outside of the product is solid concrete, the inside is a foamed concrete core. The aim is to develop a reproducible system including the necessary tooling for producing integral foamed concrete components on a large scale. Several companies and the University of Delft are involved in this research project. Perspectives The project could lead to a substantial reduction of CO2 emission world-wide and to a solution of ergonomic constraints in building industry by weight reduction. The thermal insulation is higher compared with regular concrete. Transportation (cost & energy) will decrease. The material is reusable: no synthetic fillings are used to create the foam core, no synthetic foam agents will be used.

Industrial Design Engineering


INDUSTRIAL BUILDING INNOVATION

3.3.B Smart wall systems for climate control

3 SUB-PROGRAMME PROGRAMME

Background In this project, the central research question is ‘How to keep the temperature in a box of 3x3x3 meters, standing unobstructed in the Dutch climate, at exactly 20 degrees Celsius, only applying techniques of heat exchangers, heat storage, pumps and measurement and control, thus without explicit heating or cooling equipment?’

research subject

Smart wall systems for climate control Researcher

Prof dr ir W.A. (Wim) Poelman - w.a.poelman@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof dr ir W.A. Poelman, prof dr ir T.H. van der Meer Project type

Pre-investigation for contract research Resources

Direct funding / 1st money stream Status

Ongoing February 2010 - December 2010 Partners

Capzo, Schipper Kozijnen, Interwand, Ten Cate Keywords

heat exchanger, phase change material, heat storage

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Product Realisation 3.3 INDUSTRIAL BUILDING INNOVATION

 Heat capacity in water, compared with PCB’s

 Capturing, storing and delivering heat in a wall in a 24 hours cycle

The principle to be researched is based on an insulating sandwich wall system with heat exchangers outside and inside. These heat exchangers are connected to two water tanks, one with cold water and one with warm water. A computer system uses the input from heat sensors to control valves and pumps circulating warm and cold water. Goal The goal of the project is to minimise the parameters in energy management so as to optimise the design of the smart wall. The question is: How far we can go with equalising the temperature based on this technology? Other parameters like ventilation systems, windows, doors and the presence of people are added in a later stage to be able to adapt the system systematically to these practical circumstances. Perspective The perspective of the project is to be able to design buildings in which temperature is regulated without having to add energy from other sources than the direct environment. A new wall system could be developed with these research results as a starting point.

Industrial Design Engineering


CRADLE TO CRADLE

3.4.A Applications of recycled polypropylene in building industry

3 SUB-PROGRAMME PROGRAMME

Product Realisation 3.4 CRADLE TO CRADLE

Description Polypropylene (pp) is one of the materials which are suitable for Cradle to Cradle. Recycled pp is frequently used in, e.g. bumpers of motorcars. The amount of waste polypropylene entering the market is growing so fast that more applications should be developed. One of the fields of application is the building industry. Applications could be found in replacing materials in existing components or in designing new components.

research subject

Applications of recycled polypropylene in building industry Researcher

Ir B. (Bert) Bolink - bbo@akg.nl Supervisor

Prof dr ir W.A. Poelman Project type

Research project Resources

Government funding (Kenniswerkersregeling) Status

Initial stage started October 2009 Partners

AKG Vroomshoop

Goals This research project is aimed at exploring the possible applications in building industry. At this moment PVC is frequently applied in building components. In many cases pp would be possible, but the specifications of PVC are generally spoken more appropriate. New manufacturing technology could be developed to extend the options for application. Especially foaming technology and (co-) extrusion will be subject of research. For this purpose the materials will have to be upgraded first, which is an important part of the research.

 Test with rotomoulding of recycled PP

 Microscopic study of crushed foil  Plastic foil as delivered to the recycling company

Perspectives The perspective of the project could be a more efficient use of recycled polypropylene. As plastic waste is collected separately these days, the developed technology could lead to new applications of this waste too.

Keywords

polypropylene, recycling, extrusion, foaming, building components

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


CRADLE TO CRADLE

3.4.B Supply-driven architecture

research subject

Supply-driven architecture Researcher

Prof dr ir W.A. (Wim) Poelman - w.a.poelman@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof dr ir W.A. Poelman Project type

Pre-investigation Resources

Direct funding / 1st money stream Status

Ongoing June 2009 Partners

2012 Architects Keywords

reuse, supply, deconstruction, storing, examination, building components, smart databases, sustainability, methodology

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

3 SUB-PROGRAMME PROGRAMME

Product Realisation 3.4 CRADLE TO CRADLE

Background Waste problems in building industry are subject for discussions in politics as well as in architecture and science. Solutions are searched for in the field of sustainable materials and in reuse of buildings and/or building elements. In this context “design for disassembly” is an important issue. The disadvantage of restricting the reuse of building components to buildings which are designed with this purpose in mind, is that a lot of opportunities of reuse are not utilised. Although most of the building stock is not designed for disassembly, practice has proven that for many objects disconnection and reuse of building components is interesting from a technical as well as from an economic standpoint.

 Interior of Hundertwasser  Villa Welpelo by 2012 architects  Manson House US  Project in reclaimed space.com  Material acquisition processes for supply driven architecture

Goals The expected result of the research will be insight into the potential of reuse of building components in the future and in the role that modern technology can play in the success. Furthermore a set of research questions will be formulated for future research. Perspectives There are three reasons why the reuse of building components might grow in the future. First of all environmental pressure on the application of less CO2 producing technology and less raw materials. Secondly economic reasons, because of the increase of costs for raw materials and transport. Thirdly the growth of technology.

