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Newsletter of The New Zealand Roadmarkers Federation Inc.

Roadmarking News Edition 132 August 2018

Traffic Control Devices Manual Part 5 Consultation underway

Government Policy transport released

NZTA is consulting on the Traffic control devices manual part 5 – traffic control devices for general use – between intersections.

The Government has finalised its policy statement on transport. Road safety, regional spending and public transport in all its forms are the big winners. Government spending on transport will rise from $3.6 billion in 2017/18 to $4 billion in 2018/19. By 2027/28 it will be $4.7 billion.

This document provides guidance and best practice for road controlling authorities and traffic management practitioners on the use of traffic control devices, such as signs and road markings, between intersections. Traffic control devices are used to regulate, warn and advise road users on New Zealand’s road network. In particular, NZTA are keen to make sure the way traffic control devices are used is fit for purpose and nationally consistent for those using New Zealand’s road network.



A key element of the safety strategy will be greater spending on local roads and intersections. There will be a corresponding decrease in spending the former Government's "Roads of National Significance" (RoNS). The announcement was made by Government ministers on June 28thn. Finance minister Grant Robertson said: "We know that productivity and economic growth in New Zealand has been held back by gridlock in our cities and under-investment in regional roads and rail. "We are fixing this by ensuring that the land transport component of our economic plan supports a modern, growing economy."

The draft has been developed by the Traffic Control Devices Working Group, a group of representatives from across the transport sector. NZTA are now keen to get feedback from road controlling authorities, traffic and transport practitioners and road user groups. For more information, a copy of the draft document and an online consultation feedback form, go to NZTA are keen to hear what you think, so please provide feedback to by 5pm, Friday 14 September 2018.

Transport minister Phil Twyford added that "Auckland alone loses $1.3 billion a year in productivity to congestion. We will tackle gridlock in Auckland by giving commuters options through major road projects and upgrades such as Mill Road and Penlink. "Throughout New Zealand, more commuters will be able to leave the car at home because of investment in public transport, walking and cycling. This investment will unleash the potential of our cities."

Published by: The New Zealand Roadmarkers Federation Inc. P O Box 13 605 Onehunga Auckland 1643 New Zealand Executive Director: Alister Harlow Phone: +64 9 625 7470 Email: Roadmarking News in published by The NZ Roadmarkers Federation Inc. Opinions expressed in Roadmarking News do not necessarily reflect the views of the NZRF

The Government Policy Statement (GPS) is a revised version of a draft GPS issued in April. It sets out spending priorities for the whole country, and complements the Auckland Transport Alignment Plan agreed between the Government and the Auckland Council. Among the key spending decisions:   

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$4 billion over 10 years to "establish rapid transit investment". 116 per cent increase in funding for walking and cycling infrastructure. 99 per cent increase on road safety promotions, alcohol interlocks and promotion of cycling and walking. 96 per cent increase in regional transport projects that improve safety, resilience and access. 68 per cent increase for public transport, to be spent on operational subsidies and new projects. 42 per cent increase on local road improvements. 11 per cent less on state highway improvements.

There are four "strategic priorities": safety, value for money, access and the environment. Under safety, the Government wants to develop "a safe system, free of death and serious injury". It will investigate the Scandinavian Vision Zero approach to road safety, which proposes a systematic approach to eliminating all causes of road fatalities. The "value for money" goal is to "deliver the right infrastructure and services to the right level at the best cost". The goal under "access" is to provide "increased access to economic and social opportunities", with "transport choice" and "resilience" in the system. To meet the "environment" goals it will "reduce greenhouse gas emissions as well as adverse effects on the local environment and public health". Funding changes will be implemented to enable this. The most significant is that part of the Land Transport Fund will be allocated to railways spending. This fund is raised by excise levies on motorists – commonly called fuel taxes.

The scope is quite tight. The GPS says the fund can be used for "improving urban rail services for passengers accessing housing, major employment areas and major metropolitan areas, where demand is outstripping capacity, to improve reliability or to reduce conflict between freight and passenger trains". It also allows for funding of "existing and new interregional commuter rail services to support housing and employment opportunities". The other funding change is that the excise levies are rising, by 3.5 cents/litre (plus GST) in each of the next three years. This is not new: it happened in seven of the nine years of the previous Government, and under the last Labour Government. The impact after three years will be an average $5.77 per week (including GST) for each household.

