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Newsletter of The New Zealand Roadmarkers Federation Inc.

Roadmarking News www.nzrf.co.nz Edition 143 June 2020

NZ Upgrade Programme -Transport The New Zealand Upgrade Programme will invest $6.8 billion to support growing cities, save lives and boost productivity.

Transport Minister Phil Twyford The programme aims to upgrade the transport infrastructure in six main growth areas – Auckland, Waikato, Bay of Plenty, Wellington, Canterbury and Queenstown. The package provides for more frequent and better public transport and building safe, new walking and cycling paths. It also builds vital roads to speed up travel times,unlocks housing developments and invests in rail to make our roads safer by taking trucks off them.

Auckland package The $3.48 billion NZ Upgrade Programme for Auckland supports the transformation of Auckland's transport system to manage growth. Seven walking and cycling, public transport and roading projects are being accelerated to better connect new and existing communities and deliver a substantial change in providing safer, more accessible and sustainable travel choices that support growth. This includes developing the first walking and cycling connection across Waitematā Harbour and along the harbour to Takapuna, providing commuters with real choice on how they travel through the city. It is a critical link in the region’s transport system, providing an important missing link in Auckland’s Cycle Network and a great new facility for both residents and tourists. More than $1 billion investment will be spent improving passenger and inter-regional freight services, helping make rail a preferred way of travel for communities to the south of Auckland. A new rail track will be built between Wiri and Quay Park, a new station developed at Drury and the rail network electrified through to Pukekohe.

Safety is a big focus of these projects. New state highways will be built to a high standard to prevent deaths and serious injuries. The safety upgrades planned for existing roads will also play a big role in getting commuters home safely in the Waikato, Wellington and Canterbury regions. Investing in separated walking and cycling infrastructure will keep walkers and cyclists safe. The New Zealand Upgrade Programme will be delivered over the next decade and provides the guaranteed, fully-funded pipeline of work that industry has been calling for. It will create 800 to 1,000 direct new jobs in the civil construction industry as the first five projects get underway in the next 12 months, and 7,000 to 9,000 direct opportunities for our wider supply chain. This will give the sector the certainty to invest in the workforce, upskill and train more apprentices.

The new Mill Road and Penlink transport corridors, being built to the south and north of Auckland, respectively, as well as improvements on State Highway 1 between Papakura and Drury, will also support growth. All three projects include shared walking and cycling paths, providing important connections through to recently completed sections of the city’s walking and cycling network, and more frequent and improved public transport

Published by: The New Zealand Roadmarkers Federation Inc. P O Box 13 605 Onehunga Auckland 1643 New Zealand Executive Director: Alister Harlow, Phone: +64 9 625 7470, Email: alister@nzrf.co.nz Roadmarking News in published by The NZ Roadmarkers Federation Inc. Opinions expressed in Roadmarking News do not necessarily reflect the views of the NZRF

services. This will provide residents with choice on how they move about these communities and access employment opportunities, as well as building safety and resilience into Auckland’s transport system. North of Auckland, at Silverdale, Wainui, Dairy Flat, Orewa, and Whangaparāoa Peninsula, the population will grow three-fold, creating 21,000 new jobs. Penlink will support this growth by providing new travel choice options to and from these areas, including express public transport services. Waikato and Bay of Plenty package The $991 million NZ Upgrade Programme for Waikato and Bay of Plenty will deliver improved safety and support continued growth of the area.

choice for residents in the area, where nearly 90% of daily commutes are by private vehicle. In the Western Bay of Plenty, which 16,000 more people are expected to call home in the next 20 years, a new four lane corridor will be built from Te Puna to Ōmokoroa, extending the Tauranga Northern Link to respond to growth which extends to Ōmokoroa and beyond. This new corridor will help save lives and provide travel choice to reduce reliance on private vehicles. Public transport will be prioritised, along with vehicles carrying multiple people, and walking and cycling will be promoted with a new separated shared path.

Significant growth during the last decade has already been supported through a $2.1 billion investment in the Waikato Expressway.

At the SH1/SH29 intersection, a new roundabout will improve safety for those travelling between Auckland, Hamilton and Tauranga and will be future proofed for the extension of the expressway.

This new package continues to build on improving transport connections where growth is expected to continue for several more decades, placing even greater pressure on the existing transport system.

Wellington package The $1.35 billion being invested in Wellington during the next decade will support growth under the Wellington Regional Growth Framework; a partnership between central and local government, and iwi.

Along with Auckland, Waikato and the Bay of Plenty are part of the Upper North Island’s Golden Triangle; being home to more than half of New Zealand’s population. The transport corridors in these regions are critical to get goods to market and support the safe travel of a growing number of visitors and residents.

With a focus on improving safety, resilience, public transport and travel choice options, the four projects in this package are spread across the region, from the Kāpiti Coast (Ōtaki to north of Levin) and the Hutt Valley State Highway 58 (SH58) and Melling interchange, and a range of rail network capacity improvements across the region.

The new Tauranga Northern Link will provide an alternative route for travel in the Bay of Plenty, connecting State Highway 29 (SH29) and State Highway 2 (SH2), and helping to take pressure off Cambridge Road and the existing SH2 through Bethlehem. The priority with the new four-lane corridor will be public transport and vehicles carrying multiple people.

Access to CentrePort, and the safety and reliability of road and rail corridors to the north of Wellington, are critical to support journeys for all travellers. These routes are also important for New Zealand’s economy, in getting goods to market and export. This investment will support growth in the Horizons region. Along with Te Ahu a Turanga: Manawatū Tararua Highway, it strengthens the transport connections throughout the lower North Island, which is pivotal for distribution between the two islands and our primary production hubs.

