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What If We Built Australasia

Around Places?

Placemaking as a Transformative Agenda International Cities & Town Centres Society October 17th, 2012 Gold Coast, QLD

37 Years of Placemaking     

50 U.S. States, 7 Canadian Provinces 42 Countries 3000 Communities 3 Million annual visitors to our web sites 37,000 people get our electronic newsletter

Regions where PPS is Applying Placemaking    

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Singapore South Korea Japan Hong Kong

Australia New Zealand Canada

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Netherlands Norway Sweden UK/ Scotland Italy

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Czech Republic Montenegro Serbia Kosovo Croatia Hungary Poland Slovakia Romania Bulgaria Georgia Armenia

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Mexico Colombia Argentina Chile Brazil South Africa Kenya Abu Dhabi Chicago Houston Los Angeles San Francisco Michigan

PPS in Australia Council Trainings: Adelaide; Melbourne; Newcastle; St. Kilda; Coburg; Bankstown; Wodonga. Regional Trainings w/ Village Well: Sydney; Melbourne (3); Perth; Sunshine Coast; Auckland; Taupo. Developer Trainings: Lend Lease, GPT, Places Victoria, Rouse Hill, Caloundra Downs. Demonstration Projects: Perth Cultural Centre; Garden Place, Hamilton, NZ.

We shape our public spaces, thereafter our public spaces shape us. –adapted from Winston Churchill

Contrasting 1

What Makes a Great Place? street life evening use volunteerism Welcoming Cooperative Neighborly

Key Attributes Intangibles Measurements

business ownership property values land-use patterns retail sales Fun Active Vital Special Real

uses & activities

sociability PLACE access & linkages Connected Walkable Convenient Accessible transit usage pedestrian activity parking usage patterns

comfort & image Safe Charm Clean Attractive Historic crime stats sanitation rating building conditions PROJECT FOR environmental data PUBLIC SPACES

Soul of the Community Study Study by the Knight Foundation and Gallup on attachment to communities: Jobs, schools, economic standards were found not to correlate with attachment Qualities of place (openness, opportunities for social engagement and aesthetics) are also the qualities that lead to attachment. Attachment lead to higher growth, entrepreneurship levels, etc.

What is Placemaking? 

Placemaking is turning a neighborhood, town or city from a place you can’t wait to get through to one you never want to leave.

Placemaking is the creation of a built environment that creates community, stimulates interaction, encourages entrepreneurship, fosters innovation and nurtures humanity.

What is Placemaking?   

Placemaking is creating for everybody. The seed of democracy. Placemaking is the process of giving space a story that is shared by many.

Placemaking provides the link between:    

urban excellence economic development sustainability public health (physical, psychological, social)

Phases of Development Evolution

hase 1:1: Phase roject-Driven Project-Driven

Phase Phase2:2: Design-Led Design-Led

Phase Phase3:3: Place-Sensitive Place-Sensitive

Phase Phase4:4: Place-Led Place-Led

Focusing Planning on Places

Creativity -- Emergence of Community/Place


Community/Vision-Driven Controlled



Resource Intensive





Consensus focused

Cost/Benefit Focused






















Breakdown of Community/Place


Phases of Development Evolution Phase Phase 11 -- Project-Driven: Project-Driven:

Values: Values:Expediency, Expediency,Project Projectdelivery, delivery,Power PowerKnows KnowsBest Best Outcomes: Outcomes:Construction, Construction,Control, Control,Functional FunctionalFacilities Facilities Process: Process:Political, Political,Protocols, Protocols,Projects Projects Resources: Resources:Big BigGov. Gov.$$ $$ Partners: Partners:Gov. Gov.&&Business BusinessLeaders Leaders Evaluation: Evaluation:Measuring Measuringinitial initialcosts, costs,ribbon ribboncuttings cuttings

Phases of Development Evolution

Phase Phase 22 -- Design-Led: Design-Led:

Values: Values:Quality, Quality,Indiv. Indiv.Creativity, Creativity,Professional Professionalknows knowsbest best Outcomes: Outcomes:Aesthetic AestheticBeauty, Beauty,Brand BrandIdentity, Identity,Iconic Iconicdesign, design,Coherence Coherence Process: Process:Discipline-driven, Discipline-driven,Design Design&&Defend, Defend,High Highconcept, concept,Alternatives Alternatives Resources: Resources:Bigger BiggerGov. Gov.$$ $$ Partners: Partners:Gov., Gov.,Business Business&&Professional ProfessionalLeaders Leaders Evaluation: Evaluation:Awards, Awards,Value, Value,Innovation Innovation

