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Machin series

Machin series The Machin series of postage stamps is the main definitive stamp series in the United Kingdom, used since 5 June 1967. It is the second series to figure the image of Elizabeth II, replacing the Wilding series. Designed by Arnold Machin, they consist simply of the sculpted profile of the Queen and a denomination, and are almost always in a single colour. After four decades of service, the series has encompassed almost all changes and innovations in British stamp printing. This has been encouraging an abundant specialised philatelic collectors' market and associated literature. Arnold Machin's 1964 effigy of the Queen was replaced on British coins in 1984 by an older-looking effigy by Raphael Maklouf, and then replaced again in 1998. However, the effigy on British stamps has never been updated, and the last proposals to these ends were rejected by the Queen herself.

Genesis Since the accession of Elizabeth II in 1952, the definitive series figured a three-quarter photograph of the Queen by Dorothy Wilding. The same effigy had appeared on commemorative stamps too.[1] However, the Wilding design did not please some artists. In a letter of April 1961, Michael Goaman and Faith Jacques argued that it represented the Queen, but not the monarchy. They complained it embarrassed the commemorative stamps' designers because the photograph took up one third of the stamp's area and it imposed a perspective on a two-dimensional design.[2] Some new designs were discussed but concerns over the technical aspects (a photograph or a painting inspired by a photograph) delayed a full competition for artists until 1965. Postmaster General Tony Benn and artist David Gentleman failed in their attempts to have the royal head replaced by the name of the country ("Great Britain" or "U.K."),[3] but were permitted to explore temporary solutions to the commemorative head problems. This would of course have removed the uniqueness of the United Kingdom in being the only producer of postage stamps not to have its country name on its stamps in honour of its origination of the adhesive postage stamp in 1840. In 1966 Gentleman created a small single-coloured profile from a coin by Mary Gillick.[4] The project waited until the miniaturisation of the new definitive effigy that the Stamp Advisory Committee (SAC) had advised the Postmaster General on 13 January 1965 be chosen, from profiles and engraved images based on a photograph.[5] The first essays were submitted by Andrew Restall and Arnold Machin with Harrison and Sons printers' assistance. They worked from photographs by Anthony Buckley, then from ones by Lord Snowdon, the Queen's brother-in-law.[6] Machin had just finished work on the new coin's effigy based on the photographer's pictures. The competition began with more artists officially invited during Summer 1965,[7] but at a meeting on 26 January 1966, the SAC's members decided to let only Gentleman and Machin continue work on the design.[8][9] Arnold Machin's method was to sculpt a bas-relief in clay and moulds, which he reworked and corrected depending on what the SAC required. The printing essays were then done by Harrisons & Sons from photographs of the sculpture, completed with the additions and adornments by designer Machin. Quickly, he decided to simplify the effigy with just the Queen wearing a tiara and the four regional flower emblems, like the Wilding series. Yet these flowers were also dropped: Machin's design would eventually have only the Queen's profile and the value of the stamp.[10][11] In March 1966, the Stamp Advisory Committee decided to make new photographs of the Queen available to Gentleman and Machin. They were taken by John Hedgecoe on the following 22 June. Elizabeth II selected the pictures to be given to the artists and Gentleman continued work on the "photographic alternative" to Machin's sculpture.[12] During the second period of 1966, Machin replaced the tiara with the George IV State Diadem on request of the SAC, the same diadem as was previously seen on the Penny Black.[13] The Queen asked for a corsage at the bottom of her sculpted neck.[14] The final sculpture is a rectangle of plaster, 16 inches long and 14 inches wide, kept in a

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Machin series London-based British Postal Museum & Archive vault.[15] The last adjustments to the final plaster image and to the lighting during photography created four effigies. They were unveiled to philatelists on the pre-decimal stamps, the first ones issued 5 June 1967.[16] Concerning the original colours, Machin encouraged the use of a clearer effigy on a single-coloured background.[17] The 4 pence ("4d") was given a very dark brown, inspired by the Penny Black and requested by the Queen herself.[16] But the Post Office did not fully respect Machin's views and in the first years of the series would also issue bi-coloured stamps and clear-to-dark gradated backgrounds.

Evolutions From the philatelic point of view, the "Machins" are far more complex than the simple design might suggest, with well over a thousand varieties of colour, value, gum, phosphor banding, etc., known. Since the first stamps were issued pre-decimalisation, they exist in both old and new currencies. As postal rates changed, new denominations became necessary; the design has been adjusted periodically, for instance to use a gradient shade in the background; perforations have been changed; and so forth. In addition, for the regional stamps of 1971, regions' symbols designed by Jeffery Matthews[18] were added to the basic design. Initially the stamps were produced by Harrison & Sons using photogravure, with the high-value designs being larger and engraved. Starting around 1980, The House of Questa and Waddingtons Security Print also took up Machin printing in order to keep up with demand, producing their versions via lithography. Apart from the many values of normal-sized stamps, there have been two different formats used for "high-value" definitives. In 1969 a larger and more square format was used to issue stamps of 2/6, 5/-, 10/- and £1 face value, and was used again in 1970 for the decimal currency values of 10p, 20p and 50p. (The £1 stamp had the lettering re-designed in 1972 and was re-issued. This version is usually seen as a 'decimal' edition as opposed to the 'pre-decimal' stamp.) In 1977 a taller portrait format was used for the large £1, £2, and £5 stamps, and also at various times between 1983 and 1987 for the odd values of £1.30, £1.33, £1.41, £1.50 and £1.60. These values were withdrawn after the introduction of the "Castles" high-value stamps of 1988. In 1989, as a workaround to the problem of fast-changing rates, "non-value indicator" (NVI) Machins used textual inscriptions "1st" and "2nd" to indicate class of service rather than a numeric value. The following year saw the first commemorative adaptation of the design, with the classic William Wyon profile of Queen Victoria appearing behind and to the left of Elizabeth, marking 150 years of British stamps. 1993 saw the introduction of both self-adhesive stamps and elliptical perforations on the lower vertical sides of them, the latter as a security measure.[19] On the high value stamps, "Iriodin"[20] ink was used to give them a shiny appearance and ensure the difficulty of their reproduction.[21] In February 2009, security features were increased on "Machin" self-adhesive stamps to avoid the reuse of uncancelled used stamps retrieved on mail. Both the effigy and the background were printed with continuous "ROYAL MAIL" iridescent printing. Two ellipsoidal shear panels were added to each stamp and the water soluble layer between the stamp and the adhesive was abandoned. These two later features were intended to render the stamps difficult to take off mail and to store for reuse (but in effect are easily overcome by the careful use of a sharp knife edge).[22] Collectors are advised to not attempt to soak such stamps off, but to save them on pieces cut from the envelope.[23] The security features also included a minute change to the background printing of "ROYAL MAIL" where one letter is replaced to identify the source of the stamp. For example, instead of "ROYAL MAIL" in one place in the upper right of the stamp is printed "FOYAL MAIL" to indicated that that stamp came from a booklet of four stamps. This feature made it easier to identify the source of an individual, used stamp and track down production problems.

