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2nd Quarter 2018

Buffalo stampedes into Kotug Smit Towage’s UK fleet Pelindo III invests in 15 new Indonesian port tugs Newbuilding boom set to continue beyond 2018 Turkish shipyards ramp up tug construction

KST Liberty tug “marks an important milestone in Singapore’s journey to make LNG bunkering available at our port as early as 2020” Loh Ngai Seng, permanent secretary at Singapore’s Ministry of Transport, see page 52

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2nd Quarter 2018 volume 5 issue 2

12 18


Newbuild profile 12 Kotug Smit Towage boosted its UK port services with the addition of azimuth tractor drive tug, Buffalo

Operator profile 23

18 Indonesian port operator, Pelindo III is adding 15 tugs to modernise its fleet

Caspian 21 Shipyard De Hoop is building six tugs to transport modules for a major oilfield project in Kazakhstan

Special focus: Mediterranean 22 Turkish shipyards have boosted construction and adapted designs 24 Med Marine’s latest tug, Med XXVI, propulsion details 26 Neri Group expands its tugboat fleet and extends services beyond Italy 27 Sanmar completes two tugs for Svitzer; Rimorchiatori Riuniti boosts tugboat fleet


Harbour towage 29 Damen introduces new harbour tug design

Terminal operations 30 Providers of escort tug services for floating LNG terminals in open seas face unique challenges

Design 32 OSD unveils hybrid tug series 33 Robert Allan tests remote controlled tug in simulation

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018

contents Fire-fighting & pollution control 34 Technology enhances oil spillage response in all environments 35 Summary of the latest FiFi product developments 36 Castalia has a fleet of 36 vessels to respond to Italian oil spills

Salvage operations 38 ISU members attended 252 salvage incidents and saved 3.4M tonnes of pollution in 2017 40 Debate rages on over British emergency towage provision 42 Resolve Marine Group continues to expand and diversify in the face of challenging market conditions

Propulsion 45 Asia is taking the lead in building LNG-fuelled tugs 46 Electrical gearboxes and brakes revealed for environmental tug operations 48 Progress Rail introduces gas-fuelled EMD engines for tugs 49 Engines become part of an intelligent propulsion system 50 MTU reveals tug engines that meet US Tier 4 and IMO Tier III rules

Singapore 52 Maritime Port Authority is driving LNG-fuelled tug and remote control service vessel technology 53 Developments in port traffic management

Navigation & electronics 54 Svitzer’s remote control tug trials will continue into 2019 55 Round-up of the latest bridge electronics

Next issue Main features include: special focus – Northern Europe; Regional analysis – Middle East; propulsion – thrusters & propellers; harbour towage; automation & control; training & simulation; deck machinery

2nd Quarter 2018 volume 5 issue 2 Editor: Martyn Wingrove t: +44 20 8370 1736 e: Brand Manager: Indrit Kruja t: +44 20 8370 7792 e: Head of Sales – Asia: Kym Tan t: +65 6809 3098 e: Sales – Asia & Middle East: Rigzin Angdu t: +65 6809 3198 e: Sales – Australasia: Kaara Barbour t: +61 414 436 808 e: Production Manager: Richard Neighbour t: +44 20 8370 7013 e: Subscriptions: Sally Church t: +44 20 8370 7018 e: Chairman: John Labdon Managing Director: Steve Labdon Finance Director: Cathy Labdon Operations Director: Graham Harman Head of Content: Edwin Lampert Executive Editor: Paul Gunton Head of Production: Hamish Dickie Published by: Riviera Maritime Media Ltd Mitre House 66 Abbey Road Enfield EN1 2QN UK ISSN 2056-709X (Print) ISSN 2056-7103 (Online) ©2018 Riviera Maritime Media Ltd Front cover image credit: Andrew Walker

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T H E R E S U LT O F F I V E Y E A R S I N - D E P T H R & D , T H E D A M E N R E V E R S E D S T E R N D R I V E T U G 2 5 1 3 , W I T H I T S PAT E N T E D T W I N F I N D E S I G N A N D A LW AY S B O W F I R S T P R I N C I P L E , I S T H E U LT I M AT E S H I P H A N D L I N G T U G . I T D E L I V E R S A P O W E R F U L PA C K A G E O F S A F E T Y, R E L I A B I L I T Y, E F F I C I E N C Y A N D S U S TA I N A B I L I T Y I N E Q U A L PA R T S .

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ingapore joined the race to be the first to operate a fleet of commercial remotecontrolled or autonomous port service vessels, including tugboats, in April. The Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore (MPA) signed an agreement with Keppel Group and the Technology Centre for Offshore and Marine in Singapore to develop the capabilities to achieve this goal. They will work together, likely with the help of other Singapore-based companies and organisations, to design, build and test autonomous or remote-controlled service vessels, including harbour tugs, pilot vessels mooring boats and short-route ferries (see page 52). MPA wants to improve efficiency of port operations and its vessel traffic management systems through greater levels of autonomy. It also wants to transfer humans away from the risks of marine operations to an onshore control centre and gain efficiency benefits from removing the crews. I have heard this before and seen it in action in Denmark with tug group Svitzer, which worked with Rolls-Royce and Lloyd’s Register to trial remote-control tug technology last year. These trials will continue with new technology and applications this year and into 2019, Svitzer chief operating officer Leonardo Sonzio told Tug Technology & Business. He said the overall goal is to produce a business case for investing in remote tug operations and to offer the technology to other divisions in the overall Maersk group (see page 54). One benefit he sees is remotely sailing a tug between ports while resting the crew, so they are fully rested and ready for harbour operations when they arrive. It appears Svitzer has the lead at present and others, such as MPA, still have some way to catch up. In different sectors, small unmanned surface vessels are already used for naval and survey applications. We have seen autonomous technology on

larger vessels. For example, Wärtsilä controlled a platform supply vessel in the North Sea remotely from California, US, in 2017. Also last year, the fertiliser company Yara ordered an autonomous container ship from Kongsberg Maritime, which will be working with Wilhelmsen under the Massterly joint venture to operate this vessel. Yara Birkeland is due to be delivered in 2019 and operate in an autonomous mode in 2020. With government backing, Singapore’s MPA will have the funds and power to swiftly become a leader in these technologies. It can even call on technology providers, such as Rolls-Royce, Kongsberg or Wärtsilä, to deliver the remote operating technology if necessary. MPA could use Keppel’s tug designs or use naval architect Robert Allan, which has already designed a remotely controlled tug in RAmora. This can be used for escorting incoming ships to their berths without the need for putting tugboat crews in danger (see page 33). For propulsion, MPA will be able to use experience with LNG-fuelled tugs that will come once KST Liberty and another newbuilding for Maju Maritime are operational. A better technology would be battery-run tugboats as these can be lighter, more agile and lower risk than gas- or oil-fuelled ones. I expect Singapore’s group to make rapid progress in the race to match and then exceed Svitzer’s (and others’) achievements. We now need to see if this is a sprint or a marathon and who will be there at the finishing line. From my research in this, I expect it will be Singapore’s MPA that will take the gold medal. TTB

The latest developments in tug technology will be discussed at Riviera Maritime Media’s Asian Tug Technology & Salvage Conference, which will be held in Singapore on 24-25 September. For more details go to:

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018




orldwide there are 603 ocean-going tugs in operation with a total estimated value of US$2.57Bn. This has increased from a fleet of 578 tugs with a combined value of around US$1.97Bn this time a year ago. According to VesselsValue, the global fleet’s value will increase to US$2.71Bn when nine newbuildings (or 1.5% of the operating global fleet) that are on order, are brought into service, which is expected this year or 2019. More than half of the value of this worldwide fleet, at US$1.46Bn, is for the smallest of ocean-going tugs. Another US$670M, or nearly a quarter of the fleet, are medium-sized tugs and US$490M, or 18%, are large-sized tugs. This global fleet has not grown substantially since 2016 as only 6 vessels have been added, compared with 16 in 2016 and 26 in 2015, which was a six-year high. This means the age profile of the global fleet is skewed towards vessels that are between five and 15 years old. These represent almost 30% (182 tugs) of the worldwide fleet. Another quarter (152 tugs) of this fleet are between 35 and 45 years old, which signifies there is a high number of tugs that may need replacing with newbuildings in the long-term. There are another 56 tugs that are even older than these. To put this into perspective, around a quarter of the fleet (146 tugs) are between 15-35 years old. In value terms, around 29% of the global fleet (US$782M) are ocean-going tugs that have been delivered since 2013. Around 31% (US$845M) of the global fleet value is with tugs that are five to 10 years old. About 19% (US$535M) are ocean-going tugs that are 10-15 years old. About 15% (US$412M) of the value of the global fleet is in tugs that are older than 15 years.

Ocean Going Tug (Extra Large)


Ocean Going Tug (Small)

Ocean Going Tug (Large)




Ocean Going Tug (Medium)




122 $709


69 $360 vessels

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018



35 $195

48 $169




22 $117 vessels


US$M (bar) 300


Number of Vessels (line) 30
























Number of Vessels

0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-75

67 90 92 46 39 23 38 64 88 27 13 Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018



Newbuilding boom set to continue beyond 2018 Tug owners are ordering more powerful tugs to support ultra large container ships and compete for new port support contracts, writes Barry Luthwaite

port of Puerto Caldera on the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica are prompting expansion. SAAM witnessed a net income of US$60.4M in 2017, a rise of 11% over 2016’s results. A minority interest in Perubased Tramarsa was sold, resulting in Tramarsa ordering one escort/harbour tug from Jiangsu Wuxi Shipyard in China. This 78-tonne bollard pull vessel is classed with ABS for unrestricted navigation and towage. It is due to be delivered in Q4 2018 to complement two other Tramarsa tugs already serving Callao port.

Turkish delight

Uzmar starts cutting steel on a new RAstar 3200-W tug for SAAM Smit


ewbuilding tug activity shows no sign of abatement in numbers being committed. Around 25 tugs of more than 20 m were contracted from January to 20 April this year. This is compared with 17 in the same period in 2017, with shipyards in India, Turkey and US dominating this year’s ordering so far. Smaller and more traditional shipyards for this class are reaping the benefits of a sustained order boom. Contracting is dominated by necessity in a technological era where competitors at the top end of the market cannot afford to lose out on business to more advanced competitors. A revival of ultra large container (ULC) ship ordering and deliveries is also prompting the ordering of more towage power. In the race to be top dog, orders placed this year for container ships have now surpassed a capacity figure of 24,600 TEU. More orders are in the pipeline with at least 12 more ULCs due to firm later this

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018

year. Backed with a steady ordering of more very large crude carriers, the market needs more powerful tugs to attend demands of berthing safely. Last year, 75 tugs over 20 m in length were confirmed as placed with shipyards. Already this year, 25 new units have been confirmed, meaning the signs look good for another record year. Designers face new challenges to keep up with a towage market that is rapidly changing and with owners hungry for new tugs. For example, Chilean operator SAAM plans to invest US$85M in a fleet modernisation programme in collaboration with Smit International Towage that includes maintenance of port equipment and infrastructure. A new operating model intends to achieve a more flexible, modern and efficient company. Increased traffic operations at Terminals Portuario Guayaquil and incorporation of the main

SAAM Smit Towage itself ensured that a historic milestone in the history of Turkey’s Uzmar Shipyard will be passed when it delivers the RAstar 3200-W tug to the owner. It means Uzmar has built, or has under construction, 100 Robert Allan-designed tugs. This SAAM Smit tug will be one of the first to adopt an IMO Tier III emissions compliant package for a towage vessel. Delivery is set for Q1 2019 and it will serve on Canada’s west coast. This newbuild will be among the greenest in the world as more world ports increasingly operate stringent operational conditions. In time this may force older tugs into redundancy. Eight more tugs are currently under construction to complement the RAstar 3200-W for SAAM Smit. Six are RAstar 3200 types and two RAmparts 3000 designs. In an advanced building programme, construction will soon start on 20 Robert Allan tugs between 50-85 tonnes bollard pulls taking employment well into 2020. Turkey dominated the ordering in March and April, with more speculative orders from the main builders. For example, Sanmar has 17 tugs on order with eight for Svitzer’s account and the remaining nine under Sanmar ownership that would be available to be sold later. This Turkish builder has agreed a



beneficial owner



bollard pull

year due

Indian Navy


Harbour Tug





Harbour Tug


Lyttelton Port Co


Harbour Tug




Harbour Tug


Goznak Leasing (Amur Shipyard)


Harbour Tug


Moroccan Port Trust


Harbour Tug


Med Marine Towage

Med Marine Towage


Harbour Tug



Med Marine Towage

Med Marine Towage


Harbour Tug



Med Marine Towage

Rimorchiatori Riuniti


Harbour Tug





Harbour Tug



Vane Brothers


Harbour Tug


Kirby Inland Marine


Harbour Tug


ASIA India Hindustan Shipyard Indonesia PT Waruna Nusa Sentana Singapore ASL Shipyard EUROPE Netherlands Neptune Shipyards Russian Federation Khabarovsk Spain Armon Turkey

FAR EAST China Jiangsu Wuxi NORTH AMERICA USA Chesapeake Sb. Inc. Cenac Marine Services Total


Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018


supply order with Rolls-Royce for deck and propulsion equipment for 21 tugs indicating there may be up to four more tugs on order. The marine propulsion group will supply 42 Rolls-Royce US 205/255 azimuth thrusters to 21 Robert Allan design tugs of 60, 70 and 80 tonnes of bollard pull. The designs are said to be exclusively for Sanmar, which points to already secured building slots being a great advantage to potential owners. Sanmar has also confirmed it will add a 25 m tractor tug with 60-70 tonnes of bollard pull and a 90-tonne bollard pull, 29 m azimuthing stern drive (ASD) tug to its building portfolio. Med Marine has kept a strong orderbook with a speculative policy that means tugs are for sale, or they are slotted into a large Med Marine-owned fleet. In mid-April, Med Marine took delivery of its 23rd harbour tug which will be stationed in Izmit Bay. Med XXVI is a RAmparts 2300-MM design with a bollard pull of 50 tonnes. It represents the third in a series of six of this design currently undergoing construction at the operator’s own shipyard.

Ice class & naval

As sea lanes are opened in the Arctic in the summer months, some owners are contemplating special ice-classed tugs for towing and rescue assistance. The interest is derived from ice class 1A offshore supply vessels successfully operating in Arctic and Antarctic ice conditions. Dutch naval architect Offshore Ship Designers (OSD) will tap owner interest in three different designs of 50 m, 65 m and 80 m tugs, offering bollard pulls between 45-70 tonnes. Tugs must be able to handle first-year or floating ice in very low temperatures to under-developed inshore and offshore facilities. A rise in naval shipbuilding has also brought a resurgence of tug support orders. A US$522M order was placed by the US Navy with Gulf Island Shipyards to provide the nation with the next generation of towing, salvage and emergency rescue ships. This builder has been awarded an initial contract for design and construction of one vessel valued at US$63.5M and due for delivery in 2020, with options attached for seven more vessels. In another deal, Hindustan Shipyard will construct four 50-tonne bollard pull tugs for the Indian Navy. More naval tug orders are likely to ensue in 2018. Waterfront Services expects to

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018

complete its fleet expansion campaign in July this year with four tugboats built for its US inland waterway towage operations. Master Marine is in the middle of a four-tug order from Waterfront Services. It has already built two of these 20.5 m tugs, Miss Deborah and Tom Toretti at its shipyard in Bayou La Batre, Alabama, US. Miss Deborah was delivered to the owner in October 2017 and Tom Toretti joined Waterfront Services’ fleet in January 2018. Of the remaining two tugs, Sam P. Hise

was delivered in April and Rick Pemberton is scheduled for delivery in July. These tugs are designed to meet the US Coast Guard’s Subchapter M requirements that cover the inspection of towboats, including seaworthiness standards and safety protocols. They are each powered by twin S6R2Y3MPTAW Mitsubishi diesel engines, which drive two 4-blade, stainless-steel propellers through Twin Disc MG 5321 gearboxes with 5:1 reduction ratio. TTB

CONTRACTING shipbuilder

Jan-Apr 2017

Jan-Apr 2018





ASL Shipyard


Cenac Marine Services


Chesapeake Sb. Inc.


Damen Galatz


Damen Hardinxveld


Damen Song Cam


Hindustan Shpyd.


