Page 1

Platform PRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN RESEARCH OVERVIEW


© University of Twente December 2011

Platform PRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN

Prof. dr. ir. Arthur Eger University of Twente Platform Product & Service Design PO Box 217 7500 AE Enschede The Netherlands

TOOLS

T +31 53 489 2337 (or: 2520) F +31 53 489 3631 E a.o.eger@utwente.nl

Design & layout Rob Hulsbosch Printing Ipskamp Drukkers

Design methodology Rapid prototyping ...

Introduction

PEOPLE

TECHNOLOGY

Product & Service Design is about the interaction between people and technology. It therefore perfectly suits with the new guiding phrase of the University of Twente:

Individual Social Society

Production Materials Sustainability Maintenance ...

High Tech, Human Touch Products can originate from technology push as well as from market pull. Many different aspects are investigated in various distinguished research initiatives in Twente. Examples can be found in the technology domain (materials, processing, maintenance), in the tools domain (design methods) and in a range of interdisciplinary topics (tyreroad interaction, Cradle to Cradle). The research of the Platform Product & Service Design specifically concentrates on the interaction between both sides (see Figure). People are individuals (as users), sociable (interacting with other users) and part of society. These aspects influence the choices they make with regard to the use of products. These products can be ‘solutions for people’, ‘tokens for groups’ and/or ‘solutions for society’. The research of the platform is positioned between the so-called soft and hard aspects of industrial design engineering (IDE). Design and styling as well as ergonomics are soft aspects, whereas for example construction, material sciences and mechatronics are considered hard aspects.

Within the Faculty of Engineering Technology, an initiative sprung to start a platform for Product & Service Design. This research programme will be embedded in the Product & Service Design Lab in which four faculties and twelve chairs work together within the context of several research themes. The aim of the platform is: ‘To improve the connection between technological opportunities and product & service design.’ The Product & Service Design Lab is virtual as well as physical, but most of all an inspiring environment in which product and service design research can be carried out. Several facilities will be available in the lab such as a workshop (existing), a technology library (in development) and facilities for panel research. The platform seeks a specific approach to research which takes the dynamics of the roles that products play in society or in the market as starting point.


Participating faculties The participating faculties are Behavioural Sciences, Engineering Technology, Electrical Engineering, Mathematics & Computer Science, and Management & Governance.

Behavioural Sciences The research of the Faculty of Behavioural Sciences is conducted in the field of human behaviour, focusing on safety, health, learning, design, cognition and communication, and the role of technology in these areas. As a modern entrepreneurial university of technology, the University of Twente provides a unique habitat that encourages and promotes highquality social science research in relation to sophisticated technological developments. The social sciences and technology orientation of the Faculty is centred on societal issues and aims to create interventions that contribute toward preventing, alleviating or solving these societal issues.

Electrical Engineering, Mathematics & Computer Science Research in the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics & Computer Science (EEMCS) is focused on a number of themes, with several research groups participating in each of these themes. The four themes are sensors and components, sensor networks, secure information systems and human interaction, and dynamic systems and processes. The Faculty of EEMCS contributes to these areas by a combination of fundamental research, advanced technology and an awareness of the users who will be at the centre of the application of technology, which is clearly reflected in the research examples presented in this book.

Engineering Technology The Faculty of Engineering Technology initiates and coordinates research on Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design Engineering by building multidisciplinary teams around ambitious projects and delivering state-of-the-art engineering solutions. Some of the focus points of the Faculty are: - Thermal engineering, sustainable energy, in particular biomass; - Optimisation of products, processes and methods; - Materials engineering; - Biomechanical engineering; - Fluids & solids engineering; - Civil engineering: construction, traffic and water engineering; - Industrial design, production/manufacturing and management.

3

Management & Governance The Faculty of Management & Governance performs multidisciplinary research and postgraduate research training in the field of the governance and management of technological and social innovation. Issues of co-ordination, steering and the operation of (networks of) institutions in both public and private sectors are core research foci, based on a multi-level, multi-actor perspective.

Research themes Within the Platform Product & Service Design, the following research themes are distinguished: 1. Human-Technology Relations 2. Organising Innovation 3. Understanding Product Success, Inspiring Product Design


Participating chairs Behavioural Sciences Marketing Communication and Consumer Psychology

Behavioural Sciences Cognitive Psychology and Ergonomics The department of Cognitive Psychology and Ergonomics (CPE) Prof. dr. ing. Willem Verwey carries out education activities and research in several areas of human factors: Human Performance, Human-Computer Interaction, Human-Robot Interaction and Traffic Psychology. The surplus value of the CPE approach lies in a broad and profound repertoire of research paradigms. Our growing stock of methods covers psychometric measures, EEG, observational studies (such as usability testing), workload measures, eye tracking and many more. It is our philosophy that scientific inspiration can have its source at all levels of research, ranging from fundamental cognitive theories to real-world design problems.

Behavioural Sciences Philosophy of Human-Technology Relations Technology has come to play a defining role in society. Every major activity in our lives depends on technology. All major institutions of society are increasingly fixated on technology, and any changes in them are largely driven by technology. Prof. dr. ir. Peter-Paul Verbeek In the light of these developments, the aim of the research programme is to perform a philosophical analysis of technology and its role in contemporary society. Ultimately, this philosophical analysis is to contribute to a better role of technology in society, for instance by stimulating better research and design practices, better policies, and better public debates about technology.

4

Adequate design can only be realised when we understand how the end-user (the consumer) interacts with the product or (service) environment in terms of perception, information processing, usage Prof. dr. Ad Pruyn and evaluation. This chair conducts research on controlled and automatic processes of consumer reactions to design. People appear to be highly sensitive to particularly subtle design elements, as these can afford a resonance of which they are not (or only barely) aware. This research group specialises in revealing these (un)conscious processes through the implementation of engineering and technology (such as light, form, sound and architecture) in the design of (tangible) products and (less tangible) environments. Experimental control in the (virtual reality) laboratory or in natural surroundings allows us to ascertain which processes underlie consumer behaviour and to measure their effects.

Engineering Technology Innovation Processes Sustainability is a major issue in construction these days. In order to conserve our environment for future generations we must rethink the way we make and use things and develop more intelligent and sustainable solutions to treat material and energy resources. Sustainability concerns industries that seek to understand the Prof. dr. ir. Joop Halman environmental consequences of their current activities and how they can adopt sustainable business models. The objective of the research is to position Twente as a centre for transformable green design and engineering debate in the Netherlands and internationally, and to create a roadmap for building construction in the 21st century. The research fits within the strategic research orientation (SRO) ‘Innovation & Entrepreneurship’ of the Institute of Governance Studies.


Participating chairs

Engineering Technology Product Design The chair Product Design aims to develop qualitative and - if possible - quantitative methods for understanding the history of products and for inspiring the development of new products. An important aspect Prof. dr. ir. Arthur Eger of the research is that the success of a product is influenced by the place the product occupies in its life cycle. The main practical implication is that one needs to consider this relationship explicitly when choosing specific product development activities, while the chance of success during the product development process can be enhanced when the life cycle is considered. In this research, the concept of a product is relatively broad, and includes services.

Engineering Technology Product Realisation The chair is positioned between the ‘human/soft’ and the ‘technological/hard’ aspects of industrial design engineering. Within the chair of Product Realisation, a distinction is made between three kinds of technology, namely manufacturing technology (aimed at parts production and assembly), design technology (aimed at methods and tools for design) and product technology (aimed at functioning of products). Manufacturing technology and design technology are well covered by other chairs within the University of Twente. The chair for Product Realisation focuses on product technology, in which materials technology as well as functional components and systems play an important role. Prof. dr. ir. Wim Poelman

Electrical Engineering, Mathematics & Computer Science Advanced Robotics and Control Engineering The research of the group has always focused on mechatronics and was recently extended to include robotic systems. The research area of the group relates to novel technology and scientific Prof. dr. ir. Stefano Stramigioli methodologies for the design and development of complete robotic systems and similar intelligent devices, that is, cyber-physical systems. The binding paradigm is the use of port-based methodologies for modelling, control, embedded software and design of mechatronics and robotics systems for real applications.

Electrical Engineering, Mathematics & Computer Science Irrational Computer Interaction Conventional Human Computer Interaction looks at supporting people doing useful tasks. The field concerns user needs and requirements, and attempts to make computers friendly, helpful, cooperative, honest, and as natural as possible in their interactions. However, there are many reasons for subverting this paradigm. Consider games and entertainment, serious training scenarios, or interaction in ambient intelligent environments. Much can be learned by building computers that lie, cheat and deceive, that surprise users with unexpected behaviour, challenge and frustrate the users, or in short, computers that behave irrationally. Prof. dr. ir. Anton Nijholt

5


Participating chairs

Management & Governance Innovative Entrepreneurship The chair Innovative Entrepreneurship leads NIKOS, the UT’s expert centre for knowledge-intensive entrepreneurship, and is committed to research, teaching, consultancy & training and business development support. It consolidates the UT’s expertise and experience from the chairs for Innovative Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Strategic Management and International Management. Research of NIKOS fits within the strategic research orientation (SRO) ‘Innovation & Entrepreneurship’ of the Institute for Innovation and Governance Studies (IGS).

Electrical Engineering, Mathematics & Computer Science Human Media Interaction Prof. dr. Vanessa Evers

The mission of the Human Media Interaction (HMI) group is to help develop technologies that treat users as human beings instead of as machines. To this end, the group looks at ways in which intelligent systems can be taught to incorporate knowledge of human behaviour and social interaction.

With computers retreating into the background, HMI focuses on interaction technologies that can sense and interpret human action, intention and emotion from speech, computer vision and other sensing devices unobtrusively. Intelligent systems can take the form of robots or virtual humans, but interactions in an ambient environment in which multi-sensorial experiences are created through light, touch, sound, and so on are very much in the focus of the group as well. The engineering approach is tightly coupled with a human-centred research approach in which human-system interactions are designed and evaluated from various social science perspectives.

Prof. dr. Dirk Heylen

Prof. dr. Aard Groen

This chair’s research focuses on entrepreneurial and business development processes in networks, mostly in technology-rich domains such as manufacturing industry, and on analysing the interaction between technology (for example nano, ICT, biomed) dynamics and business development. By experimenting with new forms of entrepreneurship support, we realise a field laboratory, which is academically as well as practically relevant. A recent example is the VentureLab Twente business development programme. Within the framework of the UT mission, VentureLab facilitates high-tech high-growth business development. This research is part of IGS, Institute of Innovation and Governance Studies, SRO Innovation & Entrepreneurship.