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Machin series

Colours The most striking aspect of the Machins is the rainbow of colours. Since the designs are all identical (or nearly so), it was critical that each denomination be produced in an easily-distinguished colour. Worse, the likelihood of rate changes meant that additional colours would be necessary, since old stamps were still valid and could appear on mail. The initial palette of 14 colours was chosen after extensive testing. While most were solid colours, the 1/6d and 1/9d used different colours for effigy and denomination, while the 10d and 1/- had backgrounds that varied from darker on the left side to lighter on the right. The dark olive-brown shade of the 4d value, the most often-used stamp of the time, was personally selected by the Queen as being the available colour most reminiscent of the Penny Black. However, in practice this proved difficult to distinguish from the 5d's dark blue, automated machinery could not always see the phosphor bands on the stamps, and even football pool organizers complained that it was too hard to read the date and time of cancellations. In 1969, the 4d value was changed to vermilion, which in turn required a colour change for the 8d, which was reissued in "eggshell blue". In preparation for decimalisation in 1971, the BPO prepared a new palette of colours, enlisting the Applied Psychology Unit of the Cambridge University to test individuals' abilities to quickly identify colours. The results pruned a selection of 25 down to the 14 used for the decimal stamps. During the 1970s a third effigy/ background colour format emerged in addition to the existing light head-dark background and the light head-graded background; the new variation consisited of head the same colour as the background, with just the shaded detail picking out the image. (In more recent years the light head-dark background has become near universal.) Over the years, rate changes required new denominations, and in order to make colours available, older stamps had to be withdrawn. For instance, the 11p rose of 1976 was withdrawn in 1980, and the colour reused in 1983 for a 23p stamp. A re-introduced denomination could not normally get its old colour back though; the light green 17p of 1980 was withdrawn in 1981, reissued in steel blue in 1983, withdrawn 1986, and reappeared yet again in 1990, this time in dark blue. In 1983, Aubrey Walker of the Royal Mail's R&D department proposed a fixed assignment of colours to rates, on the theory that the classes of service changed much less frequently than rates. This still did not solve the problem of clerks detecting usage of old stamps with lower rates - they would have had to read the denomination rather than just glance at the colour - and so a system of "light" and "dark" colours was suggested, the two variants alternating at each rate change. Artist Jeffery Matthews was then hired to develop the actual colours, and in 1985 presented eight pairs totalling 16 colours. The colour pairing idea turned out to be unworkable, but the colours were adopted, and in 1988 Matthews developed another 15 as rates continued to be changed.

Machin head replacement On three occasions, postal sources have confirmed that a replacement for the Machin series was proposed by the Post Office, and its successor, the Royal Mail. But, the Queen herself has subsequently rejected the proposed designs. In March 1981, after Raphael Maklouf's effigy was chosen to appear on new issue coinage, a proposal was made to replace the Machin's effigy by 1983; in time for the 30th anniversary of the Queens's coronation.[24] The Post Office's Ron Dearing obtained agreement from the Queen, even if she expressed through a letter by her deputy private secretary that "Her Majesty is very content with the Machin effigy and thinks that a work of real quality is required if this is to be replaced."[25] Under the supervision of Post Office design adviser Barry Robinson, Jeffery Matthews prepared alternative essays from March 1982 pictures of the Queen by Lord Snowdon. Matthews used many different positions of the head and shoulders, from profile to full-face. Essays with the latter position were designed from the photographic representation and from a portrait drawn by his son Rory Matthews.[26] In 1983, Robinson ordered new portraits by