Jiangsu Wuxi




Med Marine Towage


Neptune Shipyards Piriou Vietnam

1 1

PT Waruna Nusa Sentana


Tuong Aik Shipyard




Wilson Sons Total

2 17


Jan-Apr 2017

Jan-Apr 2018



CONTRACTING country Brazil














2 1









USA Vietnam Total

8 2 17


Source: BRL Shipping Consultants as of 20 April 2018




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Buffalo stampedes into Southampton Kotug Smit Towage’s new tugboat Buffalo joined its Southampton fleet in February to handle various vessel types including large container ships


hen Kotug Smit Towage needed to expand its UK towage fleet, it turned to Damen Shipyards for a high-performance and manoeuvrable tugboat with a short delivery time. Damen was able to source one of its own newbuildings for the specific requirements that Kotug Smit needed. This resulted in the delivery of azimuth tractor drive (ATD) tug Buffalo in February 2018. Kotug Smit added this ATD 2412 design newbuilding following increasing demand for handling container ships and tankers in UK ports. Buffalo went straight into action in the Port of Southampton where it is handling container ships such as 2016built, 153,148 gt Al Dhail. Buffalo is a twin-fin, 25 m long and 13 m wide tug that has 72 tonnes of bollard pull, which is sufficient for manoeuvring container ships at the Southampton terminal. Buffalo is also available for

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018

Buffalo has a bollard pull of 72 tonnes and service speed ahead of 12.5 knots (credit: Andrew Walker)

handling other ship types that arrive and depart from the port, said Kotug Smit Towage commercial area manager for the UK David Slater in February. “It will complement our existing fleet of tugs to respond to continuing customer demands,” he said. On its deck there is an electrically driven anchor winch with a vertical warping head and a reeling capacity of 10 m/min. There is also a hydraulically driven aft towing winch with a split drum and 31 tonnes of pulling power at a reel rate of 11 m/min. This has a reduced pull of up to 39 m/min and a 175-tonne brake. Buffalo has two 360 kg anchors with high holding power. Its fendering includes cylinder and block fenders on

the stern and D-shaped fenders on the side and fore. Adding Buffalo is part of Kotug Smit’s long-term fleet renewal programme that has involved Damen Shipyards at many levels, said Damen regional sales director Mijndert Wiesenekker. He said Buffalo combines compact design with high manoeuvrability, which is what Kotug Smit required for its new vessels for its European harbour towage operations. Buffalo operates under the Malta flag and was classed by Lloyd’s Register as a harbour and escort tug. It has a draught of 5.85 m and displacement of 490 tonnes. In the engineroom, there are two Caterpillar 3516C main engines with a total power of 4,200 kW at 1,600 rpm.


Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018


These drive two Rolls-Royce, US 255 fixed pitch azimuthing thrusters with 2,700 mm diameter propellers and built-in slipping clutches. These provide Buffalo with a service speed of 12.5 knots ahead and 12.7 knots astern. Its auxiliary equipment includes two Caterpillar C4.4 gensets that generate 86 kVA at 230/400 V and 50 Hz frequency. Buffalo has two Sterling AKHA 5101 bilge and general service pumps that each have capacity of 20 m3/h. There is also a Sterling R35/25 fuel oil pump with 2.1 m3/h capacity. The fuel system includes two Coalester fuel oil filters and two CJC PTU3 oil purifiers. Also in the engineroom is a Libellula L1-3H sewage pump with a capacity of 6.6 m³/h. The cooling system involves box cooling with an anti-growth system, while the hydraulics include a main enginedriven pump on each main engine. Much of the wheelhouse electronics are supplied by Furuno Electric. These include a FAR 2117 radar, GP-170 global positioning system and FE-800 echo sounder. Furuno also supplied the automatic identification system, navigation information Navtex and single side band radio. Jotron also supplied communications

equipment, including two Tron handheld VHF radio and emergency equipment, such as a Tron-60S emergency position indicating radio beacon and a Tronsart20 search and rescue transponder. Navico supplied a Simrad AP-70 autopilot and the gyro compass is Cassens & Plath’s Kotter type. There is accommodation for four crew. Damen said this is completely insulated and finished with durable modern linings, an acoustical ceiling in the wheelhouse, floating floor and air-conditioning. There is a captain’s cabin, chief engineer’s cabin, one double crew cabin, galley, mess/ dayroom and sanitary facilities. Buffalo is the fifth ATD 2412 twin fin in the Kotug Smit fleet and joins more than 20 Damen-designed vessels operated by the company. Kotug Smit took delivery of two Damen-designed and built tugs in 2017 when Rotterdam and Southampton entered service in European ports. Kotug Smit Towage was established in 2016, following the merger of the European harbour towage services of Kotug International and Smit, which is a subsidiary of Boskalis. It operates in 12 ports in Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands and the UK. TTB

BUFFALO PARTICULARS Type: Harbour tug Builder: Damen Shipyards Owner: Kotug Smit Towage Class: Lloyd’s Register Operations: Southampton, UK Design: ATD 2412 Length oa: 24.74 m Beam oa: 12.63 m Depth at sides: 4.60 m Draught: 5.85 m Displacement: 490 tonnes Bollard pull: 72 tonnes Service speed: 12.5 knots ahead Anchor winch: electrically driven, 10 m/min Aft winch: hydraulically driven, 31 tonnes, 11 m/min

PROPULSION & AUXILIARIES Main engines: 2x Cat 3516C of 2,100 kW each at 1,600 rpm Thrusters: Rolls-Royce US 255 FP, azimuthing 2,700 mm Gensets: 2x C4.4, generating 230/400 V at 86 kVA, 50 Hz Bilge pumps: 2x Sterling AKHA 5101, 20 m3/h each Fuel oil pump: Sterling R35/25, 2.1 m3/h Fuel oil filters: 2x Coalester Fuel oil purifiers: 2x CJC PTU3, MZ – EZ PWZ Sewage pump: Libellula L1-3H, 6.6 m3/h

ON THE BRIDGE Searchlights: 2x Norselight 2000 W Radar: Furuno FAR 2117 Compass: Cassens & Plath, type Kotter Autopilot: Simrad AP-70 GPS: Furuno GP-170 Echo sounder: Furuno FE-800 VHF: 2x Sailor Compact 6222, 25 W VHF hand-held: 2x Jotron Tron TR-20, GMDSS approved SSB radio: Furuno FS-1575 AIS: Furuno FA-150 Navtex: Furuno NX-700A

Buffalo manoeuvres 2016-built container ship Al Dhail in Southampton, UK (credit: Andrew Walker)

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018

Epirb: Jotron Tron-60S Sart: Jotron Tronsart20

. g u t r o t o R By



Chinese shipyards deliver new tugs and clinch fresh orders Chinese shipyards had a busy first four months of this year with new tug contacts and deliveries. Jiangsu Zhenjiang Shipyard delivered three tugs and a multipurpose maintenance vessel from January to the end of April. Zhougangtuo 32 was the latest tug to be completed by the Chinese shipyard. It is an azimuthing stern drive (ASD) tug with engines that generate a combined 5,000 kW. This was built for Ningbo Zhoushan Port and its Haitong Ferry Co. Zhougangtuo 32 was designed to meet the new regulations on the arrangement of crew accommodation, which is stipulated in the technical rules for the statutory inspection of vessels in China. It was launched on 31 March. The event was followed on 23 April by the delivery and departure of an 85 m multipurpose towage and maintenance workboat for Brunei-based Jisco-TBR. It will be contracted to support Brunei Shell Oil operations in northern Borneo. Prior to the launch of Zhougangtuo 32, Jiangsu Zhenjiang delivered two tugboats to Qingdao Port, China, for ship escort and berthing. Qing Gang Tuo 6 and Qing Gang Tuo 9 are ASD tugs, each with total power of 3,676 kW. In January, Jiangsu Zhenjiang and Sanlin Shipyard in Shanghai won contracts to build two ASD tugs each to Robert Allan designs for Tianjin Port in China (TTB, Q1 2018). On 18 January, Jiangsu Zhenjiang delivered Lan Qiao 9, an ASD tugboat with 3,676 kW of power, to Shandong Lanqiao Port. Jiangsu Zhenjiang will continue using Rolls-Royce Z-propellers for propulsion for ASD tugs in the future

after both companies signed a strategic co-operation agreement in China in March 2018. Jiangsu Zhenjiang said this product has a 70% market share in tug construction throughout China. However, Kawasaki Heavy Industries (KHI) expects to erode that dominance. It gained orders for its E-series of the Rexpeller azimuthing thruster from Chinese state-

owned China Communications Import & Export Corporation (CIESCO) in March. This contract was four Rexpeller thrusters for tugs being built for Tianjin Lingang Tug Co. These tugboats are due to begin operating in the Port of Tianjin in Q3 2018. KHI spokesperson Ryohei Sugimura told Tug Technology & Business that changes

were made on the E-series that added energy savings, made maintenance easier and made the thruster more environmentally friendly. “The underwater gear case has been optimised and the propeller duct is a new design,” he said. “These contribute to improve hydrodynamic efficiency, resulting in energy savings,” he said.

Vane expands US articulated tug barge fleet Vane Brothers has added to its fleet the first of three new articulated tug barge (ATB) units it ordered from Texas shipyard Conrad Industries. Assateague is a 33.5 m tug designed by Greg Castleman of Castleman Marine and an 80,000-barrel capacity, 123 m barge designed by Bristol Harbor Group. The operator has two more ATB units, to be named Chincoteague and Wachapreague, on order at the Conrad Orange Shipyard in Texas. These are due to be delivered later this year. Each ATB unit will have a pair of Cummins QSK60M engines, each rated at 1,640 kW and compliant with the US Environmental Protection Agency’s Tier 3 requirements. These are coupled to Reintjes WAF 873 gears with 7.087:1 reduction and drive 260 cm-diameter four-blade bronze propellers mounted on 24 cm shafts. Two Cummins QSB7-DM-powered 125 kW generators provide electrical power for each vessel with a Cummins powered 60 kW emergency generator. Each ATB unit has a Beacon-Finland JAK 700 tug/barge coupling system. Crew access to the barges is facilitated by a Schoelhorn-Albrecht custom gangway. Coastal Marine Equipment of Gulfport MS is supplying deck capstans on the tugs. TTB

Conrad Industries built a Castleman Marinedesigned 33.5 m tug for ATB Assateague

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018

Pelindo III operates a total of 43 ports in seven Indonesian provinces

INDONESIAN PORT OPERATOR INVESTS IN 15 NEW TUGS Pelindo III’s need for greater power and manoeuvrability triggered one of the biggest tug newbuilding programmes in Asia, writes Clive Woodbridge


elabuhan Indonesia III (Pelindo III), one of the leading port operating organisations in Southeast Asia, is modernising its fleet with new azimuthing stern drive (ASD) tugs. It had 15 tugs on order for delivery this year, with eight already in operation. The state-owned body is responsible for managing a total of 43 ports in seven Indonesian provinces: East Java, Central Java, South Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan, Bali, West Nusa Tenggara and East Nusa Tenggara. A strategic decision was taken in 2016 to increase its operational capacity and diversify the range of services it provides through its PT Pelindo Marine Service (PMS) division. This would improve services to port users as traffic levels rise following a significant terminal investment programme. As a result, Pelindo III embarked on one of the biggest tug fleet expansion programmes in the region. This Jayanegara*

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018

tug series is based on Robert Allan’s RAzer ASD designs and is being built locally by PT Dumas Tanjung Perak and PT Daya Radar Utama shipyards in Tanjung Priok, Indonesia. These 29 m tugs are all 12 m in beam, have a maximum draught of 4.6 m and top speed of 12 knots. However, three different versions of the RAzer design were selected by Pelindo III, with bollard pull capacities of 35, 40 and 60 tonnes respectively. While they all have the same dimensions, they come with different machinery packages. In total, 15 ASD harbour tugs were ordered for delivery this year, with eight already operating in Indonesian ports. They are the first Robert Allan tugs to be designed specifically to operate from major ports in Indonesia. They are also the first series of harbour tugs in Indonesia to incorporate modern design features, so their arrival marks the beginning of a concerted effort by Pelindo III to bring the local tug fleet up to

current international standards. One of the technical advances these tugs is their integrated bridge systems, Pelindo III chief executive Ari Askhara told Tug Technology & Business. “This feature makes it easier for our captains to operate the tugs through a single integrated console that is within easy reach of their hands,” he said. This feature will “enhance manoeuvrability and improve the capabilities and operational safety of our harbour towage service.” Another feature of this Jayanegara series is the incorporation of an alarm monitoring system (AMS). This technology can monitor the main engine, auxiliaries and propulsion systems, providing detailed information about bunker fuel usage, accurately and in real time. “Our latest tug newbuildings are the first harbour tugs in the country that are equipped with this latest technology,” said Mr Askhara. “All of these features


JAYANEGARA TUG NEWBUILDINGS Type: Harbour/terminal tugs Amount ordered: 15 tugs Operating country: Indonesia Builders: PT Dumas Tanjung Perak and PT Daya Radar Utama Designer: Robert Allan Design: RAzer ASD type Length, oa: 29 m Beam, mld: 12 m Maximum draught: 4.6 m Bollard pull range: 35-60 tonnes Maximum speed: 12 knots

will have benefits in terms of reduced maintenance and lower operational costs, helping to cut our bunker spending in particular.” AMS technology will also enable these tugs to be operated by smaller crews making them more efficient. They are classed by Lloyd’s Register with its UMS notation, allowing them to be manned by as few as three people. According to Mr Askhara, this investment reflects Pelindo III’s ongoing management

transformation programme. This focuses on people, processes and technology, with a view to increasing labour efficiency and service quality while reducing operational costs. These RAzer class tugs enhance PMS’s operational flexibility as Jayanegara vessels can be used for pilotage and towage work in ports and can be deployed in the offshore oil and gas sector in Indonesia. These ASD tugs have been optimised for handling ships

in the confined spaces of busy ports, said Robert Allan. The design features a freeboard to ensure a high degree of stability while keeping the superstructure low and well aft to enhance safe working under the flared hulls of ships. It has a low profile at the bow and the fendering system has been adapted to meet the particular requirements of harbour towage operations in Indonesia. Pelindo III needed more powerful tugs because larger ships are calling at Indonesian ports with more frequency, said its director of engineering and ICT Husein Latief. Another reason was the age profile. “Our existing fleet of tugs are largely around 15-20 years old, so now is a good time to start a replacement programme,” he said. A more modern fleet could take advantage of internet technology and digitalisation, said Mr Latief. “Having a fleet of tugs equipped with AMS and a fuel monitoring system (FMS) will facilitate our ability to monitor these ships from anywhere.” Pelindo III is building a ship operations centre that can monitor vessel location and condition based on the AMS and FMS technology installed on these tugs. It assessed a number of possible options before selecting the RAzer class, explained Mr Latief. “We needed tugs that had good manoeuvrability and a shallow draught, due to the limited

depth of our dock facilities. In addition, we wanted tugs that look more modern and stylish than our existing tugs to improve our image and perception in the market.” Another factor that attracted Pelindo III to the RAzer class was the fact that the wheelhouse position enabled the company to better serve those ships which have larger bow flares, due to their relatively high gross tonnage. “Besides that, on these tugs all the equipment is well arranged and ergonomic, making them easier to operate and maintain,” observed Mr Latief. Having taken delivery of the first batch of RAzer tugs in early 2018, Pelindo III now has a number of months of in-service experience with the vessels. They have been deployed to terminals in the Tanjung Perak area, including the new Telekom Lamong and Petikmas Surabaya terminals, and Benoa Bali, Tanjung Emas Semarang, Tanjung Intan and Banjarmasin ports. “Performance of the new tugs has matched our expectations in manoeuvrability and bollard pull capabilities,” said Mr Latief. This initial 15-tug investment programme is not likely to be the last, as Pelindo III intends to expand and rejuvenate the fleet of tugs operated through PMS over the next ten years. *Jayanegara means “glorious nation” in old Javanese

Jayanegara tugs’ propulsion details Of the 15 Jayanegara tugs ordered by Pelindo III, RAzer 2960 design vessels have the highest bollard pull capacity of 60 tonnes. These are powered by pairs of Caterpillar C280-6 main engines, each rated at 1,850 kW at 1,000 rpm, which

each drive a Schottel SRP 151 Z-drive unit. In the medium range of 40 tonnes of bollard pull, RAzer 2940 tugs have a pair of Caterpillar 3516B engines each rated at 1,379 kW at 1,200 rpm, driving pairs of Schottel SRP

1012 Z-drives. RAzer 2935 tugs have 35 tonnes of bollard pull that comes from a pair of Caterpillar 3512C engines and Schottel 1012 Z-drives. All of these tugs have a fire-fighting system, supplied by FFS. Deck machinery

includes a bow-mounted shipassist hawser winch and an aft tow hook. Accommodation areas have been outfitted for a standard crew of four, but up to 10 seafarers can be accommodated if required for longer haul operations. TTB

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018


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De Hoop builds six Blue Water Caspian tugs Blue Water Shipping ordered six tugs from Shipyard De Hoop for transporting modules across the Caspian to the Tengiz oilfield in Kazakhstan


lue Water Shipping has taken delivery of the first of six tugs that Shipyard De Hoop is building in the Netherlands for the owner’s operations in the northern Caspian region. These tugs will be used for manoeuvring barges that are transporting modules to the Tengiz oilfield in Kazakhstan along inland waterways and across the Caspian Sea. Handover of this series of tugs started at the end of March and is expected to continue to the end of June. This whole series includes four azimuthing stern drive (ASD), 29.15 m tugs and two 24.8 m harbour tugs, all built with ice class to De Hoop’s own designs. Kabanbay Batyr was the first of these to be delivered to Blue Water Shipping after completing sea and river trials in March. It is one of the ASD tugs, with a bollard pull of 42 tonnes and maximum speed of 12.8 knots. A second of these tugs, Karasay Batyr, was on sea trials on 9 April and was delivered to the owner at the end of April. Two more of these larger ASD tugs, Bogenbay Batyr and Raiymbek Batyr, are scheduled to be completed by the end of June. All four of these 10.73 m breadth tugs are built at De Hoop’s Lobith shipyard. They have 80 m2 of deck space, accommodation for nine people and two Mitsubishi S16R-MPTAW-2 main engines that generate 1,380 kW of power at 1,650 rpm. These drive two Schottel SRp 360 fixed pitch nozzled rudderpropellers. De Hoop said the main thrusters are recessed, which reduces the minimum operational draught to only 2.80 m. Auxiliary equipment on these tugs consists of two Veth 116 kW generator sets.