A separated walking and cycling path will run adjacent to the new 7km corridor, providing travel

overbridge will be built to connect the two areas and provide improved walking and cycling facilities. Four intersections along SH1 between Burnham and Rolleston will also be upgraded, with a range of safety improvements to reduce deaths and serious injuries and better manage the forecast future growth in traffic volumes along this section of the highway.

The new four-lane corridor from ĹŒtaki to north of Levin (O2NL) will improve safety and access, supporting economic growth, providing greater route resilience, and better access to walking and cycling facilities. Safety is also a priority, with SH58 and SH1 south of Levin both being among the top 2% of high-risk corridors in New Zealand. The new four-lane O2NL corridor and a range of improvements to SH58 will help save lives and reduce serious injuries along these routes. These projects will also build greater resilience into the transport system by reducing the number and severity of crashes and road closures. Canterbury package About $1.4 billion has been spent during the last decade on the Christchurch Motorways project; the last two of these motorways, the Southern Motorway and Northern Corridor, scheduled to open this year.

The NZ Upgrade Programme includes $159 million for three projects to support growth in the southwest sector of Christchurch and neighbouring Selwyn district, where there has been significant residential and industrial growth, including the development of two inland ports. In Rolleston, $60 million will be spent to provide safer and better access from the residential area across State Highway 1 (SH1) and the Main South Line (railway) to the industrial zone. A new two-lane

In Christchurch city, $40 million will be spent on State Highway 76 (Brougham Street) to improve safety, provide better travel choice and support a more reliable freight route through to Lyttelton Port.

The work includes creating prioritised north-south public transport routes; safer, dedicated walking and cycling access across the busy highway; and ensuring there is better east-west traffic flow and capacity to keep freight moving. This project will provide priority for buses and walking and cycling across the corridor and for vehicles carrying multiple people and/or freight along the corridor. Intersection improvements will make it safer for communities that flank the highway. Two dedicated 2.5km bus lanes will be built on a high use section of State Highway 75, connecting the Christchurch Southern Motorway with the Christchurch suburb of Halswell. The $25 million project will add much needed capacity to the public transport network in the high growth south-west sector of the city. Three intersection safety improvements will be completed in growing rural town centres throughout Canterbury. Under the $34 million package, traffic signals will be installed in Tinwald, Ashburton and West Melton to allow safer access for pedestrians and cyclists, particularly vulnerable school children. These intersection improvements will improve safety and access for these town centres and travel options for local residents.

Queenstown package State Highway 6A (SH6A), which provides the main access into and out of Queenstown, is a narrow corridor constrained by its geographical location between Lake Wakatipu on one side and Queenstown Hill on the other.

Northland SH1/11 Kawakawa roundabout and resilience project. This project will replace the existing intersection with a roundabout at the intersection of State Highways 1 and 11 in Kawakawa. The primary benefit of this change is to improve safety and traffic flow. This intersection is a key connector on the Twin Coast Discovery Route. SH11/10 Intersection Puketona Junction roundabout. This project is to build a roundabout at the intersection of State Highways 10 and 11 at Puketona Junction. The primary benefit of this change is to increase the level of road safety and improve traffic flow.

The Programme provides $90 million to build on the success of the Orbus service by funding a range of public transport projects on SH6 and SH6A, between Ladies Mile, Kawarau Falls Bridge and Queenstown’s town centre. Bus lanes will be built to prioritise travel by public transport on SH6 and bus priority on SH6A. These will be supported by a new bus hub on SH6. The investment includes a new roundabout at Howards Drive (Lake Hayes Estate access), an upgrade to the SH6/SH6A intersection and an underpass at Ladies Mile to provide better cycling and walking connections. Together, these improvements will provide a more reliable and efficient bus service into Queenstown’s town centre; and safer, upgraded walking and cycling facilities, helping reduce reliance on private vehicle use. Regional package As part of the NZ Upgrade Programme, $300m has been allocated for regional investment opportunities. Thirteen state highway projects are being funded. The projects will address key challenges regional state highway networks face including safety risks, resilience and congestion problems, accessibility and travel time reliability. The projects will also support regional economic development.

SH12 and Rawene Road intersection improvements. This project will improve the State Highway 12 and Rawene Road intersection, to bring it up to current standards and accommodate additional ‘right turning’ capacity. The intersection has a known crash history. The intersection is a key gateway for community and visitors accessing the Hokianga Harbour ferry. Bay of Plenty SH5 Tarukenga to Ngongotaha improvements, SH36 and SH5 roundabout. This project will improve safety and reduce congestion at the roundabout intersection between State Highways 5 and 36. The funding will be used to improve safety, ease congestion and enhance accessibility. The intersection is regularly congested during morning peak-hour traffic times. The programme of work also includes standard safety improvements along 8.1km of State Highway 5. Hawke’s Bay SH2 College Road to Silverstream. This project is for vertical and horizontal curve realignment and the addition of a passing lane along a 1.7 km section of SH2 north of Waipukurau in Central Hawke’s Bay. It will improve the efficiency and safety of this key freight route between Hawke’s Bay, the Manawatū and Tairāwhiti and will improve the connection to Napier Port. SH2 Tahaenui Bridge. This project will upgrade the Tahaenui Bridge on SH2 between Wairoa and Gisborne to allow twolane travel. The funding will enable the bridge to be widened to two-way travel and will improve the roading network access and efficiency for those travelling between Gisborne and Hawke’s Bay.