Phases of Development Evolution

Phase Phase 33 -- Place-Sensitive: Place-Sensitive:

Values: Values:Community, Community,Ecological EcologicalCultural CulturalContext; Context;Team TeamCreativity Creativity Outcomes: Outcomes:Contextual ContextualBeauty, Beauty,Community Communityheard, heard,Local LocalIdentity Identity Process: Process:Multi-disciplinary, Multi-disciplinary,Community CommunityInput Input&&Research Research Resources: Resources:Gov Gov&&Community Community$$ $$ Partners: Partners:Gov., Gov.,Business, Business, Prof. Prof.&&Community CommunityLeaders Leaders Evaluation: Evaluation:Sustainability, Sustainability,Mitigate MitigateImpacts, Impacts,Cost-benefit Cost-benefit

Phases of Development Evolution

Phase Phase 44 -- Place-Led: Place-Led:

Values: Values:Creativity Creativityof ofPlace, Place,Community CommunityCapacity Capacity Outcomes: Outcomes:Emergent EmergentBeauty, Beauty,Place PlaceCapital, Capital,Creative CreativeIdentity Identity Process: Process:Trans-disciplinary, Trans-disciplinary,LQC, LQC,Capacity-Building, Capacity-Building,Co-creation Co-creation Resources: Resources:Locally Locallyrecirculating recirculating$$Partners: Partners:Creates Createsleaders leaders&&buy-in buy-in Evaluation: Evaluation:Thrivability, Thrivability, Transformation, Transformation,Optimizing Optimizing


Power of 10 Destinations 1975

Power of 10 Destinations Today

New York City Transformed: Rockefeller Center Times Square Bryant Park Port Authority Bus Terminal

Rockefeller Center

Bryant Park, New York

“The best way to deal with the problem of ‘undesirables’ is to make the place attractive to everybody else.” -- William Whyte

Transformative Opportunities

Building Communities Through Transportation Streets as Places Thinking Beyond the Station

If you plan for cars and traffic‌ you get more cars and traffic.

A study of three generations of 9 year olds found that over a recent 20 year period, the radius around the home that children were allowed to play had sunken almost 90%. Richard Louv

If you plan for people and places‌ you get more people and places.

New York City Street Renaissance

Rockefeller Center

Times Square Bryant Park Herald Square

Madison Square

Union Square

What If We Built Times Square as a Destination?

The Evolving Pavement Politics of NYC’s Crossroads

Flexible Spaces



Times Square, NYC Image Source: New York City DOT

Times Square before

Times Square after

Times Square after

Transformative Opportunities Multi-Use Public Destinations/ Architecture of Place

If you plan for design and development‌ you get design and development.

Guggenheim Museum – Bilbao, Spain

“I don’t do context”

--Frank Gehry


Abu Dhabi

Zone 1: Western Waterfront

“I Don’t Want To Hear About Green Buildings Any More?” “Sustainability is simply an extension of the technocratic society we find ourselves in.” Christopher Alexander

An Architecture of Place Is it sustainable? Has it minimized its impact? Does it use the most ecological materials? Does it celebrate “nature�? We should also be asking questions like: Does the building/project generate life? Does it support its context (built, cultural, historical, social, economic, place)? Does it support people and their comfort?

Is it Sustainable?

Has it minimized its impact?

Does it use the most ecological materials?

Does it celebrate “nature”?

Does the building/project generate life?

Melbourne – Council Building 2

Does the project support its context?

Does it support human comfort & pleasure?

Communities Today Churches

Offices Hospital

Coffee Shops Parks

Theatres/ Museums

Community Center Transit

Libraries Schools

City Hall

Communities of the Future Churches City Hall Libraries

Schools Community Centers

Public Spaces

Coffee Shops

Theatres/ Museums Offices



Campus Martius, Detroit

Campus Martius – Location Located in the center of Detroit’s CBD

1 mile square formed by Interstate 375, Interstate 75, State Route 10, Detroit River

Campus Martius Vision: • Detroit's Gathering Place • The Crossroads of Downtown Detroit • Our Town Square • The City's Signature Landmark • A Catalyst for Revitalization • A Place Where the Community Celebrates

Major Partners: • City of Detroit • Detroit 300 Conservancy • Detroit DOT

“Campus Martius Park will be a place where residents, workers and visitors come together to relax, enjoy, play and celebrate Detroit.”