Management & Governance Organisation Studies and Innovation The chair’s research focuses on the organisation of innovation and new organisational forms needed to deal with the organisational challenges related to the dynamics of the innovation paradox when combining exploration and exploitation. It also looks into how this depends on the technological field in which a firm is active. In studying the organisational issues in innovation management, the research takes a process approach. It is developed along three major lines: - Organising Innovation at company level with a specific interest in ambidexterity, or how to deal with exploration and exploitation simultaneously. - The development of innovative organisations in context (technology-organisation interaction), innovation strategies and their translation into organisational configurations, and the impact on performance. - Organising Innovation in networks and open innovation related to the possibilities created by modular product design. This research is part of IGS, Institute of Innovation and Governance Studies, SRO Innovation & Entrepreneurship. Prof. dr. ir. Petra de Weerd-Nederhof

6


8

DEVELOPING A DRIVER INTERFACE FOR TRANSITIONS BETWEEN AUTOMATED AND NON-AUTOMATED DRIVING

9 PIRATE 10

PRODUCT IMPACT ON USER BEHAVIOUR

11 ART & TECHNOLOGY - ROLE OF OBJECTS IN HUMAN EXISTENCE 12 APPEALING ENVIRONMENTS - CONSUMER EXPERIENCE IN THE PHYSICAL AND SOCIAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENT 13

TELECARE AT HOME: ANTICIPATING CONFLICTING NORMS

14

TRUST IN COLLABORATIVE REPOSITORIES

15

WHISPERING KNOWLEDGE WITH SHAPES

16 APPLIED PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY: MEASURING PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES DURING REAL-LIFE HUMAN-PRODUCT INTERACTIONS 17

THE INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN ON EXPERIENCE AND COMMUNICATIVE BEHAVIOUR

18 HUMAN FACTORS AND MEDIA PSYCHOLOGY 19

MOBILITY SOLUTIONS FOR ELDERLY IN THE CONTEXT OF SOCIAL CONNECTIVITY

20 AMBIENT EXPERIENCE 21

SINGLE-VALUE DEVICES

22

SOCIAL ROBOTICS

7

Research THEME Human-Technology Relations


Human-Technology Relations

DEVELOPING A DRIVER INTERFACE FOR TRANSITIONS BETWEEN AUTOMATED AND NON-AUTOMATED DRIVING

Faculty Chair Theme

Background Mobility is essential for the economy and society. Mobility problems like congestion therefore need to be reduced. High expectations rest on new assistance systems to increase road efficiency; their precision of operation is presumed to enable a more stable traffic flow.

Research subject

Developing a driver interface for transitions between automated and non-automated driving Researcher

Ir. Arie Paul van den Beukel a.p.vandenbeukel@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof. dr. ir. Arthur Eger - dr. ir. Mascha van der Voort Resources

Government funding Status

Ongoing January 2008 - August 2014 Partners

AIDA - Applications of Integrated Driver Assistance TNO Human Factors Keywords

driver interface; transitions between automated and non-automated driving; Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS)

8

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

CTW - Engineering Technology Product Design Human-Technology Relations

 Task performance is a series of control loops, performed by both human and machine  High expectations rest on cooperative driving systems to increase road efficiency  A hierarchy with different levels of driving support has been defined  The supported driver model recommends support types dependent on driving task type and level of task performance

Goals To achieve the desired advantages, assistance systems are being created that interact with other vehicles, called cooperative driving systems. These systems are based on partially automated driving within specific driving situations, allowing for shorter driving distances and avoiding oscillations within the traffic flow. This last aspect especially helps to avoid congestion. Due to technical constraints, liability and customer preferences, cooperative driving systems will only be applied in specific circumstances. For this reason, there will be transitions between human (driver) operation and automation (vice versa). A key factor in the success of cooperative systems is therefore to develop an interface which evokes the appropriate human behaviour, especially for those circumstances in which the transitions take place. The objective of this PhD research is to develop such an interface.

Perspectives This research started with the development of a supported-driver model for the desired allocation of tasks between human and technology performance. The aim was to determine in which circumstances what type of support enhances the driver’s ability to control the vehicle. The answers are the basis for the development of the required interface. The result of this research will answer what impact the designed interface has on driving behaviour, comfort and acceptance.

Platform PRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN


Human-Technology Relations

PIRATE

Faculty Chair Theme

Research subject

Design of an inspection robot for small diameter gas distribution mains Researcher

Edwin Dertien - e.c.dertien@ewi.utwente.nl Supervisor

Stefano Stramigioli Resources

UT-CE, Kiwa Gastec, Demcon, Alliander Status

Ongoing September 2006 - September 2012 Partners

Kiwa GasTec Keywords

service robotics, pipe inspection

9

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Background PIRATE (Pipe Inspection Robot for AuTonomous Exploration) has been designed to inspect the gas distribution mains of the low-pressure net. This urban distribution network presents high risks for public safety, so inspection is necessary to ensure safe operation. After modelling several prototypes in a CAD environment, a prototype was realised using many CNC-manufactured components (see Image 2). For our second model, we are applying rapid prototyping and rapid manufacturing techniques. At present, we are working on a fully functional 3D printed model. Goals The goals of this project are to design a robot that is capable of navigating through the network and carrying out (autonomous) inspection of the quality of the net. The robot has to move through the various bends, joints and obstacles in the net and provide detailed information on the quality of the net’s components.

EWI - Electrical Engineering, Mathematics & Computer Science Control Engineering - Advanced Robotics Human-Technology Relations

 CAD drawing of first robot concept  Construction details of the

first robot concept

 PIRATE inside a transparent tube  3D printed functional prototype

Perspectives The first model is capable of navigating trough most of the selected net components. We are currently working on sensing systems and control electronics and hope to do a semi-autonomous inspection round by the end of 2012.

Platform PRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN


Human-Technology Relations

PRODUCT IMPACT ON USER BEHAVIOUR

Faculty Chair Theme

Research subject

Product Impact on User Behaviour and practices: Theory and ethics of behaviour steering technology Researcher

Drs. Steven Dorrestijn Supervisor

Prof. dr. ir. Peter-Paul Verbeek Project type

-

 When procedures are not self-evident it is a challenge to make technology user-guiding  Beyond serving users technology may persuade to change behaviour

Goals The project aims at (1) elaborating a framework to anticipate product influences on user practices, (2) translating this framework into the practice of design, and (3) systematically addressing ethical questions resulting from the explicit design of behaviour-steering products.

Resources

IOP-IPCR Status

Ongoing 2007 - 2011 Partners

WTMC, 3TU, CTIT Keywords

product impact, technical mediation, usability, ethics

10

Background It is a common belief that for designing good, useful, user-friendly products, it is important to understand user needs and characteristics. However, technologies in use shape and transform user needs and behaviour. To improve usability, the focus must not be exclusively on user needs and characteristics, but also on the complementary aspect of how technology changes people. The reconfiguration of behavioural routines and user preferences by technology is an important topic in the philosophy of technology. To date, little of this knowledge has been transferred to design practice. The Product Impact project therefore investigates how knowledge of behaviour changing effects of technology can be integrated in product design. Can knowledge about product impact help to anticipate and avoid use problems? Is it possible to design products that deliberately guide and change user behaviour? An explicit part of the project is to consider the ethical dimensions of this view on technology and the profession of design.

GW - Behavioural Sciences Philosophy of Human-Technology Relations Human-Technology Relations

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Perspectives Care for human-technology interaction and usability is a key challenge for design in today’s high-tech society. The approach of product impact contributes to this with new insights and tools.

Platform PRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN


Human-Technology Relations

ART & TECHNOLOGY - ROLE OF OBJECTS IN HUMAN EXISTENCE

Faculty Chair Theme

GW - Behavioural Sciences Philosophy of Human-Technology Relations Human-Technology Relations

Background Socially Engaged = Materially Engaged To Form = Being Formed

Research subject

The Performative and Relational Abilities of Things Researcher

Yvonne Dröge Wendel - droge@xs4all.nl Supervisor

Prof. dr. ir. Peter-Paul Verbeek and prof. dr. Sher Doruff Resources

NWO - Fonds BKVB, PhD in the Fine Arts Status

Ongoing December 2010 - December 2015 Partners

Rietveld Academy Amsterdam- research group: Making Things Public Keywords

visual art, artistic research, collaborative art practice, thingy things

11

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Throughout a wide range of academic fields, a collective effort is underway to rework our understanding of what it is for humans and non-humans to constitute a world. This follows from a common theoretical concern, the dissolution of the subject/object distinction. In its physical examining of the affective life of things within collaborative (art) practices, this research project introduces an artistic approach to the materiality of the work in process.

 Object Research Lab - Item Store, 2010, detail  Object Research Lab, 2010, detail  Relational Thingness - Object One, 2010, detail  Relational Thingness - Object One, 2010, detail

 

Goals Primary source material is produced through carefully designed interactive working processes. Specific here is the fact that the project engages informed others, both human and non-human participants, academics and artists from various disciplines and (boundary) objects specifically designed for this process. Live encounters will produce knowledge, generate interdisciplinary dialogue and interpretations. Perspectives A communicatory toolbox that can be used to think and talk about what things do and potentially can do.

The research results will be in both spatial (built environment) and textual (book) form. Texts will elaborate on classification and terminology in relation to the workings of objects in different stages of the artistic process. Texts will furthermore clarify principle factors the maker delegates, intentionally or unintentionally, to objects. Most significantly, in support of the theoretical achievements, my art practice will further develop built environments that evoke discussion, inform and help formulate essential questions concerning (the future of) things.