This bridge is currently the only one-lane restriction on the important link between Gisborne and Napier Port. Taranaki SH43 Forgotten World Highway improvements. This project will improve SH43, the Forgotten World Highway. The upgrades include safety improvements, passing opportunities, a single-lane bridge upgrade and culvert replacements. The improvements will provide resilience for the Central North Island’s transport network, as an important alternative to SH 3 between Taranaki and the Upper North Island. The Forgotten World Highway is promoted as a tourist destination.

West Coast SH67 Granity seawall. This project will provide seawall protection to a section of SH67 between Granity and Ngakawau. This highway suffers frequent coastal erosion and is an important link to the northern West Coast of the South Island. This project will improve the security and resilience of the highway for the local community, and for freight supplies and rural services in the region. The funding is for the construction of a 950m rock-lined bank to protect the road from a direct threat of sea erosion.

SH6 Tatare Bridge Franz Josef safety improvements. This project will improve safety and access to the 130 metre long single lane bridge to Franz Josef. The funding will provide hand-rails and provision

for separate pedestrian and cycle use. The upgrade will include the installation of guard-rail edge protection over the bridge and a clip-on pedestrian and cycle walkway. West Coast State Highway single-lane bridges safety retrofit. This project will see compliant guardrail installed on up to five single lane bridges throughout the West Coast network. Canterbury SH8, SH79, SH80 MacKenzie Basin.pull-over areas. This project will provide safe stopping areas to maximise the tourism potential of the MacKenzie Basin. The funding will provide: • a number of safety and access improvements • increased capacity at existing rest areas • new rest areas at scenic locations • upgrade existing rest areas • better signage • directional arrows • edge protection • tourism information • intersection improvements • road widening and passing locations. Otago SH1 north of Kakanui River/South of Oamaru improving flood mitigation. This project is to improve flood mitigation at the Kakanui River flood plain in Otago. The project will raise a 200-metre section of the state highway and involves the installation of a series of culverts. There is no effective or reliable detour route during flood events and road closures can last up to two days. SH6–SH8B Junction Cromwell intersection upgrade. This project is to build a roundabout at the intersection of SH6 and SH8B in Cromwell. The intersection has a high level of safety issues with serious injury crashes, with the safety record worsening over the last two years. SH6 is the main road from Cromwell to Wanaka and Queenstown. The popularity of the region and increased tourism numbers, as well as higher local growth, is causing increased pressure at this intersection.

NZ upgrade forward




Over $3 billion worth of NZ Upgrade Programme projects are moving forward, with five major

projects in Auckland, Wellington and Tauranga each a step closer to construction this week, Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency says. Waka Kotahi has issued an Advanced Notice seeking registrations of interest from prequalified and experienced contractors for improvements on Auckland’s Southern Motorway (SH1) between Papakura and Drury South, the Tauranga Northern Link in the Bay of Plenty and the Penlink connection from the Northern Motorway (SH1) to the Whangaparaoa Peninsula, north of Auckland. “This is an important first step, where Waka Kotahi is signalling to the industry that we’re ready to go and are looking for partners to make these projects happen,” says Waka Kotahi General Manager Transport Services Brett Gliddon.

walking and cycling infrastructure over the next ten years announced by Government in January 2020 as part of the NZ Upgrade Programme to get our cities moving, save lives and boost productivity. “These projects were always important, but the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the economy and construction industry have given them new urgency, and the progress we are making can give industry much-needed certainty that Waka Kotahi is moving forward to build vital infrastructure which forms such an important part of the Government’s plan for New Zealand’s economic recovery.”

Budget 2020: $3 billion for infrastructure from NZ's 'largest ever stocktake', more expected Hamish Rutherford, NZ Herald Another $3 billion has been added to the Government's Budget for infrastructure - with more likely - as the Government seeks out "shovel ready" projects to keep the economy going. The Provincial Growth Fund is also being reprioritised, to get more money from the scheme spent. As part of a massive Covid-19 response and recovery fund, the Budget (14th May 2020) included an extra $3b for infrastructure. The funding is on top of the "upgrade" allocated in January.

“At the same time, Waka Kotahi is entering into consultation with two shortlisted parties to build the shared path over the Auckland Harbour Bridge as part of the Northern Pathway project. This will streamline the process and accelerate the procurement process, with construction potentially beginning early next year depending on the consenting process. “We’re also progressing with key NZ Upgrade Programme work on SH58 in Wellington. We’re starting direct negotiations with the contractors already building stage one, to build stage two of safety improvements between the Hutt Valley and Porirua, with work on the second stage likely to get underway at the end of August.” Mr Gliddon says planning work continued under the lockdown on all five projects, which form part of the $6.8 billion in road, rail, public transport and

While the funding is only a tiny fraction of value of the projects identified by a special body tasked with identifying the best projects, Finance Minister Grant Robertson said he "fully expects" more funding for infrastructure as part of its massive, loosely defined, funds allocated to react to Covid19. The budget announcement did not reveal where any of the money would be spent. Former Meridian Energy chief executive Mark Binns heads the Industry Reference Group (IRG) which was given the task of identifying projects which could be progressed quickly. According to Infrastructure Minister Shane Jones, the group had received submissions for projects which would cost $136b across 1900 submissions. Jones described the project as "the largest ever infrastructure and construction stocktake the

nation has ever seen". Decisions on where the money would be spent will come soon. "The IRG expects to deliver its report to Ministers in the coming weeks and will advise us on potential packages in different regions across the country in the sectors we as a Government wish to prioritise the most including water, transport, housing, environment and health."

address decades of under-investment, but further investment in rail will play an essential role in our economic recovery post-lockdown," State Owned Enterprises Minister Winston Peters said. "The investment in rail infrastructure, is not only helping to secure the thousands of existing jobs at KiwiRail but will be a huge boost to New Zealand's civil engineering and construction sector, with hundreds of contractors, and their material suppliers, needed nationwide for track renewal, mechanical facility upgrades and ferry terminal projects."