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Machin series different artists : drawn by John Sargeant, painted by Timothy Whidborne and Brian Sanders, later engraved by Czesław Słania in 1984. Harrisons and Sons printed these essays. But, they failed to please the Stamp Advisory Committee.[27] In June 1985, a new working group proposed a change to the original Machin stamp design. It comprised a bicoloured (grey effigy on a coloured background); Jeffery Matthews then worked on a different cut of the shoulders and neck, for a horizontal stamp.[28] As Arnold Machin must be informed on any modifications of his original design, Barry Robinson and Jeffery Matthews visited him on 23 October 1985. Machin refused any changes by anyone except himself and didn't appreciate being approached after the proposed changes were finalised.[29] Following the abandonment of all of the proposed changes during the 1980s, some of Jeffery Matthews's designs were later used: the horizontal format served for the first self-adhesive stamps in 1993 and for the "higher rate" stamps of 2006. Another attempt to alter the design was proposed on the occasion of the 150th anniversary of the Penny Black in 1990. The Queen's decision not to agree to any changes swiftly ended the move.[30] Ever changing Machins From the initial Harrison printings through to the present there has always been a wealth of study material for the Machin collector of any level. The fact that printers and printing methods change so frequently keeps the collection of Machins alive and hugely interesting. As is usual with a new printer, such as happened when Enschede, Waddington, Questa and Walsall were engaged, subtle changes occur giving rise to new varieties. The latest printer to be awarded considerable printing contracts for Machins is Cartor and its lithographed Machins are certainly a match for quality against the best EME issues from the likes of de la Rue and Walsall. Cartor however has given collectors a new strand of Machin types from its Prestige Booklet panes and later mini-sheets to expand collections even more. Prestige Booklet Panes There has been a series of Prestige Booklet Panes produced since the first "Wedgwood" prestige booklet of 16 April 1980 starting with the "Stanley Gibbons" issue of 19 May 1982, consisting of a 3-square panel of 9 stamps or 8 stamps with a central non-value label. They are given the Royal Mail designation "DX" and are: DX1 £1 Wedgwood 18 April 1980, DX2 £3 Wedgwood 18 April 1980, DX3 Stanley Gibbons 19 May 1982, DX4 Royal Mint 14 September 1983, DX5 Christian Heritage 4 September 1984, DX6 The Times 8 January 1985, DX7 British Rail 18 March 1986, DX8 P&O 3 March 1987, DX9 Financial Times 9 February 1988, DX10 Scots Connection 20 March 1989, DX11a London Life 20 March 1990, DX11b The Penny Black 6 May 1990, DX12 Agatha Christie 19 March 1991, DX13 Wales 25 February 1992, DX14 Tolkien 27 October 1992, DX15 Beatrix Potter 10 August 1993, DX16 Northern Ireland 26 July 1994, DX17 National Trust 23 April 1995, DX18 European Football 14 May 1996, DX19 BBC 23 September 1997, DX20 Definitive Portrait 10 March 1998, DX21 Breaking Barriers 13 October 1998, DX22a Profile on Print (8) 16 February 1999, DX22b Profile on Print (9) 16 February 1999, DX23 World Changers 21 September 1999, DX24a Special by Design(8) 13 February 2000, DX24b Special by Design(9) 13 February 2000, DX25a Queen Mother (Machin) 4 August 2000, DX25b Queen Mother (regional) 4 August 2000, DX26 Treasury of Trees 18 September 2000, DX27 Flags and Ensigns 23 October 2001, DX28a Golden Jubilee (Machin) 6 February 2002, DX28b Golden Jubilee (Wilding) 6 February 2002, DX29 Astronomy 24 September 2002, DX30 The Secret of Life 25 February 2003, DX31 Coronation 2 June 2003, DX32 Letters by Night 16 March 2004, DX33 R H S 25 May 2004, DX34 Charlotte Brontë 24 February 2005, DX35 Trafalgar 18 October 2005, DX36 Brunel 23 February 2006, DX37 Victoria Cross 21 September 2006, DX38 World Of Invention 1 March 2007, DX39 Machin 5 June 2007, DX40 Army Uniforms 20 September 2007, DX41 James Bond 6 January 2008, DX42 RAF Uniforms 18 September 2008, DX43 Regionals 29 September 2008, DX44 Design Classics 13 January 2009, DX45 Darwin 12 February 2009, DX46a Treasures of the Archive 18 August 2009, DX46b Treasures of the Archive 18 August 2009, DX47 Royal Navy Uniforms 17 September 2009, DX48a Classic Album Covers 7 January 2010, DX48b Classic Album Covers 7 January 2010, DX49 The Royal Society 25 February 2010, DX50a

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Machin series King George V 6 May 2010, DX50b Festival of Stamps 8 May 2010, DX51 Britain Alone 13 May 2010, DX52 WWF 23 April 2011, DX53 Morris & Co 5 May 2011, The wrong typeface All printers have in recent years been given a technical brief on printing Machin stamps from Royal Mail and Cartor would have had the same brief. To reduce the risk of any mistakes the brief would set the standard for every element of the stamp including the typeface to used for the value. The standard typeface used currently throughout the Machin issue is a modern Garamond, however it would appear that Adobe has a quite different "5" character. This value made an appearance on the 5p Deep Ash Pink value of the Classic Album Covers pane of 7 January 2010, though it has since been corrected on all other printings. Quite how this came to be printed with this incorrect font has not been explained, although differences in type fonts are not new and can easily be seen on the early NVI gold issues. Mini sheet printings The best quality Machins are to found in the eight values of the Colour Palette mini-sheet printed in photogravure by de la Rue and the eleven stamps of the 2010 Festival of Stamps mini-sheet printed in lithography by Cartor. Both sheets were superbly printed and gave rise to all-new types and sub-types.

Overseas Crown Dependencies The first British stamps of the Machin series served as such in the Crown Dependencies before their postal independence: Guernsey and Jersey until 1969 and the Isle of Man until 1973. In Guernsey, the royal effigy on commemorative stamps was sometimes in the first years the Machin series effigy before the Royal Cypher was used (EIIR pour Elizabeth 2 Regina).

Hong Kong In the British colony of Hong Kong, the last definitive series figuring Queen Elizabeth II was an adapted version of the British Machin stamp. The effigy is put to the right side of the illustration to make place for the place name in Chinese characters. The background is bicolour. The first values were issued in June 1992.[31] Many commemorative minisheets used the Hong Kong Machin stamp to mark philatelic events and the last moments of the British rule on the colony. To prepare the sovereignty of the People's Republic of China in July 1997, the Machin series was replaced in January 1997 by a new definitive series showing the urban panorama of Hong Kong.[32]

Somaliland In April 1996, the United Kingdom one penny Machin stamp was overprinted and used a short numbers of days in Somaliland,[33] a state that self-declared its independence from Somalia in 1991. Due to an insufficient stock of paper, the British printer Harrison and Sons could not deliver in time a stamp issue ordered for Somaliland. Because of the lack of postage stamps there, it was decided to overprint "REPUBLIC / OF / SOMALILAND / 500 SHILLIN" 4'300 British one penny definitive stamps available at Harrison. The overprint was applied in Somaliland.[33] However, the stamps were quickly withdrawn and destroyed because the Somali clients did not appreciate them, the United Kingdom being the former colonial power in the region.[33]