Platform PRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN


Human-Technology Relations

APPEALING ENVIRONMENTS - CONSUMER EXPERIENCE IN THE PHYSICAL AND SOCIAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENT Background Environmental design of the physical and social service environment impacts consumer experience of the servicescape. Ambient features such as coloured lighting, music and scent are known for the impact they have on how we feel, what we think and how we behave. This research studies the influence of the design and architecture of service settings (for example railway stations, schools and retail settings) on consumer experience and behaviour. Research subject

Appealing environments - Consumer experience in the physical and social service environment Researcher

Dr. Mirjam Galetzka - m.galetzka@utwente.nl Supervisor

Resources

Direct funding, contract research / EU and industry funding Status

Faculty Chair Theme

 Waiting experience, Mark van Hagen, NS  VR lab  SchoolVision, Philips Lighting  Leiden platform

Goals Insight into the effects of service design on consumer experience, and the underlying psychological mechanisms yielding strategies that improve service quality. Perspectives The research within his theme intends to gain insight in the underlying psychological processes that explain how consumers respond to subtle changes in the servicescape.

Ongoing 2007 -

GW - Behavioural Sciences Marketing Communication & Consumer Psychology Human-Technology Relations

Partners

NS (Dutch Railways, Utrecht) / Philips Lighting Keywords

servicescapes, authentic consumer experience, ambient features (music, coloured lighting), waiting times

12

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Platform PRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN


Human-Technology Relations

TELECARE AT HOME: ANTICIPATING CONFLICTING NORMS

Research subject

Being a patient - the role of telecare technology in shaping patient identities Researcher

Dr. Asle Kiran - a.h.kiran@utwente.nl Supervisor

Resources

Research funding / NWO-MVI funding Status

Ongoing 2009 - 2012 Partners

Prof. dr. P. P. Verbeek MSc, prof. dr. N. Oudshoorn, prof. dr. H. Hermens MSc, dr. V. Jones MSc, I.J.H. Maathuis MSc, LLM Keywords

philosophy of technology, technical mediation, ethics, phenomenology, constitution of identities

13

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Background Despite promising to improve the quality of healthcare and showing great potential for reducing healthcare expenditure, telecare technologies are often met with resistance from user groups such as nurses and patients. Partly, this is because these technologies introduce and reinforce specific and inflexible ways of being handled, and thus come with specific built-in norms of use, norms that challenge the existing structures of and relations within healthcare. Such social and ethical consequences of technological innovation can often be surprising from a technical and functional perspective, but are known and assessed in philosophy, ethics and in science, technology and society research (STS). This project especially studies the social and ethical consequences of telemonitoring technologies for chronic patients.

Faculty Chair Theme

 Older telecare technologies utilised TV and telephones in the communication between patient and healthcare personnel  These days, the communication more often happens through internet and the mobile network  A telecare device involves much more than the patient and a nurse; it is a full system of technical and human contributors  Researchers are now working on ultrathin, electronic medical monitors that attach to a patient’s skin and transmit data wireless

Goals The Telecare at Home project aims to use knowledge about user impact to develop tools that can assist engineers in anticipating conflicting norms when designing telecare technologies. Perspectives Telecare technologies do not just perform specific functions, they potentially shape and transform the identities of patients. By being presented with a different set of options (staying at home rather than being hospitalised; eliminate tedious travel), the patient experiences himself or herself as a different kind of patient. In a more general perspective, what does this say about the role of our technological environment in shaping the kind of people we are and become. With this perspective, the project is part of a philosophical investigation of how technology reshapes and transforms society.

GW - Behavioural Sciences Philosophy of Human-Technology Relations Human-Technology Relations

Platform PRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN


Human-Technology Relations

TRUST IN COLLABORATIVE REPOSITORIES

Faculty Chair Theme

GW - Behavioural Sciences Cognitive Psychology & Ergonomics Human-Technology Relations

Background Research on trust has largely focused on automated systems that are closed and stable. Very few studies have been carried out on trust in open and dynamic systems such as collaborative repositories (like Wikipedia).

Research subject

Trust in Collaborative Repositories Researcher

Teun Lucassen, MSc - t.lucassen@gw.utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof. dr. Jan Maarten Schraagen Resources

GW / CTIT Status

Ongoing February 2009 - April 2013 Partners

Keywords

Goals This project focuses on factors that influence information trust and distrust in such open network-based systems. Recent research suggests that rate of use and individual differences in dispositional trust are important factors. We have proposed three strategies by which credibility is evaluated (semantic, surface, source). The choice between these strategies depends on various user characteristics (domain expertise, information skills, source experience). Perspectives Using the acquired knowledge on how people evaluate credibility, we explore the possibility to support them in their evaluations. Such support could be implemented by an automated or a user-based system. Automated systems vary in complexity; a heuristic approach should be compared to an algorithmic approach. The level of trust people have in either heuristics or algorithms is a crucial factor when exploring the optimal support solution.

 Example of Wikipedia article  3S-model of Information Trust

 

trust, information, collaboration, Wikipedia

14

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Platform PRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN


Human-Technology Relations

WHISPERING KNOWLEDGE WITH SHAPES

Faculty Chair Theme

EWI - Electrical Engineering, Mathematics & Computer Science Human Media Interaction Human-Technology Relations

Background Ubiquitous Computing has motivated researchers into augmenting our environment with networked sensors, processing power, and displays. One of the most promising sub-visions are the tangible user interfaces (TUI): computing is seamlessly embedded in everyday objects. One of the main limitations of TUIs is that they focus more on the input mechanism. This project focuses on tangible representations for output mechanisms. Research subject

Smart Material Interfaces for Ambient Displays Researcher

Andrea Minuto - a.minuto@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof. dr. ir. Anton Nijholt Resources

Direct funding / government funding Status

2010 - 2014 Partners

CTIT, ITC Keywords

smart materials, ambient displays, (serious) gaming, entertainment technology

 Tangible Interfaces: real-world tangible representations for input; digital representations for output  Smart Material Interfaces: real-world tangible representations for output  Ambient Grass Display  Muscle wires to actuate grass movement: silent and fast

‘Although the tangible representation allows the physical embodiment to be directly coupled to digital information, it has limited ability to represent change in many material or physical properties. Unlike malleable pixels on the computer screen, it is very hard to change a physical object in its form, position, or properties (e.g. colour, size) in real time.’ -- Hiroshi Ishii Goals Smart Materials are materials that have at least one property that can be dynamically altered in a controlled way, such as shape, colour or stiffness. The advent of Smart Material Interfaces allows us to bring tangible representations to the output side of interactive systems. As information representation is moved to the physical environment, away from display screens, the system can present its information in a much less intrusive, more implicit manner.

Perspectives We will first develop smart grass (‘Follow The Grass’), based on muscle wire actuators. Slight changes in the fluid waving movement of the grass can express a wide variety of information, such as showing the direction to travel, expressing a mood, or implicitly focusing the attention upon a certain object in the environment.

 

15

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Platform PRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN


Human-Technology Relations

APPLIED PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY: MEASURING PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES DURING REAL-LIFE HUMAN-PRODUCT INTERACTIONS

Research subject

Applied psychophysiology: Measuring physiological changes during real-life human-product interactions Researcher

Dr. Matthijs Noordzij - m.l.noordzij@utwente.nl Supervisor

Dr. Matthijs Noordzij Resources

Direct funding / government funding Status

Ongoing January 2009 Partners

Industrial Design Engineering Keywords

emotion, arousal, valence, skin conductance, heart rate, skin temperature, human movement, HCI, HRI

16

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Background For more than 100 years, we have been able to measure various physiological changes in the human body such as increase in heart rate, sweating, breathing. These changes can be indicative of emotional responses, and can be measured automatically and continuously. This makes them an ideal companion to human assessment of emotional states. Typically, humans can classify subtle emotions in others and themselves, but they do so with inconsistent accuracy, especially when over longer periods of time. By combining physiological recordings and human judgement, advanced and practically useful classification of human emotional states during product interactions are possible. Goals This project aims to conduct studies that classify emotional responses of humans to products in real life. Physiological measurements will be central to this project. In many situations, purely qualitative classifications do not suffice. One can think of longitudinal studies in which the arousal of people is tracked automatically for days, or studies in which massive differences in the physiological states between users can be expected (or example factory workers using the same product during a day- or nightshift). Finally, any human-product interaction in which designers expect time-critical moments will benefit from unobtrusive and continuous physiological measurements.

Faculty Chair Theme

GW - Behavioural Sciences Cognitive Psychology & Ergonomics Human-Technology Relations

 The Q sensor, with which skin conductance, skin temperature and movement can be measured.  Example of arousal measurements (through skin conductance) during human-robot interaction  Example of 24-hour arousal measurements on 3 separate days

Perspectives To further improve human-product interactions, triangulation is crucial. This project will add a cost-effective, high-resolution instrument to the product researchers’ toolbox.

Platform PRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN


Human-Technology Relations

THE INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN ON EXPERIENCE AND COMMUNICATIVE BEHAVIOUR

Research subject

The influence of the environmental design on experience and communicative behaviour in healthcare settings Researcher

Vanessa Okken - v.s.okken@utwente.nl Supervisor

Dr. Thomas van Rompay, prof. dr. Ad Pruyn Resources

Direct funding / government funding Status

June 2008 - June 2012 Partners

Keywords

environmental design, self-disclosure, spaciousness, health communication, patient experience

Background Patients’ willingness to disclose information is important during health communication. Self-disclosure, or sharing personal information about oneself with another person, is a very common behaviour when it comes to close relatives and friends. During patient-physician interaction, selfdisclosure is also desired but more troublesome since the healthcare provider frequently does not fit the description of close relative or friend. Besides personal characteristics and the topic of conversation, the environment in which the conversation takes place influences communicative behaviour. The importance of attending to patients’ affective needs, reducing stress levels, and creating a soothing, pleasant environment is all the more apparent when taking note of recent developments in the commercialisation of the healthcare industry. From this perspective, the importance of creating pleasant environments that meet patients’ needs and inspire loyalty and satisfaction with respect to the service cannot be understated.

Faculty Chair Theme

GW - Behavioural Sciences Marketing Communication & Consumer Psychology Human-Technology Relations

Some examples for each category of environmental factors

Goals The effect of different environmental factors related to architecture, interior design and atmospheric are studied. Key factor to this project is the role of spaciousness; how environmental factors can make a room come across as more or less spacious and how these spaciousness perceptions in turn influence behaviour. Research shows that experiencing limited physical space causes feelings of limited psychological space. In turn, these feelings of restraint can cause reactance, a lowered intention to comply with requests. Reactance can emerge as a refusal to accept persuasive messages, buy the recommended products or disclose information when expected to. Perspectives The envisaged results will increase knowledge about how environmental design influences our experience and behaviour. This research will help improve healthcare environments to better meet the needs of patients during contact with their healthcare provider.