Waka Kotahi approves funding to make physical distancing easier and safer in Wellington

Jones said the focus of the projects was "immediate job creation and income growth, construction activity that will be under way within the next 12 months and a high degree of visibility to provide Kiwis with confidence that our economic recovery is hitting the ground running."

Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency has approved over $730,000 from the Government’s Innovating Streets for People pilot fund to support Wellington City Council projects which will make physical distancing easier and safer for cyclists and pedestrians, while public transport capacity is reduced.

The same principles would be used for reform of the Provincial Growth Fund, Jones said. "We will have an eagle-eyed focus on implementation to ensure money is getting out of the door and projects are not languishing in bureaucratic red tape." The Government also announced more funding for rail. Billed as $1.2b, more than a third of it is focused on the Interislander ferries which connect the North and South Islands and associated port facilities.

"Rail is a critical part of our integrated transport network. Not only is investment essential to

The Innovating Streets fund will cover 90% of the costs for: • a wider pedestrian route, linking Wellington Station to Lambton Quay • pop-up cycle lanes to enable mode choice and take pressure off the public transport and vehicle network • a shared walking and cycling path between Shelly Bay and Scorching Bay to provide space for recreation and exercise and spread the load from Oriental Bay and other busy recreation locations. Launched in 2019, the Innovating Streets for People programme aims to remove the barriers to street innovations and raise the capability of New Zealand communities to deliver projects aimed at making streets more people-friendly.

The $7 million-plus Innovating Streets fund supports ‘tactical urbanism’ projects such as pilots, pop-ups and interim treatments that will help New Zealand transition to safer and more liveable towns and cities.

During the conference, a series of interesting parallel sessions addressed essential topics related to road safety and road infrastructure.

Waka Kotahi Urban Mobility Programme Manager Kathryn King says the fund has been made available for Covid-19 transport responses, supporting councils to adapt their streets so more people can walk and cycle to help manage travel demand while public transport capacity is reduced.

This safe system approach, which has been widely accepted as the modern road safety strategy, has the ultimate responsibility for road safety being not with the individual road user, but with those who design, build, manage and maintain the transport system and all its components. As the representative of the European road infrastructure sector, the European Union Road Federation (ERF) and its members have widely contributed to the improvement of the road network and its equipment. This is done through initiatives and projects such as White Roads which make road transport safer and contribute to a more sustainable road framework.

“Innovating Streets is fundamentally about reconsidering how we allocate street space, and this is particularly important right now as we need more space for people to physically distance, and have alternative transport options while public transport capacity is down as well as creating vibrant, attractive places to support our businesses. “While these responses will help us through recovery, they also move us towards our longerterm objectives to create safer, healthier and more vibrant towns and cities.” The pilot fund has a 90% funding assistance rate (FAR) which is the proportion of the approved costs that will be paid from the National Land Transport Fund, with councils making up the other 10%. Successful applicants will be supported to deliver their tactical urbanism projects through capability building activity, including participation in a community of practice. Find out more about the fund

Road safety at the core of future mobility Under the theme Achieving Global Goals 2030, delegations from more than 80 countries attended the 3rd Ministerial Conference on Road Safety cosponsored by the World Health Organisation. In addition, other stakeholders from industry, research organisations and international institutions contributed to the discussions. The conference was an opportunity for delegates to share successes and lessons from the implementation of the Global Plan for the Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011–2020. The goal is to chart strategic directions for global road safety up to 2030 and beyond while defining ways to accelerate action on proven strategies to save lives. The conference also provided an opportunity to link road safety to sustainability challenges.

Sustainable Development through Vision Zero

New Technologies for Road Safety To a great extent, Vision Zero and road safety in general rely on innovative technology to achieve a safe transport system. The European Union is firmly committed to promoting a favourable regulatory framework. This will boost new vehicle technologies such as intelligent speed assistance and lane keeping assistance. There is also the corresponding support from road markings and signs - new EU Directive 2019/1936 on road infrastructure safety management. In parallel to this is the preparation of a benchmark study, together with FNTP (Fédération Nationale des Travaux Publics) and Routes de France, on the impact of new mobility – both automated and connected - on safety and sustainability. Mitigating Climate Change through Road Safety New mobility schemes and requirements will redefine the role that road infrastructure plays in the lives of citizens. To help mitigate climate change, the ERF is contributing to various projects including DURABROADS, LCE4ROADS and SustainEuroRoads EU Projects. ERF work continues with involvement in the FORESEE programme to develop a methodology for transport infrastructure authorities and managers able to anticipate, absorb, adapt and rapidly recover from natural and man-made disruptive events.

Designing Roads for Safety The inherent safety and protective quality of road networks which benefit all road users should be prioritised, especially for the most vulnerable. This cannot be achieved without enhanced cooperation between road authorities and the road industry. Safety assessments should be carried out, priorities must be defined and financing should be allocated for the proper maintenance, upgrade, adaptation and improvement of the road infrastructure. The ERF has participated in various projects such as RAINVISION or ROSA that focus on increasing safety specifically for the vulnerable road users. In addition, one of the most dangerous hazards is created around work zones when regular driving conditions dramatically change, jeopardising road users and workers alike. The ERF has pioneered work zone safety by creating the manual “Towards Safer Work Zones”. The conference has shown that there is an enormous amount of motivation from all parties involved, including international organisations, government, industry and non-government organisations.

make it difficult for drivers to make decisions and match driving behaviour to the road environment.” “We’ve developed a simple five-step process that applies to all roads across a network, includes contemporary safety treatments and can be matched to available and aspirational levels of funding. This process will support road authority officers who are relatively time-poor.” “The project working group divided the types of road on a network ranging from motorways to local access roads into 13 road stereotypes,” said Richard Fanning, project manager from the Austroads Road Design Task Force. “For each road stereotype, the group developed options by combining crosssections and safety treatments for varying speed limits to show opportunities to improve road safety.” Each option shows the reduction in crash risk calculated using the Australian National Risk Assessment Model (ANRAM), and improvements in star rating as set globally via the International Road Assessment Program (iRAP).