The deck equipment includes a Sormec FB hydraulic foldable knuckle boom marine crane and a Kraaijeveld towing winch with a Mampaey quick-release towing hook. Kraaijeveld also supplied two barge coupling winches and an anchor winch. De Hoop’s Foxhol shipyard was building the two harbour tugs, to be named Naurybay Batyr and Otegen Batyr, for completion in May and June. These have revolving propellers on their stern and a bow thruster for additional manoeuvrability. Combined, these generate bollard pull of 30 tonnes for each tug. Naurybay Batyr and Otegen Batyr were designed to assist the larger tugs in handling cargo barges when precise manoeuvring is required, such as in harbours and terminals. They have 70 m2 of deck space, accommodation for 10 people and two Mitsubishi S12R-MPTAW-2 main engines, each producing 1,040 kW of power at 1,650 rpm. These drive two Schottel SRP 340 FP rudder and nozzled propellers. They are also recessed for an operational draught of 2.8 m. They also have two Veth 116 kW generator sets. All of these six tugs will be tasked with assisting with the transportation of offshore platform components, barges and vessels, along a 75 km-long channel and across the shallow waters of the Caspian Sea to offloading facilities at Prorva, Kazakhstan. They will provide further support inside the offloading facility and other port-related work. Around 250 modules, with average footprint of 30 m x 30 m need to be transported for the Tengiz project Blue Water Shipping is leading a consortium of companies in supporting Tengizchevroil in the future growth project

De Hoop delivered Kabanbay Batyr tug after river and sea trials in March

on the Tengiz oilfield. This includes 20 module transportation vessels, 11 barges and 29 tugs for transporting modules from the Black Sea to Prorva, through the Russian inland waterway system. Some of these tugs have been sourced locally and upgraded while others, such as the six ordered from De Hoop, are newbuildings. TTB

ASD TUG PARTICULARS Kabanbay Batyr, Karasay Batyr Bogenbay Batyr, Raiymbek Batyr Length, oa: 29.15 m Beam, oa: 10.73 m Depth: 4.60 m Draught: 2.80 m Engines: Mitsubishi S16R-MPTAW-2 Power rating: 2x 1,380 kW at 1,650 rpm Bollard pull: 42 tonnes Maximum speed: 12.8 knots Tonnage: 336 gt Deck space: 80 m2 Accommodation: 9 crew

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018

22 | SPECIAL FOCUS Mediterranean

Med XXV tug has been deployed in the Izmit Bay province in Turkey

Turkish shipyards adapt tugboat designs Med Marine, Uzmar and Sanmar have adapted Robert Allan designs and ramped up construction of tugs under contracts and for their own fleets


urkish shipyards are busy constructing fleets of tugs for clients and their own requirements, while producing some on a speculative basis. Turkish yards are using off-the-shelf models from Canada-based Robert Allan, and adapted these for their own designs to meet a multitude of client power and manoeuvrability requirements. Med Marine has been more active than this time last year, delivering tugs each month for its own Turkish-based fleet and for clients. This shipyard is half way through a tug newbuilding campaign for its own fleet and completed two tugs for other owners in Q1 2018. In April, Med Marine completed Med XXVI, boosting its own Turkish fleet to 23

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018

vessels. This tug was built to a RAmparts 2300-MM design that is adapted from a Robert Allan coastal towage tug model. Med XXVI was the third of six RAmparts 2300-MM model tugboats that Med Marine is constructing for its fleet, Med Marine spokesman Asli Köseoðlu told Tug Technology & Business. This 23 m azimuthing stern drive (ASD) tug has been deployed to Izmit Bay, in the Sea of Marmara, along with other Med Marine tugs, he said. Med XXVI was built for harbour and terminal operations and coastal towing with a top sailing speed of 12 knots and bollard pull of 50 tonnes. It has Caterpillar engines and generators, Schottel thrusters and is classed

by Italy’s RINA Services. For other clients, Med Marine supplied a harbour tug to Arpas Pilotage and Towage in February. Eregli 52 is a RAmparts 2500W design ASD tug with 73 tonnes of bollard pull and a maximum speed of 12 knots, said Mr Köseoðlu. This is achieved using two Schottel SRP1515 azimuthing thrusters with controllable pitch propellers of 2,600 mm diameter, driven by two Caterpillar CAT 3516C diesel engines that have a total output of 4,200 kW. Eregli 52 is a RINA Services-classed, 25.3 m tug with a FiFi 1 fire-fighting system that includes a dieseldriven pump that can deliver 2,600 m3/h of water to two

Mediterranean SPECIAL FOCUS | 23

electrically controlled monitors. It also has two Caterpillar C4.4 gensets that produce a total of 172 ekW of electrical power for vessel services, including deck machinery. SEC Groningen supplied electric-controlled anchor and towing winches. Eregli 52 is part of Arpas’ fleet operating in Ambarli Port, on the north shore of the Sea of Marmara, 34 km from Istanbul, Turkey. Arpas provides anchoring, berthing and unberthing services to ships and offshore drilling rigs in the port complex. It also provides tugboat and pilotage services to tanker moorings and terminals in the area. Arpas is a partnership of Kumport, Akçansa, Mardas, Marport and Limak that owns quays in the Ambarli Port. It operates five other tugboats, two mooring vessels and a port security boat. In March, Med Marine sold a 22.5 m tugboat to Port of Beirut, said Mr Köseoðlu. This RINA-classed tug operates out of the Beirut pilotage station in Lebanon with a top speed

of 12 knots and 40 tonnes of bollard pull. It has two 12-valve engines supplied by RollsRoyce subsidiary MTU (Series 4000 type M61R), which produce a total output of 2,280 kW and drive two twin-screw Promarine propellers. Caterpillar supplied two 2438B generator sets that each generate 75 kW for vessel systems including deck machinery, such as towing winches. Masson supplied the MMW7400 model reverse reduction gearboxes. This tugboat has accommodation for six people and fire-fighting capabilities thanks to a Marsis-supplied FiFi 1 system that can deliver 1,200 m3/hr to two electrically controlled monitors. Also in March, Med Marine won a contract from Italian shipping group Rimorchiatori Riuniti to supply an escort tug for Tug Malta, said Mr Köseoðlu. This will be a RAstar 3000-W class tugboat that was designed by Robert Allan for enhanced escort towing and seakeeping performance. Rimorchiatori Riuniti engaged with Robert

Allan before awarding the construction contract to Med Marine. It will be a 29.7 m tug with a bollard pull of 80 tonnes and a maximum sailing speed of 13.0 knots. MTU will supply two 16-valve engines (Series 4000, type M65L) for this vessel that will be able to each generate 2,560 kW of power to drive two RollsRoyce US255 thrusters. The tug will have accommodation for eight people, a FiFi 1 class fire-fighting system and RollsRoyce deck machinery. Tug Malta also took delivery of an ASD escort tug from Damen Shipyards in February. St Angelo was built by Damen Galati with two Caterpillar engines with a total output of 5,050 kW. It is a Damen ASD 2913 design, 28.1 m tug with a 4.14 m draught and top speed of 13 knots. This 431 gt tug was classed by Bureau Veritas for escort and supply duties with firefighting equipment to FiFi 1 standards. It can also recover oil with a flash point of more than 60°C. Other tugs in Tug

Malta’s fleet include Sea Salvor and Spinola, which saluted the arrival of St Angelo by spraying water from their monitors.

Israeli orders

Rival shipbuilder Sanmar is using designs that Robert Allan produced exclusively for the shipyard. The latest of these is tug Ashdod, which is the second of a new VectRA 3000 series of vessels. This 30.25 m tug joined sister vessel Arie A in the Israeli port of Ashdod in March. It was built with Voith Schneider propellers (VSPs) for Italian operator Tripmare Spa. Ashdod has a bollard pull of 70 tonnes and maximum speed of 12.5 knots. These are achieved with a pair of Caterpillar 3516C diesel engines that each generate 2,525 kW of power at 1,800 rpm. These drive forwardlocated Voith type 32-R5 250 cycloidal propellers via a pair of Reintjes WAF 843 clutch and reduction gearboxes. Sanmar said these reduce transmission losses, which increases the overall propulsion efficiency. Reintjes devices

Eregli 52 is a RAmparts 2500W design ASD tug built for Arpas Pilotage and Towage

EREGLI 52 PARTICULARS Owner: Arpas Pilotage and Towage Builder: Med Marine Operates: Ambarli Port, Turkey Designer: Robert Allan Design: RAmparts 2500W Bollard pull: 73 tonnes Maximum speed: 12 knots Length, oa: 25.3 m Main engines: 2 x Caterpillar CAT 3516C Propellers: 2 x Schottel SRP1515 Gensets: 2 x Caterpillar C4.4

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018

24 | SPECIAL FOCUS Mediterranean

ASHDOD PARTICULARS Owner: Tripmare Spa Builder: Sanmar Operates: Ashdod Port, Israel Designer: Robert Allan Design: VectRA 3000 Bollard pull: 70 tonnes Maximum speed: 12.5 knots Length, oa: 30.25 m Beam, mld: 13 m Draught, max: 6 m Main engines: 2 x Caterpillar 3516C Propellers: 2 x Voith Schneider 32R5 250 Clutch & gearbox: Reintjes WAF 843

also enable the drives to be de-clutched at idle, which reduces fuel consumption. By using these high-speed engines, Sanmar was able to reduce the space occupied by drive machinery, lowering the weight without affecting tug performance. Ashdod is also equipped with a DMT-supplied hydraulicdriven and double-drum winch with tension indication clutches and 800 kN capacity. Both drums have a brake capacity of 200 tonnes. This delivery followed the shipping out of a Yenicay-class tug, Al Jimi 1, for Abu Dhabi Ports’ tug operating unit Safeen in February. This is based on a Robert Allan RAscal 1800 model and has 32 tonnes of bollard pull and top speed of 12 knots. Al Jimi 1 started operating in both Musaffah and Zayed ports in the UAE in February. It is an ASD, 18.7 m tug with Veth VZ-900 azimuthing stern thrusters. These are driven by a pair of Caterpillar C32 main engines each developing 969 kW at 1,800 rpm. Because of the hot environment these tugs will operate in, they have an upgraded HVAC system serving all accommodation spaces and improved overall fan

capacities, said Sanmar. Also in February, Sanmar delivered a 25.3 m tractor tug Kinaki to owner Port Taranaki to support berthing at the port on the west coast of North Island, New Zealand. This was built to a Sanmaradapted Robert Allan design, TRAktor-Z 2500 SX. Kinaki has forwardmounted Z-drives in a tractor format that, according to Sanmar, were designed for maximum efficiency in harbour, ship-handling and towing duties. This ABS-classed tug has 60 tonnes of bollard pull. Sanmar technical director Ali Gurun said other tugs had been delivered in the first four months of 2018 to Svitzer, SMS Towage and an unnamed owner in northern Spain. He said Sanmar had a strong orderbook of tug contracts after more orders had been secured this year for ASD tugs.

A tug century

Turkey’s Uzmar Shipyard has adapted Robert Allan models for its newbuild construction programme using the RAstar 3000-UZM and RAmparts 2300-UZM designs. It is also working on new exclusive DRAfter 2500-UZM and Rave

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018

3200-UZM tug designs, based on Robert Allan series. In April, Uzmar celebrated construction of its 100th tug to a Robert Allan design. This milestone tug is being built to a RAstar 3200-W design for SAAM Smit Towage Canada. This ASD tug will be built to support terminal operations and to provide escort services on Canada’s west coast. It is scheduled to be delivered in Q1 2019. Uzmar said it will be built for all ship-handling roles, including berthing, unberthing and escort duties, even in heavy weather conditions. It will be optimised for generating high indirect escort forces and be capable of providing towing operations

from the stern, a shipyard spokesman said. This RAstar 3200-W tug will be one of the first tugs to feature an IMO Tier III emissions-compliant propulsion package. It will have other notable features, such as gas detection, explosion-proof deck equipment and fire-fighting capabilities to FiFi 1 capabilities. Uzmar is building eight other tugs to Robert Allan design at its shipyard in the Kocaeli free zone, Turkey. These tugs include six RAstar 3200 tugs and a pair of RAmparts 3000 tugs. After these, Uzmar intends to build at least another 20 more vessels with bollard pulls of between 50-85 tonnes on a speculative basis.

Med XXVI propulsion Med XXVI has a pair of Caterpillar 3512C diesel engines that produce a total output of 1,380 kW each at 1,600 rpm. Med XXVI also has two Caterpillar C4.4 gensets that provide 86 kW of electrical power each for vessel services, including driving the deck machinery. Schottel supplied two SRP340 azimuthing thrusters with fixed pitch propellers of 2,100 mm diameter. SEC Groningen supplied an electric-controlled anchor and towing winch for 19 mm chain and an electric-controlled aft towing winch with one towing drum. The front towing winch is custom made for Med Marine with a pulling force of 300 kN and holding force of 1,300 kN. Med XXVI also has a FiFi fire-fighting system with two electrically-controlled monitors and diesel pump that can deliver 1,400 m³/h. RAmparts 2300-MM tugs are compliant with ILO’s Maritime Labour Convention with comfortable accommodation, a captain’s cabin, an officer cabin and two double crew cabins. TTB

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26 | SPECIAL FOCUS Mediterranean

Neri Group expands fleet and operations base N

eri Group (or Fratelli Neri) expanded its tugboat fleet in 2017 with the addition of six vessels in 18 months and extended its services outside of Italy. This family-run group operates a fleet of 40 vessels, including 25 named tugs with bollard pulls ranging from 15-110 tonnes, five offshore support vessels, three crane barges and three other barges. With this tugboat fleet, Neri Group provides marine services, mostly harbour towage, escort services, coastal and river towage, environmental protection, salvage and wreckage removal. Neri Group also operates onshore facilities that include chemical terminals and warehouses and employs over 300 people. During an 18-month programme to June 2017, six tugs were added to the fleet, according to Neri Group. Montenero was the final addition in that newbuilding programme and was the twin of Antignano. Montenero and Antignano were built as terminal escort tugs. They have bollard pulls of 90 tonnes that come from two MAN engines that each develop 2,555 kW of power at 800 rpm. Fratelli Neri commercial manager Corrado Neri told Tug Technology & Business that these six additions help the group support container, tanker and LNG terminals in Italy and elsewhere in the Mediterranean. This includes in Greece after one of its tugs began operating under a joint venture between three Italian tug operators – Neri Group, Rimorchiatori Mediterranei Genova and Gesmar Ravenna – and Greek company Gigilinis Shipping. In December 2017, 2001-built tractor tug Alfredo Neri started towage services in the ports of Thessaloniki and Kavala. Also in 2017, its shearleg crane barge Italia assisted in a dredging project in Croatia. Mr Neri hinted that there could

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018

be more orders coming for new tugs if new contracts arose. Neri Group announced in March 2018 that it is working with Italian energy corporation Eni to develop a new LNG terminal in Livorno. This terminal will be used for distributing LNG on small gas carriers along Italy’s coast to vehicle refuelling centres and on bunkering vessels for fuelling ships in transit to Livorno port. Neri Group also has experience with salvage projects in Italy. Mr Neri said it was one of the companies that responded to the Costa Concordia disaster. This was when the 114,147 gt cruise ship was wrecked off the coast of Isola del Giglio in Italy on 13 January 2012. “We were involved in removing oil from the casualty,” he said. “We have carried out many wreck removal projects using our 1,000tonne shearleg [Italia] in Italy and offshore Sicily,” said Mr Neri. Its heavylift crane barges are also involved in dredging and offshore construction projects. Neri Group also has dedicated salvage equipment that includes diesel generators, hydraulic power packs and submersible pumps. TTB

“We were involved in removing oil from the [Costa Concordia] casualty”

NERI GROUP TUG FLEET 9 tractor tugs 6 ASD tugs, 80-110T bollard pull 2 ASD tugs, 50-70T bollard pull 3 single scew tugs 3 stan tugs 2 escort tractor tugs

Neri Group tugs assist Hapag-Lloyd container ship Humboldt Express in an Italian terminal

Mediterranean SPECIAL FOCUS | 27

Sanmar completes two tractor tugs for Svitzer Turkish tugboat builder, Sanmar Shipyards has completed two new tugs for Svitzer’s European operations. It has built two new tractor tugs following Robert Allen designs for Svitzer to deploy in the UK and northern Europe. These 25.3 m tugs have boosted the Svitzer Europe fleet up to 113 tugs. Sanmar has delivered Svitzer Vale, which began operations in the Port of London during the first week of May. Svitzer said this new tractor tug will be replaced by the other Sanmar newbuilding, Svitzer Meridian, in July. Svitzer Vale will then be mobilised to join the vessel owning group’s Scandinavia and Germany cluster in July. Svitzer Europe managing director Kasper Friis Nilaus said these two tugs improve the mobility of tugs operating between ports in the region. “From a business perspective, adding two tugs to the fleet will reinforce our ability to activate our fleet across ports to ensure we offer the right service in the right port,” he said. These tug additions enable Svitzer to “optimise the utilisation of these assets” in the region to “accommodate the industry’s natural demand for mobility” said Mr Nilaus. This has competitive advantages for Svitzer in Europe, where there is competition for port and marine services.

