towards an ecological consciousness
... an analysis and vision for the ecolo
ogical future of Gozo.
Għawdex gżira ta’ l-għoljiet Fik il-paċi fik is-skiet Art mongħija bl-isbaħ ġmiel Kif sawruk jien m’għandiex ħjiel Sisien saqwi u s-sejjieħ Bajjiet jagħxqu ma’ kull riħ Baħar ikħal dawra mejt Lilek jien dejjem għozzejt Inti djamant F’nofs il-Mediterran Għawdex int biss Tagħtini s-serħan Bik ferħan - Inti Djamant, The Tramps
. Found Data
Urban settlement patterns in Gozo are characterised by some features that distinguish them from development on mainland Malta. In fact, ribbon development predominates in most Gozitan settlements. In the early 20th century the localitiesâ€™ boundaries were defined based on their parishes, where, throughout the years, the urban settlements sprawled outward from the town centre.
The human impact on the environment cannot be underestimated, and hence population is a key element in the consideration of this topic. Population growth is often cited as the root cause of environmental problems; in actual fact, the interaction between the population, economic development and environmental change is too complex to support this conclusion. Distributional patterns, population density and living standards combine in playing a major role in deciding the impact of the population on natural resources and the environment. In 1901 it was recorded
that the total population of Gozo amounted to 7215 inhabitants. Presently it is recorded that the population constitutes of 37,342 Gozitans density if of 440 persons per square kilometre, amounting to 7.4% of the total population in the Maltese Islands.
Recent Schemes: Closing of Qortin Dumpsite _ Conversion of Qortin Dumpsite into a Natural Park _ Introduction of civic amenity site, and recycling bins closer to the locality _ Introduction of household organic collection - this was a pilot project started before introduction to Malta _ Sending of all waste to Malta for sorting and recycling (except agricultural and C&D waste) _ C&D waste thrown into disused Quarries (Contractor Scheme Established)
Poor waste practices and treatment of the environment in the past have not only lead to a degradation of our water, air and land resources but also represent a big financial burden to current and future generations.
Current Waste Management Scheme Municipal Solid Waste | Three different types are collected; mixed waste, dry recyclables (now being phased out in half the localities), organic waste. These are collected on separate days by a contractor allocated by the local council similar to Malta. All waste is transferred to tal-Kus transfer facility where dry recyclables are sorted, and mixed waste is compacted for ease of transportation. All mixed and organic waste is transported to the Malta North Plant where it is treated or further sorted, while recycled waste is collected by private industries.Construction & Demolition Waste | Information is still uncertain with regards to waste generated by Construction & Demolition in Gozo. Although initiatives have been set up by which all C&D waste is backfilled into disused quarries, no current information is available with regards to such practices and if any recycling of this waste takes place. Commercial and Industrial Waste | Commercial and Industrial waste in Malta is mostly handled and transported by the company itself. C&I that generates a small amount of waste similar to that of household waste is gathered with municipal waste by local council. No information is given with regards to the waste generated by C&I in Gozo, and if a similar initiative as in Malta is set up.
“The government also remained committed to create different waste streams, such as the bottle return scheme, and impose recycling at source, which will no longer remain voluntary for commercial, industrial or domestic waste.” waste is sorted within the plant and is collected and transported by the private industry to be stored in Malta and sold abroad. (Information gathered by unpublished presentation by WasteServ and NSO) Research done in
60% of municipal waste generated is by households while the remaining waste is contributed by institutes such and schools, locality services and small industry. Trends also indicate that during the summer months an increase of 30% in waste occurs due to the influx in population of tourists and mostly Maltese citizens with summer residences or rented apartments. 2015 indicates that
Current trends obtained from WasteServ indicate an overall reduction in municipal waste generated over the years. There is also an indication that recycling schemes as well as a pilot project with regards to separation and collection of organic waste has reduced the amount of waste sent for treatment or landfill. A characterisation of the waste found within mixed waste collection indicates that almost 50% of the obtained waste is organic material that must be mechanically separated within the plants in Malta or transferred to landfill. In observing results gained for 2017 (projected results obtained from indications gained between January – July 2017) shows that current separation by the individual is lacking, whereby 67% of waste generated is still collected as mixed waste, when potentially this may be reduced to 21%. Mixed waste currently costs local councils €20 per tonne while organic and recyclable waste costs €0.50 per tonne. Waste is transferred to Malta in sealed steel containers on Monday, Tuesday and Saturday were on average around 60 Tonnes is sent on these days (8 tonnes of which is organic). Recycled
This is also evident in data gathered per locality, were areas such as Zebbug (Marsalforn) and Munxar (Xlendi) resulted in the least amount of
properly separated recycling and organic waste. (Gozo in Figures 2015) Although trends show an improvement in proper waste management from households there is still a significant lack in comparison to necessary EU targets set. Regulations have set that 50% of all household waste being recycled or recovered by 2020 yet
we are not even half way there, this is further increasing every 5 years were by 2035 65% of household waste must be recycled. Educational events done by Wasteserv, GreenMT and Greenpack have raised awareness in young children and the elderly yet nothing has been achieved with regards to adults. A recent issue brought up by collection contractors is that the system has become inefficient and unsustainable to provide door to door collection in certain small localities in Gozo, which do not generate sufficient amount of waste and also do not separate accordingly. Infrastructure in place currently cannot handle the amount of mixed waste generated therefore plans for incentives and enforcement on recycling at the source shall be put in place to target this issue.
