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4th Quarter 2018

Celebrity Edge: the technology behind its ground-breaking entertainment venues Wightlink: the benefits of using batteries on Victoria of Wight “There is no doubt we are interested in building cruise ships, however, we have to do it step-by-step� Eric Deng, AVIC Weihai Shipyard, pages 24-25


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Contents 4th Quarter 2018 volume 11 issue 4




Cruise ship description

7 Chantiers de l’Atlantique reveals the groundbreaking design of Celebrity Edge's multi-purpose venues and opens up on how its high energy efficiency was achieved

Ferry profile

13 UK ferry operator Wightlink and shipbuilder Cemre Shipyard explain the benefits of battery propulsion


Fast ferry profile

16 My Fast Ferry’s chief executive explains why route optimisation and reliability were crucial concerns for the latest ferry to join its fleet

Ferry operator

18 Red Funnel has been spinning several plates this year – from beginning construction of a £10M (US$14M) ferry to launching its latest catamaran, Red Jet 7, and trialling a new biofuel

Cruise operator profile

21 The Ritz-Carlton Yacht Collection is the first cruise operator to launch as an extension of a hotel brand. But this is not the only factor to stand out about it. Its chief executive explains


Shipyard profile

24 China’s AVIC Weihai shipyard has its sights set on winning more international ferry newbuild orders on the back of its Stena contract – and is aiming to use this experience to enter the cruise shipbuilding market

Diesel-electric and battery propulsion

27 Norway’s tough environmental legislation is spearheading the drive towards electric hybrid and battery-powered ferries, with several innovative newbuild projects highlighting recent developments

Special focus: China

30 China has won an influx of ferry orders on the back of strong European collaboration with consultants, manufacturers and designers


Galleys and pantries

34 The increase in large cruise ships and more varied passenger dining demands are challenges for the galleys sector – but automation and energy management systems can help overcome these obstacles

Lifesaving equipment maintenance

37 Lifesaving equipment maintenance agreements are being extended giving added benefits to shipowners. OEMs explain


40 Industry insiders open up about how using scrubbers protects them from fuel price uncertainties, and cruise operators unveil their scrubber strategies

Passenger Ship Technology | 4th Quarter 2018

Contents 4th Quarter 2018 volume 11 issue 4


42 While many passenger ship operators have decided how they will meet the 2020 low sulphur directive, there are issues to consider surrounding their choice

Training and simulation

45 Carnival Corp has teamed up with Marine Learning Systems to develop an application to ensure training assessments are objective and standardised

Noise and vibration

48 Class societies have launched a raft of notations related to underwater noise and vibration

How to

50 MOL is working with Rolls-Royce to test intelligence awareness on passenger ferry Sunflower 51 Super yacht design agency Marcelo Penna Engineering of Barcelona has launched the Yacht Mapper mobile phone app to stop passengers getting lost on board cruise ships

Next issue

Main features include: Accommodation; lifeboats and davits; communication systems; manoeuvring technology; automation and control; Coatings; ballast water; infotainment systems; ship management – technical and crew; expedition cruise market update; cruise ship description: Holland America Line: Nieuw Statendam

Editor: Rebecca Moore t: +44 20 8370 7797 e: Brand Manager: Indrit Kruja t: +44 20 8370 7792 e: Head of Sales – Asia: Kym Tan t: +65 6809 1278 e: Production Manager: Richard Neighbour t: +44 20 8370 7013 e: Subscriptions: Sally Church t: +44 20 8370 7018 e: Chairman: John Labdon Managing Director: Steve Labdon Finance Director: Cathy Labdon Operations Director: Graham Harman Head of Content: Edwin Lampert Head of Production: Hamish Dickie Published by: Riviera Maritime Media Ltd Mitre House 66 Abbey Road Enfield EN1 2QN UK ISSN 1758-7255 (Print) ISSN 2051-0608 (Online) ©2018 Riviera Maritime Media Ltd Front cover: Chantiers de l’Atlantique has launched Celebrity Edge (credit: Bernard Biger/Chantiers de l’Atlantique)

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Passenger Ship Technology | 4th Quarter 2018