Campus Martius – Introduction Mayor’s vision: To develop “the best public space in the world”

Campus Martius – Programming Winter Programming Ice skating from November to March Annual holiday tree lighting

Over 200 events programmed May to September Lunchtime arts performances every day Friday concerts from 11:30am to 1am Film festival every Saturday night

Campus Martius – Use Over 750,000 people visited Campus Martius in its first year Over 1

million visitors per year since first year

Over 2.5 million people total visited park from November 2004 - May 2007

50,000 people go ice skating each year

Ecological Capital Cultural Capital

Financial Capital

Place Capital

Human Capital


Social Capital

Real Estate

Vancouver Forum on Multi-Use Public Destinations 

Public multi-use destinations have proven to be most successful, and we should replicate them more of ten.

Don’t lead with design .

If you think you’re done, you’re finished – Developing spaces that are flexible and that manage themselves.

“The magic is in the mix. ”

Find creative funding strategies to keep rents low, attract a range of tenants.

Transformative Opportunities

Local Economies, Community Health and Public Markets



Lighter, Quicker, Cheaper    

Comfort, Amenities & Public Art Activation Events Interim Public Spaces Light Development

Case Study: Paris Plage

Gabriel’s Wharf

Power of Ten

1. Gateway between the Plaza and Harvard Yard 2. The South Fence and connection to Harvard Yard 3. NW Plaza Entrance 4. The “Great Lawn” 5. Science Center Outdoor Terrace 6. The “Piazza”

7. Entrance to the Science Center 8. Tanner Fountain 9. Library Arcade 10. NE Plaza Entrance 11. Loker Bar and Beer Garden 12. Memorial Walk 13. Main Walkway 14. Overlooks


Phases of Government Evolution

by Peter Smith, CEO Adelaide Council, Australia Phase Phase1:1: Big Phase Big//Fractured Fractured Phase2:2: Government: Holistic Government: HolisticGovernment: Government:partnering partneringfor forefficiencies, efficiencies, Siloed, Siloed,Probelm/ Probelm/politically-Driven, politically-Driven,metrics metricsby byholistic holisticanalysis, analysis,measuring measuringvalue valueproduced produced programs programs

Phase Phase3:3: Fully FullyIntegrated IntegratedGovernment: Government: Integrated Integratedmanagement managementof ofissues, issues,risks risks&& opportunities. opportunities.

Phase Phase4:4:Developmental DevelopmentalModel Modelof ofGovernment: Government: Government Governmentvalue valuemeasured measuredinincommunity community capacity capacityand andcompetency competencyat ataaholistic holisticlevel. level.

Big / Fractured Government Model

Fully Integrated Government Model

Whole of Government Model

Developmental Model of Government

Typical Governance Process


Residents/C Residents/C ommunity ommunity Orgs Orgs

Advocacy/P Advocacy/P hilanthropy hilanthropy /NPO /NPOOrgs Orgs

Developers Developers /Property /Property Owners Owners

Culture/Civic/Social Facilities Facilities Culture/Civic/Social & Programming Programming &

Design & & Construction Construction Design

Economic Development Development Economic

Planning Planning

Transportation Transportation

Public Administration

Political PoliticalLeadership Leadership

Merchants Merchants /Business /Business Owners Owners

• Problemfocused • Politically motivated • Short-term focus • Bureaucratic process • Siloed departments • Resistant citizens • Incremental change • Limited participation and buy-in

Governance Process for Placemaking Political-Business-Community-Design Political-Business-Community-Design

Meerc rchhaannts M ts B u s in e s s Business Ow wnneers rs O

Deevveelo loppeers rs D roppeert rtyy PPro Ow wnneers rs O

cy cacy voca Advo Ad opyy hrop nthr ilant Phila Ph rgss Org OO NPPO N


ideennttss RReessid muunnitityy mm CCoom Orrggss O

Leadership Leadership

ionn ctio ruct stru & CCoonnst gn & sign Deesi D iall /SSooccia ic iv C / e / r ic u iv lt C / ingg min CCuulture& m a r g o m r P m a r ities Prog FFaaccililities &

Economic Development Development Economic

lannnnin ingg PPla

Public Administration

TTrraannssppoortati rtatioonn

Placemaking/Place Placemaking/Place Management Management

• Leadership from all levels • Leaders as facilitators, educators & inspirations • Broad goals • Agile process • Shared vision • Political capital • Bold change • Take risks • Lighter, Quicker, Cheaper • Build partners & capacity

Twitter @PPS_Placemaking @EBKent Facebook Project for Public Spaces

Web Site

Kent, Ethan (1 Keynote)  

What if we built our cities around places? - Placemaking as a Transformative Agenda

Kent, Ethan (1 Keynote)  

What if we built our cities around places? - Placemaking as a Transformative Agenda