 

 

Industrial Design Engineering


3.5.A

TRANSFORMABLE GREEN BUILDINGS

Platform based development in the housing industry

3 SUB-PROGRAMME PROGRAMME

Subject Housing suppliers in different countries are exploring ways to deliver high levels of customisation in housing design. More variety will make it more likely that customers find exactly the options they prefer. In considering the implementation of product variety, companies are also challenged to create this variety economically. Mass customisation and modular, platform based housing designs are ways to attain these two goals, see also figure 1. research subject

Platform based development in the housing industry Researcher

Ir E. (Erwin) Hofman - e.hofman@utwente.nl Supervisor

Dr ir H.J. Voordijk, prof dr ir J.I.M. Halman, prof M. Song Project type

PhD project Resources

Contract research / 3rd money stream Status

Ongoing 2007 - 2010 Partners

PSIBouw (Centre for Innovation in Construction) Keywords

platform based housing design, mass customisation

Problem statement What are the requirements for successfully developing and implementing industrial platform driven concepts in the house building industry? What are customer requirements concerning variation in housing design; How can mass customised houses be developed using a platform based and modular approach and how can the value chain be organised in order to successfully develop and implement product platforms within a mass customised setting. For this research we choose to combine qualitative and quantitative research methods.

Product Realisation 3.5 TRANSFORMABLE GREEN BUILDINGS

 Mass customisation  Modularity in design and production, courtesy Jan Wind architects

 Roombeek Enschede and customer priority listing  Supply chain structure for modular housing design

Goals The aim is to gain insight in the way platforms and modules can contribute to a more customer oriented house building approach. Besides this, we will search for ways in which such a concept can efficiently and effectively be organised within the value chain. Expected results The research will primarily provide recommendations on how to develop a platform based housing design that best fits customer requirements and how to organise the value chain in order to further mass customise future housing supply.

 

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


TRANSFORMABLE GREEN BUILDINGS

3.5.B Interface design for open building systems

Background The conventional way of constructing has become a burden to the dynamic and changing society of the 21st century. Unlike existing closed building and system configurations where all materials, elements and components rely on each other in order to provide the desired functionality, buildings and systems in the future need to have an open structure that can easily be modified and whose parts could be easily replaced, reconfigured, remanufactured and reused in other situations. research subject

Interface design for open building systems Researcher

Ir J.C. (Jochem) Nijs - j.c.nijs@utwente.nl Supervisor

Dr E. Durmisevic, prof dr ir J.I.M. Halman Project type

PhD project Resources

Contract research / 3rd money stream Status

Ongoing August 2009 - August 2013 Partners

Innovation Platform Twente

Aim The aim of the research is to develop flexible Interfaces for open system building concepts. Such Interfaces will support individual development and manufacturing of building systems by different producers. At the same time such a development would provide easier and faster construction and assembly on site and more designer freedom. Development of Generic Interface design for open systems would create possibilities for design and construction of dynamic and transformable building structures in the future whose parts could be customised and independently produced but also easily replaced, reconfigured and reused in different situations. Such interfaces would increase disassembly and reuse potential of building structures and would be environmentally and economically beneficial.

3 SUB-PROGRAMME PROGRAMME

Product Realisation 3.5 TRANSFORMABLE GREEN BUILDINGS

1 Development of standardised interfaces that enable a great variety of sustainable construction solutions 2 Development and testing of alternative strategies aimed at an extensive implementation of sustainable and flexible building

Architecture modules: fulfill specific functions

Interfaces: within and between modules are standardised

Design parameters: design freedom is left within the constraints of the design rules

Keywords

industrial, flexible, sustainable, demountable, open systems, buildings interface, flexible connections

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


TRANSFORMABLE GREEN BUILDINGS

3.5.C Implementation of the IDF concept

research subject

Implementation of the IDF concept Researcher

Vacancy Supervisor

Dr E. Durmisevic, prof dr ir J.I.M. Halman Project type

PhD project Resources

Contract research / 3rd money stream Status

To be started 2010 - 2014 Partners

Innovation Platform Twente Keywords

industrial, flexible, sustainable, demountable, implementation, decision support model

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

3 SUB-PROGRAMME PROGRAMME

Product Realisation 3.5 TRANSFORMABLE GREEN BUILDINGS

Background IDF (Industrial Demountable Flexible design) is a design and construction concept that puts a focus on integration of three major aspects of future building structures being industrial production of buildings, sustainable building that focuses on effective use of materials in construction and flexible structures that can be reconfigured, adapted and parts reused for different purposes. The technology of Industrial Demountable Flexible design is well advanced. Imaginative adaptation and reuse of buildings is a further aspect on which the future of most urban centers will critically depend. The potential for innovation is high, yet the new IDF solutions still need broad implementation in design and construction of buildings. Aim The aim of this project is to develop and test alternative strategies that secure a wide adoption of the IDF concept in the design and manufacturing practice. The research will be focused primarily on leaders in this field including architectural offices, clients (housing corporations, developers) and manufacturing companies. Examples of good implementation of the IDF concept will be analysed as well as the bottlenecks for the further successful implementation of IDF.