Hydrogen fuel cells: on their way to going mainstream

P Rebecca Moore, Editor

In this issue, we examine a range of different ways to meet the upcoming low sulphur 2020 regulation, and look at the mix of solutions available, from scrubbers to batteries and LNG and even methanol (pages 11-12, 40-41 and 52). And there is another interesting fuel that looks set to be taken up by the passenger shipping industry: hydrogen. Lack of prescriptive rules and passenger perception are some of the challenges to overcome when building a hydrogen ferry. The Hyseas III project is helping to overcome these and pave the way for others. There are several challenges to adopting hydrogen to power ferries – but developing the world-first seagoing car and passenger hydrogen fuel cell ferry in Scotland has the key to unlocking these issues and helping it to become mainstream. The consortium Hyseas III is developing the world’s first seagoing car and passenger ferry fuelled by hydrogen, which will operate in Scotland. Ferguson Marine Engineering is building the ferry, which will be delivered in 2020. Ferguson Marine chief naval architect Chris Dunn told Interferry delegates at this year’s Interferry annual conference in Mexico “As far as disruptive technology goes, I believe that this is a game-changer.” I agree. Low sulphur fuel prices are set to soar, and the creation of a zero-emission ferry will meet upcoming stringent emissions regulation. While there are advantages to building the vessel in Scotland – it operates around the Orkney Islands, which are already producing hydrogen from renewable sources, which not all areas will have – this project is going to help banish some of the challenges. As Mr Dunn highlighted, a major one is that there are no prescriptive rules governing the building of a hydrogen powered ferry – currently the IGF code is being used which is not particularly appropriate because it is aimed

at gas-powered vessels. Therefore, a risk based alternative design process has to be used. While Mr Dunn said this was “good” it was also “entirely unpredictable”. But the Hyseas project will help pave the way for developing hydrogen prescriptive rules. It will also build up a portfolio of much-needed experience in designing and building such a ferry. Another challenge is storing the hydrogen in

“A major challenge is that there are no prescriptive rules governing the building of a hydrogen powered ferry” the vessel. Mr Dunn said that while not heavy, even compressed hydrogen takes up a lot of volume at 350 bars. However, the company has overcome this to create a hull shape that can address fuel storage challenges. Commercial viability is another challenge. Zero emissions are vitally important but there needs to be a business case. Again, this project will pave the way; it has managed to build a commercial case and stack up all the costs of the assets needed. Perhaps one of the biggest challenges is passenger perception that hydrogen is dangerous. But projects like Hyseas will be able to appease these fears. As well as having zero emissions, this project can show that some of the operational elements are not complicated – while the vessel will need to bunker every night, it will take less than half an hour. And 10,000 hours life is expected from 100kW hydrogen fuel cell. Ferguson Marine and the Hyseas project will pave the way and make using hydrogen fuel cells a viable option for ferry operators. PST

Passenger Ship Technology | 4th Quarter 2018

Knowledge grows

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Magic Carpet is the world’s first cantilevered platform and is used as a tender platform and entertainment venue (credit: Bernard Biger/ Chantiers de l’Atlantique)

Celebrity Edge: groundbreaking entertainment venue construction C

Chantiers de l’Atlantique vice president of projects and ship performance reveals the design and construction behind Celebrity Edge's multi-purpose venues and opens up on how high energy efficiency was achieved

elebrity Cruises’ Celebrity Edge is due to debut in December this year and among the features that stand out are its multi-purposes venues, especially its Magic Carpet – the world’s first cantilevered platform that reaches heights of 13 storeys above sea level. The first of the Edge-class ships is being completed by Chantiers de l’Atlantique, formerly STX France,