“In the current market situation, it is crucial to both keep vessels busy and balance workloads when aiming to run a lean business,” Mr Nilaus explained. ABS-classed Svitzer Vale and Svitzer Meridian were built this year as Delicay class tugs by Sanmar to TRAktor-Z 2500 SX designs. These sister tugs have bollard pulls of around 70 tonnes and maximum speeds of 12.5 knots. They each have two Caterpillar 3516C HD main engines, each producing 2,100 kW of power at 1,600 rpm. These drive two Rolls-Royce US255 thrusters with 2,600 mm diameter propellers. In the engineroom there are also two Caterpillar C4.4 gensets producing 99 ekW at 50 Hz. Their deck machinery includes a DMTsupplied and electrically driven, split-drum aft winch. This has a brake holding load of 187 tonnes and can haul in 25 tonnes at a speed of 9 m/min or 8 tonnes at 28 m/min.

SVITZER VALE & SVITZER MERIDIAN PARTICULARS Owner: Svitzer Europe Builder: Sanmar Class: Delicay Design: Traktor-Z 2500 SX Length, oa: 25.3 m Breadth, moulded: 12 m Draught: 6.2 m Bollard pull: 70 tonnes Maximum speed: 12.5 knots Main engines: 2 x Caterpillar 3516C HD Thrusters: 2 x Rolls-Royce US255

Sanmar-built Svitzer Vale started operating in the Port of London in early May

Italian owner boosts tugboat fleet A subsidiary of Italian tugboat owner Rimorchiatori Riuniti was preparing to take delivery, as this issue goes to press, of a multipurpose escort tug to be registered in Genoa, Italy. Turkish shipyard Bogazici launched 70-tonne bollard pull Paraggi to Finarge Armamento Genovese on 7 April and will outfit this vessel for delivery. Paraggi is an azimuthing stern drive tug designed by Cintranaval Ship Design for escort and harbour duties. It is powered by two Caterpillar 3516C type main engines, each delivering 2,100 kW, and two 150 kW generator sets plus one harbour genset. It has a Schottel propulsion system type SRP 1515 controllable pitch propeller. Paraggi has improved manoeuvrability with a 160 kW electric-driven bow thruster. It is classed by Bureau Veritas as an escort and salvage tug with unrestricted navigation and fire-fighting capabilities to FiFi 1 class. Paraggi has a top speed of 13 knots and accommodation is designed for a crew of 10. Its deck machinery includes a Kraaijeveld 45-tonne doubledrum towing winch on the aft and a 70-tonne towing hook, towing pines, reel winder and stern roller of 130 tonnes.

Rimorchiatori Riuniti has been building fleets of tugs in its subsidiaries in the Mediterranean including a tug for its Malta operations. In December 2017, a vessel was added to a fleet of tugs in Salerno, Italy.

PARAGGI PARTICULARS Owner: Finarge Armamento Genovese Builder: Bogazici Delivery: May 2018 Designer: Cintranaval Ship Design Type: Multipurpose ASD escort tug Class: Bureau Veritas Bollard pull: 70 tonnes Maximum speed: 13 knots Engineroom systems: 2 x Caterpillar 3516C Propulsion: 2 x Schottel SRP 1515 CPP

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018

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DAMEN INTRODUCES NEW HARBOUR TUG DESIGN Innovation is a reversed stern drive tugboat that combines tractor and azimuth stern drive elements for compact operations in restricted harbours

Innovation is equally effective at assisting ships from its bow and stern


amen Shipyards has built the first of a new type of harbour tug that has two bows and is highly manoeuvrable. Innovation is a reversed stern drive (RSD) tugboat that combines elements of tractor tugs and azimuth stern drive (ASD) units. This 25 m tug is of a RSD Tug 2513 design and has a patented twin-fin skeg. Damen designed Innovation with 13 m beam, which is wider than other tugs of this size for improved stability, and 5.5 m draught. It said the tug is equally effective at assisting ships from its bow and stern depending on vessel requirements. To aid this, it has cylinder and block fendering at the bow and D-shaped fenders on the side and aft. Innovation has a bollard pull of 75 tonnes ahead and 71 tonnes astern for towage. It also

has a maximum speed ahead of 13 knots and slightly less, 12.8 knots, astern. Damen Shipyards group product manager for tugs Dirk Degroote explained to Tug Technology & Business last year that this tug was designed for compact operations in and around harbours and terminals, without any loss in power or towage performance within restricted waters (TTB, Q2 2017). Innovation has a higher freeboard than is usual on a tugboat of this size, which improves safety and stability. It also has shatterproof glass around the wheelhouse to protect crew and glued superstructure to counter noise and vibration. Its main propulsion comes from two MTU 4000 series M63L engines that have 16 valves and each produce 2,240 kW at 1,800 rpm. These drive

INNOVATION PARTICULARS Design: RSD 2513 Built: April 2018 Builder: Damen Shipyards Owner: Damen Marine Services Flag: The Netherlands Class: Bureau Veritas Length, oa: 25 m Beam, oa: 13 m Draught: 5.5 m Displacement: 525 tonnes Bollard pull ahead: 75 tonnes Bollard pull astern: 71 tonnes Speed ahead: 13 knots Speed astern: 12.8 knots

PROPULSION SYSTEM Main engines: 2 x MTU 16V 4000 M63L Total power: 4,480 kW at 1,800 rpm Thrusters: 2 x Rolls-Royce US255 Diameter: 2.700 mm Generator sets: 2 x Caterpillar C4.4TA Performance: 81 kVA, 400.230 V 50 Hz

Rolls-Royce US255 thrusters with 2.7 m diameter propellers. Additional power comes from two Caterpillar C4.4TA generator sets that produce 81 kVA, 400/230 V at 50 Hz frequency. Also in the engineroom are Azcue bilge, fuel and service pumps. Damen has introduced a remote monitoring system for its engineroom machinery. Mr Degroote said the hull was optimised through extensive computational fluid dynamics calculations in combination with model tests for validation. “This results in a very agile, but predictable sailing behaviour, enabling captains to deal with the highly demanding operations of today in a safe manner,” he said. Deck equipment on Innovation includes a hydraulic towage winch that has a split drum and can deliver a pull of 31 tonnes at up to 11 m/min or a reduced pull at up to 38 m/ min. It has a 175-tonne brake. There is also an electrically driven anchor winch that operates up to 10 m/min. In the wheelhouse, Furuno Electric supplied a FAR-1518BB radar, FE-800 echosounder, DS-80 speedlog, Navtex and Automatic Identification System equipment. There is also a Cassens & Plath Reflecta 11 compass, Simrad AP-70 autopilot, GN70 satellite compass and Simrad GPS. Jotron supplied a Tron-60S epirb and a search and rescue transponder. Innovation’s communications includes a VSAT that includes an Intellian v60G antenna that operates over Inmarsat’s Global Xpress network. TTB

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018

Escort tug operators have offshore experience that can be critical to the configuration of a floating LNG terminal project

ESCORT TUGS FACE THE CHALLENGES OF OFFSHORE LNG Providers of escort tug services for floating LNG terminals face unique challenges but also play a role in project realisation, writes Mike Corkhill


growing network of LNG export and import terminals worldwide means an expanding fleet of escort tugs needed to safely shepherd visiting LNG carriers to and from their berths and mooring positions, and to serve as emergency responders should the need arise during cargo transfer operations. The LNG terminal community is now being joined by the inaugural floating LNG production (FLNG) vessels and an increasing number of floating storage and regasification units (FSRUs) in varied locations.

These floating LNG facilities provide challenges for escort tug service providers in addition to those encountered servicing traditional, shore-based terminals. Among the notable new deployments of escort tugs at offshore LNG facilities is that for the Cameroon export project. The scheme is using Hilli Episeyo, the world’s first conversion of an LNG carrier into an FLNG vessel, and is currently poised to commence commercial operations in Q2 2018. Hilli Episeyo has a storage capacity of 125,000 m3 and will produce 1.2 mta of LNG

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018

under an eight-year charter contract with Société Nationale des Hydrocarbures (SNH) and Perenco Cameroon. Smit Lamnalco is supplying the escort tugs for the operation and is using three 32 m vessels from its existing pool. Hilli Episeyo, located at the Kribi field, is moored in relatively shallow water 14 km offshore by means of an external frame turret arrangement which allows it to weathervane. Cargo transfers to loading LNG carriers are to be carried out with the two vessels positioned side-by-side (SBS).

Smit Lamnalco expects the tugs’ escort and operationsmonitoring duties to settle into a routine fairly quickly. The relatively benign sea and weather conditions in the area have provided the project with a 90% operability window, while the tugs’ class certificates highlight that their stationkeeping, towage and emergency response capabilities measure up to what is required. Support Craft at Liquefied Gas Facilities: Principles of Emergency Response and Protection - Offshore, a document published by the


Society of Gas Tanker and Terminal Operators (SIGTTO) in 2016, provides guidance for tug operators on appropriate responses in the event of an emergency at an offshore gas terminal. Implementation of the recommended actions to be taken by such craft will help to prevent and mitigate accidents. Each gas terminal has traditionally specified the performance standards that the specialist assist vessels it uses must comply with as part of its emergency response plan. The variable nature of these requirements had increased over the years as the global network of gas terminals has spread, prompting SIGTTO to develop harmonised guidelines. Notwithstanding the support offered by generic guidelines, each offshore gas terminal has its own unique set of operational challenges. These include providing the required level of redundancy; arranging for the necessary logistics support; catering for local content requirements; tailoring

an appropriate training regime; and organising regular exercises to test response plans. If requested, escort tug operators can get involved with a new offshore gas terminal project at an early stage to provide valuable consultancy advice on the optimum scheme layout, operating procedures and tug fleet. Such support can not only assist the floating vessel operator, the gas seller, the LNG buyer and the port authority achieve commercial acceptability for their offering but also help determine the nature of the tug operator service package that is contracted.

Prelude coming up

Another FLNG project due to commence operations in 2018 is Shell’s Prelude initiative 230 km off the coast of Western Australia. The energy major has contracted Perth-based KT Maritime Services Australia, a joint venture between Kotug International and Teekay Shipping Australia, to provide three 42 m, 100-tonne bollard

Hilli Episeyo is the first LNG carrier to be converted into a floating LNG production vessel

pull tugs to serve as escort tugs for the 488 m floating unit. Termed infield support vessels (ISVs) by Shell, the tugs have been built by ASL Marine Holdings in Singapore to Robert Allan’s advanced Rotortug ART 100-42 design. The vessels embrace the rotor tug power system technology pioneered by Kotug through a combination of Robert Allan’s RAstar hullform and three separate azimuth propulsion units – two astern and one amidships. Poisitioned in open seas where the water depth is 250 m, Prelude will remain on station for its entire working life. Offloading operations, to LNG and LPG carriers and condensate tankers moored alongside in an SBS configuration, are subject to the vagaries of the wind and the waves. Variables also include the possibilities of beam and quartering seas, side-to-side rotation of the LNG carrier, wave motions and different liquid filling levels in the cargo tanks. To deal with what can be challenging conditions, Shell and KT Maritime have introduced an amended pushpull method for bringing loading vessels alongside the FLNG unit. With this procedure two of the ISVs, sailing stern first, establish a towline connection, one at the bow and one at the stern of the approaching offloading vessel. After they bring the vessel alongside the FLNG, the tugs move to its side and push it against the FLNG, at which time mooring lines are fixed in place. Whereas a conventional azimuthing stern drive (ASD) escort tug would be unable to execute such a manoeuvre in anything but good weather conditions, the ISVs are able to handle the side-on push movement in waves likely to be encountered in exposed locations without the risk of damage

to either themselves or the offloading vessel. Kotug has also proposed an alternative procedure for work in seas of increased wave heights known as ‘rotoring’ or indirect towing. During rotoring the ISVs assist the LNG carrier on a short wire length, staying connected centre forward and centre aft. They are then able to push against the short tow line and do not need to be repositioned to transfer forces onto the LNG carrier. Kotug points out that rotoring mitigates the risk of damage to the hull of the LNG carrier and is only possible with the unique rotor tug configuration. The Prelude project promises the LNG industry a steep learning curve. From the outset of commercial operations the performance of the ISVs, the FLNG vessel and offloading gas carriers and tankers will be carefully monitored and measured, to enable experience and expertise to be fed back into the playbook in the drive for continuous improvement. Five major receiving terminal projects are currently taking shape in Bangladesh, comprising three FSRU-based and two shore-based facilities, while two smaller schemes involving the use of FSRU barges in the Chittagong area could materialise quickly. The first Bangladesh FSRU, to be provided by Excelerate Energy, is due to commence operations by mid-2018. Svitzer will provide marine support to the terminal using a fleet of five vessels, including three RAstar 3200 escort tugs built by Cheoy Lee Shipyard. Also in Bangladesh, Summit LNG, is due onstream early in 2019 and PSA Marine of Singapore has been awarded a 15-year contract to provide the required towage services. PSA will supply three escort tugs, a crew boat and a supply vessel to cover this contract. TTB

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018


OSD DEVELOPS HYBRID HARBOUR TUG SERIES Hybrid propulsion offers several benefits to tug owners operating in emission control areas, as naval architects at OSD discovered when designing the Azistern-e tug

“A hybrid system employed on a tug is the most fuel-efficient in terms of mobilisation and towing capability”


aval architects at Offshore Ship Designers (OSD) have developed a series of hybrid tugs after years of research into different propulsion combinations and hull types. This Dutch group developed a series of Azistern-e tugs with overall lengths ranging from 20 m up to 26 m and bollard pull capabilities between 35 tonnes and 75 tonnes. Azistern 2035e is the smallest of three hybrid propulsion tug designs at 20 m long with a design draught of 3.75 m. It would have a tonnage of less than 200 gt, but bollard pull of around 35 tonnes. This would be suitable for smaller harbours and inland waterways. OSD’s Azistern 2250e has a length of 21.45 m, draught of 4.6 m and bollard pull of 50 tonnes for operations in terminals and harbours. If an operator needs a terminal tug with more power then it could use an Azistern 2575e design. This has a design capability of 75 tonnes of bollard pull from a 25 m tug. These designs

have been approved by Bureau Veritas as electric propulsion tugs with unrestricted navigation. OSD started this design project with the aim of creating a 22 m tug design that was compliant with IMO Tier III. This would have hybrid propulsion, combining batteries with smaller diesel-electric arrangements for lower fuel consumption and emissions and fewer running hours when compared with diesel-only driven tugs. As OSD went through this research it identified that hybrid tugs would have 42% less fuel consumption with a diesel-electric and battery configuration in the engineroom compared with a diesel-direct one. OSD technical manager Herm Jan de Vries said batteries reduce the load variations on engines and can provide enough power for most of the tug’s movements. Naval architects found there was a 75% reduction in engine running time when batteries are operating in parallel with