A successful road safety strategy for the decade 2020-2030 will succeed only if we continue promoting sectorial partnerships to share knowledge and good practice and to build upon what is really working. To this extent, the ERF remains one of the major contributors of know-how and expertise in the topic of road safety from the road infrastructure sector in Europe.

Austroads releases Network-wide road design – A simple yet effective process for developing sustainable network safety plans Austroads has produced a user guide to help road managers, planners and designers develop sustainable network safety plans that reduce serious and fatal crashes, deliver ‘self-explaining roads’ and facilitate decisions resulting in the safest network. “Road safety treatments are predominantly considered on a project by project basis which may not result in the safest network with consistent corridor outcomes”, said David Bobbermen, Austroads Road Safety and Design Program Manager. “Inconsistent corridor standards do not support the principle of a ‘self-explaining road’ and

Intersection tables were also developed for major ‘cross’ and ‘T’ junctions for each road stereotype with 13 intersection treatment options available. The indicative crash risk for each intersection treatment has also been provided. “The five-step process is backed by three case studies to demonstrate how to assign stereotypes to roads and intersections and prepare network-wide safety plans,” said Richard. The process, supported by the information in the reports, is:


2. 3.



Find the appropriate road stereotype based on the road function, geometric characteristics and traffic volume. Identify the existing crosssection for the asset from the relevant crosssection table and establish the fatal and serious injury (FSI) crash risk and iRAP star rating. Select suitable road cross-section treatments and standards that can be applied. Using the cross-section tables, find the FSI crash risk for the proposed treatment and compare predicted outcomes for the existing asset and the treatment. Find and compare the corresponding iRAP star ratings for the proposed treatment and the existing asset. Calculate the crash risk benefit (reduction in fatalities and serious injuries) and the cost of the corridor treatment and match these to the available funding, considering the total network.

“Our guidance provides a simple process to support all local government agencies, and will help road authorities to meet commitments made under the Australian National Road Safety Action Plan 2018– 2020 to assess road safety treatments across their networks and apply Safe System approaches to all programs,” said David. “This innovative practice now places the complex intelligence of road safety tools into the hands of every practitioner – certainly an Australian first, if not a world first.“ Download: Network Design for Road Safety (Stereotypes for Cross-sections and Intersections): User Guide Road Cross-section Design for Road Stereotypes (including Network Safety Plans) and a Safe System (Research Report)

What’s the future of your fleet Australian Writer, David Walker reports on the future of fleet ownership and management The fleet management industry has been through tough times in the past five years. The historically low cash rate has reduced borrowing costs, making it more cost effective for many organisations to buy fleets instead of leasing them. A new accounting standard on leases, IFRS 16 also had firms worried about the longevity of the sector. Before 1 January 2019, car leases could be removed from an organisation's balance sheet, even if they represented a future liability and asset. The introduction of the new standard meant operating leases (including vehicle leases) had to be recorded

on the balance sheet, which many thought would deter organisations from leasing car fleets. Now, of course, business is reeling from the impact of Covid-19 shutdowns. But if the fleet management sector has bounced back before, it can bounce back again, say industry insiders. Even with the negative effects of the Covid-19 pandemic, the fleet management sector is predicted to undergo significant growth and innovation in coming years. The rise of hybrid and electric vehicles, improvements in fleet-tracking software, and an expansion to "mobility services" are all set to change the shape of fleets in the future.

Who’s on Fleet Street The major vehicle fleet players in Australia and New Zealand include LeasePlan, Eclipx Group, Custom Fleet, ORIX and SG Fleet Group, which compete with each other on quality of service, inventory and price. A 2018 report by ACA Research found 19,000 businesses in Australia operating fleets with 20 vehicles or more, and 400,000 smaller businesses running fleets of less than 20 vehicles. In total, there were 2,162,000 vehicles on Australian roads managed by fleet companies These fleet players lease, hire or rent out passenger cars - including sedans, hatchbacks, station wagons, SUVs and minibuses - for use primarily in the health and medical sectors, as well as corporations, telcos, small businesses and government organisations including the police. IBISWorld research estimated fleet vehicle leasing in Australia was worth A$2.8 billion in 2019-20 globally it was valued at US$15.9 billion in 2018.

Why is it better to lease than buy? A business benefit of leasing, according to those in the industry, is it frees up capital and eliminates risk, as the volatility of the used car market sits with the lessor. "You get access to state-of-the-art technology and enterprise-class solutions," says Andy Mulcaster, managing director of SG Fleet in Australia. "We provide all the reporting you need for compliance on your fleet. You get access to the discounts that a fleet management company has access to - for parts, maintenance, fuel. We have processes to manage all your administration."

SG Fleet's modelling already shows hybrid Toyota Camrys and Corollas are making sense for some customers. These models have similar purchase prices to petrol vehicles, with strong residual values and predictable maintenance. Such green vehicles "are now naturally becoming the vehicle of choice," says Mulcaster. Within the next two years, hybrids will start pushing into the commercial vehicle sector, too, he predicts.

