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Contents Contents.................................................................................................................................................i Introduction...........................................................................................................................................1 Chapter 1 - Relational Database Systems..............................................................................................2 Chapter 2 - Using Information.............................................................................................................10 Chapter 3 - Applied Multimedia...........................................................................................................33 Chapter 4 – Focus On The External Exam............................................................................................52 Answers...............................................................................................................................................60

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Introduction This book is designed to help you pass the new revised version of Higher Information Systems. The book covers both core units (Relational Database Systems and Using Information) as well as the optional unit Applied Multimedia. The material covers all the topics in the content grids of the SQA Higher Information Systems arrangements document. It also contains sets of questions covering the content of each unit. Finally, there is a chapter focusing on the external exam. This contains a guide to the structure of the exam, tips on exam preparation, a section on problem solving and a set of exam style problem solving questions.

How to Use This Revision Book Use the book to check up on your knowledge of the topics on the checklist for each of the core topics and your optional topic. Attempt the questions as you go along. The answers are at the back of the book. Read carefully the section on Problem Solving in Chapter 4. It will help you understand the type of problem solving questions that the examiners will set in the final exam. Finally attempt the exam style problem solving questions at the end of the book. Read the tips about exam preparation and come up with your own revision plan! Just before you go into the exam read the advice about the exam structure carefully. If you do all this, you will greatly improve your chances of passing Higher Information Systems.

Passing the units and then the External Exam To pass Higher Information Systems you have to pass the two core units (Relational Database Systems and Using Information) and then your option, Applied Multimedia. To pass a unit you have to sit a simple objective multiple-choice test, known as a NAB, and perform some practical tasks appropriate for higher (Web Site, Database operations, Using Software like Excel and Publisher well). Once you have passed the units, you need to prepare for the external course examination. This examination will test your knowledge of the course content of the units and your problem solving ability.

II.


Chapter 1 - Relational Database Systems A Selection of Key Words Attribute Anomalies Candidate Key Referential Integrity Query Forms

Entity Foreign Key Cardinality Restricted Choice Searching Sub-forms

Flat-File Surrogate key Normalisation Presence Check Sorting Reports

Primary Key Compound Key Entity Integrity Range Check Calculating

What is a database? A database is a collection of related information about a set of persons or objects. Traditionally, databases have been manual paper based systems. An example is the “Yellow Pages� . A database management system (DBMS) is a software package that is used to create, manipulate and present data from electronic databases. Example of DBMSs include Microsoft Access and Filemaker Pro.

Flat File Database The simplest kind of database is a flat file. All data is held in the one file so if a library kept a file of books and borrowers we can get three types of problems. Addition anomalies: If a book is added, it cannot be unless it is being borrowed. If a borrower joins the library, they cannot unless they borrow a book. Deletion Anomalies: If a book is deleted then it may lose the only instance of a borrower and if a borrower leaves then maybe the only record of a book is deleted too (if it has only ever been borrowed by him). Data is very likely to be duplicated. The duplication of data leads to the possibility of data inconsistency. Questions 1. In a relational database model, what is the data a collection of? 2. Describe what is meant by an addition anomaly in a flat file database 3. Describe what is meant by a deletion anomaly in a flat file database 4. Describe what is meant by a duplication anomaly in a flat file database

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Relational Database A relational database stores data in more than one table. The idea is to ensure that data is only entered and stored once, so removing the possibility of data duplication and inconsistency. Entities and Data Relationships An entity represents a person or object. e.g. Member, DVD Rental . Each entity has a set of attributes, which describe examples or instances of that entity. • The attributes of the DVD Rental entity are code, title, cost, date out, date due and member number. • The attributes of the Member entity are member number, name and telephone number. Data Relationships • One-to-one e.g. one car has a unique registration number •

One -to- Many e.g. one DVD can be borrowed many times

Many-to-Many e.g. one pupil has many teachers and one teacher has many pupils.

The cardinality is the data relationship between two entities. Keys • • • • • •

A key is a field, or set of fields, whose values uniquely identify a record. In any table, there may be more than one field or set of fields, which can uniquely identify each record—these are called candidate keys. The candidate key that is chosen to be used is called the primary key. A primary key of one entity found in another entity is called a foreign key. A surrogate key is a key made up when there are too many attributes to make up a unique key. A compound key is a key made up of two or more attributes.

Entity Integrity An attribute cannot exist as a foreign key in one entity unless it already exists as a primary key in another entity. Questions 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

What is an entity? What is an attribute? What is cardinality? What is a candidate key? For what purpose is a primary key used? How would you describe a foreign key in an entity? Describe what is meant by a surrogate key? What does entity integrity require? What is the name given to a collection of columns that together uniquely identify each row in a table?

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Normalisation The process of normalisation takes the data items (called attributes) of the existing entities and produces new entities that are easier to implement in a relational database. Generally, normalisation will produce a final set of “real world” entities such as “Customers”, “Orders” etc. We usually move from a model that is many-to-many to one that is one-to-many or a mixture of one-to-many and one-to-one. There are four stages to normalisation, un-normalised form (UNF), first normal form (1 NF), second normal form (2NF) and third normal form (3NF). Case Study – Caravan Bookings There is a booking form kept in a caravan rental agency. The form records the booking information, Booking Ref, Date of Booking, Name, Address, and Customer Number. The caravan booking details are recorded on the form to allow a customer to book more than one caravan and are Caravan ID, Sleeps, Power, Cost per Week, Date In and Date Out. UNF List all the attributes which must be stored in the database;Booking Ref In the exam, the attributes are Date of Booking listed, usually in order, with any No of days repeated attributes removed Customer name and consistency of attribute Customer Address names like between no. and Customer No number. Caravan ID Sleeps Power Cost per week Date In Date Out

1NF In first normal form, we identify a repeating group and remove it to a new entity. UNF Booking Ref Date of Booking No of Days Customer name Customer Address Customer No Caravan ID Sleeps Power Cost per week Date In Date Out

The Caravan ID down to Date Out is the repeating group. We remove it a new entity. We take the key with it so the primary key is repeated and the second time it appears it is a foreign key (denoted with *). Caravan ID is the primary key along with Booking Ref giving a compound key.

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1NF Booking Ref Date of Booking Number of days Customer name Customer Address Customer No Caravan ID Booking ref Sleeps Power Cost per Week


Date In Date Out

2NF In second Normal form, we have to remove the partial dependencies. In other words, some attributes in the Caravan entity will depend on the Caravan ID and some on the Booking Ref. Booking Ref Copy the top part because we are not going Booking Ref Date of Booking Date of Booking to deal with it just now. Number of Days Number of days Customer name Customer name Write down the two parts of the compound Customer Address Customer Address key and leave some space between them. Customer No Customer No We must decide which of the attributes go with the caravan and which with the booking. Caravan ID Caravan ID Obviously, Sleeps and Power go with caravan Sleeps Sleeps and cost and dates go with the booking. Power Power We now have to look at the keys. Booking Ref has been taken out of the lower entity so *Booking Ref Booking Ref take the key – Caravan ID. To book the Cost per week *Caravan ID caravan we need the Booking Ref, Caravan ID Date In Cost per week and the Date in (the number of days can be Date Out Date In added to this to give the date out. Date Out The Booking Ref is a primary key in the bookings entity and the Caravan ID is a primary key in the Caravan Entity so they become foreign keys in bookings. 3NF In third normal form we remove non-key dependencies. This means we look at the entities and see if we have a “hidden” repeating group. Booking Ref We do have a “hidden” repeating group. Customer No Date of Booking Customer name The customer name, address and no. will Number of days Customer Address have to be written down every time that Customer name customer makes a booking. They can be Customer Address Booking Ref removed to new entity and Customer No. Customer No *Customer No becomes the key. This leaves Booking Ref, Date of Booking Date of Booking and Number of days but Number of days Caravan ID we need to know who has made the Sleeps booking so we take the customer key with Caravan ID Power Sleeps us. It becomes a foreign key. Power *Booking Ref We now have the entire database system *Caravan ID *Booking Ref in third normal form. Cost per week *Caravan ID Date In Cost per week Date Out Page | 5


Date In Date Out NB Do not repeat any attribute unless making it a foreign key. Do not introduce or add any new attributes to the model.

Relationships and Entity Relationship Diagram We can now establish relationships between the different entities that we have made up. Wherever we see a foreign key, we have a “many” so here we have:• One Customer makes Many Bookings • One Caravan has Many Caravan Bookings • One Booking has Many Caravan bookings We can represent this with an entity relationship diagram. The arrowhead represents Many. Customer

Caravans

Bookings Caravan Bookings

Data Dictionary A data dictionary holds the information about each entity that you need to help you implement the database system. For our normalised caravans database the data dictionary looks like this. Entity

Attribute

Key

Customer

Customer No Customer Name Customer Address Booking Ref Customer No

PK

Booking

Caravan

Caravan Booking

PK FK

Data Type Number text

Required

Unique

Y Y

Y N

text

Y

N

text number

Y Y

Y N

date

Y

N

number text number

N Y N N N

Date of booking No of Days Caravan ID Sleeps Power Booking Ref

PK

PK/FK

text

Y Y Y Y Y

Caravan ID

PK/FK

text

Y

N

Cost per Week Date In

PK

number date

Y Y

N N

date

Y

N

Date Out

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Format

Validation

Lookup from Customer Short date integer

3,7,10,14,21,28

integer

4,6,8

currency Short date Short date

Lookup from Booking Lookup from Caravan >=£50, <=£500


Note well the following:• Key – PK is unique if not compound key, not unique if compound. • Validation for FK is always “lookup from…” • No of Days and Sleeps will be drop down lists Questions 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

What is a collection of multi-valued attributes in an entity referred to? When an entity in UNF is turned into first normal form what is achieved? When an entity in first normal form is turned into second normal form what is achieved? When an entity in second normal form is turned into third normal form what is achieved? What must each column in a database table have? What is special about each row in a database table?

Normalisation Question A holiday club charges members to join and with this money it builds holiday resorts. As it has grown so has its IT systems and now it wants to computerise its booking system. A member can book several holidays each year in apartments owned by the club and consequently each apartment can have up to 52 bookings every year and each member can have several bookings. The booking form was turned into an un-normalised form (UNF) like this. Booking Ref Member Number Member Name Member Address Member Telephone Number Property Ref Property Name No of Beds No Sleeps Date in No of Nights User Charge Using the Un-normalised data form:1. Turn the Un-normalised form into first normal for. 2. Turn the first normal form into the second normal form 3. Turn the second normal form into the third normal form. 4. Create an entity relational diagram

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Developing a Solution Referential Integrity – a foreign key must always refer to a record that exists in another table. It is established by defining relationships between the tables. Validation – can be established in three different ways. •

Presence Check – Where you have said Required = Yes

Range Check – Where the validation looks for a range of data e.g. between £50 and £500

Restricted Choice – Choice between several items e.g. Mr, Mrs, Miss, Dr.

Format • Numbers can be formatted as Integer, Real, Currency etc. •

Date & Time can have many formats including Short date (4/12/10), long date (4 th December 2010). Time can be 24-hour clock, am/pm and so on.

Queries Queries are used to interrogate your database. Within a query, you can:•

Search for specific records

Sort groups of selected records

Perform calculations on selected records.

Searching Searching is the process of selecting records from a table or combination of tables. To perform the query, three items must be identified •

Which fields will be used to identify the records required?

What are the criteria for identifying the records required?

Which fields will be displayed?

Sorting To perform a sort, two items must be identified: •

Which field (or fields) will be used to decide the order of records?

For each field selected, will the order of sorting be ascending or descending?

Calculations Horizontal calculations are often known as calculated fields, and vertical calculations are known as summary fields. Here is a summary of the commonly used functions that are used to build calculations. Page | 8


Aggregate – Sum, Average, Maximum, Minimum, Count

Mathematical – Sun, Cos, Tan, Integer, Round

Text, - Left, Right, Middle, Length, Uppercase, Lowercase, Find, Replace

Logical – If, IsNull, IsNumeric, IsError

Conversion – Number-to-text, Text-to-Number, Date-to-Text, Text-to-Date

Macros Can be used to add control. Scripted using predefined words and functions. E.g., open a form from a form based on a condition. Forms Forms are used to create a user interface that is better than seeing tables and several different forms can access the same table allowing different views of the table. Sub forms can be added to a form to show a related “many” table with is originating table. Reports Reports are used to allow us to produce printed copy in an atheistic pleasing manner. A form or report is usually based on a query, which selects the required fields from the appropriate tables, sorting the results if necessary, and performing any horizontal calculations. Questions 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.

What is special about each row in a database table? What is the purpose of the data dictionary? What should data dictionaries include details of? What does referential integrity require? Describe the three different types of data validation. Name three ways in which numbers can be formatted. In a relational database system what is a query? In a relational database system what is a form? In a relational database system what is a report? In a relational database system what is a macro?

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Chapter 2 - Using Information Using Information is very content heavy, and has been divided into four topics. These are • Data and information • Organisational Information Systems • Information Management Software • The implications of ICT

Topic 1 - Data and Information Data and Information Data is raw unprocessed facts and figures that have no context or purposeful meaning. Information is processed data that has meaning and a context.

Knowledge is gained from Information. We gain knowledge from information and we use that information to make decisions. Explicit knowledge is rules or process or decisions that can be recorded either on paper or in an information system. Tacit knowledge exists inside the minds of humans and is harder to record. It tends to be created from someone’s experiences, again a set of rules or experiences. Metadata can be thought of as data that describes data e.g a data dictionary or the card index system used by libraries pre computerisation, where each card told you the author, title and where to find the book. Questions 1. How would you describe data? 2. How would you describe information? 3. What is the difference between data and information? 4. What is gained from information? 5. What is the difference between explicit and tacit information? 6. What is metadata? 7. Give an example of metadata.

Categorisation of Information Information can be categorised under several headings that allow us to determine the overall usefulness of it. Primary or Secondary A primary source provides the data to an information system from an original source document. • an invoice sent to a business or a cheque received. • sales figures for a range of goods for a tinned food manufacturer for one week or several weeks and several locations. A secondary source of information is one that provides information from a source other than the original, e.g.:• an accounts book detailing invoices received • a bank statement that shows details of cheques paid in. Where statistical information is gathered, such as in surveys or polls, the survey data or polling data is the primary source and the conclusions reached from the survey or the results of the poll are secondary sources Page | 10


Nature Formal Communication is Information presented in a structured and consistent manner. Main methods: - the formal letter, properly structured reports, writing of training materials etc. in cogent, coherent, well-structured language. Informal Communication is less well-structured information transmitted within an organization or between individuals usually who know each other. Quantitative Information is information that is represented numerically. Qualitative Information is information that is represented using words. Time Historic - Information gathered and stored over a period of time. It allows decision makers to draw comparison between previous and present activities. Historic information can be used to identify trends over a period of time. Present - Information created from activities during the current work-window (day, week or month). In real-time systems this information would be created instantly from the data gathered (the temperature in a nuclear power plant turbine) giving accurate and up-to-date information. Future - Information that is created using present and historic information to try to predict the future activities and events relating to the operation of an organisation. Frequency of Information Continuous - This is information created from data gathered several times a second. It is the type of information created by a real-time system. Periodic - Information created at regular time intervals (hourly, daily, monthly, annually). Annually - On an annual basis a company must submit its report and accounts to the shareholders. Monthly – Banks and credit card companies produce monthly statements for the majority of its customers. Daily – A supermarket will make daily summaries of its sales and use the product information to update its stock levels and reorder stock automatically. Hourly – A busy call centre will often update totals for each operator on an hourly basis and give the top employee for the hour some reward. Questions What is the nature of the following pieces of information? Use all the categories that apply. 8. A receipt printed from a supermarket till. 9. A memo between two members of an organisation. 10. A profit forecast by a company at the start of a year. 11. A letter offering a person a job. 12. A spreadsheet showing financial transactions and a balance (no descriptions). 13. A telephone conversation where both parties make detailed notes.