106,000 tonnes of animal manure is generated per year and remains untreated, disposed of
Currently no scheme or enforcement on the handling of such waste has been set up. Agricultural waste, which includes inefficiently, or illegally stored.
animal husbandry, slurry and bad produce, is the second largest generator of waste after C&D. Several local councils have objected to the use a treatment or storage plant for agricultural waste within their locality.
Due to the increasing issue of agricultural waste a new initiative has been set up by were farmers are given funds to handle with this growing problem, yet no formal scheme has been discussed in the manner to deal with the waste.
In Gozo the development of a proper storage and treatment plant at a small scale has been set up in Munxar but has been severely criticized by the Locality and neighbours. The Munxar local council has contested to this development due to the main access to this plant would be through a main road passing through the piazza which shall pose health issues, when discussions were held to propose the plant within other localities it was yet again contested by that locality.
1.1 Bequest motive and change - “Agriculture has strong roots in the small communities of Gozo’s rural villages, and individuals take up farming because of these roots and the strong attachment to the heritage of farming. In some ways, it is akin to what we economists term ‘bequest motive’. The agriculture land passes from one generation to the next and this could almost guarantee the survival of agriculture in Gozo. It need not survive in its current shape or form, and I would anticipate that the number of full-time farmers will continue to fall” (Von Brockdorff, 2013) Indeed, “According to the most recent Census of Agriculture (NSO, 2010), there are 185 full- time farmers in Gozo and Comino. This represents a decrease of 15% over the number of full-time farmers registered in 2001. Over the same decade, part-time registered farmers in Gozo increased by 44% from 2624 in 2001 to 3792 in 2010” (Von Brockdorff, 2013) “In 2012 agriculture contributed 1.6% of total GDP but there are 20,000 persons actively involved in agriculture, however, only 7% of this constitutes full-time farmers, the rest being part-time employment” (Vella, 2017)
“Unless consumers and policy makers realise that we are in a dire situation, unless something drastic is done, agriculture as we know it will disintegrate into a hobby sector”(Mass & Borg Micallef, 2017, p. 24) 1.2 Factors of change - 1.2.1 Agricultural
stigma - Furthermore, “The National Office of Statistics last year revealed a rather dismal state of affairs: there are only 1,301 full-time farmers in Malta. Of these, 61 per cent are over 45 and 32 percent are between 25 and 44. Only seven per cent are under 25” (Chetcuti, 2013) “Young farmers are giving up their crops for desk jobs because they believe working for the Government would be less stressful and win them more respect from their peers … [Jeanette Borg, a professional agriculturist] has come across several young people with family farmlands who, despite having studied agriculture, were still seeking an office job” (Chetcuti, 2013) “Several [farmers] rely on another income, and most often, farmers themselves discourage their children from taking up farming … there are farmers who prefer selling off their land to developers than using it for farming” (Carabott, 2017) There is “still a stigma hanging over agriculture”, as Mr Gauchi a 19-year-old working in the agriculture industry expresses that he “still get loads of jibes from friends and acquaintances because [he] work in agriculture – they
consider it a second-class job … People
do not realise that these days it’s not just about ploughing a field – agriculture has become very scientific” People are not aware of the technicality, investment and research that agriculture requires … “people interested in agriculture did not need
to have their own land … [for example Mr Gauchi] will graduate next year and would like to specialise in artisanship and the promotion of Maltese products, in particular honey, processed olives and oil” (Chetcuti, 2013) 1.2.2 Education - “Principally at secondary level, education in Gozo is somewhat divorced from Gozitan economic and social realities … very little, if at all, was being done to prepare future workers for entrepreneurship in agriculture so as to exploit the agricultural potential on the island, and that a one-size fits all educational approach for Malta and Gozo neglects the fact that Gozo has special needs. The education system should take these needs into account … an incentive scheme should be put in place to encourage tertiary education students to follow studies associated with the particular needs of Gozo, including entrepreneurship and innovation in agriculture, IT and tourism” (Briguglio, 2016) “Most tertiary education students are not likely to find a job in Gozo. The end result will not only be depopulation of Gozo but also a decline in consumption expenditure of those young people who ‘emigrate’ to Malta … Gozitan young people seek employment outside the