 Conventional design  Integrated design approach

The following main research activities and results are foreseen: - State-of-the-art review about the options to successfully adopt new products and processes in practice - Identification of the IDF unique selling points - Identification of bottlenecks that hamper the broad implementation of the IDF concept - Development and testing of solutions and strategies to overcome the problems identified for manufacturers, architects and clients/investors

Industrial Design Engineering


TRANSFORMABLE GREEN BUILDINGS

3.5.D Implementing the Cradle to Cradle principles in the built environment

research subject

Implementing the Cradle to Cradle principles in the built environment Researcher

Ir B. (Bas) van de Westerlo - b.vandewesterlo@venlo.nl Supervisor

Dr E. Durmisevic, prof dr ir J.I.M. Halman Project type

PhD project Resources

Contract research / 3rd money stream Status

Ongoing Februari 2010 - Februari 2014 Partners

Municipality Venlo, C2C-ExpoLab Zuid-Nederland Keywords

Cradle to Cradle, implementation, built environment, decision support model, sustainability

3 SUB-PROGRAMME PROGRAMME

Backgrounds The number of research projects and publications on sustainability has grown over the last decades, especially after the publication of the Limits to Growth (1972) and Our Common Future (1987). Cradle to Cradle® (2002) as a distinct category is gaining ground in the scientific debate on innovation of durability in the world. But still there is a gap in literature concerning to what extent and how Cradle to Cradle (C2C) affects innovation performances. Existing approaches for sustainability in the built environment are focused on the reduction of the environmental, social and economic impacts. However, the Cradle to Cradle approach aims to realise closed loops with a triple-top-line of economic, ecologic and social growth.

 Case-studies Tradeport North, Sunrise Campus and City Hall Venlo

 Research model ‘Implementing the Cradle to Cradle principles in the built environment’  Closed loop, in the bioand technosphere

Aim The aim of the research is to develop a Cradle to Cradle method for the implementation of the Cradle to Cradle principles in the built environment. Such a method will support the development and manufacturing of ‘optimal durable’ building systems. At the same time such a method would decrease the consequences on the environment impacts and foresees long-term sustainable growth. Addressing the gap in literature and how Cradle to Cradle affects innovation performances, the development of theory about Cradle to Cradle’s role in innovation and implementation will provide an explanatory framework. The development of an approach will increase the knowledge about the (dis) advantages and opportunities to design and construct C2C buildings in the future.

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Product Realisation 3.5 TRANSFORMABLE GREEN BUILDINGS

Industrial Design Engineering


TRANSFORMABLE GREEN BUILDINGS

3.5.E Cradle to Cradle implementation in construction This research deals with implementation of Cradle to Cradle (C2C) into building construction by proposing a Design for Disassembly (DfD) approach to development and manufacturing of buildings and systems.

3 SUB-PROGRAMME PROGRAMME

Product Realisation 3.5 TRANSFORMABLE GREEN BUILDINGS

Development of dismountable building systems as a base for Cradle to Cradle approach in construction

If DfD is adopted in a early design phase, building systems can be easily reconfigured their component reused in techno sphere and materials upcycled and reused in biosphere. research subject

Cradle to Cradle implementation in construction Researcher

Dr E. (Elma) Durmisevic - e.durmisevic@4darchitects.nl, e.durmisevic@utwente.nl Supervisor

Dr E. Durmisevic Project type

PhD project, contract Resources

Contract research / 3rd money stream TNO Status

Ongoing December 2009 - May 2010 Partners

TNO, Housing corporation De Woonplaats Keywords

Cradle to Cradle, Design for Disassembly, flexibility, reuse, reconfiguration, up-cycling

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

The key focus is on high disassembly and reuse potential of building components and materials. The research is a follow up of the PhD thesis by Elma Durmisevic â&#x20AC;&#x153;Transformable building structures - Design for disassembly the key to sustainable design and engineering of buildingsâ&#x20AC;?. Description One can argue that conventional construction methods are in large part responsible for the degradation of the environment, due to the tonnes of waste materials that become burdens to society. Demolition in general can be defined as the process whereby the building is broken up, with little or no attempt to recover any of the constituent parts for reuse. Most buildings are designed for such an end-of-life scenario. In order to change this a new approach to building design and construction is needed. An approach that will treat materials as valuable resources through their whole use and transformation process. Goals The aim of the research is to provide a definition for Cradle to Cradle approach in construction and to propose an application of Cradle to Cradle principles to building systems and building projects. The objective is to set a principle guideline for the development and construction/manufacturing of C2C systems and buildings.

Industrial Design Engineering


TRANSFORMABLE GREEN BUILDINGS

3.5.F Systems design integration

3 SUB-PROGRAMME PROGRAMME

Product Realisation 3.5 TRANSFORMABLE GREEN BUILDINGS

Description The inability to remove and exchange building systems and their components results not only in significant energy and material consumption and increased waste production, but also in the lack of spatial adaptability and technical serviceability of the building.