Levels of Information Strategic – Decisions made by Top level of Management; long time frame (up to 5 years); mixture of internal and external documents. Tactical - Decisions made by Middle level of Management; medium time frame (6 months up to 5 years); mostly internal and some external documents. Operational - Decisions made by lowest level of organisation; short time frame (daily up to 6 months); mostly internal documents. Questions 14. State three characteristics of information at the strategic level. 15. State three characteristics of information at the tactical level. Page | 11


16. State three characteristics of information at the operational level.

Uses of Information within Organisations Planning and Control Planning is the process of deciding, in advance, what has to be done and how it is to be done. Planning means decisions by management about: • What is to be done in the future • How to do it • When to do it • Who is to do it An objective is something that needs to be achieved. A plan contains the activities or actions required to achieve the objective. Control is the monitoring and evaluation of current progress against the steps of a predefined plan or standard. At operational level the manager‘s time will be spent on control activities At higher levels planning and control are more closely linked, with management being concerned with the monitoring of progress against the plan, assessing the suitability of the plan itself and predicting future conditions. Decision Making Decision-making is selecting an action or actions from those possible based on the information available. It involves determining and examining the available actions and then selecting the most appropriate actions in order to achieve the required results. It is an essential part of management and is carried out at all levels of management for all tasks. It is made up of four phases: • Finding occasions for decision making • Find possible courses of action • Choosing among these courses of action • Evaluating past choices Questions 17. What is planning defined as? 18. What is an objective? 19. What is a plan? 20. What is Control defined as? 21. At the tactical level how is planning and control used? 22. What is decision making defined as?

Forms of Information Written - hand-written, word-processed, e-mails, reports from different classes of software, reports, memos and tables, receipts, invoices, statements, summary accounting information. Aural - Speech, formal meetings, informal meetings, talking on the phone and voice-mail messages. Employee presentations to a group where there may be use made of music and sound effects as well as speech. Visual - pictures, charts and graphs, presentations via data projects, DVD’s etc.

Types of Information Detailed - an inventory list showing stock levels, actual costs to the penny of goods, detailed operating instructions, most often used at operational level Sampled - Selected records from a database, product and sales summaries in a supermarket, often used at a tactical level (maybe strategic). Page | 12


Aggregated - totals created when detailed information is summed together, details of purchases made by customers totalled each month.

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Questions 23. Give three characteristics of written information. 24. Give three characteristics of aural information. 25. Give three characteristics of visual information. 26. In a banking situation describe how detailed information may be presented. 27. In a banking situation describe how sampled information may be presented. 28. In a banking situation describe how aggregated information may be presented.

Characteristics of Information Availability / Accessibility - Information should be easy to obtain or access Accuracy - Information needs to be accurate enough for the use it is going to be put. Reliability or Objectivity - Reliability deals with the truth of information or the objectivity with which it is presented. Relevance / Appropriateness - Information should be relevant to the purpose for which it is required. It must be suitable. Completeness - Information should contain all details required by the user. Level of Detail / Conciseness - Information should be in a form that is short enough to allow for its examination and use. There should be no extraneous information. Presentation - Information can be more easily assimilated if it is aesthetically pleasing. Timing - Information must be on time for the purpose for which it is required. Information received too late will be irrelevant.

The Difference Between Value and Cost Value - The relative importance of information for decision-making can increase or decrease its value to an organisation. Cost - Information should be available within set cost levels that may vary dependent on situation. The Difference between Value and Cost Valuable information need not cost much. Information costly to obtain may not have much value. Questions 29. What is the difference between value and cost of information? 30. A fully labelled chart is used to present information. What characteristics of information is this an example of? 31. While writing a dissertation a student makes extensive use of the Internet. What characteristics of information will they use while writing this dissertation?

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Topic 2 Organisational Information Systems Categories of Information Systems Data Processing Systems (DPS) – Operational; Transactional Processing System that deals with day to day transactions. Used in accountancy, invoicing, stock control where Items are scanned by bar code reader. • DPS are the tools used at the Operational level of an organisation. • DPS involves use of a computer Management Information Systems (MIS) – Tactical; MIS converts data from internal and external sources into information for managers. The source of data for a MIS usually comes from numerous databases. These databases are usually the data storage for Data Processing Systems. • MIS summarise and report on the organisations basic operations. • MIS produce reports for managers interested in historic trends on a regular basis. • MIS operate at the tactical level. Decision Support Systems (DSS) – Tactical; A DSS provides information and models in a form to help tactical and strategic decision-making. They support management decision-making by integrating: • Company performance data; • Business rules in a decision table; • Analytical tools and models for forecasting and planning; • A simple user interface to query the system. DSS are useful when making ad-hoc, one off decisions. The source of data for a DSS tends to be a combination of summary information gathered from lower level DPS and MIS. Executive Information System (EIS) – Strategic; An EIS provides senior managers with a system to assist in taking strategic and tactical decisions. Its purpose is to analyse, compare and identify trends to help the strategic direction of the organisation. EIS incorporate data about external events. • Draw summarised information from internal MIS and DSS. • Systems filter, compress, and track critical data. • Reduce time and effort required to obtain information useful to strategic management. • Employ advanced graphics software to provide highly visual and easy-to-use representations of complex information and current trends. • They do not provide analytical models. EIS allow the user to look at specific data that has been summarised from lower levels within the organisation and then drill down to increase the level of detail - data warehouse analysis. Expert Systems - An expert system is a computer program that tries to emulate human reasoning. It does this by combining the knowledge of human experts and then, following a set of rules, draws inferences. An expert system is made up of three parts. • A knowledge base stores all of the facts, rules and information needed to represent the knowledge of the expert. • An inference engine interprets the rules and facts to find solutions to user queries. • A user interface allows new knowledge to be entered and the system queried. Reasons for Expert Systems. • To store information in an active form as organisational memory. Page | 15


• •

To create a mechanism that is not subject to human feelings, such as fatigue and worry. To generate solutions to specific problems that are too substantial and complex to be analysed by human beings in a short period of time.

Centralised Database This is a very large and powerful database - at the heart of an organisation. Database program is called the database engine and it saves and indexes files in tables and manages the relationships between the tables. Information can be found fairly easily by querying the centralised database. Usually a multi-user or network system is used which means that any user on the system can have access to the database. Advantages to the database being centralised. • Much easier to organise, edit, update and back-up the data. • Communications are easier. • No real disadvantages to a centralised database. Questions 32. Which type of information system would be used at the operational level? 33. At the operational level what is the information system likely to be used for? 34. Which type of information system would be used at the tactical level? 35. At the tactical level what is the information system likely to be used for? 36. Which type of information system would be used at the strategic level? 37. At the strategic level what is the information system likely to be used for? 38. Name the three parts of an expert system. 39. Describe the function of the three parts of an expert system. 40. What are the three reasons for using an expert system? 41. What type of computer system is generally used in a centralised database? 42. State two advantages of using a centralised database.

Network Strategy Network Topology Networks - LAN (Local Area Network) – in one building. • Device Sharing. • Software Sharing. • Data Sharing. • Communication. WAN (Wide Area Network) – over a city, country or the wide world. • Uses telecommunications. • Distributed Networks. LAN with several servers, data accessible from all over the network. Client-Server Network Central server stores data files and log-in details. Peer to Peer network No central server, all stations equal. Cheaper, data less secure. Network Hardware Network Adapter Card. Built-in to the computer. Allows the computer to send and receive data around the network. Structured Cabling. Cables made from copper wire, co-axial cable, fibre optic cable and twisted pairs. Twisted pair Ethernet most Common. Page | 16


Fibre Optic used to link over longer distances and to carry a very high bandwidth. Network Software Network Operating System. – 2 parts The version that runs on the server is needed to control which users and workstations can access the server, keep each user’s data secure. Control the flow of information around the network. It is also responsible for file and data sharing, communications between users and hardware and peripheral sharing. The version that runs on the personal computers to turn them into network stations. Each workstation (computer) connected to the network needs the Network Operating System installed before it can connect successfully to the network facilities Network Auditing and Monitoring Software. This software keeps a track of network activity. It records user activity and workstation activity. In a commercial organisation this sort of auditing and monitoring can be used to detect fraud and suspicious activity. Questions 43. What are the differences between a LAN and a WAN? 44. What are three advantages of using a LAN over stand-alone machines? 45. What is the difference between a Client-Server and a Peer-To-Peer network? 46. What is the function of a network adapter card? 47. What is the main advantage of fibre optic cable over a simple twisted pair? 48. Explain why a file server and a networked computer both require a network operating system. 49. What is the purpose of network auditing and monitoring software?

Security Strategy Security, Integrity and Privacy of Data Data Security means keeping data safe from physical loss. A virus is a piece of programming code that causes some unexpected and usually undesirable event in a computer system. Viruses can be transmitted:• As attachments to an e-mail. • As a download. • On a disk being used for something else. How Viruses Work Some viruses take effect as soon as their code takes residence in a system . Others lie dormant until something triggers their code to be executed by the computer. Viruses can be extremely harmful and may erase data or require the reformatting of a hard disk once they have been removed. Data Integrity and Privacy Data Integrity means the correctness of the stored data. Data Privacy means keeping data secret so that unauthorised users cannot access it. The Security Risks to Information Systems Hacking is gaining unauthorised access to a computer information system. The offence is maliciously altering data or stealing information. Page | 17


Denial of service - This involves flooding an organisation’s Internet server with a surprisingly large amount of requests for information (traffic). This increase in traffic overloads the server, which is incapable of dealing with the backlog of requests, results in the server crashing or needing to be taken offline to resolve the problem. Policies and Procedures for Implementing Data Security Codes of conduct - apply to users of an information system. Most organisations insist that users follow a set of rules for using their system. Employees have to sign a code of conduct as part of their conditions of employment. A code of conduct can cover basic professional competences as well as obvious statements like “Never disclose your password to anybody else and change your password every week.” BCS Code of Ethics Covers:• Professional conduct • Professional integrity • Public interest • Fidelity • Technical competence Password guidelines - Minimum length of 5 characters. Must consist of letters and numbers. Must not contain any words. Cannot be the same as the previous password and cannot use easily guessed strings of letters or numbers (e.g. 123456 and abcdef). Implementing Data Security - Virus Protection Prevention • Prevent users from using floppy disks. • Scan incoming e-mails for viruses. • Do not open mail or attachments from someone you don’t recognise. Detection • Install Anti-virus software. • Update it regularly to detect new viruses. • Repair • Anti-virus s/w can quarantine a virus. • Can delete the virus code from an infected file. Firewalls - Device or software used to prevent unauthorised access to a network. Placed between the server and the Internet connection (router). Can block sections of the network. Only allows authorised users to join the network (dial-in). Encryption - Used by on-line retailers to keep card details secure. Need it to gain trust of purchasers. 32 bit encryption almost impossible to crack. Access Rights Read – allows users to read files. Allows files to be made read only. Write – allows users to write (save) files. Create – allows users to create new files. Erase – allows users to erase files. Modify – allows users to modify files. Groups of users may have. Read/write/create/erase on home drive. Read only on shared areas. Questions 50. What does data security mean? 51. Why might an organisation implement a security strategy? Page | 18


52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61.

Explain what Data Integrity means. Explain what Data Privacy means. What is meant by the term “hacking” (2 parts to this answer)? What is a denial of service attack? What is a code of conduct for Information Systems? What rules may be in place for a code of conduct regarding passwords? Explain how a firewall works. Why do Internet retailers use encryption? What is a popular method of encryption? Access rights involve how files can be accessed on a network. Describe the main actions that can be applied to files.

Backup Strategy Every computer user should have a strategy in place to backup their data. Backing up is the process of making a copy of data stored on fixed hard disks to some other media. This can be tape, external portable hard disks, writeable CD-ROM or DVD. The purpose of backing up data is to ensure that the most recent copy of the data can be recovered and restored in the event of data loss. Reasons for loss; electronic disasters such as a disk head; files being accidentally erased; the disk being attacked by a virus Archive, Recovery and Storage Methods Archive - The process of copying data from hard disk drives to tape or other media for long-term storage. Recovery – The data is saved in a form so that it can be restored to the computer and used by users. Data verification - it is important to check that the data stored on the backup media can be recovered. Storage Methods - DAT tape on built in drives on servers; USB removable hard drives. Frequency and Version Control - Full backup (weekly) and incremental daily; Grandfather, father, son method. Questions 62. Why should an organisation have a backup strategy in place? 63. Describe what is meant by data archiving. 64. Describe what is meant by data recovery. 65. Describe what is meant by frequency in relation to backups. 66. Describe what is meant by version control.

Upgrade Strategy Future Proofing - making sure that a system has a reasonable life and does not need to be totally replaced too soon. Hardware & software compatibility • Will older s/w work with new operating systems etc. • Will older h/w work with newer equipment (e.g. printers with computers). Integration Testing • Are the peripheral devices compatible with the hardware and operating system? • Does the network software support the hardware and operating system? • Is the application software compatible with the operating system and computer? • Is the hardware compatible with the operating system? Legacy Systems Old information systems running on out of date hardware and operating systems are often referred to as legacy systems. Page | 19


Problems with legacy systems lead to many computer companies developing software that conformed to Open Standards. Emulation Allows access to greater range of applications that might not be available on the given hardware platform. The use of an emulator allows data to be transferred between platforms. Questions 67. Why should an organisation have an upgrade strategy in place? 68. What is meant by the terms hardware and software compatibility? 69. Give two criteria of integration testing. 70. What is a legacy system? 71. Describe what is meant by emulation? 72. What does emulation allow?

Software Strategy Needs to take account of the issues :• evaluating the software for use, using several key criteria • the user support for the software • the training supplied for end users of the software • the upgrade path of the software Software Evaluation should cover. Functionality - This refers not only to the number of features an application program has but the number of useable features it has. Also the tasks to be completed need to be evaluated against the features in the software. Performance – The performance of software can be measured by several different criteria depending on the type of software. Criteria for Evaluation of Software Speed- Measured against benchmarks. Usability - Look and feel, choices in menus etc. Compatibility - With operating system. Data Migration - Translating from one format to another Reliability - Does the job it is supposed to. Resource Requirements - Has the computer enough RAM, big enough disks etc. Portability - Will it work on different systems. Support - Assistance from vendors or writers Training in Using Software On-the-job - A new user needs to be introduced to the software either by working through a tutorial to become familiar with the functions of the software or using an online tutorial program or tutorial manual that teaches the user about the software. In House - This is when small groups of staff, within the company receive a training course delivered by IT staff. External - Offered by specialist training providers for popular application software, such as software created by Microsoft, Macromedia and Adobe. User Support Manuals – Installation Guide – gives advice on how to install the software and how to configure it to work with various hardware. Tutorial Guide – gives step-by-step instructions on how to use the software. Reference Manual – Is an indexed guide detailing all the functions of the software. Page | 20


On-line Help Explains to the user what each feature of the software does. It is a part of the program situated on the computer and is not on the Internet. On-line Tutorials Step by step instructions on the computer not on the Internet. Help Desk. Internal (end user) and external (software vendors). Newsgroups. A Newsgroup allows users of a piece of software to post email messages to the wider user community. FAQs. This stands for Frequently Asked Questions. It is usually a file that contains a list of commonly asked user queries about a piece of software. Issues Affecting Decisions to Upgrade Software Lack of functionality Business changes, new technology outdates software. Hardware Incompatibility Upgraded computers do not support old software. Software Incompatibility New operating system will not run old software. Perfecting the Software Removing bugs and improving it – will existing data work with it. Questions 73. How can software be evaluated with regard to the criteria functionality and performance? 74. In terms of software evaluation what does portability mean? 75. What is meant by on-the-job training? 76. How is an in-house training course likely to be provided? 77. What is an external training course likely to focus on and who would provide it? 78. Describe the following methods of user support. On-line help, help desk and FAQs. 79. How may lack of functionality be likely to affect a decision to upgrade software? 80. How may software incompatibility be likely to affect a decision to upgrade software?

Centralised and Distributed Databases

Centralised database All the data is held on a central computer- mainframe or server. Advantages. • far easier to manage and control if it is only in one location. • far easier to back up when it is centralised. Distributed Database Consists of two or more files located at different sites on a computer network. Different users can access it without interfering with one another. The DBMS must synchronise the scattered databases to make sure they all have consistent data. Data Warehousing Historical data transactions are separated out from the business. The data is re-organised in such a way as to allow it to be analysed, the newly structured data is then queried and the results of the query are reported. Data warehousing could be used as a predictive tool, to indicate what should be done in the future. Page | 21


The main use of data warehousing is as a review tool, to monitor the effects of previous operational decisions made in the course of a business. Data mining is "The nontrivial extraction of implicit, previously unknown, and potentially useful information from data". It uses machine learning, statistical and visualisation techniques to discover and present knowledge in a form, which is easily comprehensible to humans. Data mining is the analysis of data and the use of software techniques for finding patterns and regularities in sets of data. The computer is responsible for finding the patterns by identifying the underlying rules and features in the data. The mining analogy is that large volumes of data are sifted in an attempt to find something worthwhile (in a mining operation large amounts of low grade materials are sifted through in order to find something of value.) Questions 81. What is the difference between a centralised and a distributed database? 82. What are the advantages of a centralised database over a distributed database? 83. What does data warehousing mean? 84. Why may a company decide to warehouse data? 85. What is data mining defined as? 86. Describe how data mining operates. 87. Describe a situation in business where data mining may be very useful.