Fleet management solutions also remove the uncertainty over how much you can realise from selling the vehicle once you have finished using it. And in a cash-scarce, post-coronavirus world, Mulcaster argues, that case for leasing grows even stronger: vehicle leasing adds certainty to budgets and frees up capital. "It's significantly more cost effective for you to actually give that over to somebody else and use your capital in another way." A push to green fleets In New Zealand, electric vehicles currently account for less than 5% of the national vehicle count, but with the government promoting electric vehicles as a way to reduce carbon emissions, that's expected to change. Some experts predict that between 3050% of national fleet could be electric in the next 10 years, although that might be optimistic. Last year, Deutsche Bank analysts reported: "Our base-case assumption is that EVs [electric vehicles] will achieve 100% penetration of new light fleet imports by 2030 and 100% of used imports by 2035. 'This leads to an expectation for 15% of the light fleet to be electric by 2030, climbing to 53% by 2040 and 90% by 2050 In Australia, the predicted increases in electric vehicles aren't as steep. Even so, many firms predict low-emission vehicles - powered by batteries or hydrogen - will become a bigger part of fleets. After all, in recent years major car manufacturers including Jaguar and Volvo have said they would stop research and development into petrolpowered vehicles by 2025, signalling that the end of gas guzzlers is nigh.

But while hybrids make sense, Mulcaster argues the higher purchase price for pure electric vehicles elevates their whole-of-life costs. "The take-up on electric vehicles is constant, but significantly slower than hybrid," he notes. How telematics improves the bottom line The arrival of autonomous vehicles, once widely tipped for 2020, has been delayed by technological problems and the coronavirus-driven sales slowdown spreading across global markets. As one insider says, at this stage it's just good marketing. But none of that has stopped a flood of new technology into cars aimed at supporting and protecting both drivers and owners. Telematics the installation of electronics and GPS to track, record mileage and monitor the speed of fleet vehicles - has transformed vehicle management in the past 15 years, with employers and fleet managers pinpointing the quickest and most fuelefficient routes. More detailed monitoring of drivers is reducing fuel costs, optimising routes and helping firms reduce insurance and maintenance costs. Mulcaster says identifying and training non-compliant drivers can have a significant impact on your overall claims for insurance". (Insurers have threatened to quit insuring some organisations with high accident rates.) Chris L'Ecluse is a solutions specialist for Teletrac Navman, a provider of cloud-based GPS fleet

tracking software. An expert in driver behaviour and former police officer, for many years he has worked with corporations using telematics to cut costs, analyse vehicle use and determine the kinds of vehicles that employees really need. L'Ecluse says fleet-tracking data lets his firm monitor and analyse a fleet's fuel costs in detail, Fleet operators can now infinitely customise the reporting data that systems spit out, he says, so that "we can understand everything about the way the vehicle is used on a second-by-second basis". "In one organisation, they reduced their expenditure on fleet leasing dramatically because they realised that the only reason a large portion of their personnel wanted the four-wheel-drives was to drop the boat in the ocean on the weekend, not necessarily for work purposes," says L'Ecluse. Frequently, analysis discloses that more careful driving will cut fuel costs noticeably, 'The majority of the fuel used is moving the vehicle from a standstill up to, potentially, the speed limits," L'Ecluse says. Even a saving of 1-2% in fuel "ends up in real terms being hundreds of thousands of dollars for a fleet operator".

The Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency (NZTA) analysis estimates the benefits per year at $24m, three-quarters of that from cutting vehicleoperating costs, and the rest split evenly between cutting vehicle emissions and the health benefits to cyclists. The analysis puts the cost of footpath crash deaths at $4.4m and injuries $9.5m, or $14m in total per year - so $10m less than the benefits. It reviewed several studies, most from overseas. "There is little published data available regarding the effects of footpath cycling on pedestrian safety," it concluded. Then added: "Permitting cycling on footpaths is not likely to lead to a substantial increase in casualties." A transport planner, Bevan Woodward of the national lobby group Movement, said the analysis failed to account for the advent of e-scooters and e-bikes, which are heavier and faster than regular bikes.

Add in deeper changes in driver behaviour and the fuel cost savings can reach 5-6%. On top of that, gentler, more careful driving is much less wearing on items such as tyres, brakes and suspension components, lowering maintenance costs and extending vehicle life. ERoad’s Enterprise Sales Manager Guy Hocquard spoke at the 2019 CCNZ/NZRF conference on Optimising safety, productivity and profitability

"This notion of a speed limit is deluded. In fact my own e-bike, the slowest setting is faster than 15km/h," Woodward said.

Cycling on footpaths could lead to one death a year but have a $10m upside

Blind Citizens president Jonathan Godfrey was dismissive of the analysis but worried at its influence on the reform of road rules.

An official report estimates allowing cycling on footpaths could lead to one death and 17 serious injuries a year but still have a $10 million upside. But opponents say the cost-benefit analysis is flawed and ignores the benefit of people being able to walk around safely.

It failed to account for the deterrence effect on those who had no choice but to use footpaths, he said. "If our needs as people who can't choose to go somewhere else off the footpath are not adequately catered for, then New Zealand is losing.

The Government is proposing to let bikes, e-bikes and e-scooters use footpaths at a maximum speed of 15km/h, or three times the walking speed.

The NZTA said the analysis assumed footpath riders obeyed the speed limits and took due care.

They would have to give way to pedestrians, and councils could impose lower speeds or put a ban on busy paths.