17

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Platform PRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN


Human-Technology Relations

HUMAN FACTORS AND MEDIA PSYCHOLOGY

Faculty Chair Theme

Research subject

Diversity in Human-Computer Interaction Researcher

Dr. Martin Schmettow - m.schmettow@utwente.nl Supervisor

Dr. Martin Schmettow Resources

Direct Funding / government funding Status

Ongoing September 2009 Partners

Philips (Eindhoven), Gemeente Enschede Keywords

usability, diversity, statistical modelling, HCI, mixed effects models

18

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Background Imagine, you enter a shoe shop and ask for a pair in size 46. The saleslady, with an apologetic smile, informs you that all shoes are only available in size 43, because this is the average foot size of male Central Europeans. What sounds absurd in this example happens frequently in the design of interactive products: A confusion of the average with the typical. This exactly is our working definition: Diversity is when the average is not the typical. Diversity applies equally to the three factors of usability: Users, tasks and products.

GW - Behavioural Sciences Cognitive Psychology & Ergonomics Human-Technology Relations

 Diversity research balances ecological validity and generalisability

 Random effects analysis reveals: Variety of designs has a stronger impact on browsing performance than individual differences

Goals This project aims at establishing a quantitative framework for user-centred design. This will serve different purposes: (1) characterising populations of users (2) discovering deficiencies in usability of mass products and (3) deriving domain-specific guidelines for universally usable designs. Perspectives Currently, HCI has mainly adopted two opposite research paradigms: the nomothetic and the idiosyncratic. Nomothetic research is driven by the search for universal laws and is strongly attached to strictly controlled laboratory studies. Unfortunately, these are rarely informative for real design problems due to the artificial lab situation. In contrast, idiosyncratic field or case studies are ecologically valid, but do not generalise well to other contexts.

Diversity research aims at combining the best of the two worlds. With quantitative studies in ecologically valid settings, we aim for rich descriptions and good predictions of the human-technology encounter. For a good deal, this is based on the power of modern statistics.

Platform PRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN


Human-Technology Relations

MOBILITY SOLUTIONS FOR ELDERLY IN THE CONTEXT OF SOCIAL CONNECTIVITY

Faculty Chair Theme

CTW - Engineering Technology Product Design Human-Technology Relations

Background An aging society confronts us with many challenges. One is to let elderly live independently as long as possible. There are many advantages of living independently, but the social aspect is weak. Social meeting situations must be stimulated to prevent loneliness.

Research subject

Mobility solutions for the elderly in the context of social connectivity Researcher

Ir. Rick Schotman - h.schotman@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof. dr. ir. Wim Poelman, ir. Marc Beusenberg Resources

3rd party funding Status

September 2011 - September 2015 Partners

Eindhoven University of Technology, Design Academy Eindhoven (CRISP consortium) Keywords

product-service system, local transport, electric mobility, usability, user-centred design, elderly, mobility lab

19

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Mobility product service systems (PSSs) play a key role in this setting. Previous research indicates that mobility solutions are not only used to go from one place to another, but the destination and the movement itself can play a very important social role too. Existing mobility means are not specifically designed as PSS, resulting in a lot of opportunities for development. Previous contextual research indicates that mobility for short to medium distances, such as inner-city transport or transport around rural areas, should be elaborated. Electric mobility is very suitable for these circumstances. Goals Goal of this project is to gain insight in the criteria which a mobility PSS should meet for specific target groups like the elderly. This research will focus on the product side of PSSs and will be performed simultaneously and in close collaboration with research on service systems. Research criteria will be based on user-centred design. Subjects are for example existing mobility means, motives for movement and specific use situations, but also contextual design criteria for instance to avoid stigmatising design.

 Interior of the autonomously driving Zagato 2getthere, a product service system for urban areas  GEM E6, example of an existing electric mobility solution supported by a service system  Two-seater concept for elderly people  Research subject of a dedicated vehicle to be combined with a service system

 

Perspectives The research will result in knowledge for the Dutch creative industry about creating new mobility PSSs. Moreover, several PSSs for the elderly will be developed, and tested in a mobility lab.

Platform PRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN


Human-Technology Relations

AMBIENT EXPERIENCE

Faculty Chair Theme

Background The research of the Ambient Experience team involves development of entertaining and playful environments. A mixture of technology development, new design methods, and user experience studies leads to engaging installations as well as to deeper insights into the behaviour of users in interactive ambient environments.

Research subject

Ambient Experience Researcher

Various researchers contact: Dennis Reidsma - d.reidsma@utwente.nl Supervisor

HMI Resources

3rd party funding Status

2011 - 2015 Partners

KITT Engineering, De Waag Society

 A first playground prototype  Children interacting with the playground during the ‘Experiment in het Bos’ lustrum activity  Influencing the relation and interaction between people through their respective interactions with the system

Goals We want to design for playful ambient user experiences by making the environment (as well as the objects in it) responsive, through a combination of sensors and ambient displays. Using light, sound, and motion, the installations express varying reactions to the behaviour of their inhabitants or users. These interactions are used to implicitly influence the users’ behaviour and feelings, to entertain them, and to activate them. Perspectives One of the first installations being developed in this team is an interactive playground that, instead of offering clear-cut games like most interactive playgrounds, encourages the emergence of play without fixed rules or goals. The behaviour of the playground is inspired by an extensive analysis of children’s play and games in real-life playgrounds.

EWI - Electrical Engineering, Mathematics & Computer Science Human Media Interaction Human-Technology Relations

Keywords

entertainment technology, interactive playgrounds, design methods for emergent interaction, tangible interfaces for entertainment, user experience, implicit interaction

20

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Platform PRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN


Human-Technology Relations

SINGLE-VALUE DEVICES

Faculty Chair Theme

EWI - Electrical Engineering, Mathematics & Computer Science Advanced Robotics and Control Engineering Human-Technology Relations

Background We live in a world of continuous information overflow, but the quality of information and communication is suffering. Single-value devices contribute to the quality of information and communication by focusing on one explicit, relevant piece of information. The information is decoupled from a computer and represented in an object, integrating into daily life. Goals and Perspectives This project is an exploration and mapping of the design space for interactive concepts that use single-value devices.

Research subject

Single-Value Devices Researchers

Angelika Mader - a.h.mader@utwente.nl, Dennis Reidsma - d.reidsma@utwente.nl, Edwin Dertien - e.c.dertien@ewi.utwente.nl Supervisor

-

 Coffee cup as a simple communicator enabling making an appointment for a coffee break with a remote colleague  Microcontroller as a part of a platform  Fridge magnets showing the time left for breakfast until one has to leave for work, taking the road and the actual traffic situation into account  Coconatch - a single value device developed at Waseda University, Japan

The user experience is focused on peripheral information presentation and awareness, and on the affective associations that can be designed into single-value devices.

Furthermore, we are working towards a platform that enables userfriendly operation, like battery-charging, wireless connectivity, and that also allows for easy prototyping, with an eye to mass production.

Resources

Direct funding / government funding Status

2010 - ongoing Partners

-

Keywords

internet of things, telepresence, communication

21

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Platform PRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN


Human-Technology Relations

SOCIAL ROBOTICS

Faculty Chair Theme

Background Slowly but surely, robots and virtual humans are entering our daily lives. Where they first were still confined to factories and laboratories, we now have, in our daily environment, robotic vacuum cleaners, lawn mowers, and receptionists. Virtual humans are being employed for selling tickets, answering product questions, and helping people plan their travels with public transport. Research subject

Modelling and implementing human-like patterns of conversation for interaction with virtual humans and social robots Researchers

Various researchers from CE and HMI. contact: Dennis Reidsma - d.reidsma@utwente.nl Supervisor

Resources

Various (GATE, COMMIT, BRICS, ROBONED, BOBBY) Status

Ongoing Partners

Keywords

social robots, behaviour mark-up language, dialogue systems, mechatronics, virtual humans, user studies

22

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Goals Robots have a strong physical presence, making them more convincing and believable partners in interaction. Also, they can more easily act in the real world. On the other hand, the most advanced work on the subtle mechanisms of social communication has, so far, been done within the context of (graphical) virtual humans. The goal of this collaboration is to close this gap, building a platform that covers the whole spectrum from designing advanced social dialogues, selecting appropriate behaviours, and realising the result in a physical robot embodiment, with all the subtle control and feedback afforded by state-of-the-art robotics. Perspectives In the context of a few national and international projects, the researchers of RAM and HMI are working to connect the social dialogue capabilities researched at HMI with the humanoid robot head developed at RAM. The next step will be to apply the result from analyses of human interaction in certain contexts to interaction with the humanoid head, followed by extensive user studies to see the effect of the implemented behaviour on the interaction with users.

