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FROM RESISTANCE TO RESILIENCE PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS FOR A NEW PARADIGM OF COASTAL CITIES

existing

BERND GUNDERMANN


NEW URBAN SHORES •

Enrich cities through landscaping

Opportunity to drive innovation into new planning initiatives

Benefits to lifestyle, environment and economy

Current seperation between built and natural environments

Shift from sterile to natural, sensory experiences

Change in paradigm from hard-engineering to natural approaches a.k.a. Adaptive Urbanism

BERND GUNDERMANN

FROM RESISTANCE TO RESILIENCE

RESILIENCE


CHARGE: THE CITY WITH LANDSCAPE •

Unique and diverse natural landscapes surround cities but never enter

Paradigm shift

Replace generic, engineered, characterless environments with new dimension,sensual experiences, identity and context

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HUMANIZE: THE PUBLIC SPACE •

Private transport developed after cities established thus the related infrastructure is situated on the only remaining crown-owned land: the waterfront

Air pollution, visual intruision, noise, vibrations = unpleasant pedestrian experience

Removal of vehicle dominance through remote working environments, DemandResponsive Transit systems and restricted access for private vehicles into the city

Healthier, active population

Additional urban space for beneficial activities

Increase in property values

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ALIGN: WITH NATURAL RHYTHMS •

Artificial lighting, inoperable windows and air conditioning creates interior conditions isolated from daily and seasonal variation

Unaware of environmental crisis we are facing as a result of total separation from it

‘Cartestian Split’ made us focus on economically-measurable rather than quality of life

Temporal awareness part of our intrinsic being

Changing seasons apparent through planting and harvest, along with migration of birds and fluctuation of tides that occasional render some areas inaccessible

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ADAPT: TO CLIMATE CHANGE •

Social Resilience: Networks for faster reponse times

Environmental Resilience:Ability of the natural environment to overcome a natural disaster

Frequency and intensity of extreme weather events - SLR, coastal erosion and storm surges

Investing in shores to prevent inundation and valuable land being washed away

Adaptive Urbanism - alternative to hard engineering, integrates natural methods to respond to the changing natural environment

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VITALIZE: THE URBAN CULTURE •

Urban Design improved and famous through landscape rather than iconic buildings

Calming, harmonizing, healthy and vitalising energy of water

Historical settlements located by the coast for defence, transport and food

Lifestyle benefits - experience outdoors in lunchbreaks, reenergized workspaces and shop from stalls which harvest produce on roofs

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BOOST: THE ECONOMY •

Investing now and shifting from short-term gains to considering the longer term and mulitple lifestyles

Economic resilience to prepare for times of financial, social and environmental change

Invest in technology, communications, Demand Responsive Transit infrastructure

Jonah Lehrer - article studying relationship between cognitice functions and inner city living - “Just by being in an urban environemnt, they have found, impirs our basic mental processes” “The mind needs nature, and even a little bit can be a big help”

Competing for brain gain - can’t lure with salaries or career opportunities - biggest attraction is lifestyle

Communal spaces for contact, discussion and exchange ideas - “concentration of social interations” largely responsible for urban creativity

Remote, flexible work environments

Economic damage of not protecting against extreme weather events up to US $1 trillion worldwide annual by 2050

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REFLECTIONS •

Visible, life-enhancing new vision

Opportunity to become global leaders

New future for urban spaces

Removal of demarcations around cities

Fusion between built and natural

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THE PARADIGM SHIFT: FROM RESISTANCE TO RESILIENCE

Vanguard of science has long revealed that the human population and universe are deeply interconnected, mainstream-science and commercial industry continue to pursue this separation

Divide has caused complete unawareness of the complexity of the natural environment which has lead to irreversible damage.

Now that the environmental conditions are impairing our quality of life that we are questioning this hierarchical relationship

HUMANITYY

HUMANITY NATURAL ENVIRONMENT

RESISTANCE 461&3*03*5:t4&1"3"5*0/t%6"-*4.