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Machin series

References and sources Sources of the articles Books • Muir, Douglas (2007). A Timeless Classic. The evolution of Machin's Icon. The British Postal Museum & Archive and Royal Mail. p. 236. ISBN 9780955356919. With the genesis of the Machin effigy, the author, curator of the BPMA, described the context of philatelic creation in Great Britain during the second half of the 1960s. • Myall, Douglas (2007). 40 Years of Machins. A Timeline. British Philatelic Bulletin #13, Royal Mail. p. 20. ISBN 094165580. This book is a chronology of the Machin series main evolutions. Articles • West, Richard (June 2007). "Birth of an Icon". Stamp Magazine 73 (6): 42–47. Article about the pre-decimal Machin stamps (1966–1971). • West, Richard (June 2007). "Sold by the pound". Stamp Magazine 73 (6): 50–54. Topical article centered on the £1 Machin stamps, throughout the series, with a chronology of the contracted printers. • David Alderfer and Larry Rosenblum, "Colors of Machins were carefully considered", Linn's Stamp News, 8 July 1996. • Larry Rosenblum, "Machins rainbow barely keeps up with needs", Linn's Stamp News, 12 August 1996. Notes [1] The United Kingdom, as the first country to officially issue postage stamps in 1840, is excused by the Universal Postal Union from printing the country's name on its stamps and the royal effigy is the sole national mark. [2] Letter kept in The British Postal Museum & Archive (POST 122/10703) ; quoted by Douglas Muir (2007). A Timeless Classic, chapter 2, « A Portrait with problems », pages 15-17. [3] Muir, Douglas (2007). A Timeless Classic. pp. 55–79. [4] Muir, Douglas (2007). A Timeless Classic. pp. 79–102. [5] Muir, Douglas (2007). A Timeless Classic. p. 107. [6] Muir, Douglas (2007). A Timeless Classic. pp. 108–110. After essays by Harrisons printers to combine Buckley's pictures with standard definitive backgrounds, the SAC was not impressed by the results and decided to look at Lord Snowdon's work. [7] Muir, Douglas (2007). A Timeless Classic. pp. 111–112 (what were requested to the artists) and 117–131 (presentation of the artists and their proposals). [8] Muir, Douglas (2007). A Timeless Classic. p. 133. Muir has indicated that no notes or transcriptions were kept of 1966 meetings. The sequence of historical events is based on analysis of subsistent artworks. [9] Richard West, « Birth of an Icon », page 43. [10] Muir, Douglas (2007). A Timeless Classic. pp. 133–144. [11] Richard West, « Birth of an Icon », pages 42-43. Photographs of Arnold Machin working on his sculpture and of the four main designs he prepared are reproduced in this article. [12] Muir, Douglas (2007). A Timeless Classic. pp. 147–156. "Photographic alternative" is the title of this chapter in Muir's book. [13] Muir, Douglas (2007). A Timeless Classic. pp. 157–158. In the archives, this design is called "Diadem Head". [14] Muir, Douglas (2007). A Timeless Classic. pp. 209–215. "Dressed Head" was the name of this new design in the archives. [15] Andrew Alderson et Tom Williams, « A new look for the first-class design », Sunday Telegraph, 3 June 2007 ; on the paper's website (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ news/ main. jhtml?xml=/ news/ 2007/ 06/ 03/ nstamp03. xml) (retrieved 12 June 2007). [16] Richard West, « Birth of an Icon », page 44. Ces effigies sont numérotées de A à D. [17] Richard West, « Man behind the Machin », page 45. [18] Interview of Jeffery Matthews during Stamp Show 2000 (http:/ / www. gbstamps. com/ gbcc/ gbcc_matthews_intvw1. html), The Chronicle, October 2000, page 1. [19] Richard West, "King Fisher", interview with Keith Fisher, head of the philatelic service of the General Post Office 1884-1991, Stamp Magazine #73-3, March 2007, page 51. [20] A brand by Merck KGaA. [21] "2003 Gravure High Values", MachinMania.com, 9 May 2004 ; page retrieved on 4 April 2009 (http:/ / www. gbstamps. com/ machins/ album/ highvals/ highvals_c02. html). [22] John M. Deering, "Machin Watch", Gibbons Stamp Monthly, February 2009, pages 45—46 and April 2009, pages 45—47. [23] Alderfer, David, "What to do about those unsoakable British Machin stamps", pages 24-26, Linn's Stamp News, January 10, 2011, accessed December 30, 2010 [24] Muir, Douglas (2007). A Timeless Classic. pp. 207–208.

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Machin series [25] William Heseltine, deputy private secretary to the Queen, in a letter dated 5 August 1981 quoted in Muir, Douglas (2007). A Timeless Classic. p. 208. [26] "Shock Machin head replacements" (http:/ / www. stampmagazine. co. uk/ content/ gb_news/ 14. html), Stamp Magazine website, retrieved 21 October 2007. [27] Muir, Douglas (2007). A Timeless Classic. pp. 209–215. [28] Muir, Douglas (2007). A Timeless Classic. pp. 217–218. [29] The content of the disagreement is known through an exchange of letters between Machin and Robinson on 1 and 12 November 1985, as quoted in Muir, Douglas (2007). A Timeless Classic. pp. 219–221. [30] Keith Fisher, head of the philatelic service of the Royal Mail (1984-1991), recalled that "However, it became obvious that the Queen did not want to see a change, and did not give her approval for the process to continue", quoted in an interview by Richard West (March 2007). Stamp Magazine 73 (3), page 54. [31] Hong Kong, Stanley Gibbons Stamp Catalogue, 2nd edition, 2007, page 11. [32] Hong Kong, Stanley Gibbons Stamp Catalogue, 2nd edition, 2007, page 14. [33] Douglas Myall and The Complete Deegam Machin Handbook, 3rd édition, 2003 ; cd-rom, 2005, 2nd supplement, appendix 15, page A15-67 quoted in "Somaliland 1p Overprint Part 2", Machin Mania, 16 August 2009 ; retrieved (http:/ / machinmania. blogspot. com/ 2009/ 08/ somaliland-1p-overprint-part-two. html) 19 August 2009.