Passenger Ship Technology | 4th Quarter 2018


for delivery in October. The shipyard’s vice president of projects and ship performance Stéphane Cordier told Passenger Ship Technology “There are not many ships where so much effort has gone into the design of every single venue and that is what will make the ship really special.” The Magic Carpet concept came out of a discussion between Celebrity Cruises and Chantiers de l’Atlantique in the shipyard prebid phase. Celebrity Cruises insisted that one of the main characteristics of the ship be the access platform to tenders. “They wanted a ship that could go to places other ships of that size cannot call due to minimum harbour facilities,” Mr Cordier said. He added that the tenders themselves represented a “big development”. “They are of high standard, speed, autonomy, comfort and capacity. The eight tenders, which also double as lifeboats, represent a large investment. We tried to make them as sleek as possible, with a higher standard of seating,” Mr Cordier explained. Therefore, the shipyard consulted with manufacturers to find a product to suit these standards and the proposal from Harding (now Palfinger) was chosen. There was also the issue of embarkation. “Celebrity Cruises’ wish was that passengers would board tenders in a very comfortable way, not boarding them through technical spaces but going through spaces decorated to the ship’s standard.” The tender platform needed to handle two tenders at a time, so the issue was to integrate a very large platform accommodating two tenders at the waterline, but there was an obstacle in this case: “Usually the platform is recessed into the hull but the size of the platform is so large (30 m by 6 m), that it could not be integrated into the hull at that level,” said Mr Cordier.

Magic Carpet concept

And this is where the idea of the Magic Carpet evolved – to make it more than just a tender platform. “We had the idea of storing it higher and then potentially using it in different higher positions, using it as an outside venue complementing decks overlooking the water as well as a tender platform,” said Mr Cordier. Therefore, the platform has four working positions: water level and decks

Passenger Ship Technology | 4th Quarter 2018

“There are not so many ships where so much effort has gone into the design of every venue” Stéphane Cordier (Chantiers de l’Atlantique)

5, 14 and 15. The platform is moved by a hydraulic system on two main tracks that run vertically to the top of the ship. “We had to make qualifications and risk assessments for all aspects of safety, noise and vibration.” Risk assessments also included examining loads at water level due to the slamming of waves and boat impacts. “So, we needed stiffness and strength all the way up because it needs to withstand motions and wind loads in storms. Concerning comfort, the sea trials have shown that the vibration levels and wind comfort are remarkable,” said Mr Cordier. He added “We carried out a lot of work on wind comfort in the different positions, with the shape of the awnings and glass panes around it making sure that people are comfortable while enjoying the best view – there will be a stunning view over the water because the platform is overhanging.” One thing to emphasise, Mr Cordier said, was that the movable platform is not an elevator. “People are not supposed to be on it when it moves, it is locked in to position with the hydraulic system to ensure safety.” He summed up the process that led to the Magic Carpet: “It was developed from a very technical object to bring enhanced tendering capacity, to a multipurpose platform that adds value to the programme of the ship at all times.” One of the most outstanding features of the ship are the Infinite Veranda staterooms which extend out to the side of the ship with a full cabinwidth window opening vertically so that when in the open position, part of the stateroom becomes a balcony. This feature was introduced by Chantiers de l’Atlantique in its Ulysseas exploration

ship concept design and proposed for the Edge project. Celebrity took on this concept while adding a pair of light glass doors inside to close off the space close to the window to transform it into a real balcony separate from the stateroom. Besides developing the window, the adaptation of the stateroom in terms of safety, comfort, HVAC and automation was a real challenge and a game-changer in the industry. Another innovative multi-purpose area is the aft lounge, Eden. This is a space surrounded by glass integrated with a helical ramp which includes areas with sofas, where people can look out to sea or look into the Eden area to watch a show. “It adds a three-dimensional aspect to the space,” said Mr Cordier. The multi-purpose theme is continued, as the Eden space can be used as a lounge, restaurant or showroom. The challenge when it came to the Eden space was the glass wall, designed by US architects Wilson Butler, which had to be attached to the ship structure and involved “work to ensure there would not be any vibration issues,” said Mr Cordier. The first sea trials of the ship measured the response of the glass wall in different conditions, including crashstop manoeuvres and “we could verify that it is very sturdy,” said Mr Cordier. Another interesting feature is the Solarium with a roof made out of plastic material. The material is so light that not many supportive structures were needed, and it created a “very airy and light” space.