 Design aspect that have impact on transformation and disassembly of buildings and systems  The research deals also with disassembly potential of building configurations and their impact on the environment

Besides, European building industry accounts for 40% of the waste production, 40% of the energy consumption and CO2 emissions, and 50% of material resources taken from the nature are building related.

research subject

Systems design integration Researcher

Dr E. (Elma) Durmisevic - e.durmisevic@4darchitects. nl, e.durmisevic@utwente.nl, Tjark van de Merwe and Stefan Binenmars Supervisor

Dr E. Durmisevic Project type

Pre-investigation Resources

Direct funding / 1st money stream & contract research / 3rd money stream Status

Ongoing October 2009 –2011 Partners

Innovation Platform Twente / pioneering Keywords

systems approach, transformation capacity, design for disassembly, flexibility, reconfiguration

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

If the building sector is to respond to global environmental and economic challenges it needs to adopt new ways of construction. The questions are: - Why not design building structures for disassembly, remanufacturing and reconfiguration in place of demolition and down-cycling? - Why not design buildings that can be utilised as a resource pool for a new construction? - Why not consider waste and demolition as a design error? - Why not design buildings that in place of energy consumption focus on energy production? - Why not design buildings with close water cycles? - Why not design buildings and systems that can serve multiple purposes? This is asking for integration of aspects as spatial transformation of buildings, reconfiguration of systems and reuse of components and materials in construction form the beginning of the design process. This is a systems problem. Goals The objective of the project is to initiate development of new products and building methods. But also to develop new - and improve existing measurement tools in order to be able to evaluate and compare performance of buildings and systems regarding their disassembly potential and transformation. And finally to develop design support tools that will help provide optimal integration of building systems into a green and adoptable structure.

FUNCTIONAL     DOMAIN  

PHYSICAL   DOMAIN  

TECHNICAL     COMPOSITION   DOMAIN  

Industrial Design Engineering


MATERIALS ENGINEERING

3.6.A Materials for safety

3 SUB-PROGRAMME PROGRAMME

Description Develop and employ knowledge of energy absorbing material behaviour under high rate impact loading for product design.

 Hip protector concept, making use of cross-linked silicone.

 FE model of an impact in the hip region

Background Design of energy absorbing product for personal use is often based on heavy and bulky materials. Modern materials based for example on textiles offer good performance for a low weight / volume. Think for example of aramide textile for body armour. However, the design of products with these modern materials is often based on trial and error methods due to their often complex behaviour.

research subject

Materials for safety Researchers

P.L. (Pim) Siahaya, MSc - p.l.siahaya@utwente.nl, ir R.H.W. (René) ten Thije - r.h.w.tenthije@utwente.nl, dr ir L. (Laurent) Warnet - l.warnet@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof dr ir R. Akkerman Project type

Pre-investigation, contract research Resources

Direct funding / 1st money stream & contract research / 3rd money stream Status

Ongoing Januari 2009 Partners

Medlogics, VU Amsterdam, TenCate Keywords

Goals 1 To identify the deformation and the related energy absorption mechanisms 2 To quantify the observed behaviour 3 To optimise configurations and detailed designs for sufficient energy absorption at minimum weight and maximum wearability Examples: - Low-velocity impact on multi-ply aramid prepreg for body armour - Development of compliant hip protectors for elderly

Product Realisation 3.6 MATERIALS ENGINEERING

 Material characterisation under impact loading

 Impact of body armour material and corresponding FE model

Perspectives Safety and security are major issues in today’s society, whether preventing from violence or preventing the frail against injuries. Research in materials and design methodologies with these materials is required for the years to come. The Production Technology group aims to play a valuable role in this highly relevant field.

impact, energy absorption

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


MATERIALS ENGINEERING

3.6.B Smart composites

3 SUB-PROGRAMME PROGRAMME

Description Exploit the function integration potential inherent to composite materials

 Inkjet printing: the way to integrated sensors.  Inkjet printed strain gauge  Micrograph of a Fibre Bragg Grating

Background Textile reinforcement structures serve as an excellent carrier for additional functionalities. Optical fibres can be embedded to measure local strains or temperatures. Piezoelectric fibres can be used for similar purposes and for mechanical actuation. Thin layers can be deposited by e.g. inkjet printing, offering even more variety in the type of sensors and electronic circuits, in a very compact way. Even further, mechanisms can be devised to make the materials self-healing. Various projects are ongoing in this innovative area.

Researchers

A. (Ashok) Sridhar MSc - a.sridhar@utwente.nl, ir T. (Ted) Ooijevaar -t.ooijervaar@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof dr ir R. Akkerman Project type

Pre-investigation, development, contract research Resources

Direct funding / 1st money stream & contract research / 3rd money stream (NL + EU funding) Status

Ongoing January 2007 Partners

Thales, Astron, TenCate, Stork-Fokker Keywords

inkjet printing, structural health monitoring, self healing, function integration

embedded in a composite layer

 Damage detection in a T-beam using embedded optical fibre sensing (structural health monitoring)

Goals 1 To explore the possibilities of composite function integration 2 To research and develop the technologies necessary for mature implementation 3 To design novel applications with this emerging technology Example: vibration based structural health monitoring Local strain sensing serves as an enabling technology for structural health monitoring. The dynamic performance of a structure can be measured by means of integrated miniature strain sensors. Changes in the structural dynamics indicate the occurrence of damage. By means of inverse modelling, the damage can not only be detected using the strain signals, but also be localised. Information of this kind is very valuable for smart maintenance procedures.

Perspective Multi-functional materials provide excellent potential for sensing and actuation. The technologies require significant development and most promising applications need to be identified and elaborated.