island and therefore more proactive measures are needed to reverse this trend” (Briguglio, 2016) “With the correct efforts in place to reverse the rural skill drain and the integration of education and research, young farmers can be encouraged to sustain their agricultural activities. Such a trend may be facilitated through investment in innovative technology and the creation of niches … Through the same SWOT analysis, opportunities such as branding, consolidation, agri- tourism, training, knowledge, innovation and renewable energy, were identified. All these aspects could be considered to improve competitiveness and diversification through the creation of benchmarks for the period 2016 - 2025” (Atriga, 2015) 1.2.3 Agricultural Profitability - The report ‘Towards a New Agricultural Policy for Malta’ (Dwyer, J. et al, 2014) analysed the 2010 and 2011 Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) data on the profitability of Maltese farming sectors, by comparing the inputs and outputs. This analysis revealed that in both years, costs in the fruit and vegetable sector averaged around 60% of the outputs
value, whereas ratios in the livestock sectors ranged from around 60% to over 100%. These findings indicate that even if there were farms in all sectors which operated at a profit, a number of farms in the sample were still operating at a loss in at least one of the two years. (Atriga, 2015) “There is no insurance that covers farmers, meaning they could lose their investment overnight if, for example, strong winds wreaked havoc among their greenhouses” (Carabott, 2017) 184.108.40.206 LAND - 220.127.116.11.1 Land Value Return on investment - In addition, another two issues young farmers face include “access to land and high investment costs” (Vella, 2017) “Unless young farmers have access to fields already, for example, inherited through their family, they are faced with high costs for the procurement of land. As one of the stakeholders illustrates, to buy a plot of 1 tomna, the current cost is approximately €20,000- €40,000, and to start a pro table agricultural business, a farmer would need a much bigger plot of land than that. Adding to the cost of land, the expenditure needed to set up an agricultural business and the total cost will add up to a considerable amount: even a simple tractor can cost €40,000. The small sizes of plots and the increasing
fragmentation of land present issues as well, as the fields are often not suitable to be worked with large machinery, and there is thus a need for manual labour, which is much more costly and time-consuming. The difficulty to access land and high investment costs are serious deterrents for aspiring young farmers, and it is no surprise that many young people are opting for other, easier and more financially secure employment options” (Mass & Borg Micallef, 2017, p. 24) 18.104.22.168.2 Parcelling - “In 2013, total utilised agricultural area (UAA) amounted to 11,689 hectares of land, and 12,4666 agricultural holdings, three quarters of which have an area of less than 1 hectare. Only 2.4% of holdings have areas of 5 hectares of more” (Vella, 2017) “Farmland in the Maltese islands is predominantly government-owned and is leased to farmers through agricultural leases (Qbiela) renewed every year… In real terms agricultural leases do not provide enough peace of mind for genuine farmers who are willing to invest, as the land they work is still owned by the Government” (Atriga, 2015) Land ownership issues and legal right of access to privately owned land may prohibit private initiatives by those who want to use a specific piece of land for agricultural purposes and/or agro-tourism initiatives. Furthermore, it is increasingly difficult for young/new entrants to start operating in the agricultural sector because of failure in acquiring the legal and physical access to land. At present, there is no data on whether privately owned land is occupied by a tenant and whether this is being used exclusively for agricultural purposes. The 2010 census of agriculture shows that there are 2,792 holdings in Gozo (and Comino) occupying 2,829ha, the majority of which are between 0 and 0.5 ha, and not necessarily in one parcel of land. 22.214.171.124.3 Crop rotation - “The current situation with agricultural leases is restricting the consolidation of farmland by progressive farmers who try to overcome the inherent difficulties related to the economies of scale of Maltese farming. Thus, if legally possible, such farmers would be ready to enter into agreements with other leaseholders to cultivate their farmland. Farmland consolidation is not just an issue of cultivating more land but one linked with crop rotation. Active farmers, mostly full-timers, are in a situation where their farmland has been drastically depleted of nutrients with consequent drop in productivity as a result of monocultivation. This factor, coupled with the accumulation of soil pathogens such as nematodes, fusarium and verticilium, resulted in the necessity to over-cultivate fields so as to compete on a quantity-based market. All these intertwined issues led to the depletion of farmland and groundwater resources, worsened the working conditions for farmers and reduced their revenue from crop production … It is a known fact that farmland in Malta is characterised by extremes with active farmers utilising intensive methods by repeatedly cultivating mixed crops without allowing enough resting time for nutrient recovery.” (Atriga, 2015) 126.96.36.199 EUROPEAN UNION MEMBERSHIP - 188.8.131.52.1 Competition