Energy efficiency focus

Moving away from the creation of multipurpose platforms and areas, the ship is also innovative in terms of environmental friendliness and energy efficiency. The hull shape is particularly innovative. The result of eight years of work by Chantiers de l’Atlantique, it formed part of its initial proposal to Celebrity Cruises. The shape is unique as it incorporates a bulbous bow within a straight, vertical shape. “We wanted to develop a hull form to reduce the resistance of the ship in sea state but that did not compromise on calm water resistance,” Mr Cordier said. This was achieved by using a state-of-the-art bulbous bow for calm water, combined with the “finer angle achieved with a vertical bow that means less resistance ›››



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The Eden lounge is surrounded by glass, so special consideration was given to vibration issues (credit: Celebrity Cruises)

››› in waves and less excitation in terms of comfort. The overall result as demonstrated in the recent sea trials in heavy weather is remarkable and the response of the ship gives an impression of great seaworthiness”. The propulsion system includes two 16 MW pods from ABB. This is in contrast to Celebrity Cruises’ previous smaller Solstice-class ships, where ABB pods of 20 MW are installed. Mr Cordier said this illustrates reduced power requirements for the ship, leading to fuel savings. The ship also has an air lubrication system installed to save energy. The propulsion consists of four main diesel engines and a smaller generator, all provided by Wärtsilä 46F 12Vs and 8Ls. The engines are fitted with scrubbers and SCRs to meet emissions requirements. Mr Cordier said “The four diesel engines allow the ship to operate in all circumstances and a fifth smaller one allows the ship to meet the required performance with one main engine down.” Chantiers de l’Atlantique has developed and implemented an engine schedule featuring uneven load-sharing between the engines, Mr Cordier explained, as typically the number

of diesel engines on board to meet propulsion power load and hotel, are all run at the same load. But on Celebrity Edge, “all but one engine will be running at optimum load in terms of fuel consumption, with one adjusted to match the load requirement. This makes energy consumption more efficient.” The ship stands out as it is especially environmentally friendly in terms of getting rid of waste, going over and above what is expected. Instead of using incinerators, which are a source of gas emissions, the shipyard looked at alternate solutions to eliminate the need to burn refuse. A solution involving hydrothermal oxidation was used, where the waste is put under high pressure and temperature, which disintegrates the material to form water and dust. Placed in the machinery space, the solution consists of two pressure vessels that have to be loaded, in contrast to being a continuous process. This is the prototype installation on a ship and part of an R&D effort co-funded by the EU through the Leanship project. Mr Cordier said “This is a higher investment than using incinerators and reduces pollution to a minimum, as

incinerator emissions are not counted in the IMO emissions criteria.” Heat recovery systems are also being extensively used to recover energy from the diesel. “At the end of the process the water is not that hot, but even this is used to heat the swimming pools,” said Mr Cordier. Mr Cordier emphasised that energy efficiency control was also applied to variable-speed chillers and fans. The success achieved by Chantiers de l’Atlantique in reducing energy consumption is based on a method developed in its ECORIZON programme which relies on an analytical model of all the ship's energy-consuming systems. This allows them to simulate the impact of the energy-saving features and make investment decisions based on validated expected returns. On the Edge project, a specific target for energy gain compared to the previous class of ships had to be met. The shipyard achieved this, meaning 20% less fuel per passenger will be used compared to the previous Solstice-class vessels. Three other Edge-class vessels will follow Celebrity Edge, and there is the potential for a fifth to be constructed as well. PST

Passenger Ship Technology | 4th Quarter 2018

Passion for excellence

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Victoria of Wight has been built to match the conditions of the ports in which it operates

Victoria of Wight: the benefits of battery propulsion UK ferry operator Wightlink and shipbuilder Cemre Shipyard explain the benefits of battery propulsion and how Victoria of Wight was built to match the ports it serves


ightlink’s Victoria of Wight is unique in several ways – it has been built specifically to overcome challenges in the ports that it serves – and it is a hybrid electric ferry. Its project director John Burrows told Passenger Ship Technology the UK ferry operator received 22 tender responses from around the world and drew up a shortlist of five shipyards. Cemre Shipyard in Turkey scooped the contract because it fitted the criteria of a quality build of ship, price and delivery time. Wightlink also wanted a yard that had experience of building passenger ferries with an electric hybrid drive. Cemre shipyard ticked all these boxes. One of the most innovative points about the ferry is that it runs on a hybrid battery propulsion system. Mr Burrows said “We had hoped to run on LNG initially but

it is a bit of a chicken and egg product.” The issue was that Wightlink had been hoping one of the ports it was using would provide bunker facilities, but this did not materialise and Wightlink was not going to use enough LNG to make it worthwhile to invest in its own bunker facilities. Therefore, the company decided on a diesel battery hybrid system.