Specialised bibliography In English : • Myall, Douglas. The Complete Deegam Machin Handbook. The third and last printed edition was published in July 2003 (2 volumes, 1272 pages), with regular supplements written. A CD-ROM version was edited in April 2005, and a CD-ROM-only fourth edition was published in May, 2010.[1] • QE II Specialised Catalogue. Machin Collectors Club. Formerly Machin Specialised Catalogue, last updated in 2010 (2 volumes) with gummed stamps in the first volume, self-adhesives and booklets in the second one. • The Stanley Gibbons Great Britain Specialised catalogue : volume 3 about pre-decimals and volume 4 after decimalization. [1] Presentation of the 3rd edition (http:/ / www. adminware. ca/ machin/ mdeegam. htm) on the Great Britain Machins by The "Machin Nut" website, 25 July 2003 ; retrieved 18 June 2007.

In French : • Boulangier, François. Les Émissions de Grande-Bretagne au type Machin en valeurs décimales. Club philatélique franco-britannique. Fourth edition edited in June 2001.

External links • Great Britain Machins by The 'Machin Nut' (http://www.adminware.ca/machin.htm) (Robin Harris), specialised listings by face value. • Machin Mania (http://www.gbstamps.com/machins/index.html), specialised site with news pages.

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Article Sources and Contributors

Article Sources and Contributors Machin series  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=452084227  Contributors: Akmak03, Akmak04, Arwel Parry, BlackJack, Boongie, Brandenburg5, BritishStamper, CLW, Colonies Chris, Corpx, DavidCW, Erianna, Fred Bauder, Gammondog, Imnotminkus, K.a.foth, LilHelpa, MERVINCAMERON, Mauls, Maurice45, MegdalePlace, Michael Romanov, Midx1004, MisterHand, MrHen, P D Abraham, Plastikspork, Quiensabe, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Sealman, Sebjarod, Signalhead, Smyth, SpareHeadOne, Stan Shebs, Swollib, Swollibgah, Thryduulf, Timrollpickering, Trilliumz, Verne Equinox, Water the plants, Wehwalt, WereSpielChequers, Ww2censor, Xezbeth, 25 anonymous edits

License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported //creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/

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Arnold Machin

Arnold Machin Arnold Machin O.B.E, R.A.(30 September 1911 – 9 March 1999) was a British artist, sculptor, coin and stamp designer. Machin was born in Stoke-on-Trent in 1911. He started work at the age of 14 as an apprentice china painter at the Minton Pottery. During the Depression he learnt to sculpt at Stoke-on-Trent's Art School, which was opposite the Minton factory. In 1934 he moved to Derby, where he met his wife Patricia.[1] After imprisonment in the Second World War as a conscientious objector, he returned to modelling and sculpture, and created many notable ceramics which are now prized collectors' items. In 1946 he was elected an associate member of the Royal Academy, was appointed a Master of Sculpture from 1959 to 1966 and became the longest-serving member of the Academy. He was elected an Academician in 1956 and a Fellow of the Royal Society of British Sculptors. From 1951 he was a tutor at the Royal College of Art, where he entered the culture that was to bring him his most celebrated commissions.

Stamp and coin designs In 1964 Machin was chosen to design a new effigy of the Queen for the decimal coinage, which was to be introduced from 1968. This effigy was used for all British coins until 1984. It continued to be used on coins of New Zealand and Australia until 1985 and 1986 respectively, and on coins of Canada until 1989. In 1966 the Queen approved Machin's similar design for an effigy of her to be used on what come to be known as the "Machin series" of British definitive postage stamps. Machin produced a bas-relief in clay, which when combined with a different coloured background, is reminiscent of the overlaid decoration of potteries such as Wedgwood. The design was first used on the 4d value which was issued in June 1967, and has been used on all British definitive stamps (except more recent regional issues) ever since. It is thought that this design is the most reproduced work of art in history with, to date, approximately 320 billion copies produced.[2] In 2007 the Machin-designed stamp was still in use at its 40th anniversary and to mark the occasion, the Post Office issued a commemorative stamp featuring a photograph of Arnold Machin. It was also available for sale in a miniature sheet which incorporated another stamp with a reproduction of a Machin series stamp as well as two actual ÂŁ1 Machins in different colours.

Conservation In the 1956, while resident at number 15, The Villas, Stokeville, (an estate of 24 Victorian houses in Stoke-upon-Trent) he received publicity in the national press when he chained himself to an old metal lamp-post in protest at its planned removal.[3] Machin's protest, "against the destruction of all the beautiful things which is going on in this country" did not prevent the lamp-post from being replaced by a concrete one; however, it was given to him for his own garden and his wife Patricia unlocked him. The lamp has since been restored to its original position.[4]

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Arnold Machin

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Family Machin and his wife Patricia had a son, Francis (1949-2007) who was an artist too and an architect. [5] After Francis died, the possessions of Arnold Machin in his house in rural Staffordshire were sold in auction on September and October 2008 by Cuttlestones.[6] The possessions included the fourth of the final plasters known made to create the Machin stamp series, the three others are kept in the Royal Mail archives.[7]