To seal beside or to seal over? Bestpractice rumble strip management Rumble strips – or audio tactile profiled (ATP) roadmarkings – can have an effective life of six to eight years, possibly even longer, depending on climatic conditions and levels of road use and wear. Road asset managers sometimes have ATP roadmarkings with effective life remaining when the road they are on needs resealing. This led the NZ Transport Agency to commission WSP Opus for research into practical options to retain the noise and vibration benefits of ATP roadmarkings through resealing cycles.

There was little in the way of existing literature or experience relating to the retention of ATP roadmarking benefits when roads are resealed. Two techniques are currently emerging:  In-lane resealing, where the road surface of the trafficked lane adjacent to existing ATP roadmarkings is resealed, but the nontrafficked shoulder and the ATP roadmarkings themselves are not resealed.  Sealing over existing ATP roadmarkings, with the intention that the noise and vibration benefits will be retained through the reseal layer.

WSP Opus designed a research project to examine the effectiveness of both techniques, including field measurements of in-vehicle noise and vibration levels while driving on ATP roadmarkings. The recommendation from the research is that inlane resealing is the preferred option in situations where resealing is required and ATP roadmarkings still have effective noise and vibration life remaining. While in-lane resealing offers the most certainty that noise and vibration effects of the ATP roadmarkings will remain effective after a road is resealed, a subjective assessment following reseal over may be used to determine whether remarking is required.

and SH3A between New Plymouth and Hawera safer and easier to travel. Four drop-in community sessions were held in late June) to canvas public opinion on the issues with the road and feedback can also be given on the Transport Agency website. The Transport Agency Transport Systems Manager Ross I’Anson says the project team is keen to hear locals’ experiences of the road and their views on what could be done to improve it. “This road is a vital link between New Plymouth and Hawera and it connects a number of towns along it, but too many people are dying and being injured on the route. “Increases in traffic over recent years has also led to congestion and delays on the road and made it difficult for communities living along the route to move safely and easily around their towns,” says Mr I’Anson.

Other recommendations from the research include:  ATP roadmarkings should be considered an asset and managed as such, including performance monitoring.  Best practice ATP roadmarkings management approaches could include regular subjective assessment of the roadmarkings’ noise and vibration effects and visibility (given that objective measurement techniques are more complex and less readily available). NZ Transport Agency Research Report 615 “Maintaining the effectiveness of audio tactile profiled roadmarkings for their full life cycle” describes the research in full and is available at orts/615/

Community consultation on New Plymouth to Hawera safety improvements The NZ Transport Agency is consulting with the local community about how it can help make SH3

“We need make changes to the road to ensure everyone using it gets to their destination safely. Personal insights and first-hand knowledge from locals will help us develop the most appropriate safety solutions for the road so I encourage people to come along to a drop-in event near them and have their say.” Twenty-four people were killed and 105 were seriously injured on the route between 2007 and 2016. Most of the crashes happened at intersections or when drivers lost control of their vehicles and ran off the road or crashed head on. A high number of incidents on the road involved pedestrians. The Transport Agency is considering a number of options for improving the road. These include:  Installing safety barriers on the roadside and down the middle of the road to stop motorists and motorcyclists running off the road and crashing head on  Widening the centreline to reduce headon collisions  Making improvements to intersections  Creating safe places for pedestrians to cross the highway  Improving signage  Making changes to speed limits, particularly in and near the towns along the route to make it safer for pedestrians  Making changes to passing lanes.

$3.5 million safety upgrade Canterbury SH 7 Waipara to Waikari A stretch of North Canterbury’s State Highway 7 is getting a $3.5 million safety upgrade, says the NZ Transport Agency. The upgrade will include safety barriers to help stop people dying or being seriously injured in a crash, and rumble strips to give drivers a wake-up call if they stray outside their lane. The SH7 Waipara to Waikari Safety Improvements project is part of the government’s $600 million Safe Roads programme. As well as being the southern end of the Lewis Pass route between Picton and Christchurch, a key freight route, this stretch of highway is also busy in holiday periods as it leads to the turnoff to Hanmer Springs as well as through to the West Coast and Nelson/Picton. The safety improvements will help ensure that simple mistakes won’t cost lives or leave people seriously injured in the future, says Transport Agency System Manager Pete Connors.