EWI - Electrical Engineering, Mathematics & Computer Science CE - Control Engineering, HMI - Human Media Interaction Human-Technology Relations

 The Twente humanoid head has been

designed within CE for smooth and natural motion capabilities. Vision-based motion control allows interaction by tracking human or salient objects  User studies lead to knowledge about human behaviour in conversation  Implementing human like patterns of conversational behaviour for artificial agents  Social interaction with the Elckerlyc virtual human of HMI

Platform PRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN


24 INTEGRAL FOAM APPLICATION IN CONCRETE 25

MOBILITY LAB TWENTE: MAKING E-MOBILITY ACCESSIBLE

26 RISK MANAGEMENT IN INFRASTRUCTURAL PROJECTS 27 MODULAR PRODUCT AND SERVICE DESIGN 28

ADOPTION AND INNOVATION OF INDUSTRIALISED BUILDING CONCEPTS

29

TOWARDS A METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE DESIGN OF NEW MATERIALS AND MATERIAL COMPOSITES

30 INTERNATIONAL MEDICAL PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT IN NETWORKS 31

INTER-ORGANISATIONAL INNOVATION IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

32

DESIGNING INNOVATIVE ORGANISATIONS IN CONTEXT

33

EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION IN PRODUCT INNOVATION

23

Research THEME Organising Innovation


Organising Innovation

INTEGRAL FOAM APPLICATION IN CONCRETE

Faculty Chair Theme

Research subject

Integral foam application in concrete Researcher

Jacob Alkema - jacob@jacobalkema.nl Supervisor

Prof. dr. ir. Wim Poelman Resources

Contract research / EU and industry funding from companies and local government Status

Ongoing October 2009 Partners

Temmink, Raab Karcher, Olde Hanter, Morssinkhof Keywords

CO2-reduction, Cradle to Cradle, sustainability, foamed concrete, aerated concrete

CTW - Engineering Technology Product Realisation Organising Innovation

Background The production of concrete causes a substantial part in the CO2 emission worldwide. The use of lightweight concrete elements diminishes this and helps solve the ergonomic constraints in the building industry by weight reduction. Concrete elements of which only the kernel is foamed and the outside layer is solid have the advantage of a high-quality hard surface, no assimilation of water and better surface strength compared with regular aerated concrete. The first experiment, a proof-of-principle test for such a concrete element, was successful. With this method, the weight of prefab elements can be reduced by more than 50%. Goals This experimental research project aims to develop a so-called integral foaming system. The outside of the product is solid concrete, the inside a foamed concrete core. The aim is to develop a reproducible system including the necessary tooling for large-scale production of integral foamed concrete components. Several companies and the Delft University of Technology are involved in this research project. Perspectives The project could lead to a substantial reduction of CO2 emission world-wide and to a solution of ergonomic constraints in building industry by weight reduction. The thermal insulation is higher compared with regular concrete. Transportation (cost & energy) will decrease. The material is reusable: No synthetic fillings are used to create the foam core, and no synthetic foam agents are needed.

24

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Platform PRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN


Organising Innovation

MOBILITY LAB TWENTE: MAKING E-MOBILITY ACCESSIBLE

Research subject

Mobility Lab Twente: making e-mobility accessible Researcher

Ir. Marc Beusenberg - c.m.beusenberg@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof. dr. ir. Wim Poelman Resources

Part direct funding (government funding) and part thirdparty funding (EU and industry funding) Status

Ongoing October 2009 - September 2013 Partners

Several departments of the University of Twente, governments, local industry partners, and the Dutch CRISP (CReative Industry Science Programme) consortium Keywords

technology diffusion, open innovation, design management, design research, research valorisation, business development, mobility, e-mobility, electric driving, urban mobility

Faculty Chair Theme

Background The conditions for the (re-)introduction of electric vehicles are much better than they were in the 1920s and 1930s, or in the 1990s. Marketing electric cars is now pursued by OEMs and governments alike, mostly under pressure of reducing the use of natural resources such as fossil fuel, and changing economics and politics. Progression in e-mobility appears a logical course of events, but the transition to a combined combustion engine and electromotor market is taking longer than expected. We suspect that the availability of knowledge is of great influence to the acceptance of e-mobility. Goals The decision-making process as to whether or not to invest in project ideas at an early stage is much more difficult in innovation-intensive domains than in established markets. The aim of our research is to understand how to facilitate this decision-making process for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the emerging area of mobility and electric driving. To date, our research has resulted in an understanding of which factors dominate the development of e-mobility that are substantially different from those of the development of current mobility which is based on the combustion engine. Each of these six factors needs to be carefully considered in every step of the design (Figure 1). Not only the process of knowledge transfer but also its organisation is subject of our study. Under the name ‘Mobility Lab Twente’, we are investigating what organisation type and facilities are best suited to enhance this sharing of knowledge.

 Sustainable mobility innovation model  Re-design of the CityEL electric vehicle  Concept design of an individual electric vehicle for inner-city transport

 First prototype of the e-trigger: an electric vehicle for touristic use

Perspectives The Mobility Lab Twente wants to contribute to an improved understanding and acceptance of electric driving. Most of the case studies that are part of this research address inner-city mobility. The collaborations sought in this research are expected to lead to more business activity, at least at regional level.

25

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

CTW - Engineering Technology Product Realisation Organising Innovation

Platform PRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN


Organising Innovation

RISK MANAGEMENT IN INFRASTRUCTURAL PROJECTS

Faculty Chair Theme

Research subject

An approach to integrate knowledge risk-related knowledge to support risk management in large infrastructural projects Researcher

Ibsen Chivatá Cárdenas - c.cardenas@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof. dr. ir. Joop Halman, dr. Saad Al-jibouri Resources

Co-funding in cooperation with Deltares and IGS Status

October 2008 - October 2012 Partners

Keywords

risk-related knowledge integration, epistemic uncertainty, expert judgement elicitation, Bayesian belief networks, risk modelling

Background Risk-related knowledge gained from past construction projects is regarded to be extremely useful in risk management. However such knowledge is usually unavailable when required and there are many circumstances that hamper its wider use. As a result many risk factors remain unidentified and, consequently, unattended. This research deals with possible options for capturing, integrating and using existing risk-related knowledge to support risk management decisions. Focusing on limited but critical tunnel risks, the research attempts to demonstrate how knowledge on a number of top risks in tunnel works can be captured, integrated and used. The research will show the extent to which the approach and the models integrating risk-related knowledge provide guidance to derive risk measures on a cost-efficient basis and inform on uncertainty of the risks under study.

CTW - Engineering Technology Product Realisation Organising Innovation

 Overall risk system configuration for capturing integrating and using risk-related knowledge

 Expert elicitation process to capture risk-related knowledge

 Excessive loss of support: risk sub-model prototype

Goals The goals of this study are twofold: To construct risk models integrating knowledge for six critical construction risks in tunnel works and to develop and test an approach for constructing, analysing and using the developed risk models. Perspectives The research has been conducted using the Bayesian probabilistic paradigm in conjunction with the uncertainty-based approach to risks, in which uncertainty due to lack of knowledge is regarded the main component of risk.

 

26

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Platform PRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN


Organising Innovation

MODULAR PRODUCT AND SERVICE DESIGN

Faculty Chair Theme

Research subject

Modular design concepts for product and service innovation Researcher

Dr. ir. Erwin Hofman - e.hofman@utwente.nl Supervisor

Resources

PSIBouw, PDMA and IGS Status

Ongoing Partners

Prof. dr. ir. Joop Halman, Michael Song, Dries Faems, Alberto Di Minin, Stephani Schleimer, diverse productand service companies Keywords

modularity, product platform, product- service innovation, innovation networks, modular innovation, architectural innovation.

27

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Background Modular products and services platforms allow a company to develop new products quickly and at decreased cost. Furthermore, modular designs facilitate efficient co-creation: Customers can design their own products and services by means of mixing and matching standardised product and service modules. Many companies from industries as diverse as the construction industry and shoe-manufacturing industries are interested in the benefits of modular design concepts but struggle with developing them.

 Modularity in design and production (courtesy: Jan Wind architects)

 Roombeek Enschede, modularity in

housing design (copyright: Erwin Hofman)

 Modular innovations facilitating customisation (www.nike.com)

Goals Systemic or so-called architectural innovations are needed to develop modular products or services based on a new set of interface standards. In loosely coupled, specialised business networks, systemic innovation can only be realised in conjunction with related innovations within a network of firms. Questions that must be dealt with concern how to split integral systems into modular systems, what type of interfaces between modules will be designed, who owns the property rights over the new standards and what kind of partnering relationships within innovation networks motivate companies to collaborate and improve commercial innovation performance. Perspectives The research provides recommendations on how to develop modular product and service platforms. Furthermore, it shows how companies can organise their innovation networks to maximise their commercial innovation performance. As this research deals about modular design standards, the results also comprehend governmental policy implications for product standardisation in general.

MB - Management And Governance Organisation Studies & Innovation Organising Innovation

Platform PRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN


Organising Innovation

ADOPTION AND INNOVATION OF INDUSTRIALISED BUILDING CONCEPTS

Research subject

Adoption of innovation in the construction industry Researcher

Ir. John van Oorschot - j.a.w.h.vanoorschot@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof. dr. ir. Joop Halman Resources

Pioneering Foundation, IDF workgroup and IGS Status

July 2010 - July 2014 Partners

4D Architects, De Groot Vroomshoop, De Woonplaats, Hodes Bouwsystemen, Plegt Vos, Raab Karcher, Twinta, Van Dijk Groep, Winkels Techniek Keywords

innovation, adoption, construction industry, residential sector

Background In the past decades, extensive governmental and industry efforts have been made to develop and construct sustainable, industrialised and adaptable building structures. These efforts resulted in several innovative building systems. At a small scale, these innovations have already been applied successfully. However, it remains a challenge to achieve them at a broader scale. It is assumed that it is difficult to apply systemic innovations at a larger scale because of the complexity and the lack of know-how of applying innovation diffusion theory in the context of the (residential) construction industry.

Faculty Chair Theme

CTW - Engineering Technology Innovation Processes Organising Innovation

 Research setting: The adoption of systemic innovation in the residential construction industry  Example of systemic innovation: An extension module for revitalising apartment buildings

Goals Although continuous potential systemic innovations are available to the residential construction industry, only a few grow to maturity and become successful. The low cumulative adoption and implementation rate of systematic innovations diminishes the competitiveness and profitability of residential construction firms. Furthermore, it results in a loss of research and development investments and impedes the willingness to invest in new business opportunities. This research aims (1) to identify the key factors that influence the adoption-rejection process of innovations in the residential sector, and (2) to develop implementation strategies that increase the adoption potential of systemic innovations in the residential sector. Perspectives The objective of this research is to contribute to the diffusion theory within the context of the residential sector. Furthermore, this research contributes to theory development in the field of system innovations in loosely coupled networks. To that end, we are developing a strategy that innovators in the residential industry could apply to enlarge the diffusion potential of systemic innovations.