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Topic 3 - Organisational Information Systems Classes of Software There are five classes of software:• Presenting Information for Print media • Presenting Information for On-Line Media • Spreadsheet (data handling) • Project Management • Personal Information Management

Presenting Information for Print Media Most applications are designed to produce printed output except for graphics and web authoring which tend to be visual. Only Word Processing (WP) and Desk Top Publishing are classed in this group. Differences between WP and DTP WP is used for generating text, while DTP tends to use pre-prepared text. DTP manages to handle text and graphics far more easily. WP can deal with multi-page documents but DTP handles multi-page documents far better. DTP files tend to be very large especially if real pictures are used. Questions 88. Outline two differences between DTP and Word processing. 89. What type of software would be better suited to preparing and printing a 32 page A5 booklet (e.g. 8 double sided pages folded into a booklet)?

Presenting Information for On-line Media

Presentations • Large growth in the use of s/w to create presentations. • Cost of data projectors has dropped. • Presentation s/w allows the user to create a slide show. • Slides can hold a variety of multimedia objects, • Slides can be sequenced - jump to using hyperlinks. • PowerPoint most popular package. Web Authoring • Software allows users to easily make up web pages. • Click on icons to link graphics and media files. • Deals easily with hyper-linking. • File written as HTML or XTML code. Questions 90. What are three features of presentation software that would help in a multi-media presentation? 91. What are three features of web authoring software that would help in a multi-media presentation? 92. What are the main advantages of web authoring software in relation to the audience reached?

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Data Handling – Spreadsheet

Education Record and analyse marks and results Keeping track of budgets and financial information, Home situation Keep track of household expenditure, track share values and even keep track of contacts. Very good at formatting output, used for printing address labels. Financial Application Cash flow forecast, statement of accounts, invoices, sales orders, purchase orders etc. Modelling and Simulation Predicting a new situation from existing one - “what-if? analysis.” Statistical Analysis E.g. analysis of numerical information. Two examples are Descriptive Statistics and Goal Seeking. Macro Use A Macro is a sequence of instructions that can be used to automate complex or repetitive tasks. Questions 93. Describe two ways in which spreadsheets can be used in business. 94. Describe two ways in which spreadsheets can be used in education. 95. What is a Macro?

Project Management The software is used to help manage a project in particular planning, monitoring and control of the various activities or resources that contribute to its success. Project management is identifying the activities that need to be carried out to complete the project. For each activity - duration; cost; resources; employees; inter-relationships - all need to be assigned. Activities scheduled to ensure efficiency. Plan output as PERT or Gantt chart. Software Packages - Microsoft Project; CA SuperProject and Hoskyns Project Managers Workbench. Time lining - Shows how and when a task needs to be completed before the next one starts. Resource Allocation – There are software tools to help match up the materials, machine, people and money. The aim is either maximising profits or achieving best quality. Gant and PERTT charts. • Gant shows timings of each activity in a chart. • PERTT shows relationship between activities. Optimisation & Critical Path Analysis • A mathematical process concerned with the optimisation of time. • Used for very complicated processes (managing a production line). Questions 96. What is project management software used for? 97. How does project management software work? 98. What is meant by resource allocation? 99. What is the purpose of a Gant Chart? 100. What is the purpose of a PERTT chart? 101. How can critical path analysis be used?

Personal Information Management (PIM) PIM is a type of software application designed to help users organise random bits of information. PIMs enable you to enter various kinds of textual notes such as reminders, lists, and dates - and to link these bits of information together in useful ways. Many PIMs also include calendar, scheduling, Page | 24


and calculator programs. Software includes Outlook by Microsoft and different version of PIM software are found on PDAs and advanced mobile phones. Questions 102. Name the functions likely to found in PIM software? 103. What PIM functions are likely to be found on a modern mobile phone?

Objects and Operations of Each class of Software Class Word processing

Objects Characters, words, paragraphs, graphic objects.

Desk Top Publishing

Characters, words, paragraphs, graphic objects.

Web Authoring Software

Characters etc, also pages, hyperlinks and links to graphics.

Presentation Software

Characters, words, slides, hyperlinks, graphics, audio and video files. Cells and groups of cells containing text, numbers, formulas.

Spreadsheet Software

Project Management

Materials, machines, people and money.

Personal Information Management (PIM)

Text, numbers.

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Operations Different menus or TABs give you a range of related functions e.g. File (or Office 20007 button) for Open, Save, Print a file. Contents and Index page, text wrapping, serif and san serif fonts. Standard File, Edit, View, Window, Help, also Layout, Type, Element Utility and a Toolbox. Advanced page handling and graphic handling. Multi page layout, columns, header and footer, pagination (also WP) Navigation - Pages linked together by Hyperlinks. Set Home Page, use arrows, bookmarks, history. Individual pages linked to form a site. Navigation – slides viewed and advanced by press of mouse. Rehearsed timings can be used. File Menu – performed on whole files. Edit Menu – cut, copy and paste. View Menu – including headers and footers. Insert Menu – rows, columns, worksheet, functions. Format Menu – format cells including numeric like currency as well as standard text formatting. Tools Menu – spelling protection and macros. Data Menu – Sort, filter and pivot tables. Window and Help much as in other Windows applications. Formatting functions are found mostly in the format menu and also on the icons on the menu line with B I U on it. Advanced Functions Goal Seeking, Forecasting, Look-up Tables, Nested If, Count, Macros. Timelining, Resource Allocation, Gant and PERTT charts, Optimisation & Critical Path Analysis Contacts, Calendar, Task List, Communication


Questions 104. What are the data objects likely to be found in Word processing Software? 105. Describe three operations that can be performed on these objects. 106. Describe three types of formatting that can be applied to these objects. 107. Describe what is meant by multi-page layout. 108. How can style sheets be used to help implement a house style? 109. What is the difference between serif and san serif fonts? 110. Describe how the use of colour and formatting of text can enhance the appearance of a document.

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Topic 4 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Implications of ICT Social Implications Globalisation Globalisation is the growing integration of economies and societies around the world. It has been hotly debated topic in economics. Positive Aspects of Globalisation - Rapid growth and poverty reduction in China, India, and other countries that were poor 20 years ago. Negative Aspects of Globalisation - It has increased inequality, contributed to environmental degradation and is confined to huge companies as diverse as Oil, Cola and burgers. Globalisation and Impact of IS on Social Structures The Impact of Information Systems on Business and Societies is exemplified through multinational companies as diverse as Cola and Oil technology. They have achieved globalisation through the use of information systems. Originally this was a few large companies with mainframe computers confined to major USA and European cities. Present day examples of Globalisation Smaller companies can have a global presence. They can communicate via dedicated worldwide intranet enabling them to publish reports, memos etc & e: mail round the world. They donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t need mainframe systems but use web and mail servers to communicate. Questions 111. Define globalisation. 112. Describe a positive aspect of globalisation. 113. Describe a negative aspect of globalisation. 114. Describe how a company can use ICT and the Web to aid communications if it is operating in several countries. Online retail The Changing Relationships between Retailer and Customer Shoppers are becoming intolerant of goods being unavailable or out of stock and very wary of overpricing and long delivery times. Consumers are more willing to go on-line and order from different retailers, need a credit card to buy on-line and do not need the stress of waiting for goods bought as presents not turning up. We still maintain relationships with local specialist shops and customers who buy their groceries on-line and have the same delivery driver every week often build up a good relationship with the driver. In General - The two types of shopping can complement each other, opening up new markets to specialist retailers and giving more choice to customers. Questions 115. What are shoppers being intolerant of that is diving them towards on-line shopping? 116. What do customers need to pay for goods in on-line shopping? 117. What benefits does on-line shopping give to customers? The Impact on Business of an IS Driven Business Model Traditional Businesses have embraced IT with open arms or else they have had IT forced upon them and adapted. Page | 27


Modern IS driven businesses are usually Companies without High Street branches. They are often call centre based companies who advertise heavily on TV. This is much cheaper than running a network of branches and call centres can bring employment to towns rather than cities. Questions 118. Describe how a new type of business is likely to use an IS driven model. 119. Why will a new type of business use an IS driven model? Identities and Personas Using the Internet as a medium of communication is having a dramatic impact on peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lives. People have an ability to communicate with anyone regardless of age, sex, location, background etc. The Internet allows people to develop different identities and personas when communicating. One can join chat rooms and newsgroups and offer an expert opinion even when not an expert. The Disadvantages include the Criminal offence of â&#x20AC;&#x153;groomingâ&#x20AC;? via the Internet. Parents are wary of letting teenagers have use of the Internet. There is a fear of the Internet among certain groups in society. Questions 120. What is an advantage of developing identities and personas on the internet? 121. What is a disadvantage of developing identities and personas on the internet? Privacy Private Communications across the Internet should be secure and safe. We feel we have a right to this privacy and web sites we visit should be our business. National Security or Criminal Actions? Terrorists use e: mail, mobile phones and the Internet to communicate amongst themselves. Criminals use the Internet to host web sites. What about our privacy? Security organisations can scan all e: mail and mobile phone messages looking for tell tale phrases. The FBI caught thousands of paedophiles across USA and Europe via their IP address and phone number. Questions 122. What are two points supporting the right to private communication over the internet. 123. Now give two points arguing that that the right to private communication over the Internet cannot be sustained any longer.

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Legal Implications of Information Systems

The 1998 Data Protection Act The 8 Data Protection Principles • Personal data shall be processed fairly and lawfully. • Personal data shall be obtained only for lawful purposes, • Personal data shall be adequate, relevant and not excessive. • Personal data shall be accurate and, kept up to date. • Personal data shall not be kept for longer than is necessary. • Personal data shall be processed in accordance with the rights of data subjects. • Appropriate measures shall be taken against unauthorised or unlawful processing of data. • Personal data shall not be transferred to a country outside Europe. • Data must be registered with the Data Commissioner. Unconditional exemptions There are several organisations that do not ever need to register with the data commissioner. These include data related to National Security, data which by law has to be made public (e.g. voters’ roll) and data held by the Police and National Health Service. Conditional exemptions These include mailing lists (names and addresses), data used for calculating and paying wages, information used for club memberships and data used by a data subject at home. Rights of Data Subjects Data subjects have the right to see any personal data stored either electronically or manually about them. The Data controller may ask that a small fee be paid to cover their costs in providing the data. They have the right to have their data corrected if it is inaccurate and to prevent their data being used by companies to send them junk mail. Responsibilities of Data Users Data users have to register with the Data Protection Registrar if they wished to hold personal information about data subjects. They must be willing to let data subjects see data held about them, but must amend any false data without charge. Data Users must also be willing to remove subjects’ names and addresses from mailing lists if asked to. Changes From 1984 Act The 1984 DPA had certain shortcomings. It only covered data in electronic form and companies could circumvent certain provisions. It had no European or worldwide dimension and there was no obligation on any data user to tell the data subject that they held any data about them. The 1998 Act covers the transmission of data in electronic form, which was not really an issue in 1984. It harmonised the European Union Data Protection legislation. It also made it a requirement of the Act to ask for the prior consent of data subjects to have data held about them, and included paper based records. Questions 124. State three principles of the 1988 Data Protection Act. 125. What are two unconditional exceptions to the Act? 126. What are two conditional exceptions to the Act? 127. State two rights of data subjects. 128. State two responsibilities of data users. 129. With reference to the Data Protection Act of 1998, describe: Page | 29


a) the role of the Information Commissioner; b) what is meant by a data subject Copyright, Designs & Patents Act Software Licensing Software can be legally installed on as many computers as the licence allows. Shareware can be used legally for 30 days then either paid for or deleted. Freeware can be downloaded and used free of charge. Computer Applications Databases can store vast amounts of copyright data. The act covers extracts from computer databases. It is plagiarism to copy work directly from the Web and in Scotland school pupils can have their entire diet of exams taken away from for plagiarising even one small part of their assessed work. Music downloads must be paid for and copyright checked. Software piracy is a crime. Questions 130. What does software licensing allow? 131. What is the difference between shareware and freeware? 132. What does the Copyright Designs and patents Act cover in relation to databases? 133. What conditions must be adhered to for music downloads? The Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000 This act gives powers to Police, Special Branch, GCHQ and MI5. It allows organisations to monitor employees, e-mail and Web usage. It also provides powers to help combat the threat posed by rising criminal use of strong encryption to try to break into electronic transactions. The Act contains 5 parts. It allows the authorities to monitor our personal e-mail and Internet usage. Businesses, local authorities and government departments can and do monitor internal e-mails and Internet usage of staff, students and pupils. It all sounds very â&#x20AC;&#x153;Big Brother.â&#x20AC;? It May enrage and disturb many people to realise this but when terrorists can be anywhere in our society it may be a relief to know that the authorities are taking such steps to catch them. Questions 134. What is the main purpose of the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000? 135. A student discovers that the university authorities monitor her student e-mail account and her web usage in the University. Have they the right to do this and if so why? The Freedom of Information Act (Scotland) 2002 From 1st January 2005 there has been in Scotland a general right of public access to all types of 'recorded' information held by public authorities. The act sets out exemptions from that general right and places a number of obligations on public authorities. The Act applies only to 'public authorities' and not to private entities. Public authorities include Government Departments, local authorities and many other public bodies, and also schools, colleges and universities. The Act is enforced by the Scottish Information Commissioner. Responsibilities of public authorities They are required to adopt and maintain a Publication Scheme. The Act sets out the classes of information available (e.g. prospectuses, almanacs and websites) and the manner in which they intend to publish the information and whether a charge will be made for the information. Questions 136. How has the Freedom of Information Act (Scotland) 2002 affected how we can find out about decisions made by a local authority? Page | 30


137. Explain whether or not we can find out from a supermarket decisions made by their board of directors. Health and Safety Regulations There is now a requirement on employers to carry out a risk assessment. Employers with five or more employees need to record the significant findings of the risk assessment. Risk assessment should be straightforward in a simple workplace such as a typical office. The aim is to provide a safe and secure working environment. Questions 138. With regard to health and safety regulations what are employers required to carry out? 139. What is the aim of risk assessment?

Economic Implications of ICT The Effect of New ICT on Business There can be large Costs such as Investing in a new computerised system, which is very expensive. Staff training can be a major cost. The Benefits include increased productivity (fewer staff); increased functionality and reports from the computerised system can save the expense of professionals. Business and ICT Business wants to maintain a Competitive advantage compared to their competitors in the same area of business who have not made a similar investment. How to gain a Competitive Advantage? This includes employing a systems analyst who completes a feasibility study covering technical aspects and legal and economic feasibility. Huge Leap of Faith? There was a huge leap of faith shown by the first paper based mail order company to move over to a call centre and telephone ordering. This was to tie in with an “intelligent warehouse”. There was an exhaustive economic feasibility study to see if they would gain a competitive advantage over their rivals. They did, but was it an even bigger leap of faith to be the first of these companies to introduce Internet Ordering? Business Costs Initial Costs - There are huge costs to set up a production line, just-in-time ordering or a call centre. The capital costs include Computers, Software, and Robots etc. Running Costs - Staff required, Paper, Ink cartridges, back-up media, Software licences and maintenance contracts. Questions 140. What are the major costs to a company introducing ICT? 141. What are the benefits to a company introducing ICT? 142. How may a company gain a competitive advantage? 143. What was the latest “Leap of Faith”? 144. What are the capital costs involved in setting up ICT in a business? 145. What are the main ICT based running costs in a business?