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Damage index (-)

research subject

Smart composites

Product Realisation 3.6 MATERIALS ENGINEERING

Beam Length coordinate (m)

Industrial Design Engineering


MATERIALS ENGINEERING

3.6.C Construction application of composites

3 SUB-PROGRAMME PROGRAMME

Description The problem for Hot Wire Cutting (HWC) is the lack of preprocessing automation compared to the competing milling process. By combining HWC with RP technology it will be possible to produce large parts in expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam.

research subject

Construction application of composites Researcher

Vacancy Supervisor

Prof dr ir R. Akkerman Project type

Pre-investigation Resources

Direct funding / 1st money stream Status

Ongoing January 2007 Partners

3EL Company, ten Cate Keywords

polymer composites, Hot Wire Cutting

Background Polymer composites offer high stiffness, strength, durability and corrosion resistance at a low weight. The formability and flexibility are excellent and the bulk materials can be translucent or supplied in a wide range of colours. This provides an enormous design freedom for e.g. doubly curved structures with large spans. Foam sandwich structures are a prime example for this type of applications. The composite components are built up around a foam core which defines the global geometry. This calls for a fast flexible manufacturing method of the foam core.

 Hot Wire Cutting Machine (schematic)

 Demonstrator EPS component  Composite sandwich bus station with EPS core

 Composite sandwich wing of the Yitzhak Rabin Memorial Centre

Goal The objective of this project is to develop an automated method which slices a CAD model into layers and generates the tool paths of a large HWC machine with conventional stretched hot wires. Perspectives The design and manufacturing method for HWC is one of the building blocks for large composite constructions. We expect further developments in the construction area within the ABCDE track.

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Product Realisation 3.6 MATERIALS ENGINEERING

Industrial Design Engineering


MATERIALS ENGINEERING

3.6.D Ecolonomical manufacturing processes

3 SUB-PROGRAMME PROGRAMME

Product Realisation 3.6 MATERIALS ENGINEERING

Description Develop energy efficient manufacturing processes for thermoplastic composites

research subject

Ecolonomical manufacturing processes Researcher

Ir W.J.B. (Wouter) Grouve - w.j.b.grouve@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof dr ir R. Akkerman

Background The high degree of automation and out-of-autoclave potential make the laser assisted tape placement technology attractive for aerospace applications. The process involves welding of fibre reinforced thermoplastic tapes under the application of heat and pressure onto previously deposited tapes. The product properties can be tailored by incrementally adding tapes in the desired orientation. The tapes are consolidated ‘in situ’ during the welding process, which negates the application of an energy consuming autoclave to post-consolidate the product. The application of a laser further increases the energy efficiency of the process.

 Schematic representation of the laser assisted tape placement process  Laser assisted tape placement machine  Ray tracing example: laser beam on a unidirectional fibres  Reflection pattern of laser light on a unidirectional fibre reinforced tape

Goals 1 Develop a fundamental understanding of the interrelation between material properties, processing parameters and product performance 2 Design process simulation tools in order to optimise the laser assisted tape placement process in terms of energy efficiency

Project type

PhD project Resources

Status

Ongoing June 2009 Partners

CleanSky - Ecodesign Keywords

green processes, thermoplastic composites, manufacturing automation

Perspective The energy efficiency of manufacturing processes is increasingly important in today’s society. Appropriate processing tools are required in order to reduce energy consumption while preserving product quality and performance. The PT group anticipates to play in important role in the development of new manufacturing processes.

 

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


BIOMEDICAL PRODUCT DESIGN

3.7.A Arm support systems, the design of an active and wearable arm orthosis

3 SUB-PROGRAMME PROGRAMME

Background Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a progressive disease diagnosed in childhood. After affection of the muscles in the lower extremity, muscles of the shoulder girdle and arms follow. At a certain moment, independent execution of daily tasks like eating becomes impossible without supporting devices.

research subject

Arm support systems, the design of an active and wearable arm orthosis Researcher

Ir A. (Arjen) Bergsma - a.bergsma@flextension.org Supervisor

Prof dr ir H.F.J.M. Koopman Project type

Research project Resources

Contract research / 3rd money stream Status

Ongoing 2009 Partners

TUDelft, VUmc, UMC St. Radboud Keywords

passive balancing, upper extremity orthosis, wearable, duchenne, active support

 First prototype of the passive arm balancer

 Defined phases  Future perspective

Due to medical development, people with Duchenne become older and older. However, participation in society is challenging owing to the social barrier which is often experienced as a result of all devices attached to the wheelchair. With currently available technologies, it should be possible to develop new devices which have a much lower impact. Project description The project Flextension is a cooperation between the international interest group for Duchenne patients and researchers of the UT, TUDelft, VUmc and UMC St. Radboud. The purpose is to develop a new wearable arm orthosis which is invisible and able to support the users’ arm actively. Goals The project is divided into three phases. First, a passive weight compensating support will be developed, which can be used by people with some remaining muscle function. In the second phase, actuation will be added to develop an electrically driven orthosis, which can be used for rehabilitative patients. Due to passive balancing of the arm, just a small amount of energy is required to move the arm. In the third phase there will be focused on motion intention control to support people with no remaining muscle force.