The Government said the proposals responded to parents' calls for children to be allowed to ride on footpaths.

The consultation was to see if footpath riding should continue to be banned, limited to children, or open to all at low speeds, and with give way rules clarified, it said. The NZTA has had more than 1000 submissions and says it will analyse them all. "This will include putting together a disability impact statement which will summarise the views of the disability sector and how the proposals may impact them, an update to our regulatory impact statement, and a re-write of our cost benefit analysis informed by the feedback," it said. The NZTA cost-benefit analysis was done last August and cites a dozen studies - 10 from overseas, and eight of them more than a decade old. One done in New Zealand in 2016, echoed several other studies in pointing out there are probably many more footpath crashes than are reported, and that there is a lack of footpath crash data overall. What data there was showed "pedestrians typically sustain more injuries than cyclists in a pedestrian/cycle crash". An Australian study found just four deaths from bike-walker crashes from 2001-2006, and all were of pedestrians, not cyclists. Another Australian study, in 2018, found there were "risks of negative safety impacts" for pedestrians.

How can cellular networks improve road safety and efficiency? Governments and the automotive industry are striving to introduce Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITSs). These systems allow vehicles, infrastructure and vulnerable road users (VRUs) such as pedestrians with smartphones to be connected and exchange information relating to traffic and roads. Initially, C-ITS will provide warnings to humans, while they will be used to support automated vehicles in the future. Road safety and cellular networks go hand in hand. That’s because existing mobile networks with continuously increasing coverage and capacity can be used to put services into effect fast. Not only that: there are already more than 100 million vehicles on the road today with cellular network connectivity capabilities, according to this 5GAA white paper C-ITS Vehicle to Infrastructure Services: how C-V2X technology completely changes the cost equation for road operators. And the Ericsson Technology Review edition Transforming transportation with 5G indicates that more than 500 million vehicles will be connected by 2025. For road authorities, road operators and cities that aim to communicate with vehicles and other road users, the use of cellular networks is a cost-efficient option, as indicated in the above 5GAA white paper. The cost effectiveness of using cellular networks is further enhanced by the concept of “virtual RSUs� and outlined below.

The cost-benefit analysis concluded from the studies that "cycling on footpaths is likely to have a very minor effect on pedestrians as cyclists travel at slow speeds and injuries are likely to be low". "The literature review indicates that given the low speeds involved there are likely to be no fatal injuries," it said. Even so, it said it would adopt a conservative crash estimate: That one cyclist a year would be killed in a footpath crash, and 12 would suffer a serious or 57 a minor injury; and that five pedestrians would suffer serious injuries and 10 minor injuries, but no pedestrians would be killed. NZTA has a seven-point hierarchy of how to provide for cyclists; shared paths or footpaths come seventh.

Modern vehicles are equipped with advanced sensors, such as radar, lidar (light detection and ranging), cameras and so on that detect potential dangers and help to avoid collisions. Besides, communication between those involved in the traffic allows them to inform each other of any upcoming dangers, which is the key to further reducing the number of traffic accidents. Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS) will allow road users and traffic managers to share information enabling them to coordinate their actions. And supported by cellular 4G and 5G

networks, they will be able to transmit data with very low latency. Connected vehicles will “talk” to each other, and to the road. This will be useful in emergency situations – for example, when informing drivers close behind a leading vehicle – which may not be visible – has had to brake suddenly. This direct kind of communication between vehicles – enabled by short-range technology – is referred to as vehicleto-vehicle (V2V) communication. These types of use cases also benefit from the use of long-range cellular communication to allow early warnings (anticipation), non-line-of-sight communications and redundancy of communication channels. If the communication is via the cellular network, it is referred to as vehicleto-network-to-vehicle (V2N2V) communication. In particular, road-traffic-oriented use cases are well suited to the use of cellular long-range communication, such as when a road authority or road operator wishes to convey a temporary speed limit or indicate a zone where only electric vehicles are allowed. This type of communication when using cellular systems for communication is referred to as vehicle-to-network-to-infrastructure (V2N2I). Of course, one of the main advantages of C-ITS services is that they enable significantly improved road safety. However, the wider benefits include increased sustainability and convenience to drivers through more efficient journey planning and fuel consumption. The benefits of these applications will not only be reaped by drivers, but also by other road users such as pedestrians with smartphones and cyclists. And the great thing about using cellular connectivity for V2N2V and V2N2I is the interoperability of different technology generations involved – so a 3G-connected vehicle and a vehicle using 4G or 5G can “talk”.

On ice or doped out: Drug driving deaths rise across Australia Julie Power writes for the Sydney Morning Herald Illicit drugs are now being detected at a much greater rate than alcohol in drivers and motorcyclists who were killed or injured on Australian roads. Drugs contribute to about one in five road fatalities in NSW, and increased drug use by drivers is a trend across the world as the rate of drink driving has fallen.

The increased rate of drug use by motorists was a cause for concern, which requires increased testing and more drug counselling services, says road safety expert Dr Matthew Baldock. New research by Dr Baldock in Traffic Injury Prevention journal finds 15%of those admitted to hospital in South Australia following a road crash tested positive for illicit drugs. They were tested for ecstasy (MDMA), cannabis and methamphetamine, often called ice.