28

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Platform PRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN


Organising Innovation

TOWARDS A METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE DESIGN OF NEW MATERIALS AND MATERIAL COMPOSITES

Faculty Chair Theme

CTW - Engineering Technology Product Realisation Organising Innovation

Background In the past, many design disciplines have emerged. Architectural design is the oldest and goes back to Vitruvius. Fashion design and interior design have also been in existence for ages. Industrial design has come up during the last century. Initially, products were just based on materials properties, but these days, information technology (IT) has become probably the most important enabler of product functions. Research subject

Towards a methodological framework for the design of new materials and material composites Researcher

Prof. dr. ir. Wim Poelman - w.a.poelman@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof. dr. ir. Wim Poelman Resources

Direct funding / government funding Status

Ongoing September 2008 Partners

Stichting Material Design Keywords

design, methodology, materials, smart, functional, composites, responsiveness, adaptability

29

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

 Concrete, light-weight window frame

 Application of long-fibre thermoplastics in pulley

 Vacuum cleaner which informs user by colour and form changing  Relation between product design, intelligence design and material design

An important issue for the near future is the integration of materials sciences and IT. Materials become actuators which directly translate information input in movement, colour change, texture change, transparency change, etc. Although materials have already been subject of design for a long time, materials design was not yet recognised as a design discipline. Goals This research project is aimed at the definition of a discipline called ‘materials design’, combined with methodological tools and methods, which provides materials designers specific professional needs which are not available within the other design disciplines.

 

Perspectives The project is aimed at initiating the development of a new discipline enabling the optimal use of new technology in the design of new materials which integrate functions in an effective and sustainable way.

Platform PRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN


Organising Innovation

INTERNATIONAL MEDICAL PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT IN NETWORKS Background The research focuses on the question how medical devices companies should organise their external network in order to achieve high innovation performance.

Research subject

International Medical Product Development in Networks Researcher

Dr. ir. Annemien Pullen - a.j.j.pullen@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof. dr. Aard Groen Resources

This research is part of IGS, Institute of Innovation and Governance Studies, SRO Innovation & Entrepreneurship. Status

Ongoing January 2011 Partners

Gloria Barczak - Full Professor/ Northeastern University - USA, Kenneth B. Kahn - Full Professor/ Virginia Commonwealth University - USA, Ann Ledwith - PhD/ University of Limerick - Ireland, Mats Magnusson - Full Professor/ KTH Royal Institute of Technology - Sweden, Helen Perks - PhD/ Manchester Business School - UK, Petra de Weerd-Nederhof - Full Professor/ University of Twente - The Netherlands

Faculty Chair Theme

MB - Management and Governance Innovative Entrepreneurship Organising Innovation

 Collaboration in Medical New Product Development

Collaboration is highly important in new product development, especially in high-tech, regulated environments like the medical devices sector. There is, however, room for a lot of improvement in the organisation of such collaborations. Even though numerous alliances fail in practice, the academic debate insufficiently addresses how to organise these networks in the context of new product development (NPD). In both practice and theory, there appears to be a knowledge gap concerning the successful organisation of networks in terms of innovation performance. Goals The goal of the project is to build a large international database including data on innovation performance and network characteristics of small, medium-sized and large medical devices companies in order to study the relationship between multiple network characteristics simultaneously and innovation performance. Perspectives The study will result in: 1. Improved understanding of how to organise NPD networks in the medical devices sector successfully. 2. A benchmark tool for medical devices companies, with which medical devices companies can compare their external characteristics and innovation performance with those of high-performance companies in the medical devices sector.

Keywords

product development, networks, collaboration, medical devices, innovation performance

30

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Platform PRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN


Organising Innovation

INTER-ORGANISATIONAL INNOVATION IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

Faculty Chair Theme

CTW - Engineering Technology Innovation Processes Organising Innovation

Background Firms do not conduct all their innovation activities on their own; they also participate in innovation projects in which they develop and commercialise new products or services in collaboration with other firms. In this research, we focus on the decision to allocate resources to such joint innovation projects.

Research subject

Inter-organisational innovation in construction industry Researcher

Ir. Maarten Rutten- m.e.j.rutten@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof. dr. ir. André Dorée, prof. dr. ir. Joop Halman

Goals The goal is to advance the current understanding of resource allocation decisions in joint innovation projects in construction industry, notably regarding how these type of decisions are made, how they are influenced by other firms, and to what extent they are influenced by other factors. To achieve this goal, we have conducted a literature review, case study and survey.

 The role of systems integrators in construction innovation (Winch, 1998)

 One of the cases studied concerns the development of a building system for sustainable homes

 Our focus: what explains a firm’s willingness to invest resources?

Perspectives By using a novel decision-making theory as our theoretical lens, we expect to be able to advance the current understanding of resource allocation decisions in joint innovation projects. The results of this research can assist those who have to make such resource allocation decisions.

Resources

PSI Bouw and IGS Status

Ongoing 2006 - 2012 Partners

A range of public and private organisations Keywords

open innovation, new product development, collaboration, systems integrators, resource allocation, decision-making

31

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Platform PRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN


Organising Innovation

DESIGNING INNOVATIVE ORGANISATIONS IN CONTEXT

Faculty Chair Theme

Research subject

Designing innovative organisations in context Researcher

Dr. ir. Klaasjan Visscher - k.visscher@utwente.nl Supervisor

Dr. ir. Klaasjan Visscher Resources

This research is part of IGS, Institute of Innovation and Governance Studies, SRO Innovation & Entrepreneurship. Status

2010 - 2015 Partners

Prof. dr. Bart van Looy / KU Leuven Keywords

Background Exploiting novel technologies effectively in profitable products is a challenge for established firms. In particular the question how to organise these innovative activities alongside the current business is challenging, as it confronts organisations with contradictory demands, stemming from the need for experimentation and flexibility on the one hand, and focus and commitment on the other hand. Several competing organisational designs have been proposed in the literature to embed novel activities, but little is known about the effectiveness of these designs under different circumstances, and within different stages of the technological life cycle. Moreover, deepened insight is required in the actual processes of designing and developing organisational structures and practices.

MB - Management and Governance Organisation Studies & Innovation Organising Innovation

 Creativity and Innovation Management

 ASDL modem by Alcatel, a partner in this project

 The evolution of an innovative organisation

Goals The purpose of this research is to further our knowledge of the design and the designing of innovative organisations, and to provide established and younger companies with guidelines to enhance their innovativeness. Perspectives This research takes a process perspective, conducting longitudinal case studies of organisations and corporate ventures in specific technological fields.

 Introductory Stage

Growth Stage

organisational designing, product development, organisational structure, design guidelines, process research

Maturity Stage

Matrix organisation diversified technology Functional organisation single technology

Decline Stage

Ambidextrous organisation new technologies

Project organisation technological concept Time

32

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Platform PRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN


Organising Innovation

EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION IN PRODUCT INNOVATION

Faculty Chair Theme

MB - Management and Governance Organisation Studies & Innovation Organising Innovation

Background Why do some companies focus on the exploitation of existing ideas, while others tend to explore new opportunities? This study investigates the role of individual and team characteristics in explaining a company’s tendency toward incremental and radical innovation.

Exploration and Exploitation in Product Innovation Researcher

Matthias de Visser - m.devisser@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof. dr. ir. Petra de Weerd-Nederhof, dr. ir. Klaasjan Visscher Resources

Ministry of EL&I / Competenties voor Innovatie. This research is part of IGS, Institute of Innovation and Governance Studies, SRO Innovation & Entrepreneurship.

Perspectives The study results in improved understanding of exploration and exploitation tendencies at various organisational levels, as well as a new method to assess product development project portfolios based on textmining techniques.

allocation to exploration and exploitation in a product development project portfolio  One of the industries involved in our project: the wind industry

100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

EXPLORATIE EXPLOITATIE 

40%

30%

20%

10%

0% 1  5  9  13  17  21  25  29  33  37  41  45  49  53  57  61  65  69  73  77  81  85  89  93  97  101  105  109  113  117  121  125  129  133  137  141  145  149  153  157  161  165  169  173  177  181  185  189  193  197  201  205  209  213  217  221  225  229  233  237  241  245  249 

Research subject

Goals This project aims at investigating individual and structural factors that hamper or support exploration and exploitation in product development projects and project portfolios of manufacturing companies. In particular, we focus on the impact of cognitive style and team heterogeneity on innovation performance.

 Evolution of resource

Status

May 2008 - May 2012

Partners

IGS and Dries Faems (University of Groningen) Keywords

product innovation performance, project portfolio management, team structure, cognitive style

33

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Platform PRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN


35 ANTICIPATING SOCIAL IMPACT; INTRODUCING A NEW PARADIGM FOR SOCIAL SUSTAINABLE DESIGNS 36 SOFIE 37

EVOLUTIONARY PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

38

UNRULY PRODUCT DESIGN

39

TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION AS AN EVOLUTIONARY PROCESS

40

DO IT YOURSELF AND CO-CREATION

41

DEVELOPMENT OF A LARGE AREA PERSONS COOLER, BASED ON EVAPORATION OF WATER AND WITHOUT DRAUGHT

42

GRAPHIC LANGUAGE OF PRODUCTS

43

DESIGN FOR WOMEN - THE DEVELOPMENT OF DESIGN GUIDELINES BASED ON THE GENDER DIFFERENCES

44

DESIGN AND AFFECTIVE CONSUMER EXPERIENCE

45 AN INNOVATION TOOL FOR THE SME

34

Research THEME UNDERSTANDING PRODUCT SUCCESS, INSPIRING Product Design


Understanding Product Success, Inspiring Product Design

ANTICIPATING SOCIAL IMPACT; INTRODUCING A NEW PARADIGM FOR SOCIAL SUSTAINABLE DESIGNS

Research subject

What are unintentional social consequences of changes in technologies? How can these consequences be anticipated for technologies that are developed for vulnerable groups? Researcher

Jantine Bouma - J.T.Bouma@ctw.utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof. dr. ir. Wim Poelman, prof. dr. ir. P.P Verbeek Resources

Hanze University of applied science Status

September 2007 - December 2011 Partners

Keywords

social impact, technical mediation, social ecology

Background Technical interventions in communities have mediating effects that influence behaviours of people involved, this is called social impact. These mediating effects lead to unintentional consequences. For instance it was concluded in research that technology in cohousing communities have led to unexpected changes in behaviour. These changes were related to the characteristics of the community and the technology itself. A cohousing community is providing a place where elder people have the possibility to share daily life activities in common facilities and still live independently in their own apartments. Some of the changes found were negatively influencing social interactions in the community. Therefore it was concluded that new technologies (like domotics) that are introduced in such communities need to be social sustainable in the sense that they do not have negative influences on the social structure of a community. Another research has been conducted to evaluate the social impact of digital whiteboards at elementary schools.