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Product Realisation 3.7 BIOMEDICAL PRODUCT DESIGN

Industrial Design Engineering


BIOMEDICAL PRODUCT DESIGN

3.7.B Man machine interfaces in prosthetics

3 SUB-PROGRAMME PROGRAMME

Description The design of a transfemoral prosthesis that connects knee and ankle joints with continuously controllable and energy-efficient, spring like passive actuators. Storing mechanical energy when available and releasing it when necessary for each joint is one of the main functions of the actuator. On the other hand, to provide sufficient mobility for various motions, the actuator should adjust the dynamics of the prosthesis. research subject

Man machine interfaces in prosthetics Researcher

Prof dr ir H.F.J.M. (Bart) Koopman - h.f.j.m.koopman@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof dr ir H.F.J.M. Koopman Project type

Design Resources

Direct funding / 1st money stream, STW Status

Ongoing September 2009 - September 2012 Partners

CE & BSS - University of Twente Keywords

design, lower limb prosthetics, bio-robotics, biomechanics

Background In both scientific literature and market, lower limb prostheses are mainly classified into two groups, i.e. passive and active prostheses. Passive prostheses are designed to exploit the dynamics of walking thanks to their special kinematic configuration. However, these types of prostheses are characterised by constant stiffness and not able to adapt to various conditions. Moreover, with this kind of prosthesis, the gait becomes unnatural and the amputee consumes a large amount of metabolic energy to compensate the lack of energy transfers from the lost muscles. On the other side, active prostheses have internal actuators which can be controlled during gait. Even though, they can provide better gait and reduce the extra metabolic energy by power injection, this kind of prostheses have several drawbacks such as energy consumption, weight, cost, and perception. Therefore, they are far to become feasible and have similar performance with respect to the biological leg.

 Examples of active knee prostheses  Concept of the system with simplified leg model  Examples of passive knee prostheses  CAD representation of working principle of the pre-prototype that is built to realise natural walking

Power Knee Ossur

Smart Adaptive Endolite

C-Leg & C-Leg compact Otto Bock

Goals Our main goal is to design an actuation system; - that is able to store and release the energy - that provides energy exchange between knee and ankle joints. - that has continuously controllable stiffness and torque for providing different tasks in daily activities.

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Product Realisation 3.7 BIOMEDICAL PRODUCT DESIGN

MAUCH GM Ossur

Total Knee 2100 Ossur

Industrial Design Engineering


SOUND DESIGN AND PERCEPTION

3.8.A Hearing your design

research subject

Hearing your design Researcher

Prof dr ir A. (André) de Boer - a.deboer@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof dr ir A. de Boer Project type

Pre-investigation Resources

Direct funding / 1st money stream Status

Start as soon as funding is available Partners

Keywords

acoustic analysis, sound design, sound styling, perception, psycho-acoustics

Problem description Nowadays it is possible to analyse sound which is emitted by a product. Usually however, one needs to build a prototype and perform acoustic measurements in an anechoic chamber. If the sound is not according to specifications (it may e.g. be too loud or too ‘tonal’), one changes the design but can only analyse the result of that change after building another prototype; a process which is both time consuming and costly. Although this is rarely done, one can also simulate the sound emitted by a product. In fact, it is possible to include the surroundings in which the product is intended to be used (an electric shaver sounds differently in a bathroom than it does in a living room). Usually, the result of such an analysis is only given back to the designer in a single number (the sound pressure level in decibels) or as a graph of the sound spectrum (sound as a function of frequency). Although the sound pressure level indicates the loudness, it does not give any clue as to the perception (color) of sound, i.e. whether the sound is ‘comfortable’, ‘robust’, ‘cheap’ or ‘sportive’. This information should somehow be contained in the spectrum but one can not - even an expert - see this from a graph. The problem is thus the inability of the designer to hear the product he or she designs.

Product Realisation 3.8 SOUND DESIGN AND PERCEPTION

 Meshing of gears or imbalance of rotating parts can cause noise in products  The designer wants to know (hear) how to reduce this noise by modifying the design of the product

 

Objective This problem could be solved if the designer can hear the actual simulated sound and can quantify the (customer’s) perception of sound. Only then can the designer change the design and influence the sound that is emitted by the product in its surroundings in a virtual environment. The objective of the proposed project is to provide such a system. Result The result of the project is an auralisation design tool which is integrated in a CAD system and coupled to finite element analysis software. The user of the tool should be able to hear (from loudspeakers or head/ear-phones) the variation of sound intensity and ‘color’ while observing (rotating/translating) the product on the screen.

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

3 SUB-PROGRAMME PROGRAMME

 

Industrial Design Engineering


SOUND DESIGN AND PERCEPTION

3.8.B Actively steered perception

3 SUB-PROGRAMME PROGRAMME

Product Realisation 3.8 SOUND DESIGN AND PERCEPTION

Source Localisation Acoustic source localisation is concerned with a combination of measuring with a lot of sensors (e.g. microphones) and numerical analysis methods with the goal to detect the location of a noise source. This method is successfully applied to localise the parts of a structure that are responsible for the generation of noise.

research subject

Actively steered perception Researcher

V. (Vikas) Arora MSc - v.arora@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof dr ir A. de Boer Project type

Pre-investigation Resources

Direct funding / 1st money stream, IMPACT Status

Ongoing January 2010 - December 2010 Partners

Other IMPACT research groups, TNO, Vredestein Keywords

sound tracking, perception, psycho-acoustics

 Head of intelligent robot in which noise tracking system has to be integrated  Localised noise source (actual position 60, -10, 1) using BeamForming theory (top) and MUSIC algorithm (bottom)  Schematic drawing of measuring set-up

Application Another interesting application area for noise source localisation is the tracking of objects that make noise. One can think about the detection of people who make problems (fighting, shouting). Once the source has been localised a camera can be directed in that direction automatically. The scientific challenge in this case is to localise with much less sensors, in real time and on mm scale, like an animal or a human being can. Objective The objective of this project is to develop such a noise tracking method and demonstrate it on the Intelligent Robot that is developed in the framework of a Strategic Integration Programme (SIP) within the UT research institute IMPACT. For this development knowledge is necessary in the field of: (acoustic) sensors, noise source localisation, control and actuation, signal processing and interpretation of sound quality. Most of the basic knowledge in these fields is present within the research groups of IMPACT and other UT institutes. By carrying out this project the knowledge can be combined which opens possibilities to acquire external funding for research on monitoring and tracking of objects that generate and/or radiate sound.