In contrast, 11% of drivers and 5%of motorcycle riders had been driving above the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit of 0.05. It is the same trend in NSW. In the nine years from 2010 to 2018, 21 per cent (384) of the 1818 drivers or riders who died on NSW roads had an illicit drug in their system. In comparison, 16% - representing 283 drivers and riders who died - were found to be over the legal limit for alcohol. Dr Baldock analysed blood tests from drivers and motorcyclists who were admitted to hospital in South Australia with injuries, including those who died in hospital, in 2008 to 2010 compared with 2014 to 2017. Alcohol-related serious injuries nearly halved in this period, and injuries dropped. In contrast, methamphetamine use was detected in 10% of drivers in 2014-17. That was nearly double the rate found in 2008 to 2010. Dr Baldock, the deputy director of the Centre for Automotive Safety Research at the University of Adelaide, said there needed to be more roadside drug testing if it was to act as a deterrent. There was also a strong case for providing drug counselling to those caught by police because many were likely to be habitual uses or addicts.

Roadside testing is more resource intensive and time consuming than random breath testing for alcohol, which provides an immediate result. At a drug test, a driver is asked to wipe a stick down their tongue to test for the presence of illegal drugs. If positive, the driver has to provide a saliva sample which is sent to a laboratory.

evaluate pedestrians’ and cyclists’ sense of safety in traffic.

"Because (drug testing) is so difficult and expensive to do, I don't know if it has been a deterrent," Dr Baldock said. "The average drug user won't think they will get caught." Compared to testing for alcohol, it wasn't random because it tended to be targeted at high risk locations, such as a big concert or a rave. "There is a significant group of drug drivers who have never been tested," said the research. The executive director of the NSW Centre for Road Safety Bernard Carlon said the state had the largest roadside drug testing program in Australia. "Driving with drugs in your system is not only illegal, it’s extremely dangerous and puts your life and the lives of all other road users at risk." In NSW, the detection of the presence of cannabis, methamphetamines, ecstasy and cocaine in drivers and riders involved in fatal crashes has increased, with fatalities from these crashes rising over the past 10 years.

An online survey was used to collect experiences of near accidents and collisions between pedestrians and cyclists occurring in the last three years. The survey was directed to Finnish cities with populations over 100,000, resulting in a sample of 1,046 respondents who walk and/or cycle regularly. According to the data, near accidents between pedestrians and cyclists occur often, and are approximately 50 times more frequent than actual collisions. This ratio is probably even greater in reality, as respondents likely remember collisions better than near accidents. Only 16 respondents had been involved in a collision during the past three years. Conversely, approximately a third of respondents had experienced a near accident, with most having experienced more than three.

Near accidents between pedestrians and cyclists much more frequent than actual collisions VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland studied near accidents and collisions between pedestrians and cyclists. According to the results, near accidents occur considerably more often than actual collisions, and pedestrians and cyclists experienced a lower sense of safety in environments with greater near accident frequency. Cities across the globe have increasingly promoted walking and cycling as healthy and sustainable modes of travel. While these modes are well suited for exercise and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, their growing role raises the significance of pedestrian and cyclist safety. Despite this, near accidents and collisions between pedestrians and cyclists have received limited academic attention. This study aimed to increase knowledge of these events, assess the frequency of near accidents and

Both near accidents and collisions mostly occurred on pavements and shared pedestrian-cycle paths. However, the number of events was significantly lower on paths separating pedestrians and cyclists from each other. For example, separated paths featured less than half the proportion of near accidents recorded on shared paths. Furthermore, sense of safety and willingness to walk and cycle were lower in environments where near accidents were more frequent. In most near accidents and collisions, the involved parties were travelling in the same direction. Pedestrian respondents considered the excessive speed of cyclists to be the main road user-related

factor contributing to near accidents, whereas cyclist respondents considered unexpected pedestrian manoeuvres most significant. Respondents also felt that users of the same mode are generally considerate toward each other in traffic, but users of different modes are not. Finally, respondents wished that both pedestrians and cyclists would improve their focus on the surrounding traffic to prevent incidents, and that complex traffic arrangements can foster collisions and near accidents. The findings suggest that although near accidents are common, actual collisions are much rarer. A greater frequency of near accidents appears to cooccur with a lower sense of safety, suggesting a potential relationship between the two. Spatially separating cyclists and pedestrians could prevent collisions and near accidents between the modes substantially, as well as improve these road users’ sense of safety. The significance of excessive cyclist speed and unexpected pedestrian manoeuvres further underlines the potential hazard of shared paths. Finally, results concerning the attitudes of road users suggest that the nature of interactions between pedestrians and cyclists is currently poor. Prevention of near accidents could perhaps increase willingness to walk and cycle as well as improve relations between pedestrians and cyclists in traffic.

NZTA/NZRF T 8 and T 12 The T 8 and T 12 applicator testing programme is a key component of industry self regulation. NZTA P 22 specification states in Section 6: At the time of tender contractors shall forward copies of current T/8 certificates for the plant they propose to use on the contract. The applicator(s) certification is to be kept valid for the period of the contract. There is a .pdf version of the applicator certificates associated with each registration line.

The study was carried out by VTT as part of the Traffic Safety 2025 consortium. Contact: Johannes Mesimäki johannes.mesimaki@vtt.fi VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland

Upcoming Events RIAA/NZRF Conference and Exhibition Coffs Harbour, NSW Postponed until 28th and 29th October 2020 www.riaa.com.au ATSSA Convention and Traffic Expo January 29th – February 2nd 2021 San Diego Convention Center San Diego www.atssa.com Intertraffic Amsterdam RIA Amsterdam Postponed until 23rd to 26th March 2021 www.intertraffic.com

These can be accessed via a hyperlink off the certificate registration number. The certificates include a photograph of the applicator. T 12 certificates include schedules setting out the scope of certification covering plain flat markings, structured markings and audio-tactile markings or any combinations of these.

Profile for Roadmarking News

Newsletter June 2020  

Newsletter June 2020  


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