Mr Connors says the Transport Agency is also looking at a number of sharp corners north of Frog Rock, and there are plans to carry out geotechnical work to investigate possible changes at Archers Bridge. Work to level the surface on Weka Creek Bridge will start during the 2018/2019 summer roadworks season. More information about the SH7 Waipara to Waikari Safety Improvements can be found here:

North Otago communities engagement with safety improvements Safer speeds and more signs through townships, pull-over areas for slow vehicles, and safety barriers are among changes people would like to see on State Highway 1 in North Otago. The NZ Transport Agency has been looking at ways to make a stretch of the highway between Dunedin and the Waitaki River Bridge, north of Oamaru, safer. In the 10 years from 2007 to the end of 2016, 30 people were killed and 112 were seriously injured on this section of road. Most serious crashes were head-on, or involved people losing control of their vehicle and crashing into roadside objects such as trees, fences or ditches. There have also been a number of crashes at intersections on the route.

“Along with the rumble strips and safety barriers, the project includes sealed shoulders in front of new safety barriers to give drivers who lose control more room to recover and improved signage to warn drivers of risks such as sharp corners and bridges,” he says. “High-performance road markings that are easier to see at night and in the wet will be installed, and concrete parapets on the Weka Creek Bridge will be replaced with safety barriers. We will also improve the existing safety barriers across Antills and Archers bridges.” Downer Construction will carry out the work, which will get underway this month (June). Weather permitting, the project will be finished by early 2019.

Transport Agency System Manager Graeme Hall says there were a series of community events in Dunedin, Waikouaiti, Hampden and Oamaru earlier this year to share safety ideas and find out more from people who use the road. Staff also attended A&P Shows in Palmerston and Oamaru and Blueskin On Show in Waitati to talk to

the community, and invited feedback online and by mail. “We wanted to find out what makes the road feel unsafe and what people think could make this road safer,” Mr Hall says. “Since then, we’ve continued to have great conversations with people in the community and commuters about making the road safer. “People have told us they feel nervous turning onto or off the state highway at some intersections, they also spoke about the sharp corners and lack of visibility in some areas and highlighted passing lanes that they believe are too short, or dangerous, as they end on the brow of a hill. “Some feel unsafe walking and driving across the highway in townships due to the speed and volume of traffic, and many were worried about drivers crossing the centreline or taking risks when they’re overtaking.”

Improving safety at intersections and the speed along the road will also be looked at, along with other safety issues raised by the public. More information about the project can be found at

Dunedin to Mosgiel safety upgrade A $5.4 million project to make State Highway 1 between Dunedin and Mosgiel safer is almost complete, says the NZ Transport Agency. Safety barriers have been installed down the side of the highway to help prevent run-off road crashes, the median barrier has been extended to help stop head-on crashes, and changes have been made to the SH1/SH87 roundabout at Kinmont to make it easier for over-dimension trucks to manoeuvre.

Mr Hall says getting feedback from people who know the road well is important. “We use the information alongside our research to make sure we have a full picture, and that the safety improvements we decide on are the right ones for the community and for people who use the road," he says. The team has also met stakeholders such as local community groups, councils, emergency services, DOC, AA, and the Heavy Haulage Association to add to the feedback and information they received from the public, to make sure they have the whole story. The project team will make final decisions on safety improvements for this road and share them with the community later this year. The safety improvements are designed to ensure a simple mistake doesn’t result in someone dying or being seriously injured on the road. Possible improvements include putting in barriers or wide centrelines to help prevent head-on crashes, side safety barriers to stop drivers running off the road into steep gullies, ditches, trees and posts, widening the road shoulder to give drivers more room to recover if they lose control, and installing rumble strips to alert drivers if they stray out of their lane.

Transport Agency System Manager Graeme Hall says the new safety measures will make a real difference for everyone who uses the road. “Two people died and 34 were seriously injured on this section of highway in the 10 years from 2006 to 2015. Nearly 90 per cent of these crashes involved a vehicle hitting a roadside hazard such as a tree, fence or ditch,” Mr Hall says. “The changes we have made will help prevent these types of crashes occurring in the future.” The project team has packed up for the winter and will return in late 2018, when the weather is warmer, to install high performance road markings along the route, completing the project. “We would like to thank everyone for their patience and understanding as we worked to make this stretch of road safer,” Mr Hall says.