NATURAL ENVIRONMENT

RESILIENCE */5&(3"5*0/t"-*(/.&/5t6/*0/

Extreme weather events are a ‘wake-up call’ to evolve from superseded archetypes

BERND GUNDERMANN

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THE CATALYST: EXTREME WEATHER EVENTS Of the G20 countries Australia has:

DE WO R L DW I

R AU S T

ALIA

AUD $ 0,000,000

USD $ 000,000,000

ACCUMULATED ANNUAL EXPENDITURE ON EXTREME WEATHER EVENTS

• The second worst deterioration in water availability • The second highest cost per GDP from extreme weather events (0.24%) • The biggest difference in temperatures among G20 nations between 2011 and 2013 • The second highest sensitivity to climate change (the number of deaths from weather events; the cost of the event in terms of GDP; and the number of people affected)

The total economic cost of natural disasters in Australia could double by 2030, and reach $23 billion by 2050. Australia makes up 0.4% of the world’s population yet expenditure on weather related events is 1%

YEARS

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EXTREME WEATHER EVENTS: REGIONAL

Drought from 2000-2009 was estimated to have caused an 80% reduction in grain production and 40% reduction in livestock

Cyclone Yasi 2011 caused $3.5billion in damages, $2 billion in agriculture and $1billion in tourism

Floods 2011 killed over 30 people and cost $2.4 billion Wildfires destroy 68 homes in 2011 Heatwave 2009 lead to 980 heatrelated deaths.

Heatwave 2013 new hottest day recorded 45.8’C Bushfires 2009 cost $4.4 billion and killed 173 people

Bushfires 2013 cause $79million of damage BERND GUNDERMANN

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HOW CAN WE OVERCOME THE CHALLENGES: ADAPTIVE URBANISM IN THE WATER

AROUND THE COAST

ON THE LAND

PROBLEM: • •

SLR Storm Surges

• •

Inundation Erosion

• •

Increased surface water run-off Contamination of water

• •

Wetlands Water Basins

• • •

Inland Planting Permeable Paving Green Roofs

SOLUTION: • • • •

Archipelagos Oyster Reefs Pile FIelds Oyster Filtration

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IN THE WATER: ARCHIPELAGOS

Figure 2. Diagram showing uninterrupted tidal flow but ability to break wave energy.

Figure 1. Archipelagos extending the land into the sea and interrupting wave paths

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Uses port dredge

Protects coastline

Doesn’t disrupt coastline

Enriches ecosystem

Blurs distinction between land and water

RESILIENCE


IN THE WATER: OYSTER REEFS •

Replace artificial, resource consuming materials

Promotes biodiversity

Provides habitats

Fosters growth of additional oysters to become a self-sustaining protection measure rather than the maintenance required by sea walls

Figure 3. Oyster breakwater in Alabama

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IN THE WATER: BREAKWATER TOWERS •

Reduces impact of storm surge

Can be located to not interrupt maritime activities and protect vulnerable areas

Act as sanctuaries for marine life

Reflect the built environment adding to the seamless transition between the land and sea

Figure 4. Breakwater towers extend the built environment into the water and promote natural marine environments

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IN THE WATER: PILE FIELDS •

Interrupt wave path and thus break up the wave energy

Resting ground for bird life

Figure 5. Brooklyn Bridge Park, New York has implemented pile fields for coastal protection

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AROUND THE COAST: IMPROVING SEA WALLS •

Absorb wave energy

Enhance biodiversity

Uses dredge from other harbour areas

Filters pollutants

Contributes to food chain /ecosystem

Converts carbon dioxide to to oxygen

Tolerant of varying water levels

Figure 6. Diagram demonstrating how hard sea walls can be softened to reduce the amount of wave energy

Figure 7. Habitat creation on Hard Engineering

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FROM RESISTANCE TO RESILIENCE

Figure 8. Varying techniques to create natural environments and habitats in areas of hard engineering

RESILIENCE


AROUND THE COAST: NATURAL WETLANDS •

Natural sponge system that absorbs, retains and slowly releases water

Root systems stablize the soil reducing coastal erosion

Figure 9. Brooklyn Bridge Park, New York incorporating wetlands into coastal resilience systems

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AROUND THE COAST: CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS

Integration of soft resilience and engineering

Multifunction adaptive intervention

Coastal richness

Combines benefits of natural wetlands with efficiency and reduced footprint of constructed wetlands

Requires further investigation into recent advances as well as application to local ecosystems

Figure 10. Constructed wetlands aim combine the benefits of wetlands while reducing their footprint and creating an exciting public realm

BERND GUNDERMANN

FROM RESISTANCE TO RESILIENCE

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AROUND THE COAST: WATER BASINS

Water basins provide overflow areas

Creates integrated relationship between land and water

Promotes amphibious urban environment

Publicizes the effects of sea level rise to create greater awareness

Figure 11. Proposed waterbasin in Taiwan

Figure 12. Waterbasin in Rotterdam provides an enjoyable public space to be inhabited at all water levels

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AROUND THE COAST: PIERS/SLIPS/PLATFORMS

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Coastal variation interrupts wave paths

Structure doubles as wave break

RESILIENCE


ON THE LAND: INLAND PLANTING

SLOW RELEASE SYSTEMS FOR EXCESS WATER INLAND

ENVIRONMENTAL CATCHMENTS IN URBAN ENVIRONMENTS

Areas for variable levels of water storage

Planting on embankments for stability and filtering purposes

High ratios of impermeable surfaces cause surface run off and pressure on infrastructure

Plazas, parks, wetlands, planting, and bioswales help reduce this pressure and provide a slow releasing, purifying water system

Natural systems so as not to disrupt ecosystems

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FROM RESISTANCE TO RESILIENCE

MAXIMIZING AGRICULTURAL LAND WHILE PROTECTING AND BALANCING ECOSYSTEMS •

Planting at boundaries and along river edges stop soil erosion and filter pollutants before they enter the water

RESILIENCE


ON THE LAND: GREEN ROOFS

Figure 14. Aerial Image of Auckland CBD

Green roofs increase the amount of permeable surfaces and thus reduces surface run-off water

Additional space for planting converting carbon dioxide to oxygen

Encourages biodiversity

Assists placemaking efforts

Figure 13. Convention centre in Vancouver

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ON THE LAND: PERMEABLE PAVING

Figure 15. Plastic permeable paving reduces storm water run off and creates a more aesthetically pleasing environment

BERND GUNDERMANN

FROM RESISTANCE TO RESILIENCE

Reduces run off surface water - 100% Permeable

Lessens stress on infrastructure

Increased aesthetic

Eliminates pollutants

Shorter replacement/repair time

Slows transport making a more pedestrian friendly environment

Promotes tree growth

Reinforces ground

Interlocking panels or large rolls for quick installation

High load bearing capacity (400T/m2)

100% recyclable and made from 100% recycled plastic

Reduces the use of asphalt which produces 221kg of CO2 emissions per tonne

RESILIENCE


ON THE LAND: PLACE MAKING •

Embracing, adapting and thriving in unpredictable environment

Waterfront connectivity, accessibility and engagement

Promotion of natural, amphibious urban environments

Recreational and leisure destinations

Figure 16. The introduction of water and natural environments into previous sterile urban spaces creates more enjoyable, user-friendly environments

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FROM RESISTANCE TO RESILIENCE

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ON THE LAND: SMART-CITY TECHNOLOGY

BERND GUNDERMANN

FROM RESISTANCE TO RESILIENCE

Smart-Cities

egovernance

reduced commuting

smarter public transport

response systems for extreme weather events

RESILIENCE


“WE CANNOT SOLVE OUR PROBLEMS WITH THE SAME THINKING WE USED WHEN WE CREATED THEM.” - EINSTEIN

BERND GUNDERMANN

FROM RESISTANCE TO RESILIENCE

RESILIENCE


FROM TO

RESISTANCE RESILIENCE

BERND GUNDERMANN

ARCHITECT & URBAN DESIGNER STEPHENSON & TURNER NZ LTD

PHONE: +64 9 303 1249 EMAIL: BGUNDERMANN@STEPHENSONTURNER.COM

For more information or to download this presentation please visit our website: stephensonturner.com/project/coastal-design-research

BERND GUNDERMANN

FROM RESISTANCE TO RESILIENCE

RESILIENCE

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