Ethical Implications of ICT

Censorship on The Internet. Current censorship laws may not be adequate and operators of questionable sites can host sites in countries without such laws. Controls can hinder freedom of speech. Now if you visit an illegal site (even if it is legal where it is published) you can be prosecuted. Page | 31


Should “Spam” be illegal – freedom of speech. Visiting an illegal site by accident can be a valid defence (where the description bears no resemblance to the actual contents). Regulating the content of the Internet There is dubious material on the Internet and conscious access needs to be made before ‘offensive’ or ‘unacceptable’ material is displayed. Software can be installed that will monitor what accesses are made from which terminals, when and by whom and internal organisational procedures should deal with this type of situation. Contravening Legislation on the Internet The Internet is no different from other media and one can contravene legislation on sensitive matters. Successful libel cases were taken out against bulletin board operators for the materials that were published on their boards. Is the current legislation enough? Presumably only time will tell and future governments and public opinion will influence new legislation. Questions 146. What can be a valid defence to visiting an illegal web site? 147. What type of legal action can be taken against web site operators other than libel (e.g. music downloads)? Privacy and Encryption Privacy Text messages, mobile calls, e-mail and Internet usage can all be monitored by security organisations. Criminals are using technology to try and intercept and read personal information. If we are to trust on-line shopping, then the on-line vendors must apply security to their site. Encryption A secure system ensures that the card number is encrypted when it leaves the shopper’s computer until it arrives safely at the vendor’s web site. They can use PGP, Pretty Good Privacy, which uses a 32-bit encryption procedure. This is thought to be unbreakable and is used by good on-line retailers who will usually advertise the fact. They may also subscribe to a code of practice (like the Which? Code for Internet shopping) that is based on PGP and 32-bit encryption. Questions 148. What must on-line vendors apply to their site if we are to trust them? 149. To what is encryption applied? 150. What is a good encryption system and why is it used? ICT and Global Citizenship A Study of Citizenship gives pupils and students the knowledge, skills and understanding to play an effective role in society at local, national and international levels. Global citizenship is generally thought of as being aware of global issues such as environment, commerce, politics and society in general. Use of ICT in Citizenship If a pupil or student is studying citizenship then the use of the Internet means that information and discussion papers can be found and studied very easily. Newsgroups exist on a wide range of citizenship topics and offer informed and serious discussions. Pupils can use e-mail links with schools in foreign countries. Questions 151. What does a study of citizenship generally give pupils? 152. What is Global Citizenship? 153. How can a pupil use ICT to help them with a study of citizenship? Page | 32


Chapter 3 - Applied Multimedia Topic 1 Contemporary Uses and Means of Delivery A definition of multimedia Multimedia is the combination and integration of text, audio, video and graphics in a computerbased environment. A multimedia PC or personal computer is a computer system that can play back multimedia applications such as educational CD-ROMs, video and Internet applications. Multimedia applications use the concept of interactivity, which passes the control of media content to the user.

Multimedia applications: Business

E-commerce Electronic commerce or e-commerce is concerned with the buying and/or selling of something electronically, often through online transactions. The use of e-commerce requires three components: • a merchant account: this enables the user/seller to take credit card information from a prospective customer • online shopping cart: customers can order 24/7 • transaction software: how the money is actually delivered. Presentations Multimedia presentations tend to include a variety of text, graphics, video and audio components, used to present information on a wide range of subjects, for example: • an educational lecture • a new marketing strategy • an annual meeting for employees. Teleconferencing Teleconferencing is a form of interactive communication between people who are at two or more locations. Teleconferencing includes video conferencing and audio conferencing. Video conferencing is a collection of different technologies that integrate audio with video and display the result in real time over a distance. The purpose is to communicate with people over a large distance. This can be cost effective for a business because it will save the company travel expenses. Audio conferencing uses the same principles but uses microphones to exchange information. Microsoft Net Meeting software is a popular choice at the present time. Collaborative working This is work that is undertaken by a group. In a multimedia application it could be the integration of work by different designers who have the necessary skills for certain media areas. Web-based software is available that is designed to support the work of virtual teams who are working separately on different problems. Project management software and applications are also available which can run on networks. These allow several people to work on complex problems at the same time, either separately or together. Questions 1. What is e-commerce? 2. What three components are required for e-commerce? 3. What elements do multimedia presentations usually contain? 4. What is an advantage of teleconferencing? Page | 33


5. What are the main advantages of collaborative working?

Multimedia applications: Training CBT (Computer Based Training) Computer Based Training uses multimedia such as applications and animation to educate and interest the learner. This media is used to implement instruction in an effective manner. CBT packages (including both CD-based and online packages) are very popular. Multimedia simulations For training and education applications, multimedia simulations can be used. These are simulations in which graphics, photographs, sound and video are deployed to create realistic micro-worlds where users can attempt to understand and explore certain areas of training and education. Home entertainment With the development of broadband and high-speed processors, home entertainment is now a rapidly expanding multimedia area. Home users can now enjoy online games, video and audio on demand, as well as video telephony streamed through a television set or home computer system. Other services include high-speed Internet surfing over TV and messaging (SMS) over TV and e-mail. Edutainment Edutainment is defined as an experience that is both entertaining and educational. Home shopping There are now numerous Internet sites that offer home shopping. Consumers can now shop in online supermarkets, and you can buy just about anything online if you have a credit card and a computer with Internet access. Questions 6. What are the main applications of Computer Based training? 7. What is a multimedia simulation? 8. What is edutainment?

Multimedia delivery media This section considers the various different delivery modes for multimedia applications. CD-ROM (Compact Disk, Read Only Memory) An optical storage medium available in different formats (ROM, Audio). A CD-ROM provides approximately 700 MB (megabytes) of read-only data storage. DVD-ROM (Digital Versatile Disk, Read Only Memory) This high-capacity storage medium exists in numerous formats, the most popular being the readonly type of DVD-ROM, which provides seven times the storage capacity of a CD-ROM. Latest models can hold up to 4.7 Gigabytes of data (single layer), 8.4 Gb (dual layer). These disks can contain full-length films and are compatible with audio players. Kiosk A Kiosk is usually found at public information points. These are essentially computers designed for stand-alone public use, and are commonly found in museums, ticket outlets in cinemas, train stations and banks. Emphasis is on hard-wearing robust units because security is an issue. Some have touch-screen facilities. WWW (World Wide Web) World Wide Web is a service provided on the Internet. It is a global network of computers that can share files, documents and other resources. The technology that is used is HTML (hypertext mark-up language), HTTP (hypertext transfer protocol), web servers and web browsers (Internet explorer). Page | 34


The WWW is a cross-platform environment, and has applications in almost every area of technology, entertainment, education, etc. HTML (web) pages can display text, graphics, sound and video. Mobile communications Early mobile phones could only be used for voice and text messages, but WAP (wireless application protocol) enabled mobile phones to send and receive multimedia data. 3G (third-generation) mobile phones can provide video calling and WAP at broadband speed. Modern phones like the iPhone have Mobile Internet and e-mail over wi-fi. Hybrids By integrating two or more delivery media it is possible to create a hybrid system. For example, CDROMs are particularly useful for large amounts of static data, while WWW is excellent at producing smaller amounts of regularly updated information. By creating hyper-links from the CD-ROM to the WWW, it is possible to run the CD and open up websites throughout the application/presentation. Therefore some of the information could be delivered by CD and another part could be delivered across the WWW. This is already integrated into most software help packages and browsers’ update facilities. Virtual reality Can also be known as ‘artificial reality’, this is a visual form of cyberspace and consists of 3D graphics, with user interaction via a ‘data glove’. This application uses advanced technological computers and multimedia peripherals to produce a simulated virtual environment. The user wears a head-set and glove to interact. Users can perceive real objects and events in cyberspace. Questions 9. What is normally stored on a CD? 10. What is normally stored on a DVD? 11. What is a kiosk? 12. Where is a kiosk likely to be found? 13. James buys a computer game on CD but finds when he plays it the game accesses the Internet. What kind of media is this? 14. What special hardware may a user wear to participate in virtual reality?

Advantages and disadvantages of different multimedia delivery media Media

Data Capacity approx 700 Mb

Transfer Speed 40x gives max 6 Mb/s

Window Size depends on computer monitor

DVD-ROM

usually 4.3 Gb

can be 11.8 Mb/s

depends on computer monitor

Kiosk

can be very large as hard

very fast

large, size of normal computer

CD-ROM -

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Ease of Update cannot update (readonly memory) cannot update (readonly memory)

Advantages

can be updated

userfriendly, excellent

small and portable; cheap large storage capacity; small and portable; cheap.

Disadvantage s cannot update information as disk is read only Cannot update information as disk is read only. Requires user to have DVD drive. prone to vandalism.


disk drives are used

screen or larger

WWW

effectively infinite

limited by user’s connection

large, browser window

can be updated easily on server

Hybrids (CD/Web)

unlimited because linked to Inter net small

depends on user’s connection

large

can be updated easily

slow

very small

Mobile communication s

for on-thespot information access from anywhere, anytime. Can deliver large files (CD / Web Hybrid

vulnerable to network traffic and bandwidth constraints. Prone to network and bandwidth constraints.

Topic 2 - Analysis The project brief A project brief will list all the requirements for the type of multimedia application that is to be designed. Usually there will not be enough details for any implementation to be attempted. This is more of a proposal and has no legal standing.

Requirements specification The requirements specification is a formal document that provides the basis of a contract between the client and the developer. It must provide a clear understanding (for both parties) of exactly what is required from the multimedia application. The requirements specification should cover all the following aspects: • purpose • user/audience • content • delivery media • hardware and software requirements • budget • timescale Questions 15. What is a project brief? 16. What is requirements specification? 17. What must a requirements specification provide? 18. Why are hardware and software standards necessary? 19. Why is a budget important?

Topic 3 - Navigational structures In any multimedia applications screens will have to be linked in a logical manner, so that the user can manipulate the application. We will study four different structures: • linear • hierarchical • web Page | 36


composite/hybrid

Linear structure Linear structure usually consists of a number of different slides or modules, which all follow each other.

Hierarchical structure This structure groups each part into topics, with sub-topics and headings. It is also based on content designed according to categories and subcategories. This structure is far less limiting than the linear structure. The user can link to any main area within the structure from the home page.

Web structure The web structure allows users to follow their own information flow in a heuristic pattern, which is unique to each user who will use the application. This structure is used widely on the WWW, but it can also be applied to other types of delivery. Composite/hybrid (mixed) structure This structure can be part linear and part hierarchical, which is a useful concept when you have a lot of topics and sub-topics. Users may navigate in a free manner (non-linear), but are linked in a hierarchical or linear fashion for parts of the presentation / website. It has the least limiting structure.

Complexity of navigation structures (lost in hyperspace) When browsing it is easy to get confused with where you are relative to where you started. This is called being ‘lost in hyperspace’. The following navigational aids can be used to prevent users getting lost. Backtracking -This is implemented by using a back button on menu or on toolbar, which will link to the last node visited. Highlighting (nodes/links)- This can be achieved by including a ‘sense’ of location by graphically indicating where the current page is. This is equivalent to a ‘you are here’ mark. History -This is a complete list of all nodes or links that have been visited. Each previous screen is represented once in the history file. The user can return by simply clicking on the relevant highlighted link. Bookmarks -This is a list of pages that have been selected by the user, as s/he may want to visit particular links again. Breadcrumbs- This is essentially a ‘trail’ which has been left and can lead the user back to wherever they have originated. Questions 20. What is a navigational structure? 21. What is the least limiting structure? 22. Name three methods which avoid a user getting “lost in hyperspace”? Page | 37


23. Explain what is meant by breadcrumbs.

Use of search facilities The Internet and other multimedia applications (e.g. encyclopaedias) contain huge amounts of information. In order to retrieve information it is necessary to use search facilities and specific criteria. These search criteria work according to the principles of Boolean logic. The primary operators are: AND - e.g. Computer AND Printer - narrows the search, fewer matches found OR e.g. Computer OR Printer – broaden the search, more matches found NOT - e.g. Computer NOT Printer - eliminates certain terms in your search, and filter out unimportant sub-categories. Questions 24. Why are search facilities necessary on the Internet? 25. Describe briefly the principles of Boolean logic.

User Interfaces The way in which a human and a computer exchange information and instructions is through the user interface. The job of the user interface is to make the program easy to use and understand. There are four different types of user interface to look at: CLI (command line interface) - The user enters commands by typing on the keyboard. These commands are processed by the computer. MS DOS, Linux and BBC Micro. Good for experienced user, can enter commands quickly, takes up small amount of memory but command language difficult to learn, error messages can be ambiguous and needs experienced user. Menu-driven interface - Requires the user to interact with the computer by selecting various options from a menu. Different types, Scrolling Menus, Pull-Down Menus, Pop-Up Menus, Hierarchical Menus and User-Defined Menus. Do not need to memorise lots of commands, Easy-touse program for beginners/minimal training. However certain operations/options cannot be ‘visual’, options are limited and can be time consuming. Form fill-in interface -The user will see a display of related fields and will enter data and information in the relevant areas (text boxes). This interface is very common on the Internet, particularly on shopping sites and educational sites. Simple data entry (easy to learn), no need to remember syntax or commands and requires minimum training but consumes a lot of screen space and needs efficient validation (for typing errors). GUI (graphical user interface) - With a GUI the user can interact with the computer by using a mouse (pointing device), which enables manipulation of windows, icons and menus. Fast interaction, no commands or memorisation required but difficult to program (therefore costs more).

The Use of Metaphors in Interface Design Metaphors can be used in interface design to give a visual expression of a function. For word processing you can use the metaphor of a book, by designing the screen to look like a sheet of paper; and for navigating by clicking a page-turn icon at the foot of the page. Some other metaphors include filing cabinets, files, folders, desktop and waste basket etc.

User interface design The study of this aspect of computing is called ‘human computer interaction’ (HCI). There are many key principles that have arisen from this study, some of which need exemplifying.

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Consistency and standards - The user can transfer familiar skills if a consistent interface is used, and use skills learned from one application in another. Consistency can be built up using similar components and consistency of colour throughout. Differing ability levels - Once the purpose of the application has been defined, the ability levels of all users will need to be considered. Some important considerations are the kind of environment, levels of user experience, a disabled environment and ergonomical considerations (similarities and differences between individuals). Providing feedback - For every user action, there should be some kind of feedback. Here are some methods for giving users feedback; changes of colour when a button is clicked, sounds, visual feedback and confirmation dialogue boxes. Easy correction of errors- Users may choose the wrong option or enter incorrect data. The software should always make it possible easily to correct these errors. Avoiding information overload - A good user interface should avoid presenting the user with too much information at once, or the user may be become confused, or miss some important information. Questions 26. What is a user interface? 27. What are the main characteristics of a command line interface? 28. What are the main characteristics of a menu drive interface? 29. What are the main characteristics of a graphical user interface? 30. What is a metaphor? 31. Give two examples of a metaphor. 32. Why is providing feedback important? 33. What is information overload?

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Topic 4 - Critical evaluation of screen design Storyboards

Outline storyboard The outline storyboard will show the overall structure of the application, but no fine detail. It should show the main pages and the linking structure between them. Detailed storyboard - The detailed storyboard will contain all the elements that the finished prototype should cover, e.g. user interactivity (buttons, menus, dialogue boxes), audio, text (with details of fonts, styles and size), video/animation/graphics, links and navigation, colours (backgrounds).

Questions 34. What is a storyboard? 35. What is the difference between an outline and a detailed storyboard? Appearance Kerning To improve the visual appearance of grouped characters, sometimes it is necessary to reduce or increase the gap between adjacent letters. This is called ‘kerning’. Anti-aliasing Aliasing is a term used to explain and describe the undesirable effects exhibited when information and graphics are displayed at a lower resolution. Anti-aliasing will make all objects appear as if they are of higher resolution. This technique can ‘smooth’ the edges and trick the user into believing that the piece of information has straight edges and smooth curves. Complications of using non-standard fonts Sometimes a designer may wish to use a font that is not widely installed on users’ computers. The user may substitute an alternative font, spoiling the designer’s intended look and feel. This can be avoided by use of embedded fonts or graphical text. Embedded fonts - Font embedding allows fonts that were originally used in the creation of the document to be embedded in the file / document, guaranteeing the end user the complete original document (without alterations). Disadvantage is that larger files are created, and this can slow down page loading. Graphical text - For small sections of text (e.g. titles or logos), it may be appropriate to use ‘graphical text’ (like Word Art). This allows the designer to transform dull text into eye-catching or colourful designs. These should be displayed on the user’s screen exactly as the designer intends. Colour and graphics (implications) When creating graphics for a multimedia application, a designer needs to remember that the user’s display technology may not display the graphic exactly as intended. Colour- If colours are displayed on an eight-bit (256 bit) display, different web browsers (Netscape, Internet Explorer) will display and remap colours according to their own characteristic palette. This may be a problem because it can change the original colour scheme. Web palettes- At present there are only 216 colours that appear identically on the majority of browsers and operating systems. This ‘browser-safe web palette’ limits the designer’s choices to 216 different colours out of a possible 256. Page | 40


Dithering The process of mixing pixels of two different colours in order to give a colour that is not in the palette is called dithering. An example might be if you required orange on a graphic, and this was not available on your system palette; the browser could then give a mix of red and yellow pixels to compensate. Gamma correction If some images or graphics look ‘bleached out’ or ‘too dark’ the input signal (voltage) to the monitor (vdu) must be ‘gamma corrected’. This dilemma is caused by cathode ray tubes (CRT) that do not generate light intensity that is proportional to the input voltage. The actual intensity created by the CRT is proportional to the input voltage raised to the power of ‘gamma’. The value of gamma is usually approximately 2.5. Progressive scan (displays) or Interlacing Graphic files can take a while to download on a web page. With a slow connection, you can see graphics gradually appearing. A better alternative is to use ‘progressive display’. In this method, every second line of pixels is downloaded first, so the user quickly sees a rough version of the whole picture; then the other lines are downloaded, completing the picture. In reality, there may be several passes rather than just two, so a very rough version appears very quickly, gradually improving with each pass. This is known as ‘progressive display’ for jpeg images, or ‘interlacing’ for GIF and PNG images. Questions 36. Why might kerning be applied to text? 37. Explain why anti-aliasing might be used? 38. What is an embedded font? 39. Explain what happens when dithering is applied. 40. Why do the colours of an image change slightly when viewed on different computers? 41. What can be done to solve this problem? 42. When may a progressive scan be useful?