Azistern-e tug have two diesel gensets, 400 kWh lithium battery packs and V-pod series podded drives

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018


diesel engines. These calculations are based on an average sailing profile of a tug operating in a harbour in the Netherlands. With a hybrid propulsion, transit sailing and manoeuvring can be performed using the batteries with zero emissions. When maximum bollard pull is required for towage work, diesel-electric propulsion is used with a boost in power from the batteries. “A hybrid system employed on a tug is the most fuel-efficient in terms of mobilisation and towing capability,” Mr de Vries said. OSD created its first hybrid tug design, Azistern 2250e, following interest from owners and shipyards. This 21.45 m harbour tug design would come with two 970 kW variable speed diesel generator sets and two 400 kWh lithium battery packs. Mr de Vries said the first Azistern-e was designed to generate 50 tonnes of bollard pull. Its generators produce 1,350 kVA at 690 V and 40-60 Hz, with revolutions varying between 1,200-1,800 rpm. Each battery pack would have a design lifetime of 10 years and would weigh around 17,000 kg. They would each take up a rack floor area of 17 m2 and would be directly coupled to a common DC-Bus on each switchboard. Azistern-e would also include two AAApropulsion V-pod series podded drives that each have a 2.3 m diameter fixed pitch propeller with an Optima nozzle type. These are electrically driven pods with a permanent magnet motor placed inside the underwater casing just behind the propeller. If so desired, other electric-driven azimuthing thrusters could be used instead. “This design results in direct torque to the propeller shaft, while the electric motor can rotate at various speeds, with high efficiency even at low revolutions,” said Mr de Vries. “Placing the motor underwater results in further reductions of vibrations and noise in the thruster room.” OSD designed the engineroom to lower the tug’s vertical centre of gravity and positioned its engines and battery packs for ease of maintenance. “Engines and the battery capacity can be optimised according to the power demands of the tug’s operational profile,” said Mr de Vries. Smaller engines and the shaftless configuration increase the space below deck and more positional flexibility for auxiliaries and piping. Azistern-e has two separated DC switchboards. Power supply from each generator would go to both switchboards and all power converters for all major consumers. The voltage is variable between 700-1,000 V and is actively regulated in order to charge or discharge the batteries. There are also two 80 kVA grid transformers that are used to create a reliable and safe AC distribution system.


Azistern 2250e

Azistern 2575e

Length, oa

20.0 m

21.45 m

25.0 m

Design draught

3.75 m

4.60 m

5.50 m







Tonnage (gt) Bollard pull (tonnes) Genset power

2 x 550 kW

2 x 970 kW

3 x 970 kW

2 x 275 kWh

2 x 400 kWh

2 x 600 kWh

Fuel oil storage

35 m³

50 m³

90 m³

Fresh water storage

7.5 m³

18 m³


5 person

7 person

9 person

Battery pack

Max accommodation:


Diesel electric

Diesel electric hybrid

Fuel consumption



Energy consumption



Specific fuel consumption



Running hours



Notes: This is based on a tug’s operating profile of: 66% standby, 14% ship assistance with varying loads, 9% transit during mobilisation, 7% transit during demobilisation and 4% other.

Robert Allan tests remote controlled tug in simulation Robert Allan has used a simulator to test a hybrid and remotely controlled tug design for assisting ships entering terminals at speed. RAmora 2400 is a versatile towing vessel with a designed bollard pull of 55 tonnes, said Robert Allan vice president for engineering Vince den Hertog. It features substantial battery storage capacity to enable extended operations even in potentially hazardous environments, such as LNG terminals or fire-fighting situations. Mr den Hertog said this 25.9 m tug would have a maximum speed of 12 knots. “It has a towline that could move horizontally around the tug,” depending on its relative position to the ship it is assisting. RAmora has a crane manipulator to feed the towline to the crew on the ship while the vessel is still moving towards the terminal quayside, said Mr den Hertog. It can operate on its own, but RAmora would usually work with another tug for ship manoeuvring. In this scenario, RAmora would be situated on the incoming ship bow and a manned tug would have a towline attached to the aft of that vessel. The design includes two Voith Schneider thrusters, one fore and another aft of RAmora. Robert Allan used simulators at Pacific Maritime Institute in Seattle, US, for proof of concept and testing RAmora in different operations. One simulation program involved tugs assisting a containership entering Seattle, said Mr den Hertog. Another simulated towage using RAmora in the Panama Canal. “We also did fail-mode testing, such as failing the thrusters to see how masters would react,” he said. “We expect to work with class and manufacturers to insert different hardware in this simulation and for prototype testing.” TTB

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018


Technology improves oil spill response capabilities

A Helix free float skimmer can be used for separating oil from the surface water

Remote imagery, boom wings, speed sweepers and oil skimmers are extending the capabilities and efficiencies of oil spill responders using tugs or specialised vessels


echnology involved in oil pollution control and marine fire-fighting has evolved to improve the efficiency of operations and reduce the risks to responders. There have been developments in remote imagery, boom systems, autonomous surface vehicles and skimmers that can enhance identification of oil spillages and increase the amount of oil that can be recovered. Chairman of IMarEST’s Responses to Marine Pollution Special Interest Group, Matthew Sommerville, summarised the

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018

latest developments in pollution control at the International Salvage Union conference in London in March. He explained that balloons with multiple cameras are being used to provide imagery of spillages. “They provide a live feed of oil recovery operations,” he said, “but they are not ahead of a vessel”. For more advanced imagery, flying drones and autonomous surface vessels with cameras can be used for counter pollution and surveys. “They can land on moving platforms and operate in cold and hot conditions,” said Mr Sommerville.

He also outlined developments in booms for containing oil pollution. This includes boom wings that mean emergency responders can “operate at speeds up to 4 knots compared to just 0.7 knots with conventional booms”. A boom wing means a single tug, or other vessel, can move at these speeds with a V-shaped containment unit. Or a boom can be used to recover oil in a current. This helps to direct an oil slick towards a skimmer and recovery unit at the inside apex of the V shape. Skimmers are being developed to operate in more extreme environments, said Mr Sommerville. “They can operate in ice with increasing efficiency and people are looking at autonomous skimmers with prototypes coming this year,” he said. Some of these technical developments were presented during the Interspill exhibition also in London in March. During this event, Tug Technology & Business spoke to a number of these manufacturers and equipment providers. Desmi has developed a boom wing and skimmer system that enables oil recovery at speeds of up to 3.5 knots without oil slipping below the boom, said sales manager Mehdi Banisi. This is all part of Desmi’s speed-sweep system that includes a Ro-Kite as a wing, a Ro-Skim weir skimmer that is integrated within the apex of the booms and umbilicals for transferring collected oil to storage tanks. Mr Banisi explained that oil is funnelled towards a specially designed oil recovery unit that includes three 900 mm vortex screens that are fitted with circular floats that disrupt the laminar flow of the surface oil and water, which creates a stable area for oil recovery. A Ro-Skim or a Desmi Octopus in-line skimmer that is integrated with this speedsweep, or free-float Terminator, Helix and Giant Octopus skimmer can be used for separating oil from the surface water. “Ro-Kite replaces the need for a second vessel that is used in conventional


responses, which saves money for clients,” said Mr Banisi. Its movement through water is parallel to a deployment vessel and enables the boom to open into its V-shaped configuration. Oil can also be burnt as a method of removing it from the sea. For this remedy, Desmi supplies Pyrobooms in a static or speed-sweep configuration. These have been tested to be fire-proof for up to 24 hours, said Mr Banisi. Desmi has also developed drones for surveillance and for igniting these fires. “A drone can operate up to 1 km from the vessel and administer an igniter that means a person does not need to be in a dangerous position.” All these developments mean responders can “collect oil faster, burn oil further out or skim and pump quicker,” Mr Banisi concluded.

Boom time

Allmaritim offers four different types of the Current Buster that can be deployed in a current with speeds up to 4 knots without losing any of the contained oil. When this equipment is used with a BoomVane, a responder can operate as a single-vessel sweep system, said Allmaritim key account manager Andreas Stien. “Oil is directed to a built-in separator that has a skimmer and pumps oil back to a tank,” he said. One of these four types is designed for flowing shallow water, such as in estuaries. It has a draught of 1 m and has been used in Alaska and on the Yukon River, Canada.

Current Busters are being used by Brazil’s OceanPact for oil spill containment. These are deployed on daughter craft that are contracted by international oil companies operating in Brazil, such as Statoil and Total. These Current Busters have oil-water separators built in for higher recovery rates, said OceanPact commercial officer João Vitor Serra. “This separates oil from the water and means 75% of the oil can be collected, which is a huge increase in efficiency,” he said. Empteezy introduced six types of oil containment booms in different sizes at the exhibition. Its export director Lars Birkedal said these are: • Fence. • Permanent. • Curtain. • Silt. • Air. • Tidal. There are two sizes of fence booms, of 450 mm or 650 mm in height, that can be deployed from a reel in static water, such as in marinas and harbours. Permanent booms come in 15 m or 25 m lengths of 600 mm or 850 mm height, for long-term harbour deployment. Flotation is provided by foam-filled floats that are bolted onto rigid skirts. Curtain booms have buoyancy and weight ratios that are suitable for wave action in sheltered water. They come in 450 mm, 650 mm and 900 mm height in 25 m strips. A silt boom is designed for containing silt within inland waterways. Air-filled booms are suitable for

New FiFi pumps for tug operations Jason Engineering has introduced a new marine fire-fighting (FiFi) pump this year with a shaft that can be direct-driven or driven from the main engine power take-off shaft. OGF 150x250 is a single stage, single suction centrifugal pump with horizontal or vertical mounting. This comes with either end-suction or side-bottom suction bends. It has a capacity range of 100-800 m³/h and speed of 1,500-3,600 rpm. It has nickel-aluminium bronze casing and impeller and a high-grade stainless steel shaft. It weighs 180 kg and consumes up to 420 kW of power. Fire Fighting Systems’ FiFi1 system was incorporated in Robert Allan’s remote controlled fireboat design, RALamander. This includes a pump and two monitors as the vessel is designed to fight marine and port fires. This year, Marsis supplied FiFi1 systems to tugs built by Med Marine, including a 22.5 m tug that was acquired by the Port of Beirut for towage and emergency response in Lebanon. Aksis Fire celebrated supplying its 1,000th fire extinguishing system at the start of this year, with all these supplied to 475 vessels in total.

“Ro-Kite replaces the need for a second vessel that is used in conventional responses, which saves money for clients”

deployment from response vessels where foam-filled booms would be too bulky, said Mr Birkedal. Empteezy offers two sizes in 25 m lengths of 850 mm and 1,200 mm.

Recovery technology

Lamor has tested a skimmer that can be used in solid ice. An icebreaking version of its Sternmax skimmer was trialled in the last three years on icebreaking escort tug Arctia’s Ahto in the Gulf of Bothnia, Finland. Tests were also carried out in Arctic conditions in March 2017. Ahto was designed by ILS Ship Design & Engineering with an ice class of 1ASuper (Tug Technology & Business, Q1 2018). Lamor chief operating officer Rune Högström explained how Sternmax can break up to 1.1 m of ice and then uses oleophilic brushes to drive slush ice and oil into the skimmer. This was deployed on an A frame on the stern of Ahto. Tests proved that the vessel’s propulsion can induce a current to pull oil from below the ice and concentrate it in an area for recovery. Sternmax can recover up to 560 m³/hr. Lamor also presented its free-floating skimmers and oil transfer pumps. For example, the Minimax 25 floating skimmer has been redesigned as a modular unit that can be deployed in Arctic conditions. It can be assembled and disassembled by hand and recovery units, such as oleophilic brushes, discs and drums can be interchanged, said Lamor sales manager Philip Smith. “This depends on the viscosity of the oil to be recovered,” he said. TTB

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018


Italy seeks oil spill response co-operation in the Adriatic Castalia operates a fleet of 36 vessels to respond to oil spills around the Italian coast and co-operates with France and Monaco under the Ramoge agreement

Ievoli Red responds to oil spills for Castalia including one in Sicily in March 2018


n agreement is on the cards to provide integrated oil spill response services throughput the Adriatic. Castalia Consorzio Stabile, the main provider of oil spill response services to the Italian government, is in discussions with authorities and emergency response providers in Slovenia, Croatia, Albania and Montenegro to provide infrastructure for dealing with oil slicks in the region. It already provides a standby vessel in the Adriatic on behalf of the European Maritime Safety Agency. Castalia works with French and Monegasque authorities and responders under the Ramoge agreement to protect northern Mediterranean coastlines. This agreement – which was signed in 1976 between Monaco, France and Italy – covers co-operation to provide marine environmental protection, including oil spill response, in the Ligurian Sea and Mediterranean from Marseille, France to La Spezia, Italy. Ramoge also covers coasts and seas around Corsica and Sardinia. Italian authorities are eager to have a similar agreement for sharing marine environment protection in the Adriatic, said Castalia manager Stefano Casu. Italy already has a bilateral agreement with Greece covering the Ionian Sea. Castalia is a consortium of 33 Italian vessel operators and reacts to any environmental spillages off Italy’s coastline and in the nation’s waterways, including around Sicily and Sardinia. It has 15 bases, with 12 on the mainland, one on Sicily and two on Sardinia. It operates a fleet of 36 dedicated vessels and can call on other vessels from Italian owners if required. “We have vessels on standby with booms and skimmers ready to respond to spills within five hours, which can be a complicated activity,” Mr Casu told Tug Technology & Business. It operates nine tugs that are ready to tackle offshore oil accidents and 27 coastal vessels. “Each tug has up to 400 m of booms, skimmers, absorbent materials, pumps and oil storage,” said Mr Casu. Castalia also uses drones and balloons with four cameras on board and radar for oil spillage surveillance. Castalia works for other clients including state-run energy group Eni, gas producer Eon, cable construction company Prysmian and ship operator Grimaldi Group. It can remove wrecks, salvage marine casualties and conduct seabed mapping, geophysical, environmental and archaeological surveys. Perhaps the most notorious salvage project Castalia was involved in was the Costa Concordia disaster in 2012. “We were there from Day One until the end,” said Mr Casu. Castalia assisted Smit and Titan during the recovery, wreck-lift and transit to Genoa.

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018

CASTALIA FACTS Structure: Consortium of 33 shipowners Main role: Oil spill response around Italy Other roles: Salvage, wreck removal, surveys Bases: 15 Headquarters: Rome Fleet: 27 coastal vessels, 9 tugs Established: 1986 Agreements: With France & Monaco (Ramoge Agreement); with Greece covering Ionian Sea

Turkish resources In Turkey, MOST Maritime, which is affiliated with tug operator and builder Sanmar, provides marine environment protection, including oil spill response. MOST general manager Gökce Oral said it operates in 16 regions around Turkey with emergency response and rapid response vessels. It also operates five 15 m tugs and can use Sanmar-operated tugs if necessary, she told Tug Technology & Business. MOST has 12-18 vessels on standby around the Turkish coast. “When we are notified of an oil spill we have to initiate our operations and deploy a boom in just one hour,” said Ms Oral. This notification can come from the Turkish authorities or coastguard and MOST also provides oil spill response for oil companies that operate terminals and refineries in the country. In the Black Sea, MOST provides services to the offshore industry. It supports construction of trunk gas pipelines from Russia and tackles pollution from the network of oil and gas platforms. TTB

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SALVORS SAVE 3.4M TONNES OF POLLUTION IN 2017 ISU members attended 252 salvage incidents in 2017, preventing oil, bunkers, refined products, containers, chemicals and bulk cargo pollutants entering marine environments


alvage companies, including tug operators, saved 3.4M tonnes of pollution from being discharged into the world’s oceans in 2017, up from nearly 2.7M tonnes in 2016, according to figures from the International Salvage Union (ISU). This included 1.4M tonnes of bulk cargo and around 0.8M tonnes of crude oil that was prevented from entering the sea from damaged ships. Prevention was through removing grounded ships to save marine environments and towing damaged vessels to safe locations to prevent them from causing collisions or pollution. These figures come from the ISU’s survey of its members into 2017 pollution prevention activity. In total, 252 salvage incidents were reportedly dealt with by ISU members in 2017, up from 213 in 2016.