Batteries: why and how

Mr Burrows explained “We’re very lucky to live in one of most beautiful parts of the UK – we have a green agenda and are also very mindful that we operate very close to residential property. We were looking for a solution to minimise fuel consumption and that equals lower emissions, less pollution and a propulsion package that is significantly quieter than other ships.” In Victoria of Wight, batteries provide a

support service to the diesel generators in operation and work as harbor generators in harbour mode. The batteries are charged from diesel generators. Four 1,100 kW engines are being used. Cemre Shipyard business development and sales specialist Burak Mursaloglu explained “Configuration with four diesel engines and the battery will operate using three engines with the battery configuration. This figure will help Wightlink reduce fuel consumption and gives better maintenance value.” He added “The technical challenge is making the power management and battery management of the vessel completely linked to each other. This has been achieved by using a complete integrator company who knows communication between the battery and diesel generators very well. In Wightlink’s case Cemre worked with Wärtsilä for a complete package of engines,

Passenger Ship Technology | 4th Quarter 2018


generators, main switchboards, drives and power management system.” Mr Burrows added “The beauty of it is that any engine can drive any propeller, so if we take an engine out to do maintenance, all four propellers are still running.” The vessel has two batteries housed in two battery rooms. Each battery has 408 kWh of power. Mr Burrows said Wärtsilä would spend five days on the ship to observe

operations and then programme the system at an optimum level to make sure the vessel was “drawing power when we should be for the biggest savings and least emissions”.

One of a kind

Victoria of Wight is innovative in other ways – Mr Mursaloglu said “the Wightlink ferry is an absolutely innovative project because it is one of a kind. It is

not possible to operate this vessel in other ports. Wightlink has two independent car decks and shore solutions that mean the vessel will be loaded or unloaded very quickly. Manoeuvring performance is also extremely well-designed to suit the Portsmouth to Fishbourne route that it travels on.” When it comes to the propellers, Mr Burrows said this was an easy choice. “All our ferries use Voith Schneider as they make the vessel extremely manoeuvrable. The turn in and out of the port is quite tight, we must move the bow and stern of the ship to control it and Voith gives us that. The other beauty is that they are extremely reliable and reliability of service is extremely important. There is no point having an all-singing, all-dancing ferry if it only operates 80% of th time. Our reliability is over 99%.” Voith’s propellers are a major reason for this. Voith’s scope of supply also included a control system with a heavily customised combination of joysticks and wheels/levers in four different control stands, including two wing stations to accommodate Wightlink’s operational requirements in a very confined harbour area. In addition to this, there are two monitor stands in the aft bridge and engineroom. The system offers a combinator mode for energy saving to complement the hybrid propulsion system. Voith Schneider head of research and development Dr Dirk Juergens said “The VSP combines propulsion and steering in one unit and has proven itself to be consistently reliable, with precise manoeuvring being a highly valued benefit.’ Mr Mursaloglu added “With Voith Schneider propellers, magnitude and direction of thrust can be set as necessary.” A circular disk with movable and controllable blades installed at a 90º angle to the disk rotates at the vessel bottom. “The magnitude of thrust is determined by the rotational speed of the disk; the blade angle determines the direction of thrust. This will increase the manoeuvring capability.” Space for cars and the ferry’s loading and unloading capabilities were also very important. Victoria of Wight has a beam of 90 m – 0.8 m wider than Wightlink’s other vessels in the fleet. Rather than having a side casing (stairwells and exhaust), as with the other vessels, Victoria of Wight has a centre casing. Mr Burrows said this not only uses less width than the other ferries but allows wider car lanes


VICTORIA OF WIGHT Length: 89.7 m overall length Gross tonnage: 8,041 gt Cars: 178 Passengers: 1,208 Class: Lloyd’s Register


that it means you have very good space for cars and passengers.” Highlighting the way the vessel has been built to match its particular ports, he summed up “The vessel has an asymmetric design adjusted according to its ports both in Portsmouth and Isle of Wight. In our case you cannot work with other ferries in this port and you cannot use this ferry in other ports due to the shape and conditions.”