Downloading and Streaming Audio and Video Downloading audio - The downloading method is quite slow as you must wait for the entire file to be downloaded. Once it has been saved to your hard drive, you can open it in a suitable player, can play the file as often as required and can fast forward and rewind. However you cannot listen until fully downloaded and it may take a long time to download. Streaming audio - The audio is played as it arrives over the Internet in real time. The file is not preserved on the computer so a network connection must be sustained. This allows radio stations to transmit audio live, and news channels to stream interviews live. You can listen to the file immediately and play as it downloads. The disadvantages include cannot fast forward or rewind and high compression can reduce quality of file.

Implications of using video When video is embedded into a multimedia application, a designer must ensure the user can control the video playback. VCR-type controls must be provided (forward, fast forward, rewind, stop, pause, alter volume, alter size). Just as audio can be downloaded or streamed, so too can video. Downloading video After downloading a video from a website, you can save it on to hard disk and play back when convenient. You can play the file as often as required, can edit the file and can fast forward and rewind. Even with a fast broadband connection video can take a long time to download and you cannot listen until fully downloaded. Page | 41


Streaming video This method requires connecting to a streaming server. A special player is required to view and play these video files. Streaming video can be played and downloaded at the same time (similar to streaming audio). When a user selects a streaming clip, the streaming player contacts the server and establishes bandwidth and delay information. A small amount of the clip is then downloaded into buffer storage, the clip is played and more content is downloaded. If the network is clogged the clip will use up content in the buffer. You can of course play and listen to file immediately as it downloads. On the downside you do not usually save the file for later and high compression can reduce the quality of files. You do need a good network connection. Health issues (video playback) Flashing sequences in a video or presentation can cause epilepsy (known as photosensitive epilepsy). This type of epilepsy is triggered by flashing or flickering at a certain frequency. The safe frequency for flashing sequences is on or below five hertz. Questions 43. What are two benefits of downloading audio? 44. What are two benefits of streaming audio? 45. How does streaming work for audio files? 46. What kind of internet connection is necessary for streaming audio and video? 47. What is the recommended safe frequency for flashing sequences?

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Topic 5 - Software for creating and delivering multimedia applications Presentation and Authoring Software Presentation software

Presentation software can be used to edit and create linear multimedia presentations. It is possible to combine text and graphics, and incorporate audio and video files. Transitions between slides, and animations within slides, can be used. Hyperlinks can be incorporated, but the product is essentially linear. The most popular package is Microsoft PowerPoint. Authoring software (icon-based) Authoring software combines text, graphics, audio, images and video by using either an icon-based or script-based system. Authoring packages create a user interface where the user can control a cast of multimedia objects and define how they will react. In an icon-based authoring package, the developer can build a flow chart of different events by dragging icons from a pre-defined ‘icon palette’ as the structure is built; text, graphics, animation, audio and video can be added. Icons can represent audio, video, etc., as well as conditional statements such as decisions and selections. Certain icons will have properties that describe flow control and user interaction. Examples of icon-based software are Authorware (professional) and Hyperstudio (simple). They give an easy-to-follow structure that is easy to edit and update information but can be difficult to learn. Authoring software (scripting-based) Macromedia Director is the recognised software. More advanced authoring software provides a scripting facility. This uses a time-based tool and a score as the primary authoring metaphor, and elements are presented in horizontal tracks with vertical columns (timelines). By scripting the behaviour of each of the cast members you can build a powerful presentation. Director is suitable for presentations with a lot of animation, and large media- or video-driven applications. Authoring software such as Macromedia Director is a huge package. It can take a while to master and previous knowledge of programming can be an advantage. The package is also very expensive. Web-page applications Dynamic and modern presentations can also be built using a web-page editor. These can be viewed over the internet thereby increasing the audience. Web-page editors range from basic HTML editors that allow you to create pages individually, to website managers that will design and handle all aspects of web management. Some examples are Microsoft Front Page (basic) and Macromedia Dreamweaver (professional).

Multimedia Players Once a multimedia application has been created – using a presentation package, authoring package or web-page editor – it can either be turned into a stand-alone application that requires no specialised software to view it, or saved in a format that requires a software player. For example, a developer might create an animation using Macromedia Flash. To view the animation, the user requires the Flash player to be installed. Fortunately most players (or plug-ins) can be freely downloaded from the Internet. Web Browsers are effectively players for web based applications. Questions 48. What is the difference between presentation and authoring software? 49. What are the two different kinds of authoring software? 50. What will sophisticated web design software allow the user to do? Page | 43


51. How may a multimedia presentation be viewed if a user does not have the original software?

Skills required by personnel

Project manager The project manager is accountable for ensuring that the development meets the clientâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s requirements, is created to a high standard, all within the agreed budget and stipulated deadline. Multimedia designer The multimedia designer will specialise in the overall design and in the combination of different media, and will be responsible for: content, structure, navigation, screen layout and interactivity. S/he will work closely with all technical staff, and will implement designs by utilising relevant members of the team. Subject expert This individual would have an in-depth knowledge of the particular subject, and will provide content for the application. The subject expert will play an important role in testing. Media specialists These can be video engineers, audio engineers, specific animators, or graphic designers. Each is an expert at creating media elements within their own area of expertise. Multimedia programmer The multimedia programmer is responsible for creating the overall application to the design provided by the multimedia designers, and incorporating media elements provided by the media specialists. S/he will be an expert in the chosen software or authoring tool. Webmaster This individual should administer the website. If the application is designed for web use, s/he would be in charge of: web server hardware, web server software, website design and update, monitoring any feedback and traffic Questions 52. In a multimedia development team what is the project manager responsible for? 53. Why does a team need a subject expert? 54. What tasks will the media specialists perform? 55. Who is likely to administer the website?

Topic 6 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Graphic, Audio and Video Files You need to know some facts about graphic, audio and video files, so that you can make best use of them.

Graphic file types Three different graphic file types (TIFF, jpeg, GIF) will be discussed in terms of colour depth( Number of different colours for each pixe), Resolution (Number of pixels per unit area), File size (Number of bytes to store graphic), Degree of compression (Can determine image quality (lossy and non-lossy)), Appropriate uses File Type

Colour Depth

File Size

Compression

Uses

Any

Resolutio n Any

TIFF

Large

Scanned images, DTP

jpeg

High

varies

small

Various lossless methods Lossy

GIF

Small (8bit)

varies

small

lossless

Clip art, graphics with uniform colour.

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Web, Digital cameras


TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) This format was developed for the purpose of scanned images, and is one of the most widely supported file formats. It is recognised across many hardware and software applications, and uses lossless compression. jpeg (Joint Photographic Experts Group) Mainly used on the web, principally to reduce size of image and lessen download time, compression is built into the jpeg format. It is not suitable for images with sharp borders and uses lossy compression (loss of some of original data), and supports full colour. GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) Mainly used on web for images with sharp content such as logos and screenshots. It utilises nonlossy compression which is built into the format. Interlacing and animationpossible. Questions 56. What kind of compression does a TIFF use and how large are its file sizes? 57. Why are JPEG graphics used on the web? 58. How many colours are available for a GIF graphic? 59. Why is compression necessary?

Audio file types MP3 (Motion Picture Experts Group, Layer 3) This is a digital audio compression format, and it can reduce an original sound file to ten to fifteen times smaller than the parent file, by eliminating waveforms that the human ear cannot process. The small file that is produced is easy and quick to download and is perfect for web use. It is used extensively on music websites. You will need an MP3 player to listen to the files. MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) This is essentially a communication standard between electronic musical instruments and computers. It does not store sampled sound, it stores binary signals (instructions). MIDI files download fast and take up little space in memory. They are much smaller than digital audio files as they store instructions on how to recreate sounds. The sound card takes these instructions and plays the notes from a bank of pre-recorded sounds. The advantage of a MIDI sequencer is that it allows the user to record and edit a musical performance without using an audio-based input source.

Video file size and quality Video file size and quality of playback are affected by: • frame rate • window size • compression. Frame rate One frame is one complete picture within the reel of a film. Moving pictures need many frames to be shown in one second in order to produce the effect of motion. The unit of measurement used is the ‘frame rate’, which is in frames per second. Film has twenty-four frames per second but must be adjusted to match the display rate of the video system. The higher the frame rate, the smoother the film will appear to be, but this will also require higher bandwidth for playback and increased storage (file size). For multimedia and web production the typical frame rate is 15–30 frames per second, with a key frame included so that the audio and video can be synchronised every 15 frames to prevent overlap problems. Some formats are shown below: • NTSC: 30 frames per second (USA) Page | 45


• • • •

PAL: 25 frames per second (Europe) Quick Time for Windows: 15 frames per second (.mov) Video for Windows: 15 frames per second (.avi) MPEG: 30 frames per second (international standard).

Window size Digital video has to store lots of information about each frame. The smaller the window size, the less time is needed to draw all the pixels. However, if the window size is large, there may not be sufficient time to display a complete image in a single frame before the next frame appears. So you will need to choose an appropriate window size that results in a smooth display. By reducing the window size you will also reduce the amount of data and therefore reduce the file size. So choose an appropriate window size for efficient display. Compression For video to be delivered over the web it is imperative that the file be compressed. Compression will reduce the video and audio file size to a more realistic delivery size. Large bandwidth and connection speeds also play a significant role. As well as reducing window size to compress the file, encoding is used, involving a codec (compressor/decompress-or). Codecs work by removing data from the file and replacing this data when it is decompressed at the user’s end. During compression you will select a quality setting, generally on a scale value of 1–5. A lower setting will give greater compression and small file size but weaker overall quality. Tables of file sizes and quality for various codecs can be obtained from digital video websites and magazines. MPEG (Moving Picture Expert Group) video MPEG was developed as an international standard for use in CD-ROMs and video games. The files are large (30 frames per second), and they output high-quality playback. MPEG requires special hardware to digitise video and specific hardware to playback video. A major disadvantage is that it is not compatible with the Apple Mac platform whereas Quick Time is, and different computer manufacturers (Compaq, IBM) have different playback hardware. Questions 60. What are the characteristics of an MP3 file? 61. How is a MIDI file structured? 62. What is the advantage of a MIDI sequencer? 63. Explain what the video frame rate is? 64. How can a window size affect the quality of a video? 65. What is a CODEC? 66. Why was MPEG (Video) developed? 67. What is a limitation of MPEG (Video)?

Structure of a URL (Uniform Resource Locator) A multimedia application may include hyperlinks to websites. These are identified by a URL – or uniform resource locator. A URL uniquely specifies the address of a file on the web. The actual URL is a set of four numbers (209.222.546.888), but these are difficult to use and remember, so each address is represented in alphanumeric form. URL format: Protocol://host name/path/filename For example: http://www.ltscotland.org.uk/edresources/edu.doc So the structure of the URL is: Protocol = Hypertext Transfer Protocol = http Page | 46


Host name = www.ltscotland.org.uk Host computer = World Wide Web = www Domain name = ltscotland Domain type = organisation in united kingdom = .org.uk Path name = edresources File = edu.doc Protocols Web pages are constructed in HTML (Hypertext Mark-up Language). They are served from an http server. Host name The host name includes the host computer, domain name and domain type. There are many domain types (.com,.co.uk,.ac,.fr(French) etc.) Path name This specifies the location of the file on the computer system. Absolute URL A URL that has a fully qualified domain name is an ‘absolute URL’, which would include the host name, and the full path name of the file. The example we looked at previously is an absolute URL: http://www.ltscotland.org.uk/edresources/edu.doc This URL has specified the http service on the system www, which is located at the ltscotland.org.uk domain, and is asking for file edu.doc which is in the edresources directory. Relative URL A relative URL is the location of a file relative to the location of the file being currently used. The directions refer to where you are starting from, so the relative URL does not need to specify the protocol or machine name: /edresources/edu.doc This points to the folder edresources; in this folder is the file edu.doc; the relative URL for this example only needs the folder name and the file name. The browser assumes the current server is the requested computer system, and this can be embedded in the web page: <A HREF= “edresourc Questions 68. Explain why we use a URL. 69. Explain the parts of this URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/scottishnews.html 70. What is an absolute URL? 71. What is a relative URL?

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Topic 7 - Testing Testing Testing a multimedia application involves examining each function to check that it meets a specified performance or quality level. Testing is also used to ensure that all components and functions work individually and as an ensemble according to the original design. Four different types of testing will be looked at: • screen testing • integration testing • acceptance testing • usability testing. Screen testing Each separate screen must be tested in the application, to ensure it matches the design and functions correctly. The criteria are:-. Layout matches design, buttons and navigational functions work, texts, fonts, colours and sizes match the original design specification, scroll functions, video and audio clips run without any problems, non-functioning controls grey out when not needed, visible continuity between screens, any applets operate correctly, text has been spell-checked. Integration testing After testing every screen independently, the purpose of integration testing is to ensure that they all work together. Acceptance testing This will be performed by the client, who will test the finished application to ensure that it does what the original contract specifies. Satisfying the acceptance test regime will result in the client ‘signing off’ the project, or formally agreeing that the contract has been successfully completed. Usability testing This evaluates the application’s ‘usability’. A selected group of users will work on typical tasks that are relevant to the application. They will evaluate how easily the application allows users to recover from mistakes, and whether the interface is ‘user friendly’ or aesthetically pleasing. A checklist can be given to each participant and the results evaluated. In the testing of the application’s usability, attention must be given to the needs of users with a disability. Questions 72. What is the purpose of screen testing? 73. What is the purpose of Integration testing? 74. Who carries out acceptance testing? 75. What will usability testing check for?

Project development documentation During the development process, various types of documentation should be produced. This falls into two main groups: project development documentation (for use by the present and future developers), and user documentation (for use by users of the application). Project development documentation includes the requirements specification, navigation maps, storyboards and a record of testing. Requirements specification This is the formal document agreed between the client and the developer. This specification can be used as a checklist to ensure all criteria have been met. Page | 48


Navigational maps A navigational map shows the links between screens and should define the structure and flow of the presentation or application. Record of testing A test strategy document should be created at the design stage: A careful record should be made of all tests carried out, detailing expected and actual results. If there are any discrepancies these should also be explained. Questions 76. What is likely to be found in project development documentation? 77. Why do you think the requirements specification is revisited at this stage? 78. What is a navigational map? 79. Why is a record of testing made?

User Documentation User Documentation will include hardware and software system requirements, and user instructions/guide. Hardware and software system requirements The hardware and software system requirements describe to the user the minimum requirements to run the application. User guide/instructions Instructions for running the application will have to be included in the finished documentation. This should include a detailed set of instructions for running the software, and highlighting frequently asked questions (FAQs). Questions 80. What will user documentation include? 81. What will the hardware and software requirements describe? 82. What is likely to be found in the user guide?

Evaluation of multimedia application Every multimedia application should be evaluated in terms of fitness for purpose, accessibility and clarity of presentation. Fitness for purpose • Does the application do what it is intended to do? • Has the designer designed the best solution for the problem? • Does the application work in an efficient manner? • Is the application robust? • Is the application easily maintained? • Has a technical and user guide been provided? Accessibility Some users may have disabilities, and applications should be designed to reflect the best agreed practice in this area. These include: • • • • •

Text: Use of clear/resizable fonts Audio: Include captions, avoid conveying information with sound only Audio: Include volume controls Images: Offer best possible resolution Images: Provide a zoom feature Page | 49


• • •

Provide full descriptions for graphs and diagrams Avoid flickering on screen Choose good colour combinations.

Clarity of presentation • Navigational elements should be always visible • Screen should be arranged in a symmetrical manner • Each transition should flow coherently • Colours should be appropriate to the topic. Evaluation is an iterative process, and may lead to improvements and development of the application in future versions. Questions 83. What should every multimedia application be evaluated in terms of? 84. What is the main test of Fitness for Purpose? 85. What group is covered by accessibility? 86. Why is evaluation important?