“After saving life, protection of the marine environment is the priority in all salvage operations,” said ISU president Charo Coll at an ISU conference in London in March. She explained that this survey demonstrates how ISU members “have helped to protect the marine environment from potential damage”. By far the largest proportion of the pollution prevention was from salvage projects involving bulk carrier cargo, mainly ores, which was 1.4M tonnes. This represents 42% of pollution prevention in 2017 and is significantly up from around 859,530 tonnes prevented in 2016. Around 23% of the pollution saved from entering global oceans was crude oil, which was estimated by ISU members to be 798,620 tonnes in 2017, up from 705,150 tonnes in 2016.

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018

Increasing sizes of container ships and their risk of becoming involved in maritime accidents means salvors prevented 45,650 containers weighing 684,800 tonnes from entering oceans in 2017. This is compared with 21,220 containers with an equivalent weight of 318,350 tonnes in 2016. Other pollutants, such as bunkers, chemicals and oil products make up smaller proportions of prevented pollution. The amount of prevented refined oil product pollution dropped dramatically year-onyear with 134,490 tonnes prevented in 2017, compared with 544,740 in 2016. Ms Coll thinks it is important to calculate the amount of pollution prevented through salvage as it reminds shipping, governments and nongovernmental organisations of the importance of salvage companies and tugowners. “It only takes one major incident to cause an environmental disaster so it is worth considering what might have occurred in some of these cases if there had not been a salvor available and willing to intervene,” she said. Since 1994, when the first survey was conducted, ISU members have provided services to casualty vessels that were carrying a total of 28.2M tonnes of potential pollutants. TTB

ISU appoints new secretary general Smit Salvage head Roger Evans has been appointed as the new secretary general of the International Salvage Union (ISU). It was announced in March that he will succeed Mark Hoddinott who is retiring later this year after six years in the post. Mr Evans is expected to join ISU during July this year to begin the handover with Mr Hoddinott before assuming the role in the last three months of this year. As secretary general, he will be responsible to the ISU executive committee for managing the organisation and delivering its objectives. Mr Evans is a former master mariner who sailed on a variety of vessels including reefers, bulk carriers, container and general cargo ships. He came ashore in 1985 to join Smit International and has served this Dutch offshore, towage and salvage firm in roles including contracts manager in London for Smit International, senior contracts manager for Smit Salvage in the Netherlands and, since 2013, as manager for Smit Salvage in the UK.




Number of services



Bulk cargo



Crude oil









Bunker fuel



Refined oil products



Other pollutants Total tonnage No of containers







RESULTS 2017 2% Other

4% Bunkers

20% Containers 23% Oil - crude

* These estimates are based on a nominal weight of 15 tonnes/TEU

4% Oil

42% Bulk - polluting



were on dayrate contracts


used Lloyd’s Open Form


were with towage contracts


were wreck removal contracts


were lump sum or fixed price contracts


used Japanese open forms


used other service contracts

5% Chemicals


10% Wreck

4% Japan

17% Towage

19% LOF

12% Other

38% Commercial

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018


Debate rages over UK emergency towage provision UK’s marine accident investigators recommended a review into emergency towage resources in the English Channel, but a national association insists there are enough commercial tugs available


ritish accident investigators called on the UK government in March to reconsider the need for an emergency towing provision in the English Channel, in particular in the Dover Strait. This followed an investigation into an accident that exposed the lack of towage resources in one of the world’s busiest shipping lanes. UK’s Marine Accident Investigation Branch (MAIB) has recommended that there should be a review of emergency towage provision in Kent, in the UK south east, because of the high risk of ship collisions in the Dover Strait. This resulted in a national debate in different media* and the British Tugowners Association (BTA) defended the vital role that

“Government-backed ETVs were sparsely spaced and invariably inappropriately positioned most of the time to promptly come to assist”

Marnavi-owned Ievoli Black worked in the Netherlands before it worked as an emergency towage vessel in northern Scotland

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018


commercial tugboat owners play in emergencies. MAIB made this unusual recommendation because of the lack of local salvage assets it identified during an investigation into the collision of general cargo ship Saga Sky and the rock-carrying barge Stema Barge II during storm conditions on 20 November 2016. Both vessels were damaged and crew needed emergency rescue by helicopter. There were a number of contributing factors to the accident and its outcome, such as bad weather that was pushing Saga Sky towards the barge. MAIB investigators identified that the crew on Saga Sky ignored warnings by the UK Coastguard to lower anchors during the storm. Its anchors were not deployed until after the point at which a collision may have been prevented, MAIB said. Once it became clear that Saga Sky was on collision course, there was no emergency towage vessel available to be dispatched to manoeuvre the ship to safety. Only a small harbour tug was available in Dover and this had too little power to deal with the emergency. In response to this, MAIB said in its report: “Given the volume of traffic using the Dover Strait and the absence of local commercial salvage assets, a review would be appropriate.” This recommendation was issued to the Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA) and it is thought it will be followed up. There are dedicated emergency towage assets in the northern French ports of Calais and Dunkirk, covering requirements in the Dover Strait and English Channel, and the UK has emergency towage provision in Scotland covering the northern and western seas. This is provided by Ardent Global and the Marnavi-owned anchor handler Ievoli Black, which has 139 tonnes of bollard pull and is stationed in Kirkwall, in the Orkney Islands. Reacting to the MAIB recommendations, the BTA confirmed to Tug Technology & Business that UK-based operators could provide the right response for ship emergencies when and where they are required, including in the English Channel and Dover Strait. These provisions would be better positioned and more readily available than any government-backed emergency towage vessel (ETV), said BTA secretary Robert Merrylees. “For the BTA, safety is paramount and its members are fully supportive of providing emergency tug coverage for vessels in distress or in need of assistance whenever they can,” he said. “Commercial operators do their very utmost in this provision.” Commercial tugs operate in all the main UK ports and would be able to assist in ship emergencies whereas government-backed ETVs “were sparsely spaced and invariably inappropriately positioned most of the time to promptly come to assist,” said Mr Merrylees.

TTB editor comment Commercial tugs can meet UK emergency towage needs, but only if these are near the main points of their operations and if they are available. There remain holes in the regional positioning and capabilities of commercial tugs, which were rightly highlighted by the Marine Accident Investigation Branch (MAIB). For example, MAIB found there was insufficient towage capabilities in the Dover Strait to provide adequate response to this emergency while, on the opposite side of the Channel, France has these provisions covering one of the world’s busiest shipping lanes. On a positive note, tug operators have increased the towage

He explained that technical capabilities of commercial tugs mean they are ready to tackle maritime emergencies. “With the bollard pull, tonnage and capability of commercial tugs increasing as ship size rises, the capability of the harbour tug for emergency assistance has increased,” Mr Merrylees said. He concluded that “whilst government-backed ETVs would, in an ideal world, be readily available, the cost and practicality of maintaining a fleet of them around the UK is very significant.” For that reason, BTA and its members think commercial tugs are in a strong position to provide a more prompt emergency response than state-backed emergency response vessels in the UK.

Other contributing factors and recommendations Other contributing factors to the Saga Sky-Stema Barge II accident were identified by MAIB including its discovery that an old Admiralty navigation chart had been used to determine the anchor position for Stema Barge II when the accident occurred. This led to the barge anchoring over the subsea Interconnector FranceAngleterre 1 cross-Channel power lines and severing them. In reaction to this, MAIB recommended that the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office and MCA “justify the need for regulatory powers which could be applied, where appropriate to ensure vessels comply with the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) recommendations with respect to anchoring in the vicinity of submarine cables.” IHO recommends that authorities set a minimum distance, nominally 0.25 nautical miles, from submarine cables within which ships should avoid anchoring or conducting other underwater activities. MAIB recommended that the UK’s Marine Management Organisation (MMO) should improve its marine licence application process to clearly stipulate a requirement that the latest nautical publications are referred to in project submissions. There were also lessons in the report for shipowners and managers in terms of providing guidance to ship masters for voyages and anchorage in adverse weather conditions. MAIB recommended to Saga Sky manager Anglo-Eastern Ship Management that it enhances shipboard procedures and vessel-specific guidance for captains that “masters can refer to in order to estimate the effect [that] forecast heavy weather conditions could have on their ships’ manoeuvrability.” TTB *Tug Technology & Business editor Martyn Wingrove was interviewed by BBC Radio Scotland on 3 April, where he explained the role of emergency towage vessels and the availability of commercial tugs. Use this link to listen to that interview:

capabilities and increased diversity of harbour and escort tugs and these are regularly called upon for assisting ships in distress around the UK coast. With increasing power, these tugs have better capabilities to tow ships away from danger. However, there are questions over their availability. One owner explained that its tugs were too busy with commercial operations to assist a ship in the southern North Sea in April and the tug that was deployed to assist in the Saga Sky-Stema Barge II accident was too underpowered to assist. Therefore, there is need for a review of ETV provision in the English Channel and Dover Strait, and that this should come under MCA to ensure that it is instantly available when required for a towage emergency.

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018


A Resolve to innovate helps chart a course to success Resolve assisted in the salvage of vessels after hurricanes crippled the Caribbean in October 2017


esolve Marine Group has grown to become one of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s leading providers of emergency response, salvage and wreck removal services. It has a network of fully-stocked 22 Salvage & Marine Fire Fighting (SMFF) depots across the US, which all meet US Oil Pollution Act 1990 (OPA 90) requirements. Building on its domestic SMFF experience, Resolve* has built up a global footprint, with offices and response bases in the UK, Gibraltar, Rotterdam, Singapore, India, China and South Africa. Resolve claims to have more fully-stocked and

US-based salvage and emergency response provider, Resolve Marine Group, continues to expand and diversify in the face of challenging market conditions, writes Clive Woodbridge

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018

owned emergency response warehouses globally than any other provider. In 2012 Resolve established a joint venture in Shanghai to provide Ship Pollution Response Organisation (SPRO) services to clients in China. Through its base in Chinaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s leading port, Resolve now leads a consortium of SPROs covering around 80% of the ports in China. On top of this, Resolve provides a one-call Alaska Alternative Planning Criteria for mandatory monitoring and emergency coverage for vessels trading in Alaskan waters. It also provides

vessels transiting the Bering Sea, Western Alaska, and the Aleutian Island chain with marine and ship repair services. These are designed to meet the unique needs of this area, employing a team of welders, divers, naval architects, project managers and salvage masters based in Dutch Harbor to support a wide range of vessel types operating in the area. International expansion has brought with it an element of diversification. For example, Resolve has established a significant presence in Gibraltar, by acquiring the TP Towage Company in 2016. TP


Towage had been in business for more than two decades and provides harbour towage and towage related services in and around the Port of Gibraltar. “The harbour towage business in Gibraltar was acquired to augment our overall business model,” said Resolve director of emergency response Joseph Farrell. “In addition, we also operate a marine services operation in Gibraltar that provides underwater inspections in lieu of drydocking, hull cleaning, and general underwater services,” he told Tug Technology & Business. The group’s most recent international venture is the creation of an emergency response station based in Cape Town, South Africa, which consists of experienced salvage masters, technicians, divers and emergency response equipment. Further expansion geographically is constantly being investigated, said Mr Farrell. “We are always looking for growth opportunities and will definitely consider any attractive opportunity that complements our core business,” he noted. Resolve is also keen to add to its range of capabilities and with this in mind, it recently acquired Ocean Motions, an engineering company that specialises in ship and rig stability and stress software, including loading computers and stress and stability sensors and monitors. Resolve has also developed an in-house tracking tool that allows it to locate towing resources on a real-time basis on behalf of clients. This group operates its own fleet of tugs in support of its global operations. International salvage activity is delivered though ocean-going tugs 47 m Resolve Commander, which has a bollard pull of 78 tonnes, and the 152-tonnes bollard poll, 58 m anchor handling tug

Resolve Monarch. Both trade globally supporting the group’s salvage operations. Resolve also operates the 63 m anchor handler Resolve Pioneer, which has 80 tonnes of bollard pull as the only privately-funded emergency towing vessel in the US. It is based in Dutch Harbor, Alaska, supporting clients trading from the US to the Far East via the Great Circle Route and is supported in this activity by the 39.6 m vessel Makushin Bay. The most recently acquired vessel in the fleet is the tractor tug Resolve Hercules. This 55-tonne bollard pull azimuthing stern drive tug was originally built by Keppel Group in 2011. It was purchased second-hand to enhance the harbour towage services provided in Gibraltar and to meet emergency towing demand in the Mediterranean and eastern Atlantic. Resolve has no plans to add further to its fleet at the present time. However, Mr Farrell said the company is “always looking at strategic investments to support our core business” and “if a project calls for a specific tool, then we are always interested in exploring an addition to the fleet.”

Salvage projects

Salvage operations are the mainstay of the group’s international workload and its skills and expertise were called upon extensively following the series of hurricanes that hit the Caribbean and US in September and October 2017. Resolve assisted the US Government and commercial vessel owners, recreational boat operators and residents of the US and British Virgin Islands in the aftermath of hurricanes Irma and Maria. The types of vessels salvaged included cargo ships, ferries, supply boats, recreational craft and a floating drydock.

“We have never walked away from a job and continue to reinvest profits in marine assets and safety training”

Resolve was mobilising at the beginning of May, as this issue was published, to remove the wreck of Derrick Barge DB1, which sank in October last year while operating in the Gulf of Mexico. Resolve also dealt with 56,597 dwt bulk carrier Cheshire when it was on fire off the Canary Islands in August 2017. Resolve was contracted under a Lloyds Open Form (LOF) and mobilised its fire and salvage response team to the site. Using grappling hooks to board the vessel in a 5 m swell, the salvage crew was able to make a temporary tow connection and re-establish control of the vessel over 250 nautical miles from shore, Mr Farrell explained. Once connected, Resolve was able to arrange a port of refuge and, using marine chemists and a drone mounted thermal camera, provide assistance to the shipowner to discharge the cargo and safely redeliver the vessel. Resolve was also contracted to provide salvage services to tanker Genessa, which was blacked out and immobilised after an engineroom explosion and fire outside the port of Kandla, India, in January. Salvage services were provided under a LOF with the SCOPIC** amendment invoked. Resolve mobilised personnel and equipment from its response bases in Mumbai, Singapore,

the Netherlands and the US, working closely with the port authorities to contain the fire and stabilise the situation. Mr Farrell said the salvage market has been challenging for the past few years, leading to industry consolidation. However, “we have survived by being consistent with our business strategy and offering quality, which has allowed us to continue the global growth of the company,” he said. Resolve remains committed to continuing to focus on its OPA 90 SMFF, Alaska Alternative Planning Criteria and China SPRO work, while diversifying into offshore decommissioning and other oil and gas related activity. “What sets us apart from other companies in these markets is quick decision making and flexibility,” said Mr Farrell. Resolve is a family-owned company that is not bound by shareholder interests, he said. “Consequently, customised solutions can be developed and decisions taken quickly to suit our clients’ needs.” Mr Farrell also pointed to Resolve’s track record of successful projects all over the world. “We have never walked away from a job and continue to reinvest profits in marine assets and safety training, which will benefit clients in the future.” He added that the company “invests in innovative technologies which allow for creative, out-of-the-box thinking”. TTB

*Resolve Marine Group started life in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, in 1980 as a one-tug operation after current president and chief executive officer, Joe Farrell, purchased his first tug, The Resolve. **SCOPIC clause (Special Compensation P&I Club Clause) is an amendment to Lloyd's Open Form and provides an alternative remuneration to salvors