The government is investing $600m over six years targeting the prevention of deaths and serious injuries on high-risk rural state highways, including SH1 between Dunedin and Mosgiel. More information can be found at: Information on the SH1 Dunedin to Mosgiel project can be found at:

Weather activated speed limit signs reinstalled on Kaimai Range The Weather Activated Variable Speed Limit signs on the Kaimai Range (State Highway 29) are back up and running. The signs were temporarily shut down because of vandalism in May 2018, when a number of batteries, storage cabinets and cameras were stolen or tampered with. The cost of the replacement equipment was $75,000. The Transport Agency has increased security on the signs by installing anti-theft devices on the cabinetry, including alarms and surveillance.

and increasing following distances during adverse weather,” says John. The trial started in November 2015 and data from the trial is currently being analysed. Results from the first year of the trial showed there was a reduction in the number and severity of crashes. Given the positive impact the signs had in the first year it was decided the signs would stay in place until the outcome of the trial is known. Read more about the trial here

Whanganui's 3D pedestrian crossing to rival Abbey Road The Whanganui suburb of Castlecliff is giving London's Abbey Road a run for its money with a jazzed up pedestrian crossing. It's part of a community initiative by Progress Castlecliff, using art to inject some life into the streets. Progress Castlecliff member and Whanganui Deputy Mayor, Jenny Duncan said the crossing made the place even better to visit and take a quirky photograph. "It'll show Whanganui is a vibrant place to be, but it will also bring people down to this part of town and have them using the crossing for themselves," Duncan said.

“The signs were put in place in an effort to reduce the number of people being killed or seriously injured on SH29 over the Kaimai Range and were designed to encourage people to drive at safe speeds that are appropriate to the road conditions when rain, ice and fog hit the Kaimai Range,” says NZ Transport Agency Project Team Manager John McCarthy. Data shows that over 70% of the crashes on the range happen in wet weather, and that over 40% of these were caused by drivers travelling too fast for the conditions. “With winter settling in we want to remind people to drive to the conditions, reducing their speed

The crossing - which was being compared to the British crossing made famous on the Beatles album, Abbey Road - happened through pure coincidence. You know once the crossing was down you just start to put the pieces together," Duncan said. "And you start to see a particular thing come out

and Abbey Road just seemed a quirky addition to the crossing".

In 1997 the Swedish Transport Administration stated the so-called Zero Vision:

Duncan said the project was a key example of a wider community chipping in to make positive projects happen.

The starting point for zero vision is the ethical stance that nobody should be killed or injured seriously in traffic. It should be easy to do right in traffic and mistakes should not be punished with death. Roads, streets and vehicles should be adapted and designed according to human conditions. The responsibility for road safety is shared between those who design and those who use the transport system. The designers have the ultimate responsibility for safety.

"They all build on top of each other to make a really strong community so I think that's what we've done here." The artist behind the 3D masterpiece was Dan Mills. To appreciate the effect, he said people needed to be in the right spot. "A lot of people just look at it and scratch their heads," Mills said. "But it's the light and the angle that's important, and a dry day helps."

New Zealand must invest more money in safer roads, but much can be done without any cost. Do as the Swedes have done. You don’t have to invent the wheel again.

But Mills was just as concerned about road safety. "I mean it's a pedestrian crossing designed for people to cross the road safely and hopefully people slow down. That's its function isn't it? And now it just looks a little bit more funkier, and hopefully it freaks people out a bit more, to actually slowing down." While none of the surviving Beatles were likely to use the crossing, locals hoped it would attract others keen to recreate a Kiwi twist on the iconic album cover.

We can reduce the road toll by copying Sweden

Above is an impact severity graph from Swedish road statistics that shows the risk in percentage of getting killed in three different collision types. As you can see a head-on collision in 100km/h will in around 98 per cent of the cases lead to death. In 70 km/h only 10 per cent of the cases lead to death.

Opinion: MĂĽns Andersson is a Swede living in New Zealand In 2017 New Zealand had 380 road deaths. In comparison, 254 people were killed on the roads in Sweden in the same year. Sweden has a population of roughly double New Zealand's. That makes New Zealand's roads about three times as deadly. This despite Sweden having a much harsher and darker climate with snowy and icy roads several months per year. Drivers there also have to be cautious of collisions with wild animals like moose, boar and deer. Why is Sweden so much better on road safety then?