- “Before Malta joined the EU, the agricultural sector in Malta was quite protected: there were levies on the importation of food, as well as quotas on the quantity of imported products. When Malta joined the EU in 2004, these protective measures disappeared, as we were now part of the common market, and farmers and producers suddenly had to compete not only on a national level, but with farmers and producers throughout Europe. One of the stakeholders, a government of official, comments that ‘before Malta joined the EU, the impression was given that agriculture would move forward as new markets would become accessible to the Maltese farmer’. The argument was that the market for Maltese products would increase, and many farmers thought they would be able to increase their production and sales, whereas in actual fact the reverse happened: they suffered from increased competition from imported produce.” (Mass & Borg Micallef, 2017, p. 23) “The importance of seasonality is decreasing, several stakeholders state, as seasonal produce is becoming less popular (for example in the case of broad beans), or customers will just source the product from foreign importers during the rest of the year, and do not pay much attention to whether the product is local or not, and whether it is in season or not … The younger generation specifically is mentioned as being less aware of the seasonality of products, and used to finding whatever they like, irrespective of the season ” (Mass & Borg Micallef, 2017, p. 14) “The inputs necessary to produce vegetables and fruit, in terms of land, water, fertilizers and labour, come at considerable costs. Yet the local farmer has to keep prices down, hampering his ability to make a profit, in order to remain competitive with imported produce” (Mass & Borg Micallef, 2017, p. 24) 184.108.40.206.2 Funding - In EU countries, like Italy and Spain, the production of tomatoes for processing can rely on large-scale production which helps to drive costs down. This, of course, is impossible for the local processing plants and price subsidy is absolutely necessary for this sector to remain viable in the future. The onus, however, is on Gozitan farmers to consider, where possible, business ventures as a group and not individually given the average size of holdings in Gozo. This makes sense also in applying for EU funds. Despite its double insularity problem, agriculture in Gozo has been very resilient and evidence of this is the investment that has taken place in the dairy farms sited mainly in the outskirts of Xewkija as well as the processing plants for tomatoes for processing, wineries and mushroom production. Mr, Gauchi notes that it is
important “to keep in mind that often it’s easier for young farmers to tap into EU funds, so the more [farmers] work together, the more [farmers] can achieve … [Gauchi also adds that] old-school farmers might not always be open to new ideas, and that is why a common young voice would help to push their cause [to lift the agricultural stigma]” (Chetcuti, 2013) As one stakeholder notes, today “only a handful of stronger farmers manage to apply for and receive EU benefits and funds, many smaller farmers are not coping” (Mass & Borg Micallef, 2017,
p. 23) 220.127.116.11 PRACTICE / QUALITY - 18.104.22.168.1 CLIMATIC CONDITIONS - “Average annual rainfall amounts to just 500mm/year with the majority (75%) of rainfall occurring between October and February, which means the summer makes it hard for growing crops” (Vella, 2017) “Water is one of the key challenges for agriculture in Malta. National water resources are considered among the most stressed in the world, because of limited local resources (there are no lakes or rivers – recharge of the water aquifers relies solely on rainfall), high population pressure and persistent overabstraction. Increases in average temperature, the occurrence of droughts and changes to rainfall patterns as a result of climate change are expected to further exacerbate the current situation (EC, 2015). In terms of vegetable and fruit production, the impacts of droughts and reduced rainfall can be severe, as highlighted in the NSO report on the Climate of Malta: 1951-2010 (NSO, 2011)” (Mass & Borg Micallef, 2017, p. 6) 22.214.171.124.2 use of water - There are currently no statistics on water use intensity, the quality of water used for irrigation and the choice of crop types according to water demand. The water balance in Gozo is not well defined and needs to be determined. Consequently,
water culture in Gozo may not be compatible with ecological standards. Traditional indigenous technologies implemented to harvest water are being neglected and most have deteriorated and are in urgent need of repair.