References

Home of Arnold Machin near Eccleshall

[1] (http:/ / the-villas. com/ PhotoGallery/ tabid/ 62/ galleryType/ SlideShow/ ItemID/ 13/ Default. aspx) [2] Timesonline (http:/ / entertainment. timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ arts_and_entertainment/ visual_arts/ article4670207. ece) [3] "Arnold Machin chained to lamp (scan of press cutting)" (http:/ / the-villas. com/ PhotoGallery/ tabid/ 62/ galleryType/ SlideShow/ ItemID/ 13/ Default. aspx). The Sentinel. July 1956. . Retrieved 20 June 2008. [4] "Did you know - Arnold Machin - the sculptor of the "Queen's Head" was born in Stoke-on-Trent" (http:/ / www. thepotteries. org/ did_you/ 011. htm). thepotteries.org (Press Cutting: Daily Mail). 12 July 1956. . Retrieved 25 June 2010. [5] Francis Machin | Times Online Obituary (http:/ / www. timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ comment/ obituaries/ article1711736. ece) 27 April, 2007 [6] Presentation of the sale on Cuttlestones website (http:/ / www. cuttlestones. co. uk/ news/ 220808_cuttlestones. htm), retrieved 26 october 2008 [7] Richard Alleyne, "Arnold Machin plaster cast used for image of Queen on stamps is found", Telegraph.co.uk, updated 3 September 2008 ; available on the website (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ news/ newstopics/ theroyalfamily/ 2674511/ Arnold-Machin-plaster-cast-used-for-image-of-Queen-on-stamps-is-found. html) (last retrieved, 26 October 2008).


Article Sources and Contributors

Article Sources and Contributors Arnold Machin  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=467901272  Contributors: After Midnight, Alanmaher, Arwel Parry, Bluebird207, CLW, Charivari, Ched Davis, CommonsDelinker, D6, Deodar, EchetusXe, Hephaestos, Jiang, JimmyGuano, John, JonHarder, Katieh5584, Krowe, Kyuko, Maias, Malick78, MegdalePlace, Mervyn, Mholland, Pigsonthewing, Robofish, Scott Gall, Sebjarod, Stan Shebs, Taydoetv, Thoughtfortheday, Timrollpickering, Wikipudding, 19 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors Image:ArnoldMachin.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ArnoldMachin.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: Taydoetv

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List of Machin stamps

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List of Machin stamps This is a list of all the major variations of the Machin series of postage stamps in the United Kingdom. The complete list of all variations is vast and outside the scope of this encyclopedia. Note: - The colours and the colour descriptions are to be used to give an idea only, as each catalogue and website will reference the colours differently.

Pre-Decimal Issues The first Machins were issued in 1967 and were in use until the UK changed to a decimal currency in 1971. These Machins came in two sizes, with the four higher value stamps being the largest. Small Size (21mm x 24mm) Value & Colour

Date first issued

½d orange brown

Feb 5 1968

1d yellow & ochre

Feb 5 1968

2d lake brown

Feb 5 1968

3d spectrum violet

Aug 8 1967

4d olive sepia

Jun 5 1967

4d vermilion

Jan 6 1969

5d stewart blue

Jul 1 1968

6d purple

Feb 5 1968

7d light green

Jul 1 1968

8d scarlet

Jul 1 1968

8d duck egg blue

Jan 6 1969

9d winchester green

Aug 8 1967

10d light olive brown

Jul 1 1968

1/- aconite violet

Jun 5 1967

1/6 turquoise & garter blue Aug 8 1967 1/9 orange & olive brown

Jun 5 1967

Large Size Value & Colour

Date first issued

2/6 peat brown

Mar 5 1969

5/- raspberry red

Mar 5 1969

10/- deep ultramarine

Mar 5 1969

ÂŁ1 bluish black

Mar 5 1969


List of Machin stamps

2

Decimal Issues The decimal Machins have been issued throughout Britain's period of decimalisation, and continue to be produced today. During the 1970s and 1980s, the Royal Mail issued 12 Machins in a larger format. Other major variations include: Elliptical Perforation: In 1993 the Royal Mail started issuing Machins with two large elliptical perforations, one on either side, as a security feature. Some Machins have both standard and elliptical perfs, but those issued after 1993 only have the ellipticals. EME Images: In 1997 a new profile of the Queen was used on Machins. EME (or Electro-Mechanically Engraved) images are created by computer and therefore offer better detail in the image. Regional Issues: These Machins were issued with a heraldic symbol in the top left hand corner. These represent the Isle of Man with the Three Legs of Man symbol; Northern Ireland with the Red Hand of Ulster symbol; Scotland with the Lion of Scotland symbol and Wales with the Welsh Dragon symbol. Small Size (21mm x 24mm) Value & Colour

Date 1st Issue

Elliptical Perf.

EME Image

Jun 8 1993

Apr 1 1997

Apr 11 1995

May 27 1997

Regional Issue

½p turquoise

Feb 15 1971

1p crimson

Feb 15 1971

1½p charcoal grey

Feb 15 1971

2p deep grey-green

Feb 15 1971

2½p pale magenta

Feb 15 1971

2½p rose madder

Jan 14 1981

3p ultramarine

Feb 15 1971

3p rose red

Oct 22 1980

3p shocking pink

Oct 10 1989

3½p grey green

Feb 15 1971

3½p purple-brown

Mar 30 1983

4p rust brown

Feb 15 1971

4p turquoise

Jan 30 1980

4p cobalt blue

Jan 26 1988

4½p blue-grey

Oct 24 1973

4½p steel blue

Nov 6 1974

Nov 6 1974

5p grey-violet

Feb 15 1971

Jul 7 1971

5p greyish rose

Jan 27 1982

5p ash pink (red-brown)