Some core ideas from the Swedish Zero Vision with little to no cost to New Zealand taxpayers that can be applied now: 1. All 100 km/h roads today (those not having median barriers) must be labelled for 70 km/h, preferably with speed cameras. The speed cameras could be configured to measure not just one by one, they could also be synchronised to measure over longer distances. Mistakes happen

more often when you drive in 100km/h and the consequences are much worse as well as the impact severity graph shows. 2. Make it mandatory to have the headlights turned on all the time. From US statistics: While daytime headlight usage reduces the number of two vehicle crashes by 5.7 per cent, it also results in the reduction of pedestrian accidents by 12 per cent and a 23 per cent reduction in motorcycle accidents involving vehicles coming from the other direction.

Bumpy road for Perth drivers It’s a bumpy road for speeders around Curtin University in Perth, western Australia. The university has installed two Actibump systems along a road that traverses the campus.

3. In the cities, the speed must go down as well. Where cars, pedestrians and bicycles are sharing the roads, 40 km/h is implemented in Sweden. School zones are 30 km/h. As the impact severity graph shows: 8 out 10 pedestrians die when they get hit by a car in 50km/h and “only” 1 out of 10 dies at 30 km/h. 4. Increase the level of the theoretical parts regarding road safety when taking the driver licence. 5. Increase the driver licence age to 18 years old. 6. Don’t turn your kid’s car safety seat forward until after they are 4-5 years old - there are larger seat models. Here are some long-term investments, which will cost tax dollars: 7. Build wire median barriers on the existing roads. Speeds here could be up to 100 km/h if there are no trees etc along the sides. Still it’s quite a cheap investment for the increased road safety. 8. Build real highways where the roads are even more separated. These roads can easily have a speed limit of 120 km/h and still be very safe. So why is New Zealand still behind in road safety then? Points 1-6 do not involve any large amount of money. This knowledge should be available to the Ministry of Transport and NZ Transport Agency, and lack of money is no excuse for not acting. The social and economic costs for all the deaths and injured are huge. It will finally also hit the tourism industry when the New Zealand gets labelled as dangerous. Who wants to risk getting killed during their holiday? Sweden has a lot of other drawbacks but on road safety, Sweden is the leading country.

Each day around 2,000 vehicles use the street which has a speed limit of 40kph. However, about 70% of the vehicles on the road are speeding, according to Graham Arndt, director of operations and maintenance at Curtin University. The Actibump affects only drivers who are above the speed limit, a limit which is set using the system’s software. This makes the system flexible, said Arndt. Speeding vehicles are physically reminded of the speed limit by an inverted speedbump. A radar measures the speed of the oncoming vehicles and speeding vehicles activate a hatch that is lowered a few centimetres into the road surface. For nonspeeders the hatch remains level with the road surface. Drivers were surprised to see the road “disappear in front of them” and this made them slow down, said Arndt. The Swedish manufacturer Edeva said that the system also collects speed data for every passing vehicle. According to Edeva, independent evaluations have shown that the system decreases the noise, improves yielding behaviour and decreases the speed to that of the speed limit within a 3kph accuracy, regardless of speed limit or previous speeding behaviour. Actibump is also installed in Linköping, Uppsala, Malmö, Västerås, Helsingborg and on the Öresund Bridge in Sweden.

Vision Zero initiative sees New York City's traffic fatalities fall to record low Mayor Bill de Blasio has announced that under its Vision Zero program, New York City (NYC) had ended the first half of 2018 with the fewest traffic fatalities ever measured in any six-month period. As of June 30, the city had recorded 81 fatalities, the lowest ever in a six-month period, and only the second time that fewer than 100 lives had been lost in a half-year period. The mayor also noted how the data continues to show New York City bucking national fatality trends, giving much of the credit to the speed-camera law, which because of State Senate inaction, now faces expiration later this month. The Vision Zero highlights from the first six months of 2018 include that fatalities are down or even in all transportation modes except among motorbikes. Cyclist fatalities dropped from 10 to 7, motor vehicle occupant fatalities fell from 27 to 15, and pedestrian fatalities remained at 47. However, motorcyclist fatalities increased from 11 to 12.