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018

hybrid marine


27 / 28 / 29 JUNE 2018


Marine Maintenance World Expo, the global exhibition dedicated to vessel maintenance and repair technologies and services




w w w. E l e c t ri c an d H y b ri d Mari neWo r ld E x po . c o m


Asia takes an LNG technology lead T

here are at least five tugs on order, identified by Tug Technology & Business, for operations in east and southeast Asia, starting later this year, while the majority of the identified hybrid tug construction projects are for operations in the Americas. There is more penetration of LNG and hybrid propulsion technologies than a year ago, but these technologies still feature in a minority of tug newbuilding projects. Last year, European operators were leading the way in utilising dualfuelled tugboats. For example, Østensjø Rederi began operating three LNG-fuelled escort tugs in northern Norway to assist gas carriers attending Statoil’s LNG production terminal near Hammerfest. In May 2017, there were six gas-powered tugs in service and eight on order. By April 2018, that had changed to 11 in service and seven on order. Additions to the operating fleet since May 2017 were Østensjø’s Dux, Pax and Audax, Hai Yang Shi You for China National Offshore Oil Corp (CNOOC) and Elemarateyah in Dubai Maritime City. Confirmed on order this year are four LNG-fuelled tugs in Singapore. Keppel Singmarine had two LNG-fuelled tugs under construction this year, of which KST Liberty was christened on 25 April (see page 52). Keppel Singmarine is almost ready to launch a tug for Maju Maritime, due for delivery in July 2018. In addition, PSA Marine announced plans in December 2017 to add two dual-fuel tugs by the end of 2019. It has not

yet confirmed which shipyard will be building these, but did confirm that Pavilion Gas will provide LNG bunker supplies. Japanese companies have teamed up to operate the first LNG-fuelled tug in that nation. Mitsui OSK Lines ordered a dual-fuel tug from Kanagawa Dockyard Co in Q4 2017. It is due to be operated by Nihon Tug-Boat Co in Osaka Bay from Q2 2019. LNG fuel will be supplied by Osaka Gas, which is setting up a bunkering service in the Sakai-Senboku Port. Around a year later than that, there should be an LNGfuelled articulated tug and barge (ATB) unit operating in the US. Quality Liquefied Natural Gas Transport (Q-LNG) ordered this ATB with Wärtsilä systems from VT Halter Marine for

delivery in 2020. This will then be used to supply LNG to cruise ships operating off Florida. US owners are also taking early steps in building tugs with hybrid propulsion, involving batteries. Baydelta Maritime has ordered a hybrid tug with Rolls-Royce systems from Nichols Brothers Boat Builders. This will be designed by Jensen Maritime, a subsidiary of Crowley Maritime. This Delta-class harbour tug will be built in Washington state and deployed on the US West Coast to escort and assist container ships from Q1 2019. In South America, Grand Port Maritime de Guyane, a joint venture between De Boer Remorquage and Iskes Towage & Salvage, will be

operating, likely in 2019, a hybrid tug with Veth hybrid drives once it is built by Damen Shipyards in Europe. Another South American operator, Petrocity, plans to operate at least one hybrid tug in a new port facility being built in São Mateus, Brazil. This will be based on the Wärtsilä HYTug design and could be in service by 2020 if a contract is awarded this year. Wärtsilä is also involved in hybrid tug projects in Europe. It is supplying hybrid diesel-electric propulsion to an icebreaking tug that Astilleros Gondán is building for the Swedish Port of Luleå. Wärtsilä also gained an order in 2017 from Rimorchiatori Riuniti for a HYTug design for Mediterranean operations. TTB





Q2 2018



Keppel Smit

May 2018

Keppel Singmarine


Maju Maritime

July 2018

Keppel Singmarine


Nihon Tug-Boat Co


Kanagawa Dockyard


PSA Marine




PSA Marine




Quality LNG


VT Halter Marine

Florida, US




HYBRID TUGS ON ORDER owner Grand Port Maritime de Guyane


Damen Shipyards

French Guiana

Port of Luleå


Astilleros Gondán


Rimorchiatori Riuniti


Not confirmed


Baydelta Maritime


Nichols Brothers

US West Coast



Yet to be decided


These are tugboat projects identified on 27 April by Tug Technology & Business – there could be others not yet confirmed

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018


Electrical gearboxes and brakes revealed for environmental tug operations


atsa is developing a hybrid power take-off (PTO) gearbox that can be installed on tugs that have electric and diesel propulsion and auxiliary machinery. These hybrid PTO gearboxes are expected to be introduced to Katsa’s existing range at the SMM exhibition in Hamburg, Germany, in September. Their design is based on the company’s existing PTO gearboxes and has been adapted to fit on to diesel-driven and electric motors in a vessel’s propulsion driveline. Katsa sales manager Mikko Happonen said these hybrid PTO gearboxes will have “wide flexibility for adjusting the electric motor ratio, utilising different clutches and control systems.” These adjustments will be similar to the flexibility that the existing Katsa range already has for propulsion and machinery on workboats and tugboats. Its gearboxes are tailored to suit each specific combination of vessel and owner requirements, he said, with typical tasks such as generating hydraulic power supplies for machinery on various types of workboats. Since September 2016, these gearboxes can also be used for marine firefighting, including on FiFi classed vessels. These gearboxes are designed to manage power of up to 1,200 kW and clutch torques to a maximum of 16,000 Nm, depending on the application and gearbox/clutch configurations, Mr Happonen explained to Tug Technology & Business. Gear ratios can be adapted to suit what the project requires. Katsa has also developed an integrated control system that helps vessel operators extend the lifetime and performance of the gearboxes and clutches. “The control system can be either integrated into the main control or act separately as a standalone unit with a panel on the vessel’s bridge,” said Mr Happonen.

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018

Its existing PTO gearboxes and clutches have water coolers and independent oil circulation with pumps that have integrated oil sumps. The hydraulic block has an integrated oil filter that was designed for marine applications. Optional additions to the gearbox include integrated controls and clutch protection, and these will also be available for the hybrid PTO range when that is introduced in September.

Electric-powered braking

Dellner Brakes has developed an electrically powered stopping, turning, locking (STL) system that fits around a vessel’s propeller shaft. These modular units are suited to hybrid and mechanical propulsion and can be operated remotely from an electronic push button panel in a control room or by a handheld remote control or from a mobile device if there is wifi on board. These STLs include an electrical disc brake that quickly stops the shaft in any position. After the brake has stopped the disc, an electric gear wheel turns the disc and connected shaft at a variable speed into an exact position for locking, explained Dellner Brakes chief executive Marcus Aberg. Once in position, the locking mechanism pushes a tapered pin into a machined slot on the brake disc. “This locks and holds the shaft securely in place, even in ship failure modes,” he said. Vessel operators can choose one, two or all three of the stopping, turning and locking functions. “Our all-electric STL is the first of its kind in the world and has a patent pending,” said Mr Aberg. “It is fully automated so the operator can instigate the entire stopping, turning and locking procedure with a single press of a button,” he explained to Tug Technology & Business. There would be no need for

Katsa’s PTO gearbox has independent oil circulation and pumps

manual intervention. Dellner’s standard range has a stopping torque of up to 285 kNm, turning torque up to 119 kNm and locking torque up to 600 kNm. Electric STLs can also be adapted for higher torques where requested. “Our system enables faster directional changes with maximum manoeuvrability,” said Mr Aberg. This is useful for quickly stopping the propeller when alternating from forward to reverse or locking the shaft to avoid drag, especially in narrow or shallow water. It can be applied to twin propeller or multiple screw vessels. Mr Aberg said an electrical STL requires less downtime and there is “no need for oil changes or expensive pressure testing.” He added: “Being electrically-powered, it helps lower fuel consumption and reduces load on propulsion systems and offers considerable safety benefits.” TTB

oat â&#x20AC;&#x201C; b e r i hF Beac g n Lo

6 r 201 a e Y the ip of h S US

Fire monitors 300 cu m/hr - 3600 cu m/hr

FFS Group Design by Anggoro Haris 2016


EMD's 20-valve version E23 engine has a power rating of 3,730 kW at 900 rpm



aterpillar subsidiary Progress Rail has introduced dual-fuel engines for a new generation of tugboats that need to operate under the US Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) and IMO’s stringent emission rules. These Electro-Motive Diesel (EMD) engines would mostly use gas as a fuel with diesel just as a pilot. Dual-fuel engines are based on EMD’s existing diesel-only 710 series E23 engines. They meet EPA’s Tier 4 and IMO’s Marpol Annex VI for Tier III requirements and will reduce fuel consumption for tug owners compared with diesel-only EMD engines, said Progress Rail director of power products Brian Grinter. EMD diesel and dual-fuel engines are two-stroke and medium-speed for a wide range of applications including power generation on semi-submersible drilling rigs, emergency power on naval ships and main engines on tugs and ferries. Being two-stroke, they are different from other tugboat engines worldwide,

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018

Progress Rail has developed gas injection for its engines for Tier III and EPA Tier 4, and SCRs for tug owners that want to continue using diesel

which are often four-stroke. Utilising a supercharger or turbocharger, EMD engines can react quickly to the varying loads and operational requirements. Mr Grinter presented Progress Rail’s engine technology at the British Tugowners Association conference, which Tug Technology & Business attended, in April 2018. He said there are two types of EMD dual-fuel engines available for workboats, which have operational and environmental benefits for owners. E23 GB uses dynamic gas blending, which substitutes 80% of the diesel with gas and can seamlessly switch between the two without interruption of power

output. “This injects gas at low pressure at the bottom of the stroke through the inlet ports,” he said, adding that it would be a good option for upgrade projects. “These retain power output, transient response and reliability of the original diesel engines,” Mr Grinter said. For newbuilding tug projects, the other engine model, E23 GD, could be used to maximise the use of LNG as it requires minimal diesel use. Mr Grinter said E23 GD has direct injected gas at high pressure and substitutes 95% of the diesel with gas with “the same power and transients as a diesel engine.” Mr Grinter explained that, if needed,


the E23 GD engine could operate up to 30% power on diesel-only. In addition, it has almost no methane slip as the gas injected is completely burnt. Although EMD has not yet sold any dual-fuel engines to tug owners, Mr Grinter expects they will be “a big part of our future sales.” EMD has also developed engines for tugowners that want to continue with diesel fuel but also want to meet US EPA Tier 4 and IMO Tier III requirements. This involves supplying a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) exhaust gas aftertreatment unit with the engine. An SCR injects a liquid-reductant agent, in this case urea, into a diesel engine’s exhaust stream which then passes through a catalyst to remove nitrogen oxides (NOx). For an EMD E23B engine, the SCR is integrated into the engine with the same footprint as an E23 that does not have a NOx reduction unit. “There is no change in width or length of engine, so it can fit in the same space in the engineroom,” said Mr Grinter. “We have designed our solution so the SCR can be maintained completely within the engineroom.” Progress Rail regional support manager for EMD marine products Andy Alexander explained that E23 and E23B engines come in 8-, 12-, 16- and 20-valve versions. They are in a range of 1,250 bkW to 3,730 bkW with running speeds of 750 rpm or 900

rpm and with power development of up to 186 kW/cylinder. Mr Alexander said these engines have a “two-cycle advantage over four-stroke engines.” The cool, high density charge air delivered to the E23 cylinders across this entire range enables the engine to accelerate from idle of 200 rpm to full power of up to 900 rpm rapidly. “The transient response from zero to full power driving a fixed pitch propeller is 11 seconds,” Mr Alexander said. In a power generation application, this transient response is just two seconds. “E23 has a high power-to-weight ratio, allows for easy condition monitoring, lower maintenance and lifecycle advantages over competitive four-stroke engines,” he listed as other advantages. For example, the turbocharger has 30,000 hours running time before an overhaul is needed. Engine cylinders have the same running hours and there should be no need for mid-life overhauls, said Mr Alexander. There is also no need for oil changes between overhauls. During planned overhauls the power assembly, head, liner, piston and rod can all be removed as one unit in less than four hours and the replacement components are light weight. E23 engines have an inbound overhead camshaft, partially water-cooled exhaust,

full liner cooling and closed crankcase ventilation. The fuel oil system has electriccontrolled injectors, a mechanical oil filter and centrifuge. Progress Rail developed non-invasive inspection of cylinder components for easy maintenance. Mr Alexander and Mr Grinter told the conference that these medium-speed and two-stroke engines have many advantages over four-stroke, high-speed engines for tugs. Those same advantages carry over to LNG gas injection versions as well. • Moran Towing is using E23 engines on 12 of its tugs that operate on the US East Coast. These are on 4,475 kW tugs with twin-screw Z-drive propulsion that, in pairs, handle large container ships using the ports of New York, New Jersey and Norfolk in Virginia.

EMD 710 SERIES E23/E23B RATINGS Valves 8

900 rpm

750 rpm














Intermediate ratings are also available

Engines become part of an intelligent propulsion system Engines should be part of an integrated and intelligent propulsion system to meet IMO Tier III/EPA Tier 4 requirements. They are already connected to propulsion thrusters of various types and sizes and a tug’s automation. However, analytics and intelligence can be added to these systems, said Caterpillar segment manager John Shock at Riviera Maritime Media’s Sulphur Cap 2020 Conference, Awards and Exhibition, which was held in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, in April. “Future designs will require integration of intelligent propulsion systems and technology to meet the demands for efficiency and emissions reduction,” he said at the conference. He expects there will be greater levels of automation and digital analytics “to achieve and maintain [IMO/EPA] compliant operations and to provide compliance documentation.” Apart from the engines, an integrated propulsion system will include propellers that are optimised using computational fluid dynamics, power management and engine optimisation units and marine asset intelligence, said Mr Shock. Caterpillar has developed a multi-engine optimiser (MEO) that advises which engines to run and at what load (TTB, Q1 2018). “It uses detailed fuel maps to pick optimum load points for constant speed or variable speeds,” said Mr Shock. MEO runs each engine

at this most efficient load point for the power required. Engine response data facilitates a stable bus in power terms for variable speed operations. It also means medium-speed and highspeed engines can operate on the same bus. Mr Shock said fuel savings could range between 5%-20%, NOx reductions by 5%-50% and overhauls could be extended up to 25%. Under asset intelligence, engineroom equipment is monitored and analysed. This data is sent to shore for automated and expert analytics that can identify potential issues and develop advisories to vessel managers and masters, Mr Shock explained. TTB

John Shock: Future designs will require intelligent propulsion systems

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018


MTU begins introducing tug Tier 4 engines Rolls-Royce subsidiary MTU has begun manufacturing engines for tugboats and workboats that meet US Tier 4 and IMO Tier III emission requirements


TU will start introducing a new series of low emission engine systems that meet IMO Tier III and the US government’s Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Tier 4 requirements for tugs and workboats from Q3 this year. This Rolls-Royce subsidiary intends to begin commercial production of its MTU Series 4000 engines with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) exhaust gas after-treatment units for tugs. This follows approval of these systems to the latest IMO emissions requirements from ABS, Bureau Veritas, DNV GL, Korean Register of Shipping, ClassNK, Lloyd’s Register and Russian Register of Shipping. This means that these engines comply with the emission regulations in accordance with IMO Marpol Annex VI for IMO Tier III. Representatives of these class societies witnessed tests of the 20-cylinder version and awarded their approval on the basis that this was representative of the environmental performance of the remaining versions, which will include 12- and 16-cylinder models. MTU has begun manufacturing its Series 4000 engines with SCRs for other marine sectors, with the first two

16-cylinder Series 4000 M73 engines to be fitted to an 80 m superyacht under construction at the Istanbul-based Bilgin Yachts shipyard, for delivery in the middle of 2019. Series 4000 IMO Tier III and EPA Tier 4 engines will cover a power range from 1,119 kW to 3,220 kW. There will also be new engines for patrol boats and yachts in the same three cylinder versions, but with a power range of 2,160 kW to 3,900 kW. Although at the time of writing in late April MTU had not received any orders for the Tier 4/Tier III version of Series 4000, it has secured orders for these engines without SCRs. MTU spokeswoman Silke Rockenstein told Tug Technology & Business that MTU gained orders for Series 4000 engines for 20 tug newbuildings at various shipyards operated by Sanmar, Damen, Vittoria, Icdas and

MTU claims Series 4000 engines with SCR have 75% lower nitrogen oxides emissions than Tier II versions

Remontowa for owners such as Svitzer, Russia-based Rosrao, the Polish Navy and Ukraine-headquartered Nibulon. MTU has also gained contracts this year to supply Series 4000 engines for tugs from Med Marine, but none of these will have SCRs either. MTU highlighted a number of benefits and advantages from Series 4000 Tier 4 engines, saying that these workboat engines would provide a 45% increase in output compared with its predecessor versions. MTU also said that this will be the only high speed workboat engine that delivers an output

MTU SERIES 4000 SCR ENGINES 12-, 16-, 20-cylinder models 75% reduced NOx emissions 65% less particulate emissions IMO Tier III, EPA Tier 4 compliant 45% increase in output Power range: 1,119 kW - 3,220 kW

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018

of up to 3,220 kW. MTU has improved the turbocharger’s operating efficiency to reduce fuel consumption by a further 5% compared with the previous model. It has also advanced the combustion process and fuel injection of these engines. Rolls-Royce said the introduction of SCR to MTU’s Series 4000 engines had reduced nitrogen oxide emissions by 75% compared with the Tier II versions and lowered particulate emissions by 65% compared with EPA Tier 3 engines, which means there is no requirement for an additional diesel particulate filter. Flexibility has been included in the design to enable users to switch between IMO II and IMO III modes during operations, depending on whether they need to use the SCR system. There are also sensors on the SCR to measure NOx emissions to ensure that the precise amount of reactant is introduced regardless of the conditions. TTB