Copyright Any multimedia application must comply with copyright legislation. Rigorous attention should be paid to copyright and intellectual property issues. You should be aware of the laws relating to the use of copyright material in any commercial product. The Copyright, Design and Patents Act is the most relevant UK legislation. Wherever possible public domain material (or material where the copyright holder has granted a waiver) should be used. Failing this, copyright holders should be contacted and permission sought to use their material. The essence of copyright Copyright is intended to provide access to works whilst protecting the rights of their original authors. In other words it encourages people to write, make and play music, create art and digital works like software and web sites. One is usually charged money to access copyright material (buy a book, CD, work of art or even pay admission to a concert or gallery) and the originating artist receives money or royalties when the work is accessed for money. Copyright Laws These laws exist to protect the owners of copyright work from anyone who wishes to use their work and ensure that either they receive due recompense or the user can be prosecuted under the copyright laws. Copyright Licences You can use copyright material if you own a licence to use it. For example anyone can copy up to 5% of a book. You can buy a licence to use material found in newspapers and magazines but a fair use policy allows you to quote from books and newspapers and use free of charge a certain percentage of individual articles. If you want to use other people’s work you must have their permission or in the case of larger organisations buy a licencse. Copyright Designs and Patents Act With the increasing use of computers material can be copied very easily. Increasing use of the Internet for downloading music, video and images can lead to copyright infringement. Also of Page | 50


interest to us is the software we use. It is an offence under the CDPA to give a copy of software or use a copy of software without the appropriate licence. Freeware is usually free to use without restriction. Shareware is usually free to use for 30 or 90 days and then either a fee or donation should be given to the authors if you want to carry on using it. Protection of your own materials If you genuinely originate an application then there are parts of a multimedia application that can be copyrighted. Any part that you originate (original text, photos, videos etc. can be copyrighted. Copyright is assumed for all original material. The duration of copyright is the length of your lifetime although published books, music etc. is often copyrighted for 50 or 75 years after the authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s death. Legal redress Owners of commercially copyrighted materials can and do sue companies and individuals who break the copyright. Examples are an organizations using unlicensed software, web sites uploading thousands of music tracks and giving them away. Damages can be very high in the most serious cases but individuals are likely to have their computer equipment confiscated and be banned from the Internet. Means of tracing copyrighted materials Enforced on-line registration Often when you download software from the Internet and pay for it you find you cannot use it straight away. The software often goes onto the Internet and makes you register the software, usually by entering a serial number that has been sent to you in an e-mail. Digital watermarking is the process of possibly irreversibly embedding information into a digital signal. The signal may be audio, pictures or video, for example. If the signal is copied, then the information is also carried in the copy. In visible watermarking, the information is visible in the picture or video. Typically, the information is text or a logo which identifies the owner of the media. In invisible watermarking, information is added as digital data to audio, picture or video, but it cannot be perceived as such (although it is possible to detect the hidden information). An important application of invisible watermarking is to copyright protection systems, which are intended to prevent or deter unauthorised copying of digital media. Questions 87. Why is copyright necessary? 88. What is the essence of copyright? 89. Why do copyright laws exist? 90. How does the Copyright Designs and Patents Act relate to the use of software? 91. How may one obtain legal redress for breaking copyright? 92. Explain the use of digital watermarking.

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Chapter 4 – Focus On The External Exam The first step in your preparations is to be clear about the structure of the exam.

The Structure of the Exam The exam is out of 140 marks and is broken down into three sections.

Section I: Short response, core units This section contains a total of 30 marks on the Database and Using Information units, 15 marks each. The structure of section 1 is very similar to your NAB questions where the ratio of Knowledge and Understanding to Problem Solving is roughly 2:1. The level of difficulty is also similar to your NAB questions.

Section II: Extended Response Core Units This section contains a total of 60 marks on the Database and Using Information units, around 30 marks each. Here the ratio of Knowledge and Understanding to Problem Solving is roughly 1:2, in other words the reverse of section I. These questions are more challenging than section I and around 20 out of 60 of the marks are aimed at candidates looking for an A pass. One of the database questions will be a normalisation question where you will be given the UNF with a candidate key and have to find 1NF, 2NF and 3NF with all primary and foreign keys correctly identified. This question usually takes around 20 of the 30 marks available for database.

Section III: Extended Response, Optional Unit. This section contains a total of 50 marks on your optional unit, Applied Multimedia. All three options are represented in the paper but please ignore the other two as you know nothing about them apart from general knowledge and that will not help you answer the in-depth questions. The questions here are more challenging than Section I with around 20 out of 50 of the marks being aimed at candidates looking for an A pass. These questions will usually contain a few marks (usually 5 or 6) on material drawn down from the core units to allow candidates to show they can integrate the knowledge of the whole course. The questions in sections II and III may also ask for answers referring to the themes of the course, as stated in the course outline. The themes of the course are: • The characteristics of information •

Information in decision making

An ethos of practical problem solving

Technological developments in information systems

Social, professional, ethical and legal implications associated with information systems

Candidates tackle all questions. There are no choices to be made, other that choosing the correct option in section III to be completed.

The Importance of Your Coursework Mark At some point in the course your teacher will have given you a piece of coursework, worth 60 marks, to complete. It is important that you work very hard at this task and be very meticulous and gain as high a mark as possible because this mark is added to your exam mark out of 140. The total is Page | 52


halved to get your final percentage. The cut-offs are usually 45% for a D pass, 50% for a C pass, 60% for a B pass and 70% for an A pass.

Exam Preparation Tips Now that you know what is involved in the exam, the next step is to consider a few tips on preparing for the exam. • Check your resources and make sure you have enough materials for revision (including online resources such as Moodle and Scholar). • Use a checklist to make sure you cover all the topics in the exam. • Learn the definition of all the topics in the books. • The course is full of jargon and its own use of language. Treat it like learning a foreign language where you have to learn everything. • Check that your knowledge is up to standard by answering all the questions in the book. • Read the problem solving section carefully, playing close attention to the examples and answers to the questions. • Draw up a revision plan well in advance of the exam, scheduling your revision so that you can cover it all without leaving it to the last minute. Remember: You don’t pass the exam on the day you sit it but in the weeks and months beforehand when you are preparing yourself by studying and revising.

Focus on Problem Solving A key part of passing Higher Information Systems is developing your problem solving skills. The questions in the first part of the exam test your knowledge and understanding of the content of the units. Those questions test whether you can, for example, identify, describe, name or state, list, describe, summarise, interpret the terms in the content grids. Examples • Explain the difference between data and information. • Name the Act of Parliament under which anyone intercepting electronic communications can be prosecuted. • Why are Gantt charts useful in Project Management Software? The problem solving questions you will have to answer in the course of the examination will test the more advanced set of skills set out below.

Application of Knowledge Some questions will test whether you can apply your knowledge to situations that are unfamiliar to you. These questions will use words like demonstrate, show, relate, explain. Examples • The colours of an image change slightly when viewed on different computers. Why is this and what can be done to solve the problem? • Explain why supporting legacy systems and future proofing may help overcome some of the problems associated with upgrading computer hardware and software.

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Analysis Other questions test your skills of analysis to see if you can identify pattern or recognise relationships. These questions often use words like analyse, arrange, order, explain, connect, infer, compare, categorise. Examples • Your 3NF question is the main source of analysis questions in section II. • Compare a local area network with a wide area network. Synthesis This type of question tests whether you can apply your knowledge to draw conclusions, generalise, create new ideas, bring together from different sources and predict what will happen in given situations. This type of question asks you to integrate, modify, design, compose, plan, arrange. Generally speaking pupils find these type of questions very difficult. Examples • A quite complex question has been used which paints a scenario and asks you to develop either a storyboard or structure (Applied Multimedia). • A scenario is painted relating to database, for example a library system. The question asks to name the tables and fields used in a report or the tables and criteria needed for a query.

Evaluation Evaluation questions test whether you can make judgements, assess ideas, compare ideas, and evaluate data. This type of question uses words like judge, evaluate, recommend and justify. Examples • Suggest an appropriate multimedia delivery system for a simulation that trains tank drivers. • Recommend the type of application needed to produce GANTT and PERT charts.

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Practice Exam Type Questions. We will start with 30 marks worth of mostly knowledge and Understanding Section I type questions, followed by 60 marks worth of more complex problem solving section II questions. Section II usually starts with a database question asking you to take a UNF to 3NF. This is usually worth around 20 marks. You are always given the correct key to use. Finally we will include 50 marks of typical Applied Multimedia questions containing a mixture of the two types of question. Section I 1. A libraryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s database of members has been created from data in an un-normalised form. The diagram below shows three records from a table in the database. Member Number 12314 09721 00576

Member Name John Potts Emily Bronte Jim Smith

Book Name Fly Fishing Elegant Dressing Management

Author Name J P Hartley M A Snob B DeVere

Date Borrowed Date Due Back 22/04/2009 6/5/09 1/5/09 15/5/09 4/5/09 18/5/09

(a) Choose a suitable primary key for his table. Give one reason for your choice. (b) Describe one problem with deleting a book from this table.

2 2

2. Explain what is meant by a Boolean Data type

2

3. Explain what is meant by entity integrity.

2

4. Explain what is meant by a compound key.

2

5. What is meant by cardinality?

2

6. What is meant by referential integrity with regard to foreign keys?

3

7. Explain the difference between data and information.

2

8. State two advantages of using a template in presentation software.

2

9. Give one example of metadata.

1

10. Jane has a problem using her new web design software. State two means by which Jane could receive user support for this application. 2 11. Explain the purpose of an executive management system.

2

12. State two areas of software content covered by the Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988.

2

13. A bank issues monthly statement to current account holders. These statements show each transaction and a balance. (a) What is the nature of this information?

2

(b) What is the form and type of this information?

2 Total Marks (30)

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Section 2 14. Aberdon Electrics supplies local customers with electrical goods. Customer orders are recorded on an order card as shown. Details of all items are stored on stack cards. Each item is obtained from a single supplier. Parts of these cards are shown below. Customer No. : 1234 Customer Name : John McBride Address : 57 High Street, Aberdon Telephone : 01349 886532 Order Date : 28/4/09 Item Number 33245 32456 26785

Number Ordered 12 4 5 Stock Card Supplier Name Supplier Address

Item Number 33245

Description

32456

Tumble Dryer

Acme Refrigeration Ariston

26785

Toaster

Beco Industries

Freezer

Industrial Estate, Aberdon Ariston House, London W24 Well Road, Blackwell

Supplier Telephone 01349 864323 0120 456 7432 0117 256 7123

Price £189.99 £125.00 £11.99

(a) The present system can be represented in un-normalised form as: Customer No Customer Name Customer Address Customer Telephone Order Date Item Number Number Ordered Description Supplier Name Supplier Address Supplier Telephone Price (i)

(b)

Using Customer No as the primary key, transform this un-normalised data to first normal form by removing repeating groups.

3

(ii) Identify all primary and foreign keys.

3

(i)

4

Transform the first normal form to second normal form by removing partial dependencies Page | 56


(c)

(ii) Identify all primary and foreign keys.

2

(i)

3

Transform this second normal form to third normal form by removing nonkey dependencies.

(ii) Identify all primary and foreign keys.

2

15. Box Stupid rent out TVs to students and pensioners across the country. They use a relational database. The data is held in the following tables. TV Identity Number Make Model Type* (a) (b)

Customer Customer Number Customer Name Customer Address

Rental Customer Number* Identity Number* Date Rented Number of weeks

Charge Type Cost per week

Draw an entity relationship diagram to represent this data model. Each month a report is produced to show the rental income from each model of TV. The report for Sony 32QS is shown below. Date Rented Number of Weeks Income 1/10/07 12 £48.00 3/11/07 20 £80.00 4/12/07 10 £40.00 Total £168.00 Name the tables and fields which would be used to produce this report.

(ii) (ii)

State two features of the RDBMS which would be used to calculate the monthly total from the income.

6

5 2

16. Beezer Enterprises uses a network file server to hold the specialist software regularly used by each department along with the work of each employee stored in home directories. (a) (b)

Describe a suitable backup strategy for this system. Your answer should describe a storage method, a recovery method and a rotation method.

5

The Head office is concerned about the security of the system. Describe two ways in which security can be improved. New employees need to be trained to use the company’s software. Describe two methods of providing training.

2

(iii) The network file server and the computer work stations both require versions of the network software. Describe the different versions of the network software.

4

(i) (ii)

(c)

2

Head office recommends that all word processed documents conform to a house style. (i)

State two features of a house style. Page | 57

2


(ii)

Describe the difference between serif and san serif fonts.

2

(iii) Describe the easiest way of enabling users to make use of the house style.

2

17. The way in which shops and customers interact has changed because of the development of the Internet. (a) Describe two changes brought about by this development (b) Schools may block Internet content that they deem inappropriate. Describe two implications of this action. 18. Identify two characteristics of tactical management.

4 4 2

Total Marks (60) Optional Topic â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Applied Multimedia 19. A computer manufacturer provides access on its web site to an online photograph of each model. (a) The graphics were saved in JPEG format. Give two reasons for choosing JPEG rather than TIFF or GIF in this situation. 2 (b) The colour in the photographs appears differently on different computers. Why is this and what can be done to solve this problem? 3 (c) The technical details of the Optium XL computer on the web site can be found at: http://www.eurocomputers.com/optiumxl/tech.pdf (i) (ii)

Identify and name three parts of the structure of this URL. State whether this is an absolute or relative URL and justify your choice.

3 2

20. A tourist board has been given funding to produce a DVD about the area it serves. It was originally conceived that the DVD would be mailed to interested members of the public but now many people are saying it should be a web site. The DVD and web site will contain around 500 pages and the compromise was reached to produce a DVD accessible through a web browser and upload the linked HTML pages to a web site. (a) Audience and timescale are two items contained in a contractual requirements specification. State three other items found in a contractual requirements specification and give an example of each from the paragraph above. 6 (b) State one advantage and one disadvantage that a DVD-ROM has compared to the World Wide Web for showcasing tourist attractions. 2 (c) Describe two methods of avoiding getting lost in hyperspace that a user could expect to find in a site of such complexity. 4 (d) Once completed the product will be tested. (i) Describe the screen testing that would be carried out on a sample screen. 2 (ii) State one form of testing that would normally be carried out by persons outside the development team. 1 Page | 58


(e) Audio clips of tourist talking about the area are to be included in the presentation. The developers could use MP3 or MIDI sound files. State a suitable sound file to use and justify your choice. 3 (f) With reference to two characteristics of information compare the DVD-ROM and the Website.

2

21. A shopping web site stores all its products in database that users can browse on-line. When they choose goods the goods are placed a shopping cart, symbolised by a trolley. When they move to checkout they are taken to a secure area of the web site where they can enter their credit card number to pay for the goods. (a) A metaphor has been used in this web site. (i) Explain what is meant by a metaphor in multimedia. (ii) Describe the metaphor used in this case. (b) Name the three elements needed for Internet Shopping.

2 2 3

(c) The colour images of all the products on the site have been stored as JPEG. (i) Give one reason for choosing JPEG as a file type rather than TIFF in this case. 2 (ii) The designers could have used a GIF file type but this could have created a problem with colour depth. (A) A GIF file has a lower colour depth than a JPEG. Describe one problem with using a lower colour depth to display photographs. 2 (B) Dithering can be used to improve the appearance of images with a low colour depth. Explain what is meant by dithering. 2 (d) To prevent fraud the Web Site employs certain security methods at the checkout stage. (i) Name and describe one security method that the customer will use. 2 (ii) Name a security method employed to keep the data safe during transmission. 1 22. Preserving copyright can be very important in multimedia so many presentations are fitted with a digital watermark. (a) What is a digital watermark? (b) State the main purpose of using a digital watermark. (c) In general what is covered by copyright?

1 2 1 Total Marks (50)

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Answers Questions in the text Database 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

Linked tables Data cannot be added due to the absence of linked data. If a record is deleted then other data may also be lost. Items of data, such as a name and address, can appear many times. An entity is a collection of attributes describing a person or object. An attribute is a single item of data in an entity. Cardinality is the data relationship between two entities. A candidate key is a key than can be used to uniquely identify a record. A primary key uniquely identifies a record. A foreign key is an attribute in one entity that is a primary key in another entity. A surrogate key is a key made up when there are too many attributes to make up a unique key. An attribute cannot exist as a foreign key in one entity unless it already exists as a primary key in another entity. A compound key. A repeating group. A repeating group is removed to form a new entity. Partial dependencies are removed. Non key dependencies are removed. Each column must be unique. Each row must be unique.