Availability of energy is resulting in misuse and negative impact on the environment. The ready access to power has led to the implementation of practices to boost production to the detriment of natural resources, in particular the use of electric pumps to gain access to groundwater. The lack of precipitation is another obvious difficulty and without adequate infrastructure, in particular alternatives sources of water, a serious rethink of where Gozo agriculture should be heading is required. Policy adjustment on the use of groundwater and adding the economic cost of water to the cost of extraction would render crop production, including protected crop production, non-competitive and no amount of subsidy (assuming it were allowed which is not the case) could compensate for this. (Philip von Brockdorff) 126.96.36.199.3 Soil Quality - Soil on abandoned agricultural land is prone to erosion. Similarly, collapsed rubble walls and poorly maintained retaining walls increase the effects of runoff. Lack of maintenance of rubble walls is leading to soil erosion especially on hillsides, leading to the gradual deterioration of structures and degradation of resources. Information about rural structures, in terms of number and location, and including their state of maintenance/conservation is not readily available. These structures need to be rediscovered and kept in good state of maintenance to encourage their protection. EU funding for the conservation of rubble walls is helping to reverse this trend however much more needs to be done in this area. Where appropriate and possible, landscape stabilisation should include afforestation to harbour ecological corridors. 188.8.131.52.4 Use of Fertilisers / Pesticides - The gross nitrogen balance for 2007 for Malta and Gozo was estimated at 117kg/Ha. This is approximately two and a half times the median (47kg/Ha) for EU Member states. The nutrient/ chemical fluxes are not well defined and need to be determined, as use and application methods of
agro-chemicals do not incorporate a holistic philosophy and hence may not be in compliance with environmental norms. In Malta and Gozo, the lack of training of farmers and lack of advisory services concerning fertiliser-use has been recognised as the most important obstacle to measuring the risks linked to fertilisers. Agricultural products in Gozo have always been considered to be of high quality and genuine. In fact, Gozitan produce is usually preferred to imported products even though the latter are usually better presented and sometimes sold at a lower price. This advantage can however be lost: _ if the presentation of products is not improved _ the quality and safety of produce is not ensured, and _ the products are not sold at a competitive price. “Maltese
the lowest level of organic farms at EU level (PQ 14303, Legislature
XII, Parliament of Malta). Amongst the main inhibiting factors for this sector to gain ground in Malta, one can mention small parcel size, land fragmentation, proximity to conventional farmers, windy conditions leading to pesticide drift and poor soil conditions” (Atriga, 2015) “The local climate made it impossible for farmers to avoid pesticides, especially in summer … The country is humid and warm, which is ideal for mould and insects, and the spread of disease. So how about using organic means to keep pests at bay? Organic pesticides could not be used for large quantities … [and thus farmers that have explored organic pesticides] could not live off their produce, because of the limited amount harvested … [however, farmers note that they are very careful with pesticides since] Abuse was not only detrimental to the consumers’ health, but also to their pockets” because pesticides are “very expensive” as well as the fact that the “overuse of pesticides eventually backfires, because pests or weeds could actually become resistant” (Carabott, 2017) 184.108.40.206 LACK OF REGULATION - 220.127.116.11.1 Market - Paul*, a 40-year-old farmer argues that “the farmer has no say over his product’s price tag, and there is no traceability of the amount of fruit and vegetables not sold and therefore thrown away” … and explains that recently his produce of
cauliflower “was sold at three different prices by three different middlemen: €4, €3 and a mere 10c per box, each containing seven cauliflowers. This means
that in the latter case, the farmer made 5c on each cauliflower, which could ultimately be bought for 80c or €1 by the consumer. In this case, Paul made a loss, as each seedling cost him 5c” which excludes other expenses such as fertiliser, pesticide and energy costs. (Carabott, 2017) “While it is in the pitkali’s interest to sell the produce at an adequate price, because of commission … harvest should be graded, and a minimum price set for each produce …the market drives the price, so the higher the supply, the lower the profit. Farmers often feel like they are “playing a lottery” when deciding which crop to grow” (Carabott, 2017) “The [pitkalija] system has a lack of grading of produce, traceability, and lack of transparency in pricing … Farmers responded by