Jul 26 1988

5½p deep violet

Oct 24 1973

6p pastel green

Feb 15 1971

6p lime green

Sep 10 1991

6½p cerulean blue

Sep 4 1974

Jan 14 1976

7p reddish brown

Dec 1974

Jan 18 1978

7p brick red

Oct 29 1985

7p light grey

Jul 7 1971

Jul 7 1971

Jan 23 1974

Dec 14 1993

Jun 8 1993

May 27 1997

May 27 1997 Jan 23 1974

Apr 27 1993

Apr 20 1999

Apr 1 1997


List of Machin stamps

3

7p shocking pink

Apr 1 2004

7½p pale chestnut

Feb 15 1971

Jul 7 1971

8p blood red

Oct 24 1973

Jan 23 1974

8p old gold

Apr 25 2000

8½p apple green

Sep 24 1975

9p orange & black

Feb 15 1971

9p bluish violet

Feb 25 1976

9p orange 9½p deep lilac

Jan 14 1976

Jan 18 1978 Apr 5 2005

Apr 1 2008

Feb 16 1976

10p terracotta & orange-brown Aug 11 1971 10p grey-orange

Feb 25 1976

10p light tan

Sep 4 1990

10½p light yellow

Feb 25 1976

10½p greyish blue

Apr 26 1978

Jan 18 1978

11p pastel red

Feb 25 1976

Oct 20 1976

11½p rust brown

Aug 15 1979

11½p mushroom

Jan 14 1981

Apr 8 1981

12p yellow-green

Jan 30 1980

Jul 23 1980

12p emerald green

Oct 29 1985

Jan 7 1986

12p dark turquoise

Oct 20 1976 Jun 8 1993

May 27 1997

Aug 1 2006

12½p pastel green

Jan 27 1982

13p grey green

Aug 15 1979

13p light brown

Aug 28 1984

Oct 23 1984

13½p red brown

Jan 30 1980

Jul 23 1980

14p greyish blue

Jan 14 1981

Apr 8 1981

14p dark blue

Aug 23 1988

Nov 8 1988

14p salmon pink

Feb 24 1982

Aug 1 2006

15p ultramarine

Aug 15 1979

Jul 23 1980

15p light blue

Sep 26 1989

Nov 28 1989

15p shocking pink

Apr 1 2008

Apr 1 2008

15½p light violet

Jan 14 1981

Feb 24 1982

16p light mushroom

Mar 30 1983

Apr 27 1983

16p pink

Mar 27 2007

16½p light brown

Jan 27 1982

17p pastel green

Jan 30 1980

17p greyish blue

Mar 30 1983

Oct 23 1984

17p dark blue

Sep 4 1990

Dec 4 1990

17½p chestnut brown

Jan 30 1980

18p bluish violet

Jan 14 1981

Apr 8 1981


List of Machin stamps

4

18p grey green

Aug 28 1984

Jan 6 1987

18p light green

Sep 10 1991

Dec 3 1991

19p flame

Aug 23 1988

Nov 8 1988

19p olive green

Oct 26 1993

19½p pale olive grey

Jan 27 1982

20p purple-grey

Feb 25 1976

20p sea green

Aug 23 1988

20p black

Sep 26 1989

20p light green

Apr 20 1999

Dec 7 1993 Feb 24 1982

Dec 7 1993 Nov 28 1989 Jun 25 1996

Apr 29 1997

Jul 23 1996

20½p ultramarine

Mar 30 1983

Apr 27 1983

22p deep blue

Oct 22 1980

Apr 8 1981

22p moss green

Aug 28 1984

Oct 23 1984

22p flame

Sep 4 1990

Dec 4 1990

23p pastel red

Mar 30 1983

23p light green

Aug 23 1988

24p violet

Aug 28 1984

24p terracotta

Sep 26 1989

Nov 28 1989

24p rust

Sep 10 1991

Dec 3 1991

25p lilac

Jan 14 1981

25p salmon pink

Nov 8 1988

Oct 26 1993

Dec 7 1993

26p post office red

Jan 27 1982

Feb 24 1982

26p stone

Sep 4 1990

Dec 4 1990

26p rust

Jun 25 1996

Sep 23 1997

26p gold

Apr 21 1997

Apr 21 1997

27p rust

Aug 23 1988

27p mauve

Sep 4 1990

28p bluish violet

Mar 30 1983

28p sand

Aug 23 1988

28p slate blue

Sep 10 1991

29p yellow-brown

Jan 27 1982

29p purple

Sep 26 1989

29p light grey Sep 26 1989

31p deep lilac

Mar 30 1983

31p ultramarine

Sep 4 1990

31p purple

Apr 27 1983

Dec 3 1991

Jul 27 1993

Aug 23 1988

33p emerald green

Sep 4 1990

1997

Dec 7 1993 Oct 23 1984

Jun 25 1996

32p dark turquoise

33p slate blue

Jul 23 1996

Oct 26 1993

30p sage green

[1][2]

Aug 26 1997 Nov 8 1988

Apr 25 2000

[3][4]