Faculty Chair Theme

CTW - Engineering Technology Product Realisation Understanding Product Success, Inspiring Product Design

The social impact can differ through specific social, individual and physical characteristics of (dwellers of) cohousing communities

Goals The primary goal underlying this project is to explore ways to anticipate social impact of new technology in order to support social sustainable designs. This has led to the following research questions: A question related to the content of the problem: 1. What unintentional and unwanted social consequences of technologies on social systems can be identified? Secondly a research question is formulated that addresses to the process of research: 2. How can social impact of technologies be identified? And finally a question related to the application of the found knowledge: 3. How can the insights from this research be translated towards practical design practices? Perspectives Designers have an ethical responsibility to understand mediating effects of technology. Especially when technology is designed to influence complex social structures and aiming at vulnerable people that may face harmful consequences of these changes.

35

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Platform PRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN


Understanding Product Success, Inspiring Product Design

SOFIE

Faculty Chair Theme

Background Bicycling is an effective means of transportation, thus it should be available to as many people as possible for as long as possible.

Research subject

SOFIE - Slimme Ondersteunde Fiets (Smart Assisted Bicycles) Researcher

Adrian Cooke - adrian.cooke@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof. dr. ir. Wim Poelman Resources

PIDON Status

March 2011 - February 2015 Partners

Bio-mechanical Engineering (UT), Indes, RRD Keywords

bicycle stability, bicycle dynamics, simulation, modelling

36

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

CTW - Engineering Technology Product Realisation Understanding Product Success, Inspiring Product Design

 Product Realisations role in the project is to create a test bench with the following goals  The design of the test bench for SOFIE  The instrumented bicycle

The rise of the electric bicycle has proven to be a big contribution to the mobility and social activity of elderly people by assisting them if their strength and health reduces their cycling abilities. As more elderly people are using cycling as a means of transportation or recreation, an increasing number of people are facing a heightened feeling of insecurity on their bicycles. A decrease of vision, hearing and reaction time can cause dangerous and unexpected situations.

A consequence is that at a certain point, people stop riding their bicycles because they are afraid. Subsequently, they quickly become less active, which may accelerate their decline in mobility in general. The current solution for people who have problems riding their bicycles is the change to a tricycle or a mobility scooter. This change is not easily made because of the stigmatic character of these products, and reduced mobility can be a result.

Goals The goal of the SOFIE project is to develop Intelligent Assist Devices (IAD) for electric bicycles to increase their safety and enable more people to ride bicycles for longer, especially elderly cyclists. Perspectives The role of the Product Realisation group in SOFIE is to design and create an intelligent test bench whereby bicycles, with and without riders or IADs can be tested for their stability.

Platform PRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN


Understanding Product Success, Inspiring Product Design

EVOLUTIONARY PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

Faculty Chair Theme

CTW - Engineering Technology Product Design Understanding Product Success, Inspiring Product Design

Background Starting from the economic product life cycle six product phases were developed: performance, optimisation, itemisation, segmentation, individualisation and awareness. The six phases are placed in a chronological order such that predictions about new or future products can be made.

Research subject

Evolutionary product development Researcher

Prof. dr. ir. Arthur Eger - a.o.eger@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof. dr. ir. Arthur Eger Resources

Direct funding / government funding Status

Ongoing September 2007 Partners

IBR, ir. Huub Ehlhardt, ir. Ferry Vermeulen Keywords

Goals The Evolutionary Product Development model in its current form is eligible for further improvement, by finding a better foundation in recent literature about evolutionary technological development and further empirical testing through historical case studies. The following has priority because it may further improve the usability of the theory:

 Motorola 1983  Ericsson 1999  Samsung Lady-phone 2002  Xelibri Siemens 2003  Vertu 2004  ‘Pokia’ Holborne 2005  ‘Pokia’ Mayfair 2005  Product phases

A study to find out to what extent designers are able to make correct predictions about future products based on the theory of the product phases (in other words, how many developed products based upon the proposed theory have actually been successful). Perspectives The study will result in improved understanding of the evolution of products and better methods to develop successful new products based on the theory.

Awareness Individualisation Segmentation

product development, product design, evolution of products, emotional benefits, functionality, marketing, methodology, design history

Itemisation Optimisation Performance

37

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Platform PRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN


Understanding Product Success, Inspiring Product Design

UNRULY PRODUCT DESIGN

Faculty Chair Theme

Research subject

Unruly rules: lessons from the history of unruly product design Researcher

Dr. ir. Wouter Eggink - w.eggink@ctw.utwente.nl Supervisor

Dr. ir. Wouter Eggink Resources

Direct funding / government funding Status

September 2007 - September 2011 Partners

IBR Keywords

unruly design, design history, aesthetics, author driven design, demand driven design

Background This project is about research into the history of unruly design, which aims at finding theoretical background for the design of everyday things in a postmodern society. Unruly design is defined in this research as: all objects that are designed with the intention to undermine the existing design-paradigm of the functionalists. The project will present the research background, research approach, and findings in the form of the first five design practices that have been identified as a set of ‘rules of unruly design’. The conclusion in this research has two sides; a cynical one and a positive one. The cynical conclusion can be that the postmodernist experiment in itself has failed; although the central idea was ‘anything goes (as long as it is not modernist)’, it showed that postmodern design largely followed common paths. One can say that in the end, unruly design followed its own rules. The positive conclusion, however, is that the identification of the five rules of unruly design can support designers to understand the implementation of meaning-driven into demanddriven design practice, and therefore extends the possibilities for making meaningful objects. These five rules of practice can be considered a toolkit for the contemporary designer toward making meaningful objects.

CTW - Engineering Technology Product Realisation Understanding Product Success, Inspiring Product Design

 Design of everyday things in a postmodern society: The image is more important than the product itself

 A modernist design by Le Corbusier and its unruly counterpart by Ron Arad

 Two wine glasses form a doorbell by Peter van der Jagt: Cultural references determine the meaning of objects

 The unruly variant on ‘This is not a pipe’ by René Magritte: It is only a pipe when it is used as a pipe

Goals The identification of common unruly design practices will provide strategies for implementing emotion and affection into future product concepts.

Perspectives In the future, the set of unruly design practices will be analysed for its use possibilities within other common design theories, especially the Evolutionary Design theory of Eger. In addition, the derived theory will be used for further exploration of the Human-Product relationships in cooperation with the groups of Peter Paul Verbeek and Mascha van der Voort.

38

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Platform PRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN


Understanding Product Success, Inspiring Product Design

TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION AS AN EVOLUTIONARY PROCESS

Research subject

Technological innovation as an evolutionary process Researcher

Ir. Huub Ehlhardt - huub.ehlhardt@gmail.com Supervisor

Prof. dr. ir. Arthur Eger Resources

EU and industry funding Status

Ongoing 2010 - 2014 Partners

Consumentenbond Keywords

innovation, evolution of products, history of technology, design history

Description We have been making tools since the dawn of mankind. Initially, the rate of development was very slow. For hundreds of thousands of years, the hand axe did not change much. Then people started to write, live in cities and various specialisations of labour arose. An ever-increasing speed of development of new and more advanced types of tools characterises our technological history. Obviously, the more complex and advanced tools could only be invented by building on the knowledge developed by earlier inventors. This knowledge and skills accumulation process lead to highly complex tools such as the smart phone and the Saturn V rocket that brought men to the moon. The evolution of technology (Basalla, 1988) has been used as a metaphor to describe how particular inventions build on each other.

Faculty Chair Theme

 Hand axe  Evolution in telephones  Evolution in lighting  Tree of Product Evolution

Goals This project aims at exploring evolutionary relations in technical innovations. First, it will investigate how several products evolved from their inception to the latest known advanced types. The development through time will be described as evolutionary processes. Secondly, the project will investigate how we can best use information on the development paths of products in new product development processes. Perspectives This project intends to build on the product phase theory (Eger, 2007) and add methods for mapping and extrapolating the development of products. It will result in an improved understanding of evolutionary aspects of innovation and so contribute to innovation theory in general and new product development specifically.

CTW - Engineering Technology Product Design Understanding Product Success, Inspiring Product Design

 

39

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Platform PRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN


Understanding Product Success, Inspiring Product Design

DO IT YOURSELF AND CO-CREATION

Faculty Chair Theme

Background The origins of Industrial Design field lie in the industrialisation of consumer products since the 18th century. Since these early days, the industry produces, the designer designs and the consumer buys. ‘Design is the container of the message that is mediated between manufacture and consumer’ (Sparke), is a saying that refers to the traditional top-down relationship between supplier and consumer. Research subject

User design: The end user designing for himself Researcher

Ir. JanWillem Hoftijzer - j.w.hoftijzer@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof. dr. ir. Arthur Eger, dr. ir. Wouter Eggink Resources

Direct funding / government funding Status

Ongoing 2007 - 2013 Partners

IBR Keywords

co-creation, co-design, product design, do-it-yourself, DIY, product development, mass customisation, user design, participation

But these roles are changing. New steps in the emergence of information technology change the old structures of the user-supplier relationship. People actively take part in all kinds of product design processes. There is now a large number of user-initiated and user-involving practices, covered by the terms ‘User Design’ and ‘new Do-It-Yourself (DIY)’ (also referred to as customer co-creation or customisation). A historic analysis of both today’s and previous DIY periods brings forth that there are two major factors that paved the way for today’s participation in product design (Atkinson, 2006): technology and human motivation (Csikszentmihalyi, 1981). Today’s highly connected user does not adhere to a ‘fixed solution space’.

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

 DIY magazines  People are doing it for themselves  Time Magazine covers: Do-It-Yourself: the new billion dollar hobby in 1954, and ‘You’ as person of the year in 2006  Shapeways.com, providing a toolkit for designing, creating and selling, for example, your own tableware  Instructables: today’s DIY magazine  Freitag.ch, providing the opportunity to design your own unique bag made from old truck tarpaulins

Goals Following the above, the research attends to the DIY design dimensions that should be taken into account - by the designer - when facilitating the user design process (‘design for DIY’). Perspectives A case study should help to describe some of the design dimensions in more detail. From a broader perspective, the research study should help the designer anticipate to the changes that happen to the industrial design field.