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Lowering the city’s default speed limit to 25mph (40km/h); Targeting priority geographies in every borough through a historic number of street redesign projects; Adding over 2,000 new Leading Pedestrian Intervals (LPIs) that serve as pedestrian headstarts; Calming dangerous left-turns; Adding more than 60 miles (100km) of protected bike lanes; Increased enforcement by NYPD of the city’s traffic laws.

In addition to its robust camera enforcement program for speeding, NYC also used automated enforcement against drivers who run red lights and drive in bus lanes. “No loss of life on our streets is acceptable,” said de Blasio. “Under Vision Zero, we have made enormous strides toward safer streets for all, with traffic fatalities declining for the past four-and-ahalf-years. But we will never rest on our laurels, and will keep fighting for the safety of our fellow New Yorkers. The State Senate’s failure to act on speed cams puts this progress, and the lives of school children, at risk. They must act now; lives are at stake.”

Safer speeds required says new report A new report highlights speeding as a significant factor in a worryingly high percentage of road crashes. According to the report, inappropriate speed is responsible for between 20% and 30% of all road crashes involving fatalities. The report is based on a review of research into the relationship between speed and crash risk and has been produced by the OECD’s International Transport Forum (ITF).

Traffic fatalities have declined for four consecutive years under its Vision Zero initiative. Over that time, NYC has embraced a multi-faceted variety of changes in education, engineering and enforcement, including:

Carried out using data from 10 countries, the report analysed 11 cases. The research used data from countries that have recently changed speed limits or introduced large-scale automatic speed control, such as time-over-distance cameras. The analysis confirmed the very strong relationship between speed and crash risk and that higher speed is associated with increased occurrence and severity of road crashes. The study also echoes ETSC’s view that the default speed limit where motorised vehicles and

vulnerable road users share the same space, such as in residential areas, should be 30km/h. According to the report, speed has a direct influence on crash occurrence and severity. Its findings suggest that with higher driving speeds, the number of crashes and the crash severity increase disproportionally. With lower speeds the number of crashes and the crash severity decrease. This relationship has been captured in various models. The Nilsson ‘Power Model’ reveals that a 1% increase in average speed results in approximately a 2% increase in injury crash frequency, a 3% increase in severe crash frequency, and a 4% increase in fatal crash frequency.

areas where there is a mix of vulnerable road users and motor vehicle traffic. In other areas with intersections and high risk of side collisions 50km/h is appropriate. On rural roads without a median barrier to reduce the risk of head-on collisions, a speed limit of 70km/h is appropriate. In urban areas, speeds above 50 km/h are not acceptable, with the exception of limited access arterial roads with no interaction with nonmotorised traffic. Where motorised vehicles and vulnerable road users share the same space, such as in residential areas, 30km/h is the recommended maximum. Experience worldwide has proven the effectiveness of automatic speed control systems in reducing speed, and crash frequency. Using measurement of average speed over a section of road is a relatively new measure, but research shows it is effective in reducing speed and contributing to more homogenised traffic flow. In addition to its impact on road crashes, speed has important impacts on the environment as it is strongly related to the emissions of greenhouse gases (mainly CO2) and of local pollutants (CO, NOx, HC, particulates), as well as to fuel consumption.

As a result, reducing speed by a comparatively small figure can greatly reduce the risks of and severity of crashes. Lower driving speeds also benefit quality of life, especially in urban areas as the reduction of speed mitigates air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, fuel consumption and noise. All the cases indicated a strong relationship between speed and the number of crashes. A gain in mean speed was accompanied by an increase in the number of crashes and/or injured road users. Conversely, a decrease in mean speed was associated with a decrease in the number of crashes and injured road users. In no cases was a an increase in mean speed accompanied by a decrease in the number of crashes or casualties. To reduce road trauma, governments need to reduce the speed on roads as well as speed differences between vehicles sharing the same road. Speed limits should be set to Safe System principles. Working towards a Safe System, reasonable speed limits are 30 km/h in built up

New Zealand’s DUI road risk is changing A serious problem with driving under the influence is now being seen in New Zealand. For the first time ever, drivers under the influence of drugs have been involved in a greater number of serious crashes than those under the influence of alcohol. As a result, more people were killed as a result of drug use than alcohol use in road crashes in New Zealand during 2017. This worrying fact highlights the problem with illicit drug use in New Zealand. The result of the research into road deaths has been revealed by the Automobile Association (AA), which says that New Zealand police should be equipped with drug testing kits to help address the problem. Kits that use saliva to test for drug use amongst drivers have been employed successfully in some parts of Australia as well as Denmark, France, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, Denmark and the UK for some time and the technology is now well proven. At present New Zealand police have to have strong reason to suspect drug use by drivers and even then, can only carry out tests based on whether a driver is physically capable of walking and turning.