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ingapore has taken a lead in Asia in the race for both producing LNG-fuelled tugs and developing unmanned port service vessels. Two milestones were reached by this Asian powerhouse in late April that will enable the city state to progress in marine and port services innovation. Both of these events, announced on 25 April during Singapore Maritime Week, involved shipbuilding, conversion and offshore construction group Keppel Offshore & Marine and the Maritime Port Authority (MPA) of Singapore. These events also involve developing tug technology for greater operational efficiency, lower emissions and reduced operating costs. Keppel Offshore & Marine subsidiary Keppel Singmarine christened southeast Asia’s first LNG-fuelled tug, KST Liberty, at its Singapore shipyard. It is a 32 m

Keppel Offshore & Marine has named Asia’s first dual-fuel tug and agreed to work with Maritime Port Authority of Singapore to jointly develop autonomous vessels

Autonomous vessels could be connected to a fleet management centre using a cellular communications network around the port

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018

azimuthing stern drive (ASD) tug that has a 13 m moulded beam and up to 65 tonnes of bollard pull. It will be operated by Keppel Smit Towage to provide ship escort and handling services in Singapore. It was built to Keppel’s proprietary design with dual-fuel engines that means it will use diesel as a pilot and when gas is not available. But when LNG can be supplied from a specialised bunkering facility, gas will replace diesel and be injected into the engine cylinders to reduce emissions from the tug. Singapore’s permanent secretary at the Ministry of Transport, Loh Ngai Seng, witnessed the naming ceremony at Keppel Singmarine. Afterwards he said in a statement that this christening “marks an important milestone in Singapore’s journey to make LNG bunkering available at our port as early as 2020.” He added that this project was part of MPA’s LNG bunkering pilot programme, which provided S$2M (US$1.5M) of funding for this tug. Keppel O&M managing director for gas and specialised vessels Abu Bakar explained that KST Liberty was designed for “economical operations with efficient fuel consumption, a simplified bunkering process, optimised deck space that increases the safety, comfort of the crew and for ease of operations.” LNG fuel will be carried in containerised, type-C ISO-certified tanks on the main deck and re-fuelling will be conducted through truck-to-ship operations or by replacing the empty tanks with replenished ones. KST Liberty is equipped with a patented and compact LNG vaporiser for changing LNG into gas for injection. When KST Liberty is operating on LNG fuel, it will be within IMO’s global cap of 0.5% on the sulphur content of marine fuel that comes into force on 1 January 2020, said Keppel Smit Towage


managing director Romi Kaushal. “It will have substantially reduced CO2 emissions relative to traditional tugs,” he explained in a statement. “The fitted LNG tanks on KST Liberty will increase our capabilities and allow for extended harbour operations.” KST Liberty will also have better manoeuvrability than existing units. “It is more compact, compared to tugs of the same bollard pull,” Mr Kaushal explained. LNG fuel will be supplied by Shell from its extensive production portfolio in Asia and Australia. Shell Eastern Petroleum and Keppel O&M have formed a joint venture, FueLNG, for LNG bunkering services at Jurong Port. This service will also be offered to other gas-fuelled vessels in Singapore. Keppel Singmarine is also building a similar dual-fuel tug for Maju Maritime for delivery in Q2 this year. Keppel won the contract to build these two LNGfuelled harbour tugs in Q4 2016. Keppel Smit Towage is a joint venture between Keppel and Smit Singapore, which is a part of Royal Boskalis Westminster. Maju Maritime is another joint venture between Keppel and Boskalis.

KST Liberty has type-C ISO-certified LNG storage tanks on the main deck

KST LIBERTY PARTICULARS Owner: Keppel Smit Towage Builder: Keppel Singmarine Delivered: April 2018 Designer: Keppel Type: ASD harbour tug

Autonomous future

In April, Singapore also took a stride to becoming a regional powerhouse in autonomous vessel development with an agreement between MPA, Keppel O&M and the Technology Centre for Offshore and Marine in Singapore (TCOMS). This agreement will involve a combination of technologies and innovations to generate pilot projects and prototypes for a series of unmanned vessels. Together, they will initially focus on the remote control of port service vessels, starting with tugs, for escort, berthing, mooring and towing. MPA chief executive Andrew Tan said the partners will also test “interfaces between vessels and our future vessel traffic management systems”. Remote vessel monitoring and analytics for this programme will be provided by Keppel O&M’s VesselCare platform. This can be used for data consolidation, condition monitoring and subsequent maintenance and analytics of vessels. Some of the potential commercial benefits from operating tugs remotely or autonomously are “safety, efficiency and costs”, said Keppel O&M chief executive Chris Ong. Another element of this agreement will

Bollard pull: 65 tonnes Length, oa: 32 m Breadth, mld: 13 m Draught: 5.3 m Flag: Singapore Fuel: LNG Storage: type-C tanks on deck Supply: FueLNG

involve the creation of a digital twin of a tug. This will simulate vessel behaviour and assist in monitoring and controlling a vessel. TCOMS will provide coupled physical and numerical modelling and simulation that will be used to improve the predictability and control of the behaviour and response of the vessel. This visualisation and analytics tool will also help the partners optimise vessel design. TCOMS chief executive Chan Eng Soon said there are technical challenges to developing autonomous vessels that can be overcome through simulation. “The behaviour of marine vessels in challenging operating conditions is complex and to some extent still poorly understood,” he said. “This is one key

technical challenge that we seek to address, to ensure that autonomous vessels could operate safely and reliably while enhancing efficiency and productivity.” Through this agreement, MPA intends to consider different applications in a regional harbour fleet including tugboats, pilot vessels and short-route ferries.

Vessel traffic management

MPA is also collaborating on a project to improve vessel traffic management in Singapore’s ports. It started working in Q1 2018 with Singapore Management University (SMU), Fujitsu Laboratories and the Agency for Science, Technology and Research’s Institute of High Performance Computing (IHPC). Together, they are developing artificial intelligence (AI) and data analytics to optimise traffic management in Singapore’s port and surrounding waters. They expect computer programs will forecast congestion and potential collisions, by identifying risk hotspots and monitoring ships, before they occur. Information from these programs will be verified using real-world data. Outcomes of this research and the practical developments and experience gained through project trials will be integrated into Fujitsu’s future maritime solutions. IHPC is contributing its capabilities in modelling, simulation and machine learning, while SMU provides large-scale multi-agent optimisation models and Fujitsu its data analytics and artificial intelligence technologies. TTB

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018


Svitzer set to continue remote control tug trials into 2019 Svitzer is at the forefront of bridge and electronics technology as it conducts further remote-control testing of a harbour tug

Svitzer Hermod was remotely controlled during trials in Copenhagen, Denmark, in November 2017

T “Autonomy should improve operational safety, reliability and efficiency”

rials on a remote-controlled tug this year and in 2019 will test technical aspects of remote control, expanding on work done by Maersk subsidiary Svitzer last year. Those initial trials of the technology used the same 2016-built terminal tug Svitzer Hermod and validated that a master could control a vessel in a harbour from a shorebased remote operating centre. Svitzer chief operating officer Leonardo Sonzio told Tug Technology & Business that this additional work will consider additional functions from those confirmed last year. Svitzer is working with Rolls-Royce marine technology and Lloyd's Register classification services to validate remote-control concepts. This technology involves a suite of sensors on the tug that sends information to the remote control centre over cellular communication networks. Commands from the operating centre are sent back to the tug's manoeuvring controls

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018

that are incorporated within a Rolls-Royce dynamic positioning system. This commands Svitzer Hermod's thrusters to control the vessel's positioning and manoeuvring as directed by the master located in the shore office. There is a full suite of bridge systems within the tug's wheelhouse that are used when the Sanmar-built vessel is not involved in remote-control tests. In the remote operating centre, there is Furuno Electricsupplied ECDIS, radar and displays for the engineroom systems and situational awareness additions. “Sensors onboard are feeding data to the algorithms, which we must have for autonomous navigation,” said Mr Sonzio. “Sensor technology is becoming cheaper and computer power is improving, which means there is more data for analysis.” Cameras on Svitzer Hermod, including thermal ones for night vision, provide imagery to the displays that provide 120° of view to the


master. This is augmented by information from other sensors and information devices, such as laser-based LiDAR sensors, vessel Automatic Identification System (AIS), radar and an inertial navigation system that provides tug positioning and motion data. Mr Sonzio said all these sensors improve visibility for masters, as does a clear view from the remote control room that is not obstructed by bridge structures and clutter. “We trialled Svitzer Hermod at night and in fog and snow conditions,” he explained at the British Tugowners Association conference in Worcester, UK, in April. “We used radar, AIS, thermal cameras and even fog horns for directional sound.” Mr Sonzio explained that one of the drawbacks was that weather conditions had an impact on the LiDAR sensors. “They are laser-based and reflectivity was reduced in snowy conditions.” All this information adds to the master's intelligence and awareness, with potential onboard benefits. Mr Sonzio thinks there are benefits to tug operations from developing remote-control technology. “Autonomy should improve operational safety, reliability and efficiency," he said. He sees one of the benefits as providing rest time for crews during tug transits, which is important for an operator that can cluster its tugs in multiple ports. “If we mobilise a tug to another port, we can rest the crew on board and they can be ready when the tug arrives in the next harbour,” Mr Sonzio explained. “This will increase our utilisation, but there is a lot of testing and verifying performance and reliability to do.” This will require investment but since Svitzer is part of the Maersk group of companies, results from tug remote control tug testing can be

migrated across different divisions, such as terminal operations and container ships, and a business case can be made for this investment, Mr Sonzio said. Remote control and monitoring technology could aid Maersk's terminal marine operations as it would enable pilots to operate from shore offices. “Intelligent awareness could enable remote piloting,” Mr Sonzio commented. “Moving this control to shore means there would be no need to take pilots out to the ships.” He told Tug Technology & Business that further developments in remote control technology are expected to be introduced this year and in 2019 to enable Svitzer to trial different operational requirements from its tugs. For example, Rolls-Royce and Svitzer will be testing waypoint routeing and sound stimulation in remote-control trials, said Mr Sonzio. Rolls-Royce ship intelligence director Kevin Daffey said sound had been added to its remote control centre in Turku, Finland, after Svitzer masters advised they needed feedback from the tug's machinery. “We put microphones on the vessel so masters can hear engines throttling up,” said Mr Daffey. “We introduced a rumbling platform in our remote-control facility to simulate engine sounds.” All this investment needs to provide operational benefits to vessel owners. “We need to remove some of the human errors and find ways to avoid collisions and groundings,” Mr Sonzio explained. “Data transferred from ship to shore enables condition-based maintenance and then predictive maintenance.” It could also help reduce fuel consumption. Maersk will consider remote control and intelligent awareness technology for its vessels after Svitzer has trialled more of this technology.

Business case doubts arise Tug operators at the British Tugowners Association conference in April voiced doubts that remote-control technology could deliver benefits to their businesses. There were questions from the floor about whether it would solve any issues that owners face or whether autonomous navigation systems were intelligent enough to avoid a collision. There were also questions about who would be liable in a collision involving an autonomous tug or vessel and which laws would need changing for remote-control tugs operating in national and international waters. Kotug Smit Towage chief executive

officer Rene Raaijmakers questioned whether there would be the possibility of resting crew during tug transits, as Svitzer chief operating officer Leonardo Sonzio suggested as a potential benefit. Mr Raaijmakers told Tug Technology & Business that Kotug Smit does not often transfer tugs between ports, as most of its vessels operate in one area, for example in Southampton, UK, or Rotterdam, in the Netherlands. “With this technology the costs will be higher, but it does not solve any problems,” he said. “There are no business benefits of mobilising tugs, so there is no need to rest crew.”

New bridge electronics unveiled Flir Systems subsidiary Raymarine has introduced new applications in its Axiom line of multifunction navigation displays (MFD). Together with Axiom Innovations, Raymarine has developed the LightHouse 3 operating software for Axiom MFDs with a series of applications for vessel navigation and remote monitoring. These include Raymarine's own Android-compatible mobile applications and those developed by other companies. Some of the thirdparty applications available include the Seakeeper gyro stabiliser control and Mazu mSeries global satellite communications, which allow users to send messages, receive weather forecasts, and monitor their vessel from anywhere in the world. Just like Raymarine, SevenCs released an online software application to assist with navigation. It introduced the tile map service software tool ChartServer, which can be used by fleet monitoring, vessel tracking and surveying applications on mobile devices. ChartServer enables these devices to display maritime navigation charts of International Hydrographic Organization standards S-57 and S-63. For ocean-going tugs, Dutch start-up MO4 has developed a vessel motion forecasting tool. This includes an onboard motion monitoring device and weather forecast software. MO4 accurately and clearly shows how the incoming weather will impact long-distance towage operations. TTB

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018




urther automation, cyber risks, greater power requirements and strengthening environmental regulations are all influencing the tug and salvage industry. Technology will play a leading role in the future development of the tug and salvage industry, whether this is a drive towards further automation or delivering more engine power while producing less emissions. There are also influences from online risks and software developments, according to maritime law firm, Hill Dickinson legal director Jack Hatcher. He outlined to Tug Technology & Business his views for the top five issues and technology influences that tug operators and salvage service providers are likely to face in the future.

Automation and e-technology

Mr Hatcher thinks automated processes and e-technology can add value to the tug industry and so will developments in remote control and autonomous vessel operations. However, it is not just developments in the remote control of tugs that he has in mind. It is also how the shipping industry’s drive towards developing crewless ships will influence tug operations and salvage. “Automated vessels are a revolution rather than an evolution,” said Mr Hatcher. “Automation is going to happen and it is going to change things markedly.” He explained that a fundamental issue from shipping’s perspective is ensuring that the legal and insurance framework can adequately respond to issues arising from developments in greater autonomy, “which certainly is not the case at the moment”. Mr Hatcher expects salvors will also have to adjust to responding to emergencies involving unmanned ships. “With no crew on board there will be no practical help on deck to assist with loading and use of salvage

Tug Technology & Business | 2nd Quarter 2018

equipment,” he explained. “Salvors are going to have to learn new techniques and introduce their own technology to deal with automated ships.”

Cyber risks

As automation and e-technology are introduced throughout the industry, the potential cyber threat to vessels and hardware increases too. This has been encountered in commercial shipping, but Mr Hatcher believes it has not yet affected tug operators or salvage companies. “It is a concern and a risk, and salvage companies face the same level of risk as any other company in the world,” he said.

Vessel size

Owners and their insurers may sometimes baulk at increases in salvage costs but salvors are facing new challenges which they must adapt to. Mr Hatcher explained that this includes container ships that have reached more than 22,000 TEU in capacity. “A key issue for salvors is that they have to invest in the technology and equipment to be able to cope with these large-scale ship casualties,” he said, adding that there are very few salvors in the world that could deal with refloating or removing container ships of this size from shorelines. “It is both an investment and a risk from their point of view.,” he said.

Strengthening environmental regulation

Increasingly strong new global and regional environmental regulations challenge the salvage industry too. Mr Hatcher said these regulations have changed the order of priority for salvors. “Salvors’ primary job, after saving life, is to protect the environment, whereas previously it was to protect the vessel,” he said. “It could be argued that if you protect

Svitzer and Rolls-Royce tested technology for remote control of a tug in Copenhagen, Denmark in 2017 (credit: Riviera Maritime Media)

the vessel the environment should be protected, but that doesn’t always follow.” These priority changes have an effect on shipowners as well. “We are seeing environmental concerns and the related action needed in salvage incidents having a direct correlation with increased costs,” said Mr Hatcher.


Blockchain presents a potential opportunity if introduced as part of the salvage process, he predicted. “We get a lot of enquiries on this issue and I can definitely see a day where the salvage process is potentially part of a blockchain,” he said. Mr Hatcher does not know whether the industry overall would be prepared to develop and pay for such an idea. Blockchain could be useful as salvage projects involve different vessels, contracts and equipment in different parts of the world. “There are arguments to be made that it could be relatively straightforward – not to say beneficial – to introduce salvage into blockchain,” Mr Hatcher concluded. TTB

Tugs Technology & Business 2nd Quarter 2018  

The technology, design and operation of tugs is advancing rapidly and Riviera Maritime Media’s Tug Technology & Business journal offers uniq...

Tugs Technology & Business 2nd Quarter 2018  

The technology, design and operation of tugs is advancing rapidly and Riviera Maritime Media’s Tug Technology & Business journal offers uniq...