 

  

Position head robot

 

Acoustic Source

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

 

 

Industrial Design Engineering


3.9.A

FRICTION AND TACTILITY IN PRODUCT-USER INTERACTIONS

Friction and tactility in product-user interactions

Designing surfaces with Tactile Properties Background The importance of the surface finish of products is well recognised. The selection of a surface finish may be made on the basis of choosing the optimum economic manufacturing process that will produce a surface that is adequate for the application. This research focuses on the design and manufacturing of surfaces with enhanced tactile feel. research subject

Friction and tactility in product-user interactions Researchers

Dr ir M.A. (Marc) Masen - m.a.masen@utwente.nl, prof dr ir E. (Emile) van der Heide - e.vanderheide@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof dr ir E. van der Heide Project type

Pre-investigation for funding application Resources

Direct funding / 1st money stream, UT, MIRA, IMPACT Status

Ongoing 2006 - 2010 Partners

M2i, Philips Consumer Lifestyle, TNO, RFCS Keywords

tactile perception, surface finish, friction, user-product interaction

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

3 Product Realisation SUB-PROGRAMME 3.9 FRICTION AND TACTILITY IN PRODUCT-USER INTERACTIONS PROGRAMME

 The tribology of ‘touch’  Product - user interaction  Lotus texture on polymer produced by injection molding in a laser-textured mold (Max Groenendijk, University of Twente)

Objectives The following scientific and technological objectives are identified in order to reach the technological progress: - Establishing a relation between surface geometrical features and human touch. This relation serves as basis for the design and development of surfaces with a pre-defined touch. - Establishing process windows for surface texturing in manufacturing processes, e.g. injection moulding and sheet rolling. New tactile surface qualities must be produced in an economic, clean and safe way. Methods Tactility is assessed by tribological measurements with a dedicated tribometer. This tribometer measures the frictional aspects of surfaces in combination with the human skin, in-vivo. This is of high importance as friction and wear characteristics depend on the actual system. Results of the friction measurements are combined with dynamic touch experiments using panel testing and touch related questionnaires.

Industrial Design Engineering


FRICTION AND TACTILITY IN PRODUCT-USER INTERACTIONS

3.9.B Skin tribology and comfort

research subject

Skin tribology and comfort Researcher

Ir J. (Julien) van Kuilenburg - j.vankuilenburg@utwente.nl, julien.vankuilenburg@tno.nl Supervisor

Dr ir M.A. Masen & prof dr ir E. van der Heide Project type

PhD project Resources

Contract research / 3rd money stream, M2i, TNO Science & Industry Status

Ongoing June 2009 - May 2013 Partners

M2i, TNO Science & Industry, Philips Consumer Lifestyle, Lightmotif

3 Product Realisation SUB-PROGRAMME 3.9 FRICTION AND TACTILITY IN PRODUCT-USER INTERACTIONS PROGRAMME

Background The ‘look and feel’ of a surface is the result of the finishing of the product. A surface is characterised by its surface features: the geometry, density and distribution of these features. During touch, surface features in contact with the skin cause a load distribution at the skin surface and thus a stress and strain distribution within the skin. Stresses and strains at mechanoreceptor locations within the skin evoke responses of the receptors, which are sent to the brain through the nerves. The activity of the central nervous system then produces a sensation which can be quantified in terms of perceived magnitude: the descriptive level. Finally, a value judgement of the sensation, a perceived quality of feel can be made: the emotional level. Objectives The aim of this project is to develop a methodology based on state-ofthe-art knowledge, which can be used in industry to predict and optimise the emotional qualities and expectations associated with specific surface finishes. Method A mechanistic approach was adopted in which the stimuli at the skin, arising from product-user interaction, are translated to a perceived quality of feel: This touch-feel perception is evaluated through self-report experiments in which feelings are reported in terms of pre-chosen word-pairs. Using multivariate data analysis, feelings are related to surface feature parameters and frictional behaviour.