UNF Booking Ref Member Number Member Name Member Address Member Telephone Number Property Ref Property Name No of Beds No Sleeps Date in No of Nights User Charge

1NF Booking Ref Member Number Member Name Member Address Member Telephone Number

2NF Booking Ref Member Number Member Name Member Address Member Telephone Number

Property Ref Booking Ref* Property Name No of Beds No Sleeps Date in No of Nights User Charge

Property Ref Property Name No of Beds No Sleeps Booking Ref* Property Ref* Date In No of nights User Charge

20. Each row is unique. Page | 60

3NF Member Number Member Name Member Address Member Telephone Number Booking Ref Member Number* Property Ref Property Name No of Beds No Sleeps Booking Ref* Property Ref* Date In No of nights User Charge


21. A data dictionary holds the information about each entity that you need to help you implement the database system. 22. Entity, Attribute, Key, Data, Type, Required, Unique, Format, Validation 23. A foreign key must always refer to a record that exists in another table. 24. Presence check, Range Check, Restricted Choice. 25. Real, currency, date time etc. 26. Queries are used to interrogate your database. 27. Forms are used to create a user interface that is better than seeing tables. 28. Reports are used to allow us to produce printed copy in an atheistic pleasing manner. 29. Can be used to add control.

Using Information 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34.

Data is raw unprocessed facts and figures that have no context or purposeful meaning. Information is processed data that has meaning and a context. Data has no context or meaning, information has meaning and a context. Knowledge Explicit is rules etc. Written down, tacit exists in the mind. Metadata is data that describes data. A card index system, a data dictionary, the directory of a disk. Secondary and quantative. Primary and informal. Formal, future and annual Formal and Qualitative Quantative Informal and Qualitative Top level of Management; long time frame (up to 5 years); mixture of internal and external documents. Middle level of Management; medium time frame (6 months up to 5 years); mostly internal and some external documents. Lowest level of organisation; short time frame (daily up to 6 months); mostly internal documents. The process of deciding, in advance, what has to be done and how it is to be done. An objective is something that needs to be achieved. A plan contains the activities or actions required to achieve the objective. Control is the monitoring and evaluation of current progress against the steps of a predefined plan or standard. The monitoring of progress against the plan, assessing the suitability of the plan itself and predicting future conditions. Selecting an action or actions from those possible based on the information available. Word processed e-mails or hand written. Speech, formal meetings, informal meetings, talking on the phone and voice-mail messages. Pictures, charts and graphs, presentations via data projects, DVDâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s etc. All the transactions made by all customers in a month. All the transactions made by one customer in a month. Customer balances in a report. Valuable information need not cost much. Information costly to obtain may not have much value. Conciseness and presentation. Relevance and reliability. Data processing system Transactional Processing System that deals with day to day transactions. Management information systems. Page | 61


35. MIS converts data from internal and external sources into information for managers. 36. Executive information system. 37. An EIS provides senior managers with a system to assist in taking strategic and tactical decisions. 38. A knowledge base, an inference engine and user interface. 39. A knowledge base stores all of the facts, rules and information needed to represent the knowledge of the expert. An inference engine interprets the rules and facts to find solutions to user queries. A user interface allows new knowledge to be entered and the system queried. 40. To store information in an active form as organisational memory. To create a mechanism that is not subject to human feelings, such as fatigue and worry. To generate solutions to specific problems that are too substantial and complex to be analysed by human beings in a short period of time. 41. A multi-user or network system is used. 42. Much easier to organise, edit, update and back-up the data. Communications are easier. 43. LAN in an office or building, WAN over a large area. 44. Device Sharing. Software Sharing. Data Sharing. Communication. 45. Client-Server Network - Central server stores data files and log-in details. Peer to Peer network: No central server, all stations equal. Cheaper, data less secure. 46. Allows the computer to send and receive data around the network. 47. Fibre Optic used to link over longer distances and to carry a very high bandwidth. 48. Server version controls the network, Workstation version connect computer to the network and its services. 49. This software keeps a track of network activity. It records user activity and workstation activity. 50. Data Security means keeping data safe from physical loss. 51. To keep their data safe from viruses and loss by other means. 52. Data Integrity means the correctness of the stored data. 53. Data Privacy means keeping data secret so that unauthorised users cannot access it. 54. Hacking is gaining unauthorised access to a computer information system. The offence is maliciously altering data or stealing information. 55. This involves flooding an organisation’s Internet server with a surprisingly large amount of requests for information (traffic). 56. A code of conduct is a set of rules for using a system. 57. Minimum length of 5 characters. Must consist of letters and numbers. Must not contain any words. Cannot be the same as the previous password and cannot use easily guessed strings of letters or numbers (e.g. 123456 and abcdef). 58. Placed between the server and the Internet connection (router). Can block sections of the network. 59. To keep card details secure in transmission. 60. 32 bit encryption. 61. Read – allows users to read files. Allows files to be made read only. Write – allows users to write (save) files. Create – allows users to create new files. Erase – allows users to erase files. Modify – allows users to modify files. 62. So that the most recent copy of the data can be recovered and restored in the event of data loss. 63. - The process of copying data from hard disk drives to tape or other media for long-term storage. 64. Data is saved in a form so that it can be restored to the computer and used by users. 65. The number of times the data is backed up in a period. Page | 62


66. Incremental or Grandfather, father son. 67. To ensure system has a reasonable life and does not need to be totally replaced too soon. 68. Will older s/w work with new operating systems etc? Will older h/w work with newer equipment (e.g. printers with computers)? 69. Any two from :• Are the peripheral devices compatible with the hardware and operating system? • Does the network software support the hardware and operating system? • Is the application software compatible with the operating system and computer? • Is the hardware compatible with the operating system? 70. Old information systems running on out of date hardware and operating systems. 71. Software that allows data to be transferred between platforms. 72. Access to greater range of applications that might not be available on the given hardware platform. 73. By examining the number of useable features and evaluating against the criteria speed, compatibility usability, data migration, reliability, resource requirements and support. 74. Software can run on different computers with different operating systems. 75. Learning via a tutor in the workplace or an on-line tutorial. 76. Small groups of staff, within the company receive a training course delivered by IT staff. 77. Popular application software by a specialist training organisation. 78. Explains to the user what each feature of the software does, run by Internal (end user) and external (software vendors). FAQS is file that contains a list of commonly asked user queries about a piece of software. 79. Hardware incompatibility – upgraded computers do not run old software. 80. Software may need to be perfected and made bug free. 81. Centralised database is a single server at the heart of the operation, distributed is the database spread around on different servers. 82. Easier to manage and control and to back up. 83. Data is separated from the main business and used to predict and review. 84. To make the data used on a daily basis more manageable. 85. The nontrivial extraction of implicit, previously unknown, and potentially useful information from data. 86. It uses machine learning, statistical and visualisation techniques to discover and present knowledge in a form, which is easily comprehensible to humans. 87. When a bank takes over another bank and wants to integrate the two systems, when a company owns lot of smaller companies each with their own system and wants to interrogate the data. 88. Any two from: - WP is used for generating text, while DTP tends to use pre-prepared text. DTP manages to handle text and graphics far more easily. WP can deal with multi-page documents but DTP handles multi-page documents far better. DTP files tend to be very large especially if real pictures are used. 89. Desk Top Publishing 90. Slides can hold a variety of multimedia objects. Slides can be sequenced - jump to using hyperlinks. Presentation s/w allows the user to create a slide show. 91. Software allows users to easily make up web pages. Deals easily with hyper-linking. Files written as HTML or XML code but WYSIWYG for authors. 92. Web sites can be uploaded to the Internet – worldwide audience, presentations confined to room or building. 93. Two from Cash flow forecast, statement of accounts, invoices, sales orders, purchase orders etc. 94. Record and analyse marks and results Keeping track of budgets and financial information. 95. A Macro is a sequence of instructions that can be used to automate complex or repetitive tasks. Page | 63


96. To help manage a project. 97. Identify activities in the project, assign and schedule activities, output as PERT or GANT charts. 98. Software tools to help match up the materials, machine, people and money. 99. Gant shows timings of each activity in a chart. 100. PERTT shows relationship between activities. 101. Used for very complicated processes like (managing a production line. 102. Textual notes and calendar, scheduling, and calculator programs. 103. Calendar, notes, reminders, calculator. 104. Characters, words, paragraphs or graphics objects. 105. File open save print, text wrapping round graphics. 106. Style, font and size. 107. Multi-page layout is when the software handles many pages for you. 108. A style sheet can ensure that all users of it use the same fonts, colours etc. 109. Serif fonts are like Times New Roman and have â&#x20AC;&#x153;curly bitsâ&#x20AC;? on the ends of letters going above or below the line of text. San serif do not have these bits. 110. Colour can enhance a document by making it visually appealing, bold and italic text can be used for emphasis. 111. Globalisation is the growing integration of economies and societies around the world. 112. Rapid economic growth and poverty reduction. 113. Increased inequality and produced environmental damage. 114. They can communicate via dedicated worldwide intranet enabling them to publish reports, memos etc & e: mail round the world. 115. Goods being unavailable or out of stock and very wary of over-pricing and long delivery times. 116. A credit card. 117. Cheaper prices, more choice, faster delivery. 118. They are often call centre based companies who advertise heavily on TV. 119. Much cheaper than staffing branches. 120. Anyone can interact socially with anyone else where they could not do this in person. 121. You run the risk of fraudsters and sexual predators trying to befriend you. 122. We feel we have a right to this privacy and web sites we visit should be our business. 123. Terrorists and criminals use e-mail and the internet to further their activities. 124. Personal data shall be processed fairly and lawfully, obtained only for lawful purposes, adequate, relevant and not excessive accurate and, kept up to date, not be kept for longer than is necessary, shall be processed in accordance with the rights of data subjects. 125. Any two from National Security, Police and Health Service. 126. Any two from mailing lists, data for paying wages and club memberships. 127. Right to see any personal data held about them and have it corrected if it is wrong. 128. Data users have to register with the Data Protection Registrar and they must be willing to let data subjects see data held about them, but must amend any false data without charge. 129. (a) Registers the data and enforces the data protection act. (b) One who has data held about them. 130. Allows software to be legally installed on as many computers as the licence allows. 131. Shareware can be used for a certain period and then must be paid for but freeware can be used without charge. 132. Extracts from databases. 133. Music downloads must be paid for and copyright checked. 134. It allows organisations to monitor employees, e-mail and Web usage. 135. They do have the right to and justify it by their duty of care towards students and the fact that it is their system and they must protect all users. Page | 64


136. We have the right to ask local authorities for minutes of meetings, decisions made and so on. 137. No because a supermarket is a private company. The freedom of information act applies to public bodies as they must be transparent and held accountable. 138. A risk assessment. 139. The aim is to provide a safe and secure working environment. 140. Investing in new computer systems and staff training. 141. Benefits include increased productivity increased functionality and reports from the computerised system can save the expense of professionals. 142. Employ a systems analyst who completes a feasibility study. 143. Internet Ordering and Shopping. 144. Computers, Software, Networking and Robots. 145. Staff required, Paper, Ink cartridges, back-up media, Software licences and maintenance contracts. 146. Visiting an illegal site by accident. 147. They can be sued for lost revenue by music companies and they can be shut down by their ISP. 148. The on-line vendors must apply security to their site. 149. Credit card numbers travelling over the Internet. 150. 32 bit encryption because it is unbreakable. 151. The knowledge, skills and understanding to play an effective role in society at local, national and international levels. 152. Being aware of global issues such as environment, commerce, politics and society in general. 153. Newsgroups and e-mail links.

Applied Multimedia 1. E-commerce is concerned with the buying and/or selling of something electronically, often through online transactions. 2. A merchant account: this enables the user/seller to take credit card information from a prospective customer, online shopping cart: customers can order 24/7, transaction software: how the money is actually delivered. 3. Text, Graphics, Video and Audio 4. Saves time and money on attending meetings. 5. Several people can work on complex problems at the same time, either separately or together. 6. CD based and on-line packages. 7. Graphics, photographs, sound and video are deployed to create realistic micro-worlds where users can attempt to understand and explore certain areas of training and education. 8. Edutainment is defined as an experience that is both entertaining and educational. 9. Up to 700MB of data and music. 10. Up to 4.3GB of Video, usually full length movies. 11. Computers designed for stand-alone public use. 12. Airport, station, shops, museums and banks. 13. Hybrid 14. A head-set and glove. 15. A project brief will list all the requirements for the type of multimedia application that is to be designed. 16. The requirements specification is a formal document that provides the basis of a contract between the client and the developer. 17. A clear understanding (for both parties) of exactly what is required from the multimedia application. Page | 65


18. So that a developer can create a presentation that will play on computers and software conforming to those standards. 19. Because the developer has to know the amount that can be spent on the project. 20. The way the screens will have to be linked to make a logical manner. 21. A composite or hybrid structure. 22. History, bookmarks and breadcrumbs. 23. This is essentially a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;trailâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; which has been left and can lead the user back to wherever they have originated. 24. Because the Internet contains such a vast amount of unrelated material. 25. AND narrows the search and OR widens the search. 26. The user interface is the way in which a human and a computer exchange information and instructions. 27. The user enters commands by typing on the keyboard. These commands are processed by the computer. 28. Requires the user to interact with the computer by selecting various options from a menu. 29. With a GUI the user can interact with the computer by using a mouse (pointing device), which enables manipulation of windows, icons and menus. 30. Metaphors can be used to give a visual expression of a function. 31. A wastebasket to symbolise deleted files, a picture of a disk to symbolise the hard disk. 32. To tell a user what they have done wrong so they can correct it. 33. When a user is presented with too much information at once. 34. A storyboard shows the design of a screen based presentation. 35. The outline storyboard will show the overall structure of the application whereas the detailed storyboard will contain all the elements that the finished prototype should cover. 36. To reduce or increase the gap between adjacent letters. 37. Anti-aliasing will make all objects appear as if they are of higher resolution. 38. Embedded fonts allow fonts that were originally used in the creation of the document to be embedded in the file, guaranteeing the end user the complete original document. 39. Dithering is the process of mixing pixels of two different colours in order to give a colour that is not in the palette. 40. Cathode ray tubes that do not generate light intensity that is proportional to the input voltage cause bleached out or too dark graphics. 41. Gamma correction can be applied. 42. When graphic files take a long time to download. 43. You can open it in a suitable player, can play the file as often as required and can fast forward and rewind. 44. You can play and listen to file immediately as it downloads. 45. The audio is played as it arrives over the Internet in real time. 46. Wide bandwidth (e.g. broadband). 47. On or below five hertz. 48. Presentation software can be used to edit and create linear multimedia presentations, authoring software allow time based and interactive presentations. 49. Scripting and icon based. 50. Design and handle all aspects of web management. 51. With an appropriate multimedia player. 52. The project manager is accountable for ensuring that the development meets the clientâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s requirements, is created to a high standard, all within the agreed budget and stipulated deadline. 53. This individual would have an in-depth knowledge of the particular subject, and will provide content for the application. 54. A Media expert is an expert at creating media elements within their own area of expertise. 55. The webmaster Page | 66


56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92.

Lossless compression but very large file sizes. To reduce size of image and lessen download time. 256 To reduce the size of an image and hence reduce download time. 10 to 15 times smaller than original, lossy (removes sounds inaudible to human ear) and highly compressed. They store instructions on how to recreate sounds. It allows the user to record and edit a musical performance without using an audio-based input source. The number of frames per second in a video. The larger the window the more pixels needed for each frame and the worse quality the video by and large. Codecs are used in compression and decompression of media files. They are a sort of wrapper around a file telling the software what type and format the file is. MPEG was developed as an international standard for use in CD-ROMs and video games. Not compatible with Apple Mac hardware. Because we cannot use the up to 12 digit number that identifies web sites so we use a name given to it by the writers. Protocol http://, host www.bbc.co.uk, pathname news/scottishnews.html A URL that has a fully qualified domain name is an ‘absolute URL’, which would include the host name, and the full path name of the file. A relative URL is the location of a file relative to the location of the file being currently used. Each separate screen must be tested in the application, to ensure it matches the design and functions correctly. After testing every screen independently, the purpose of integration testing is to ensure that they all work together. The client. How easily the application allows users to recover from mistakes, and whether the interface is ‘user friendly’ or aesthetically pleasing. The requirements specification, navigation maps, storyboards and a record of testing. To check whether or not everything specified has been included and carried out. Shows the links between screens and should show the structure of the presentation. So the client can check the testing schedule’s rigour. Hardware and software system requirements and user guide. The minimum requirements to run the application. Detailed instructions for running the application and FAQs. Fitness for purpose, accessibility and clarity of presentation. Does the application do what it is intended to do? Disabled people. It may lead to improvements and development of the application in future versions. To protect authors of original work from others using it without recompense to the originator. Copyright is intended to provide access to works whilst protecting the rights of their original authors. To protect the owners of copyright work from anyone who wishes to use their work. Software can only be used in conjunction with a suitable licence. Individuals and companies can be sued. The process of possibly irreversibly embedding information into a digital signal.