Other innovations include that the vessel has been designed and developed to have less weight to reduce total consumption “in every manner”. The vessel’s upper structure is completely aluminum and especially in the interior areas, lighter material has been selected to reduce weight. Mr Mursaloglu added “This will help to reduce power requirements and make the vessel very efficient and environmentally friendly.” PST

Diesel gen-sets: Wärtsilä Diesel alternators: Marelli Motori Battery package: Corvus Energy Propellers: Voith Schneider Propulsion electric motors: Marelli Motori IAS and PMS: Wärtsilä Central heating system: Ulmatec Pyro

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Bridge consoles: Elkon Electrical design: Elkon Main switchboards: Elkon Interior design and furniture: Çita Marin Interior panels and wet cabins: Mercan Passenger seats: Etkin Marin, GRL, Cadý Design Ventilation system: Heinen & Hopman Intercom systems: EDEL Radio/navigation and communication system: STT Elektronik Common hydraulic aggregates: Mariner Lighting fixtures: Lightpartner

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Manoeuvring Systems



making it easier for cars to drive on. The other unique method is using a two-car ramp instead of one. Mr Burrows said “The double-tier loading means we can use the top and bottom deck at the same time. The reason is that speed of turnaround is on a very tight timetable. We only have 15-20 minutes to unload and load cars. When we loaded on St Clare (Wightlink’s second biggest vessel after Victoria of Wight) off a single ramp we struggled to keep it on time. The two tiers allow us to turn ships around much more rapidly.” Victoria of Wight has seven decks. Mr Mursaloglu said “This is not a very common figure in daily crossing ferries and it is very unique that it will operate with 178 cars and 1,208 passengers on board. The advantage of building seven decks is




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Route and reliability shape Sydney fast ferry My Fast Ferry’s chief executive explains why route optimisation and reliability were crucial considerations for the latest ferry to join its fleet


eing optimised for its route, fuel economy and reliability all shaped the design and build of My Fast Ferry’s latest vessel Ocean Adventurer. The 33 m vessel represents a time of great expansion for Australian operator My Fast Ferry. Launched as Manly Fast Ferries in 2008, it was purchased by National Roads and Motorists' Association (NRMA) earlier this year. NRMA rebranded Manly Fast Ferries as My Fast Ferries. Both companies are keen on expansion. Co-founder of My Fast Ferry Richard Ford said “They are very much aligned with how we have grown and operate and would like to expand and build on the transport network in the city, state and country and improve mobility to other local communities. We are working together to continue improving and expanding the services in the state and beyond.” My Fast Ferry started with just two fast ferries transporting passengers between Sydney Harbour and Manly. Fast forward to 2018 and it has expanded services between Manly and Darling Harbour and Sydney Harbour and Manly and now has a fleet of 10 fast ferries. My Fast Ferry added three vessels in 2012, and after winning a government tender for a new service, it launched a tender for four new vessels

Passenger Ship Technology | 4th Quarter 2018

in 2016. One2three won the contract to design them and Incat shipyard in Tasmania, Australia scooped the contract to build them. Two were 24 m and the remaining two 33 m. It was decided to build Ocean Adventurer after the contract for these vessels was placed. Delivered in June this year by Incat, the vessel is identical to the previously delivered 33-m vessels. Mr Ford – who has stayed on in his role as chief executive after the acquisition by NRMA – told Passenger Ship Technology “We needed an extra ferry because the market has grown substantially.” In 2008, the ferry operator had around 2,000 passengers a day, growing to 12,500-13,000 a day between Circular Quay and Manley in addition to other services. Explaining why Incat was chosen to build the ferries he said it was because they are the “best” in aluminium ferry construction. He singled out the fact that the shipyard was able to deliver all four ferries within the space of a year.

Fuel economy

Explaining why One2three was chosen to design the ferries, Mr Ford said “Working with One2three is very much about designing vessels optimised for specific routes, which makes them