 Mechanical properties of human skin

 Skin friction experiments  Skin damage: mechanical and/or thermal

 Skin comfort map

 

Keywords

friction, human skin, perception, textures, look, feel, user-product interaction

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


3.9.C

FRICTION AND TACTILITY IN PRODUCT-USER INTERACTIONS

Functional surfaces

3 Product Realisation SUB-PROGRAMME 3.9 FRICTION AND TACTILITY IN PRODUCT-USER INTERACTIONS PROGRAMME

Background ‘Slip incidents’ account for a large proportion of serious injuries occuring on the work floor. British research has indicated that slip accidents: - Account for 33% of all reported major incidents on the workfloor. - Cause one in five of over-three-day injuries to employees. - Result in two known fatalities per year in the UK.

research subject

Functional surfaces Researcher

Dr ir M.A. (Marc) Masen - m.a.masen@utwente.nl Supervisor

Dr ir M.A. Masen Project type

Pre-investigation for PhD research Resources

Direct funding / 1st money stream STW Status

Ongoing 2008 Partners

AkzoNobel, Bata Industrial, DeltaRail, NEN-Industrie, ConsumersVoice, STW, TCKI

Friction (and therefore properties such as grip, slip resistance and slipperiness) is a system parameter and not a material property. This means that the frictional behaviour is the result of the interaction of the shoe, the floor and possible ‘lubricants and contaminants’ (such as water, oil and sand particles) as well as the environment. Objectives and Perspectives The research will focus on slip prevention by advanced control of friction in the contact between the shoe and the floor. This will be done in four consecutive steps: 1 Analysing the mechanics of the contact between the shoe and the floor, including materials and surface properties. 2 Modelling the friction behaviour of the contact. 3 Validating the developed calculation models using laboratory experiments. 4 Applying these models and the obtained knowledge to develop a shoefloor friction measurement system that will give reliable, meaningful and quantitative results.

 The tribological system  Research tasks  The friction between shoe

Sole

'Lubricants' & Contaminants

Floor Environment

and floor depends on the material combination as well as the load and the velocity  Lack of friction in the floor-shoe contact can cause unsafe situations

Keywords

slip, grip, slip prevention, shoe, footwear, floor, pavement, contact mechanics, surfaces, tribology, visco-elastic material, tribometer, friction measurement system.

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


FRICTION AND TACTILITY IN PRODUCT-USER INTERACTIONS

3.9.D Modelling contact in user-product interaction

3 Product Realisation SUB-PROGRAMME 3.9 FRICTION AND TACTILITY IN PRODUCT-USER INTERACTIONS PROGRAMME

Development of a visco-elastic anisotropic contact model  The tribology of ‘touch’  Contact pressures in

Background The tactile interaction between a user and a product is determined by the contact between the human skin and the surface texture of the product.

research subject

Modelling contact in user-product interaction Researcher

N.V. (Natalia) Rodriguez Pareja, MSc - n.v.rodriguez@utwente.nl Supervisor

Dr ir M.A. Masen Project type

PhD project Resources

Contract research / 3rd money stream, funding by DPI Status

The behaviour of human skin is visco-elastic and the properties are anisotropic. Therefore, the contact of human skin and product surfaces cannot simply be described using traditional ‘engineering’ relations, such as Hertz’ equations for elastic contact. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of the human skin depend on the environment: wet skin has a much lower Young’s modulus than dry skin.

a layered solid

 Validation: experimental ball-on-flat set-up

Objectives and Method The aim of the proposed work is to model and predict the tribological response of the interface between human skin and the product. A model of a single rigid asperity in sliding contact with an anisotropic, visco-elastic body, such as human skin will be made. This model will be experimentally validated using the nano-tribometer and the inference microscope. Subsequently, the single asperity model will be extended to describe the tribological response of human skin in contact with rough surfaces. This extended model will be validated using a range of surface finishes.

Ongoing November 2008 - November 2012 Partners

DPI, SKF, DSM, Teijin

Keywords

No Layers

Thin Stratum Corneum

Thick Callus on Skin

friction, human skin, modeling, user-product interaction, tribotest

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Industrial Design Engineering


FRICTION AND TACTILITY IN PRODUCT-USER INTERACTIONS

3.9.E In vivo measurement of skin friction

Development of a system for friction measurements on the human skin

3 Product Realisation SUB-PROGRAMME 3.9 FRICTION AND TACTILITY IN PRODUCT-USER INTERACTIONS PROGRAMME

Background Friction in human-product interfaces is considered to be of high importance in controlling comfort and, even more important, in controlling the perception of comfort as the result of the interaction between product and user. Experience has shown that sliding contact is one of the main causes of skin damage and irritation in object skin interactions. This may involve a burning sensation and reddening of the skin or actual damage to the skin.

research subject

In vivo measurement of skin friction Researcher

Ir N. (Noor) Veijgen - n.k.veijgen@utwente.nl Supervisor

Dr ir M.A. Masen Project type

PhD project Resources

Contract research / 3rd money stream, funding from TNO Science & Industry Status

Ongoing March 2008 - June 2012 Partners

TNO Science & Industry Keywords

friction, human skin, measurement, user-product interaction, tribotest

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

 Skin characteristics depend on age, gender, race, location on body, hydration, etc.  Measurements of skin friction on location  Sketch of concept  Model

Objectives and Method Predicting and optimising friction starts with measuring it, at the proper scale, with reasonable operational conditions and most importantly: at the human skin. Applications can be found in decubitus prevention, sports floor design and skin care, like shaving. The project focuses on the design and construction of a tribo-sensor for in-vivo measurement of friction at a random spot at the human skin. Ideally, this friction sensor is: - Small, i.e.handheld - Portable and wireless - Able to evaluate a range of materials Knowledge question: How to measure friction, in vivo, with one apparatus, independently of the position at the human body?

Perspectives The project will be concluded by a PhD thesis that describes a friction sensor for human skin and that elaborates on the different design parameters, operational conditions, and quality of measurements on several persons and the validity of friction models from literature.

Industrial Design Engineering


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