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Practice Exam Type Questions Section I 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

(a) Member Number as it is unique. (b) The member borrowing it may be deleted as well if it is the only book they had borrowed. A data type that has only 1 of 2 possible values. A foreign key in one entity is a primary key in another entity. A key constructed of more than one attribute to uniquely identify an item in the entity. Cardinality is the data relationship between two entities. A foreign key must always refer to a record that exists in another table. Data has structure or context, information is data that has been processed and given context and meaning. It can save a developer a lot of time and all pages will have same structure. The data dictionary, a card index in a library etc. (1 of) A help desk, FAQs, a reference manual, on-line help (2 of) Used by senior management to produce management reports. Software must be used with a valid licence, shareware can be used for a certain time before paying for it, and freeware can be used free without limit of time. (a) Formal, quantitative, present and periodic. (b) Written, detailed and aggregated.

Section II 14 Normalisation question – The “trick” here is to realise that Order Date is part of the repeating group and part of the compound key. UNF Customer No Customer Name Customer Address Customer Telephone Order Date Item Number Number Ordered Description Supplier Name Supplier Address Supplier Tel Price

1NF Customer No Customer Name Customer Address Customer Telephone

2NF Customer No Customer Name Customer Address Customer Telephone

3NF Customer No Customer Name Customer Address Customer Telephone

Item Number Order Date Customer No*

Item Number* Order Date Customer No*

Item Number* Order Date Customer No*

Number Ordered Description Supplier Name Supplier Address Supplier Tel Price

Number Ordered

Number Ordered

Item Number

Item Number

Description Supplier Name Supplier Address Supplier Tel Price

Description Price Supplier Name*

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Supplier Name Supplier Address Supplier Tel


Charge 15 (a)

Customer TV

Rental

Marks Customer to Rental 1:M (2), Charge to TV 1:M (2) and TV to rental 1:M (2). Lose 1 for no notion of 1:M and 1 for each box in wrong order or incorrectly labelled. (b (i)) From TV, Model and Type, From Rental, Date Rented and Number of Weeks, From Charge Cost per week. 5 marks – 1 for each correct – must tie in table and correct entity. (ii) A query to select the Sony 32QS and relevant dates (1mark) and a calculation in the report to summarise and total the month’s rental (1 mark). 16 (a)

(b) (i) (ii)

Suitable Storage includes DAT tape, USB or Firewire External hard Drive. (1) Rotation methods describe Grandfather, Father, Son or Full weekly and daily incremental. (2) Recovery describe software required and e.g. “day 3 recover full backup and 2 days increments”. (2)

(5)

Place a firewall between the server and the Internet(1) and describe username and password system (1).

(2)

Describe 2 of on-the-job, on-line tutorial, external training courses.

(2)

(iii) File server needs software to control and monitor the network (deal with log-ones and file security etc) and workstation needs network software to attach the computer to the network and use the network services (2 marks for each well described) (c)

(i)

Common page layout , same fonts, styles for headings and body text etc. Similar colour schemes throughout etc. (any 2 well explained)

(ii)

Serif fonts have semi-structural details on the ends of some of the strokes that make up letters and symbols. San serif fonts have plain ends of the strokes.

(ii) 17 (a) (b)

A template with all the details required for the common page details can be made up and all pages are based on this template. The Internet has made people who shop from home not able to interact with their local shop staff. Home shoppers have a greater choice of goods, can shop 24/7 and often get goods cheaper. 1 mark for each point. Schools have no right to act as censors; schools have a right to protect young people from inappropriate internet content. Page | 69

(4) (2) (2(

(2)

(4)


Schools have to balance what they allow and ban with allowing young people to research for their education – why ban You Tube for example. You need a for and against for two marks so twice for four. Any two of middle management, medium term decisions, mixture of internal and external documents.

18

(4) (2)

Total Marks (60)

Optional Topic – Applied Multimedia 19 (a) (b) (c)

(i) (ii)

20 (a) (b) (c) (d) (i)

(i) (e) (f)

21 (a)

(i) (ii)

(b) (c) (i) (ii)

JPEG – Widely supported, Good colour depth and small file size (1 mark for each) The colours presented on screen depend on the graphics hardware (1mark). Gamma correction (1mark) is a technique which can adjust the colours specific to the hardware used (1 mark). Host name – http (1 mark), system www (1 mark), domain eurocomputers.com (1 mark), path optiumxl (1mark), and file name tech.pdf (1 mark) any 3 for marks. Absolute (1 mark) because the whole path name specified and can be linked to from any location (1 mark). Content, Delivery Media and Budget (1 for each)around 500 pages, Web site or DVD, given funding (1 each) DVD can be played on most modern computers, cheap to produce and light to mail (1 for any one point) content cannot be updated, updates require a new DVD. (1 mark) Describe bookmarking, history and breadcrumbs – any 2 but need good description for 2 marks. Layout matches design, buttons and navigational functions work, texts, fonts, colours and sizes match the original design specification, scroll functions, video and audio clips run without any problems, non-functioning controls grey out when not needed, visible continuity between screens, any applets operate correctly, text has been spell-checked. Only 2 marks but probably need 2 points for 1 mark so 4 points for 2. Acceptance testing MP3 (1 mark) Widely used format with lots of support, good compression, no need for special player can use built in media player (any 2 for 2 marks) Accessibility (need DVD player v computer on the internet), timing (information on DVD will go out of date but web site can be kept up to date and availability etc. can be live). 2 marks for two points well explained. Metaphors give a visual expression of a function (1 mark) for example (any good example) (1mark) The shopping trolley depicted on the website (1mark) should resemble an actual shopping trolley (1 mark). A merchant account (retailer), a shopping cart and transaction software. A jpeg has a very small file size while preserving good colour depth (1 mark) while a TIFF has a very large file size making it slow to download. (1 mark) A – A lower colour depth means that much fewer colours are displayed (256 for GIF 16million for JPEG) and the image can look weak and washed out. B – Dithering is when a new colour can be created by taking an average of four Page | 70

(2)

(3) (3) (2) (6) (2) (4)

(2) (1) (3) (2) (2) (2) (3) (2) (2)


surrounding pixels to create a fifth pixel. (d) (1) Customer will use username and password (1mark) and/or PIN number to access the secure are of the site (1mark) (ii) 32 bit encryption 22 (a) (b) (c)

(2) (2) (1)

the process of possibly irreversibly embedding information into a digital signal To prevent a music or video file from being downloaded and used or copied (1mark) without the copyright being broken (usually paid for) (1 mark)

(1)

Original works by artists, authors, musicians, programme makers etc.

(1)

(2)

Total Marks 50

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1NF.................................................................4 2NF.................................................................5 3NF.................................................................5 A definition of multimedia............................33 Absolute URL................................................47 Acceptance testing.......................................48 Access Rights................................................18 Accessibilit....................................................49 Accuracy.......................................................14 Addition anomalies.........................................2 Advantages to the database being centralised. ..................................................................16 Aggregate.......................................................9 Aggregated...................................................13 Annually........................................................11 Anti-aliasing..................................................40 Archive..........................................................19 attributes........................................................3 Audio conferencing.......................................33 Aural.............................................................12 Authoring software.......................................43 Availability / Accessibility..............................14 Avoiding information overload.....................39 Backtracking..................................................37 Backup Strategy............................................19 Bookmarks....................................................37 Boolean.........................................................38 Breadcrumbs.................................................37 budget..........................................................36 Business and ICT...........................................31 Business Costs...............................................31 calculated fields..............................................8 Calculations....................................................8 candidate keys................................................3 cardinality.......................................................3 CBT (Computer Based Training)....................34 CD-ROM........................................................34 Censorship on The Internet..........................31 Centralised database....................................21 Centralised Database....................................16 Changes From 1984 Act................................29 Characteristics of Information......................14 Clarity of presentation..................................50 Classes of Software.......................................23 Client-Server Network..................................16 Codes of conduct..........................................18 Collaborative working...................................33 Colour and graphics......................................40 command line interface................................38 Completeness...............................................14

compound key................................................3 Compression.................................................46 Computer Applications.................................30 Conciseness..................................................14 Conditional exemptions................................29 Consistency and standards...........................39 content.........................................................36 Continuous....................................................11 Contravening Legislation on the Internet.....32 Control..........................................................12 Conversion......................................................9 Copyright......................................................50 Copyright Designs and Patents Act...............50 Copyright Laws..............................................50 Copyright Licences........................................50 Copyright, Designs & Patents Act.................30 Cost...............................................................14 Daily..............................................................11 Data..............................................................10 data dictionary................................................6 data inconsistency..........................................2 Data Integrity................................................17 Data mining..................................................22 Data Privacy..................................................17 Data Processing Systems..............................15 Data Security.................................................17 Data verification...........................................19 Data Warehousing........................................21 database.........................................................2 database management system.......................2 Date & Time can have many formats..............8 Decision Support Systems.............................15 Decision-making...........................................12 Deletion Anomalies.........................................2 delivery media..............................................36 Denial of service...........................................18 Detailed........................................................12 Detailed storyboard......................................40 Differences between WP and DTP................23 Differing ability levels...................................39 Digital watermarking....................................51 Distributed Database....................................21 Distributed Networks....................................16 Dithering.......................................................41 Downloading audio.......................................41 Downloading video.......................................41 duplication of data..........................................2 DVD-ROM.....................................................34 E-commerce..................................................33 Easy correction of errors...............................39

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Education......................................................24 Edutainment.................................................34 Embedded fonts...........................................40 Emulation......................................................20 Encryption...............................................18, 32 Enforced on-line registration........................51 entity..............................................................3 Entity Integrity................................................3 entity relationship diagram.............................6 essence of copyright.....................................50 Ethical Implications of ICT.............................31 Evaluation of multimedia application...........49 Executive Information System......................15 Expert Systems..............................................15 External -.......................................................20 FAQs..............................................................21 Financial Application.....................................24 Firewalls........................................................18 Fitness for purpose.......................................49 flat file.............................................................2 foreign key......................................................3 Form fill-in interface.....................................38 Formal Communication................................11 Format............................................................8 Forms..............................................................9 Forms of Information....................................12 Frame rate....................................................45 Frequency and Version Control....................19 Frequency of Information.............................11 Functionality.................................................20 Future...........................................................11 Future Proofing.............................................19 Gamma correction........................................41 Gant and PERTT charts..................................24 GIF.................................................................45 Globalisation.................................................27 Globalisation and Impact of IS on Social Structures.................................................27 Graphic file types..........................................44 Graphical text -.............................................40 GUI (graphical user interface).......................38 Hacking.........................................................17 Hardware & software compatibility..............19 hardware and software requirements..........36 Hardware and software system requirements ..................................................................49 Health and Safety Regulations......................31 Health issues.................................................42 Help Desk......................................................21 Hierarchical structure...................................37 Highlighting...................................................37 Historic..........................................................11

History..........................................................37 Home entertainment....................................34 Home shopping.............................................34 Home situation.............................................24 Host name....................................................47 Hourly...........................................................11 How to gain a Competitive Advantage..........31 How Viruses Work........................................17 hybrid............................................................37 Hybrids..........................................................35 ICT and Global Citizenship............................32 Identities and Personas.................................28 In House........................................................20 inference engine...........................................15 Informal Communication..............................11 Information...................................................10 Initial Costs...................................................31 Installation Guide..........................................20 Integration testing........................................48 Integration Testing........................................19 jpeg...............................................................45 Kerning..........................................................40 key..................................................................3 Kiosk.............................................................34 Knowledge....................................................10 knowledge base............................................15 Lack of functionality......................................21 Legacy Systems.............................................19 Level of Detail...............................................14 Levels of Information....................................11 Linear structure............................................37 Local Area Network.......................................16 Logical.............................................................9 lost in hyperspace.........................................37 Macro Use.....................................................24 Macros............................................................9 Management Information Systems..............15 Manuals........................................................20 Many-to-Many................................................3 Mathematical..................................................9 Media specialists...........................................44 Menu-driven interface..................................38 Metadata......................................................10 Metaphors....................................................38 MIDI..............................................................45 Mobile communications...............................35 Modelling and Simulation.............................24 Modern IS driven businesses........................28 Monthly........................................................11 MP3..............................................................45 MPEG (..........................................................46 Multimedia delivery media...........................34

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Multimedia designer.....................................44 Multimedia Players.......................................43 Multimedia programmer..............................44 Multimedia simulations................................34 Nature...........................................................11 Navigational maps........................................49 Navigational structures.................................36 Network Adapter Card..................................16 Network Auditing and Monitoring Software.17 Network Operating System. â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2 parts...........17 Network Topology........................................16 Newsgroups..................................................21 non-key dependencies....................................5 Normalisation.................................................4 Numbers can be formatted as Integer, Real, Currency.....................................................8 objective.......................................................12 Objects and Operations of Each class of Software...................................................25 On-line Help..................................................21 On-line Tutorials...........................................21 On-the-job....................................................20 One -to- Many.................................................3 One-to-one.....................................................3 Operational...................................................11 Optimisation & Critical Path Analysis............24 Outline storyboard........................................40 partial dependencies......................................5 Password guidelines.....................................18 Path name.....................................................47 Peer to Peer network....................................16 Performance.................................................20 Periodic.........................................................11 Personal Information Management..............24 plan...............................................................12 Planning........................................................12 Presence Check...............................................8 Present..........................................................11 Presentation.................................................14 Presentation software..................................43 Presentations..........................................23, 33 primary key.....................................................3 primary source..............................................10 Print Media...................................................23 Privacy..........................................................28 Privacy and Encryption.................................32 Progressive scan...........................................41 project brief..................................................36 Project development documentation...........48 Project Management....................................24 Project manager...........................................44 Protection of your own materials.................51

Protocols.......................................................47 Providing feedback.......................................39 purpose.........................................................36 Qualitative Information................................11 Quantitative Information..............................11 Queries...........................................................8 Range Check...................................................8 Reasons for Expert Systems..........................15 Record of testing...........................................49 Recovery.......................................................19 Reference Manual.........................................20 Referential Integrity........................................8 Regulating the content of the Internet.........32 relational database.........................................3 relationships...................................................6 Relative URL..................................................47 Relevance / Appropriateness........................14 Reliability or Objectivity................................14 repeating group..............................................4 Reports...........................................................9 Requirements specification..........................36 Resource Allocation......................................24 Responsibilities of Data Users.......................29 Restricted Choice............................................8 Rights of Data Subjects.................................29 Running Costs...............................................31 Sampled........................................................12 Screen testing...............................................48 Search.............................................................8 search facilities.............................................38 Searching........................................................8 secondary source..........................................10 Social Implications........................................27 Software Evaluation......................................20 Software Incompatibility...............................21 Software Licensing........................................30 Software Strategy.........................................20 Sort.................................................................8 Sorting............................................................8 Spreadshee...................................................24 Statistical Analysis.........................................24 Storage Methods..........................................19 Strategic........................................................11 Streaming audio............................................41 Streaming video............................................42 Structure of a URL.........................................46 Structured Cabling........................................16 Subject expert...............................................44 summary fields...............................................8 surrogate key..................................................3 Tactical..........................................................11 Teleconferencin............................................33

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Text.................................................................9 The 1998 Data Protection Act.......................29 The Changing Relationships between Retailer and Customer...........................................27 The Difference between Value and Cost.......14 The Effect of New ICT on Business................31 The Freedom of Information Act (Scotland) 2002..........................................................30 The Impact on Business of an IS Driven Business Model.........................................27 The Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000..........................................................30 TIFF...............................................................45 Time..............................................................11 Time lining -..................................................24 timescale.......................................................36 Timing...........................................................14 Training in Using Software............................20 Tutorial Guide...............................................20 Types of Information....................................12 Unconditional exemptions............................29 UNF.................................................................4 Upgrade Strategy..........................................19 Usability testing............................................48

Use of ICT in Citizenship................................32 User Documentation.....................................49 User guide/instructions................................49 user interface................................................15 User Interfaces..............................................38 User Support.................................................20 user/audience...............................................36 Validation........................................................8 Value.............................................................14 Video conferencing.......................................33 Video file size and quality.............................45 Virtual reality................................................35 virus..............................................................17 Virus Protection............................................18 Visual............................................................12 Web Authoring.............................................23 Web palettes-...............................................40 Web structure...............................................37 Web-page applications.................................43 Webmaster...................................................44 Wide Area Network......................................16 Window size..................................................46 Written.........................................................12 WWW (World Wide Web..............................34

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How to Pass Higher Information Systems