According to the AA, there were 79 fatal road crashes involving drug use by drivers in 2017, compared with 70 fatal crashes involving drivers under the influence of alcohol. This highlights the increasing scale of the issue as in 2016, there were 59 fatal crashes involving drug use by drivers compared with 67 in which drivers were under the influence of alcohol.

from the premise that no death or serious injury on London’s roads is acceptable or inevitable. In a bid to eliminate the more than 2,000 people that are killed or seriously injured (KSI) on London’s streets annually, the Vision Zero initiative includes the introduction of lower speed limits on TfL’s road network, the transformation of dangerous junctions, tough safety standards for the design of trucks, and a comprehensive bus safety program, which includes speed-limiting technology and a new innovative training course for all drivers. To reach its Vision Zero ambition, London Mayor Sadiq Khan has set TfL a number of challenging interim targets, including: a 65% reduction of KSI figures on London’s roads by 2022; nobody being killed on or by a bus by 2030; Vision Zero achieved in 2041.

The research shows that cannabis and methamphetamine are the most common drugs detected in the case of driving under the influence. The latter drug has seen a particular growth in use in New Zealand in recent years. The AA is calling for the proven saliva testing kits to be employed in New Zealand and for officers to be able to carry out random testing by the roadside in a bid to tackle the issue more effectively.

At the heart of the mayor and TfL’s plans is reducing the speed of vehicles on London’s streets as a key way to reduce road danger. TfL is now proposing to make 20mph (32km/h) the new general speed limit on all its roads within the Congestion Charging Zone (CCZ) by 2020, prioritizing the part of the capital with a high volume of vulnerable road users, including people who walk, cycle or use a motorcycle. By 2020, a total of 5.5 miles (8.9km) of new roads within the CCZ will have a 20mph limit.

Netherlands traffic congestion increasing The Netherlands is seeing a massive increase in traffic congestion on its road network. Traffic volumes for the first six months of 2018 were 20% higher than for the same period in the previous year. The data was collated by the Netherlandsbased transport body ANWB. This also reveals that the most severe congestion problems occurred on the A4 highway between Amsterdam and Rotterdam, the A20 highway between the Hoek van Holland and Gouda and the A27 highway between Utrecht and Breda.

London launches Vision Zero plan The mayor of London, Transport for London (TfL) and the Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) have published London’s first Vision Zero action plan, which sets out bold and ambitious plans to eliminate deaths and serious injuries from the UK capital’s transport network. Working with the Met Police and London boroughs, TfL’s radical Vision Zero approach starts

TfL is also proposing the introduction of 20mph speed limits on its road network in many of London’s other town centres and high-risk locations by 2024. Overall TfL is aiming for 93 miles

(150km) of new lower speed limits to be introduced on its road network. Other initiatives in the VZ Action Plan include: 

A new police focus on the most dangerous drivers and amplification of the deterrent effect through widespread high visibility roadside operations and patrols; Continuation of TfL’s work to make the most dangerous junctions in London safer. The agency has already identified 73 junctions with the worst safety records and are proceeding with a major ‘Safer Junctions’ program that will see significant safety improvements at these locations to reduce danger for people walking and cycling; Due to be introduced in 2020, TfL’s ‘Direct Vision Standard’ for heavy goods vehicles will be the first initiative of its kind in the world to categorize trucks depending on the level of a driver’s direct vision from a cab. Trucks will be given a rating between ‘zero-star’ (lowest) and ‘five-star’ (highest), with only those vehicles rated ‘three-star’ and above, or which have comprehensive safety systems, able to operate in London from 2024; A world-leading Bus Safety Standard is also being developed for London’s buses that will identify the latest safety technologies and features to significantly reduce casualties on the bus network; An educa on campaigns with local communities and schools and safety training for motorcycle and moped riders and cyclists.