40

CTW - Engineering Technology Product Design Understanding Product Success, Inspiring Product Design

Platform PRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN


Understanding Product Success, Inspiring Product Design

DEVELOPMENT OF A LARGE AREA PERSONS COOLER, BASED ON EVAPORATION OF WATER AND WITHOUT DRAUGHT

Faculty Chair Theme

CTW - Engineering Technology Product Design Understanding Product Success, Inspiring Product Design

Background Cooling is Hot aims to develop a new way of evaporative cooling, suitable for cooling persons and animals, rather than processes. It does so by focusing on absorption of dissipated radiant heat, as close to the user as comfort perception allows. This limits the volume of air to be cooled to provide additional convectional cooling to minimise the needed cooling capacity, material and energy consumption. The usual cold stream of air associated with conventional air conditioners will be absent.

Research subject

Development of a large area persons cooler, based on evaporation of water and without draught Researcher

Matthijs Meulenbelt - meulenbelt@wxs.nl Supervisor

Prof. dr. ir. Arthur Eger, dr. Thomas van Rompay Resources

Research funding / NWO funding & contract research / EU and industry funding Status

Ongoing May 2008 - December 2012 Partners

IBK-Groep, VDL-Klima, STW Keywords

evaporative cooling, energy efficient cooling

41

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Goal Objective is to develop the first generation of the cooler, for use in for example automobiles and schools. Therefore, the system parameters will be established, maximum capacities will be assessed, best suitable materials determined and the subjective perception of coolness established to come to a well adjustable system, suitable for energyefficient cooling of people, livestock and other animals. Perspective The perspective of the first generation of the product to be designed and engineered is vast. Smaller schools, for instance, can hardly use conventional centralised air-cooling because of lack of space for ducting. Smaller units will not give good results because schools need lots of ventilation to reduce CO2 levels.

 Cooling is Hot!  First lab model  Mollier diagram for water and water vapour

The concept of the Cooling is Hot! cooler will suit these circumstances well and is essentially simple and intrinsically inexpensive.

Platform PRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN


Understanding Product Success, Inspiring Product Design

GRAPHIC LANGUAGE OF PRODUCTS

Faculty Chair Theme

Research subject

Understanding the 2.5th dimension: Modelling the graphic language of products Researcher

Ing. Maaike Mulder-Nijkamp m.mulder-nijkamp@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof. dr. ir. Arthur Eger, dr. ir. Wouter Eggink Resources

Status

Ongoing September 2011 Partners

IBR Keywords

visual recognition, graphical elements, brand identity, design semantics, 2.5th dimension

42

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Background Recognising a product of a specific brand without seeing the logo is difficult. Therefore, there is a necessity for companies to make products with a distinctive design. In order to be recognised by consumers as a brand, it is even more important to develop a consistent product portfolio. In my research on the graphic language of products, I try to develop a framework which will contribute to better brand recognition and better brand value. This graphic language of products consists of elements which are somewhere on the borderline between two-dimensional aspects such as the logo and three-dimensional aspects such as the silhouette. Through a better understanding of design features and their graphical role, a brand can develop a solid base for creating new recognizable products. Goals The main goal is to analyse a brand at different graphical levels and to develop a framework that will help designers to make new products in a way such that consumers will recognise the associated brand more easily. The model distinguishes the difference between elements such as a logo or a text (2D), elements such as a shape (3D) and everything in between (2.5D) which will be called graphical elements. Think of, for example the protruding letters on a Grolsch beer bottle, the characteristic grille of a car or the illuminated apple in a MacBook. The integration of these graphical elements can play an important role in the recognition of a brand and its brand values.

CTW - Engineering Technology Product Design Understanding Product Success, Inspiring Product Design

 Examples of graphical elements (2.5D): the protruding letters of Grolsch and the illuminated apple in a MacBook  Evolution of the graphical grille of BMW from rectangle forms (1979) to more kidney-shaped forms (2004)  Design of a shoe using the characteristics of the brand Ducati  Students’ example of a fragrance bottle for Puma using the logo in a 2.5th dimension

Perspectives The study will result in a framework that will help designers to make new products that consist of a graphic language evoked by carefully constructed and arranged visual elements, such that consumers will recognise the associated brand more easily.

Platform PRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN


Understanding Product Success, Inspiring Product Design

DESIGN FOR WOMEN - THE DEVELOPMENT OF DESIGN GUIDELINES BASED ON THE GENDER DIFFERENCES

Research subject

Design for women - The development of design guidelines based on the gender differences Researcher

Ir. Annemieke Raven - a.raven@utwente.nl Supervisor

Prof. dr. ir. Arthur Eger Resources

Direct funding / government funding Status

Ongoing 2008 - 2014 Partners

IBR Keywords

product development, product design, gender inclusive design, design guidelines, women, female consumer

Faculty Chair Theme

Background Women and men experience products differently; still, most products are directed towards men. This is changing, however; more and more products are introduced, especially targeted at women. Companies use styling to match the interests, lifestyles and values of women since they are an influential target group, determining or influencing 80% of all purchase decisions. However, segmentation based on gender seems to be based on stereotypes; ‘thinking pink’. Of course there are women who like pink products, but many women don’t. And there are certainly more ways to develop attractive products for women, on more levels than styling alone. Goals Objective is to analyse the differences between men and women in product experience and consumer behaviour, to develop design guidelines on more levels than styling alone (interaction, values, construction) and to test these guidelines by applying them in different case studies. A first research and case study shows that the invisible, inner differences play an important role, that women and men have a different aesthetic value set, but also that adding feminine values on an interaction level makes products not only more attractive to women, but also to men. The next step is to do more research and case studies based on the differences, using different design models, to develop the final design guidelines.

 Current segmentation based on gender  Re-design PDA based on feminine design guidelines  Since pre-history, women and men have specialised in different ways

 There are also many different female target groups  The re-design PDA based on feminine values is preferred above the existing masculine and pink PDA’s

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Perspectives The study will result in design guidelines for product design in order to make it possible to design products with more attractiveness to the female consumer.

43

CTW - Engineering Technology Product Design Understanding Product Success, Inspiring Product Design

Platform PRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN


Understanding Product Success, Inspiring Product Design

DESIGN AND AFFECTIVE CONSUMER EXPERIENCE

Faculty Chair Theme

Research subject

Design and Affective Consumer Experience Researcher

Dr. Thomas van Rompay - t.j.l.vanrompay@utwente.nl Supervisor

Resources

Direct funding / government funding Status

Ongoing July 2005 Partners

Keywords

product design, symbolic meaning, embodiment, affective experience, environmental design

Background Marketing communications such as advertisements and product packaging confront consumers with a multitude of design elements. For instance, in product packaging, a variety of shapes, colours, and typefaces interface with one another. These interrelated elements must portray a clear image of both brand and product. This project deals with what happens in the consumer’s mind when symbolic meanings connoted through these diverse elements either match or mismatch. Image 1 presents an example of such research, in this case addressing the interface between shapes and typefaces of mineral water packaging. It was expected that if shape and typeface express the same symbolic meaning, consumers are able to form a clear picture of product and brand benefits. In the scientific literature, this ease of processing is referred to as processing fluency. In group A, shape and typeface match (both bottle and typeface connoting femininity or masculinity), whereas in group B, shape and typeface mismatch (for instance, a feminine bottle with a masculine typeface). Results showed that consumers prefer products that express a coherent image. They not only considered products with a matching shape and typeface more appealing, they were also prepared to pay more for them. Further analyses showed that these positive effects of congruence can indeed be attributed to a higher degree of processing fluency. A recent study showed that packaging design may also influence taste perceptions; the taste of yoghurt from an angular package was experienced as more intense compared to the taste of that same yoghurt coming from a rounded package (Image 2).

GW - Behavioural Sciences Marketing Communication and Consumer Psychology Understanding Product Success, Inspiring Product Design

 Visual congruence in product packaging (source: Van Rompay, T.J.L., & Pruyn, A.T.H. [2011])

 Tough package, strong taste (source: Becker, Van Rompay, Schifferstein & Galetzka [2011])

Goals This research aims to provide insights into symbolic meaning portrayal by (packaging) design elements in isolation and in interaction. Perspectives The research described is inspired by theorizing on embodiment in cognitive linguistics (e.g., Lakoff & Johnson, 1999) and recent studies on processing fluency and meaning integration (e.g., Reber, Schwarz & Winkielman, 2004).

44

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Platform PRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN


Understanding Product Success, Inspiring Product Design

AN INNOVATION TOOL FOR THE SME

Faculty Chair Theme

Research subject

An innovation tool for the SME Researcher

Ir. Ferry Vermeulen - ferry@fever.nl Supervisor

Prof. dr. ir. Arthur Eger Resources

Direct funding / government funding Status

Ongoing 2008 - 2013 Partners

IBR Keywords

innovation, evolutionary product development, economic growth, product success

CTW - Engineering Technology Product Design Understanding Product Success, Inspiring Product Design

Background The small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the Netherlands form a large group of businesses with an enormous innovation potential. Despite this, just a small group of the SMEs is truly innovative. Innovations from SMEs seem to be limited by the gap between the production of knowledge and the implementation of this knowledge by the businesses, the socalled innovation paradox. After a while, lack of innovation will lead to a company’s demise. With the help of product phases, it is possible to make overall predictions for the development of a product after its market introduction (Eger, 2007).

 Evolutionary development of the shoe

 Product phases in relation to the product lifecycle

 Evolutionary development of the laptop

The model of product phases can be translated to a tool to help a designer or a company in creating the next generation of a product. Goals There are several different perspectives for a tool based on the product phases. First of all will the tool be able to describe - in a more qualitative manner - the future development of the product in time. Secondly, the attention of the government and innovation institutions like Syntens and SMEs is increasing rapidly. These institutions can use the tool for helping companies with their innovation problems. Thirdly, innovation is characterised by trial and error, which makes an innovation process expensive. With the tool, the process can occur in a more structured (and more inexpensive) way. Perspectives The expected result of the research will be an innovation tool for small and medium enterprises, based on the model of product phases, to help them determine the status quo and future of a companies’ product. In this way innovation strategies for the future development of a product can be made.

45

UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Platform PRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN


University of Twente Platform Product & Service Design PO Box 217 7500 AE Enschede The Netherlands T +31 53 489 2337 (or: 2520) F +31 53 489 3631

Platform Product & Service Design - UTwente - Researchoverview  

Researchoverview for a new initiative from the University of Twente

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you