List of Machin stamps

5

34p yellow brown

Aug 28 1984

34p slate blue

Sep 26 1989

34p purple

Sep 10 1991

34p lime green

Nov 28 1989

May 6 2003

35p dark brown

Aug 23 1988

Aug 1 2004

35p old gold

Sep 10 1991

Aug 17 1993

35p lime green

Apr 5 2005

36p ultramarine

Oct 26 1993

37p red

May 6 2003

Apr 5 2005

Sep 26 1989

Dec 4 1990

37p amethyst

Jun 25 1996

Aug 26 1997

37p charcoal black

Jul 4 2002

Jul 4 2002

37p olive green

Mar 28 2006

Mar 28 2006

38p red

Oct 26 1993

38p ultramarine

Apr 20 1999

39p amethyst

Apr 20 1999

Sep 10 1991

Jul 23 1996

Jun 8 1999 Dec 3 1991

39p shocking pink

Jun 25 1996

39p light grey

Apr 1 2004

40p grey blue

Apr 25 2000

Apr 25 2000

40p dark turquoise

Apr 1 2004

Apr 1 2004

41p stone

Oct 26 1993

41p red

Apr 25 2000

Apr 25 2000

42p sage green

Jul 4 2002

Jul 4 2002

43p dark brown

Jun 25 1996

Apr 1 1997

43p emerald green

Apr 1 2004

Apr 1 2004

44p stone

Apr 20 1999

Apr 20 1999

44p ultramarine

Mar 28 2006

Mar 28 2006

45p amethyst

Apr 25 2000

Apr 25 2000

46p old gold

Apr 5 2005

Apr 5 2005

47p sea green

Jul 4 2002

Jul 4 2002

48p amethyst

Mar 27 2007

Mar 27 2007

49p rust

Mar 28 2006

Mar 28 2006

Dec 14 1993

Apr 1 1997

50p light grey

Mar 27 2007

Mar 27 2007

54p rust

Mar 27 2007

Mar 27 2007

56p sage green

Apr 1 2008

Apr 1 2008

60p slate blue

Aug 9 1994

63p emerald green

Jun 25 1996

Aug 26 1997

Jul 23 1996

64p sea green

Apr 20 1999

Apr 20 1999

Jun 8 1999

50p ochre

Feb 2 1977

50p sand

Mar 13 1990

1997

Apr 25 2000

Dec 7 1993

[5][6]


List of Machin stamps

6

65p dark turquoise

Apr 25 2000

Apr 25 2000

68p stone

Jul 4 2002

Jul 4 2002

72p red

Mar 28 2006

Mar 28 2006

78p emerald green

Mar 27 2007

Mar 27 2007

81p turquoise

Apr 1 2008

Apr 1 2008

£1 mauve

Aug 22 1995

Apr 1 1997

£1 ruby

Jun 5 2007

Jun 5 2007

£1.50 brownish red

Mar 9 1999

£2 slate blue

Mar 9 1999

75p India black

Apr 25 2000

Jan 30 1980

£3 dull purple

Mar 9 1999

£5 brown

Mar 9 1999

£5 grey blue

Jul 1 2003

Large Size (30mm x 35mm) Value & Colour

Date 1st Issue

10p cerise

Jun 17 1970

20p olive green

Jun 17 1970

50p deep ultramarine

Jun 17 1970

£1 bluish black

Jun 17 1970

£1 olive & greenish yellow

Feb 2 1977

£1.30 buff & blue-green

Aug 3 1983

£1.33 mauve & blue-black

Aug 28 1984

£1.41 buff & blue-green

Sep 17 1985

£1.50 blue-black & lilac

Sep 2 1986

£1.60 blue-black & buff

Sep 2 1986

£2 purple-brown and pale green

Feb 2 1977

£5 royal blue & pale pink

Feb 2 1977

NVI (Non-Value Indicator) Issues NVI (or Non-Value Indicator) Machins first appeared in 1989 in an attempt to negate the need to keep issuing new stamps after each postal rate change. They are marked 1st and 2nd for the two classes of post in the United Kingdom. The E NVI stamp represented the standard letter rate to Europe. Small Size (21mm x 24mm)


List of Machin stamps

7

Value & Colour

Date 1st Issue

Elliptical Perf.

EME Image

Apr 6 1993

Apr 29 1997

1st gold

Apr 21 1997

Apr 21 1997

1st Millennium white

Jan 6 2000

Jan 6 2000

1st gold (large value)

Aug 1 2006

Aug 1 2006

Apr 6 1993

Apr 29 1997

2nd light blue (large value)

Aug 1 2006

Aug 1 2006

E dark blue

Jan 19 1999

Jan 19 1999

Date 1st Issue

Elliptical Perf.

EME Image

1st gold (large value)

Aug 1 2006

Aug 1 2006

2nd light blue (large value)

Aug 1 2006

Aug 1 2006

1st black

Aug 22 1989

1st flame

Aug 7 1990

2nd light blue

Aug 22 1989

2nd dark blue

Aug 7 1990

Regional Issue

Feb 15 2000

Horizontal Issues Value & Colour

Large size (30mm x 35mm) Value & Colour

Date 1st Issue

1st embossed

Feb 16 1999

1st engraved

Feb 16 1999

1st typographed Feb 16 1999

Penny Black Anniversary Issues In 1990, the Royal Mail issued 5 stamps to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the Penny Black. It featured the machin image of Queen Elizabeth II overlaying the image of Queen Victoria from the Penny Black. An NVI issue was released in 2000. Only size (21mm x 24mm) Value & Colour

Date 1st Issue

15p light blue

Jan 10 1990

20p black & cream Jan 10 1990 20p black

Apr 17 1990

29p purple

Jan 10 1990

34p slate blue

Jan 10 1990

37p red

Jan 10 1990

1st black

Feb 15 2000


List of Machin stamps

8

Airmail Issues Only size (21mm x 24mm) Value & Colour

Date 1st Issue

Airmail Europe

Mar 27 2003

Airmail Worldwide

Mar 27 2003

Airmail Postcard

Apr 1 2004

Footnotes [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6]

An EME version of the regionals was also issued on Jul 1 1997. The EME version for Wales was printed without the 'p' suffix. An EME version of the regionals was also issued on May 28 1997. The EME version for Wales was printed without the 'p' suffix. An EME version of the regionals was also issued on Jul 1 1997. The EME version for Wales was printed without the 'p' suffix.


Article Sources and Contributors

Article Sources and Contributors List of Machin stamps  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=405975561  Contributors: Andrwsc, Bobblehead, Dtobias, Joshuamcgee, KevM, Midx1004, Stwalkerster, 12 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors File:Flag of the Isle of Man.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_Isle_of_Man.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Hoshie File:Ulster banner.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ulster_banner.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Jean-Pierre Demailly File:Flag of Scotland.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Scotland.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Kbolino File:Flag of Wales 2.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Wales_2.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: AlexD, Cecil, Dbenbenn, Duduziq, F. F. Fjodor, FruitMonkey, Fry1989, Homo lupus, Iago4096, Pumbaa80, Red devil 666, Srtxg, Tha real, Torstein, Vernanimalcula, Vzb83, Wouterhagens, 7 anonymous edits

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Machin