drivers and avoid costly infrastructure changes is the use of in-vehicle technology to provide a timely curve speed warning to drivers. MnDOT along with Minnesota city and county agencies sought to learn about the feasibility of such an invehicle curve speed warning system. What Was Our Goal? The objective of this project was to develop and evaluate an in-vehicle dynamic curve speed warning system using a smartphone application (app). Researchers also sought to collect driver behavior data for use in future system development. What Did We Do? The project began with an extensive literature review into the visual, auditory and cognitive processes that underlie systems for in-vehicle- and infrastructure-based warnings and decisionmaking. Investigators considered standards and guidance on cognitive workload, display positions, auditory message design and visual design for safe vehicle operation and user satisfaction. Researchers designed a curve speed warning interface, focusing on creating the most effective messages and warning format for delivering curve warning messages (visual, auditory, vibrational). They examined factors such as approach speeds, distances and time–distances from curves that would determine the most effective warnings.

The London mayor said, “Our bold and farreaching plans are some of most ambitious in the world, and start from the basis that no death or serious injury on London’s roads should be treated as acceptable or inevitable.”

Local road research from Minnesota: In-Vehicle Curve Speed Warning System for Rural Road Curves What Was the Need? Vehicle lane departures at curves cause a significant portion of fatal crashes on rural Minnesota roads. Infrastructure-based methods such as standard curve warning signs and sensortriggered dynamic warning displays are helpful; however, their cost is difficult to justify for lowtraffic rural roads, even though that is where hazardous curves are most common. One possible solution that could both offer adequate warning to

The project’s pilot study was conducted with recruited drivers on a closed course at the Minnesota Highway Safety and Research Center in St. Cloud, Minnesota, which offers multiple configurable driving courses and limited safety risk. Through a usability study with 10 drivers, researchers collected feedback about several prototype warnings. The interface was implemented into a smartphone app that researchers developed using knowledge gained from building the Teen Driver Support System (TDSS) app, which warns novice drivers about their speed and other driving behaviors. The TDSS was

already capable of data collection and allowed unique warnings to be deployed based on GPSprovided locations. The new system allowed warnings to be initiated upon approach to identified curves, depending upon the speed and distance to the curve. Finally, researchers designed an experimental trial and recruited participants to drive in a closed course pilot study using the curve speed warning app. The pilot study required indepth feedback from drivers and tested warning timing thresholds, deviation from standard curve speed warnings, as well as drivers’ impressions of levels of distraction or irritation, clarity of the warning, ease of use and trustworthiness of the system.

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What Did We Learn? Closed course testing showed that the prototype system, which functions on an Android smartphone, was effective in warning drivers to slow before a curve and that drivers were able to use the system without distraction. Results from the literature review and usability studies conducted through the University of Minnesota’s HumanFIRST Laboratory guided researchers to develop a system based upon optimum human usability factors. All aspects of the system were carefully investigated and tested:  The system must be located just below or to the right and below the driver’s line of vision to minimize distraction (such as in the upper dash area).  Visual aspects of the warning are conveyed with simple icons rather than readable text: a diamond-shaped curve sign with the speed below, against a black background. The visual warning is a white, yellow or flashing red curve sign, depending upon the distance to the curve.  An audible warning is conveyed through short, simple phrases, beginning with the context (“Curve ahead”), followed by the distance (“One-half mile”) and then a command (“Reduce speed”). A computer-generated voice is used rather than a male or female voice.  The optimum distance before the curve to activate the warning was determined through testing of three distances. Drivers in the pilot study indicated the distances that seemed best to hear and react to the warning.

The T 8 and T 12 applicator testing programme is a key component of industry self regulation.

RIAA/NZRF Conference and Exhibition 29 & 30 August 2018 Dubbo, NSW NZTA/NZIHT Symposium 5th - 7th November 2018 Blenheim Convention Centre

NZTA/NZRF T 8 and T 12

There is a .pdf version of the applicator certificates associated with each registration line.

These can be accessed via a hyperlink off the certificate registration number. The certificates include a photograph of the applicator. T 12 certificates include schedules setting out the scope of certification.

Newsletter August 2018  
Newsletter August 2018