setting up farmers’ markets, where customers buy directly from the farmer, an especially feasible solution for small-scale producers” (Vella, 2017) 18.104.22.168.2 Quality & cost of produceIt should be noted that costs of production in agriculture are increasing due to compliance with environmental standards in line with the Nitrates Directive and other relevant regulations. These standards are beneficial to the Maltese islands as a whole but compliance comes at a cost. The added cost could result in lower quality production of all crops, including tomatoes for processing as producers attempt to reduce costs. Sacrificing quality, however, is a high-risk strategy as local tomato processing plants are facing stiff competition for their tomato-based products on the supermarket shelves. 22.214.171.124.3 Perception of produce - According to Paul*, a 40-year-old farmer
“Farming will not survive another 10 years … This gloomy forecast is rooted in several issues – from a lack of appreciation of local produce to competition from abroad” (Carabott, 2017) “In a new
report by Friends of the Earth Malta on the local food chain, stakeholders say they fear Malta is now becoming completely dependent on foreign imports. Gone is a consumer’s concern for the quality of the local product thanks to cheaper imports” (Vella, 2017) “People don’t appreciate the work and money that goes into growing vegetables, and sometimes, they come here and want to set a price for the produce themselves” (Carabott, 2017) “The direct relationship between farmers and customers has unfortunately been severed over the past decades, state stakeholders, and they stress the importance of re-establishing this link: to build trust, for citizens to inform and educate themselves and for farmers to tune in to the needs and demands of their customers” (Mass & Borg Micallef, 2017, p. 4)
“Maybe without this moment of authentic, artistic possibility, nothing new can emerge. Maybe something new only emerges through the failure, the proper functioning of the existing network, lifework, where we are” - Slavoj Zizek, The Pervert’s Guide to Ideology
Inti Djamant _ the app In the age of the image, the gif and the video stream... what happens when Gozoâ€™s ecological implications are made visual, trackable and interactive? How will the Gozitan socio-ecological conscience react to the establishing of an overarching infrastructure connecting everything to everything else, everyone to everyone elseâ€Ś Presenting... Inti Djamant, the socio-ecological platform propelling Gozo into the 21st centuryâ€Ś Inti Djamant emerges as the interweaving of the physical and psychological - a force to shift and refocus prevalent ecological conceptions from the immediate individualistic to the cultural collective. It questions value and values.
Inti Djamant exploits contemporary internet-of-things technologies to address prevalent ecological deficiencies emanating from society’s current practices. Resource consumption is monitored, allowing the individual to keep track of usage trends and set goals. Good practice is rewarded with Djamanti, a social currency rewarding conscientious daily practices of reducing resource consumption, ‘good deed’ contributions, buying local, mindful waste disposal, low impact services and materials, sharing… Djamanti are redeemed in exchange for services, products and other incentives - empowering the conscientious citizen. Djamant of the Month - a leaderboard acknowledging conscientious practice on a national, neighbourhood and family level. Through elevating socio-ecological interconnectivity to the daily, the cultural, the Inti Djamant platform aims to catalyse a new way of living, a renewed mutually beneficial relationship between systems comprising ecology. Only then will the island grow into an adaptive organism able to morph and adjust to realities of an uncertain impending future.
A versatile Gozoâ€Ś An ecologically cognisant Gozitan society emerges as a resilient organism, an ecosystem of Earth, man and machine - existing, adapting and morphing. Elevating conceptions of ecology primes the island for a multitude of potential realities - some scenarios which are proactive and others reactiveâ€Ś Looking forward, towards a versatile Gozo, we ask, what ifâ€Ś
Jade Farrugia Karl Grech Daniel Tabone Andrea Cassar Zachary Rizzo Zak Pulis David Ellul Nico Vella Gatt Jean Ebejer