more economically sustainable. We have achieved very good fuel efficiencies from their designs.” He said that when the company started in 2008 it replaced a service operated by the government and found that compared to the previous service it was burning 30% less fuel. The catamaran hull and superstructure of Ocean Adventurer is constructed from marine grade aluminium. Passenger access is via two double gangways at the main passenger level. Both main and upper decks include indoor and outdoor seating. Toilets, kiosk and bike racks are located on the main passenger deck. Internal stairs provide access from the main deck to the upper deck, which includes passenger areas and the wheelhouse. The main engines consist of two MAN D2862 LE463 diesel engines rated to 1,029 BkW at 2,100 rpm, with two twin disc Quickshift MGX6620 gearboxes deployed. Two fixed-pitch five-bladed propellers are in use. The electrical system is composed of 240/415 v AC supplied by two Cat C4.4 diesel generators, one located in each hull. Passenger comfort was important and to this end, Incat said a ride control system has been installed consisting of a pair of active Humphree interceptors fitted at the vessel’s transom, and controlled by an electronic control package. Split system air conditioning has been installed for the bridge and passenger area. Incat chief executive Robert Clifford told Passenger Ship Technology there had been significant increases in the efficiency of the main engines in the latest five vessels Incat has built for My Fast Ferry as the latest engine types had been used, which included electronic fuel control. He added “They are designed for Sydney Harbour, and we kept them as light as possible. “They are very practical on that route, and are virtually taking over from large, older-style ferries.” This is because they are so frequent and more efficient. “They can do so much more in the same amount of time.” Mr Ford said a major consideration was being able to load and unload quickly. He expanded “We had to design to Sydney wharf infrastructure to have minimum load and unload times. We looked at how to load and unload 400 passengers as quickly as possible with the infrastructure, as it is no good travelling very fast if takes five to 10 minutes to unload.” Therefore, two doors with four gateways were each located on the wharf so that the ferry can load and unload very quickly around the infrastructure. “This means that we are quicker without having to travel faster and it keeps horsepower down and therefore the weight of the engines down. Weight equals fuel,” Mr Ford said. Another important factor was to make sure

My Fast Ferry vessels have been specifically designed for the Sydney Harbour routes that they take

GENERAL PARTICULARS Builder: Incat Tasmania Pty Designer: One2three Naval Architects Class: DNV GL Flag: Australian Code: NSCV Class 1C and 1D Speed: 24.9 knots Length (oa): 34.14 m Beam (oa): 9.00 m Draught (hull): 1.36 m Passengers: 396 Crew: four Fuel: 2 x 2,500 litres Fresh water: 1,000 litres Sullage: 2,780 litres

“Our fleet is standardised to keep the spares register to a minimum” Richard Ford (My Fast Ferry)

the vessel was as reliable as possible. To this end, the vessel was designed so that an engine with a problem could be replaced within a day. Mr Ford explained “We can fix an engine on the vessel if it is something minor. But if there is a major issue that might take more than a day it is quicker for us to take the engine out and put a replacement engine in while we do maintenance so that the vessel can keep going.” Therefore, engineroom access and connections and gearboxes were made to ensure it is as “easy and quick as possible to get engines out”. This is the same across the fleet, which has been standardised as much as possible. Mr Ford added “Our fleet is standardised to keep the spares register to a minimum.” He added “We use locally made and sourced parts – this is important because if things break we did not want exotic or unique things that we could not replace. We very much use standard equipment that can be replaced easily.” Mr Ford highlighted the quality of the build overall. “The ferry is in operation for 16 hours a day. There are multiple wharf stoppings every 20 minutes, so we want the boat to last a long time.” PST

Passenger Ship Technology | 4th Quarter 2018


Red Funnel trials new biofuel and expands fleet U

K-headquartered, Isle of Wight ferry operator Red Funnel has hired UK shipyard Cammell Laird to build its first dedicated freight roro ferry, Red Kestrel. The keellaying took place at Cammell Laird’s yard in June, with the vessel scheduled for delivery in Q2 2019. At 74 m in length, it will provide 265 lane metres of roll-on roll-off freight capacity and will carry up to 12 passengers. To minimise the environmental footprint, the hull shape has been designed specifically to reduce wash and a propulsion package has been selected to make it highly fuel efficient, while meeting the latest Tier III emissions regulations. The use of azimuth thrusters supplied by Rolls-Royce will also make the ship highly manoeuvrable. Red Funnel chairman Kevin George told PST the reasons for building the ferry. “We have been successful in developing our business overall – and we are the largest freight carrier to the Isle of Wight with 53% of the market. The nature of the market is that there are peaks and troughs, and by season and day of week and time of day we have found that for the peaks we are capacity

Passenger Ship Technology | 4th Quarter 2018

Red Funnel has been spinning several plates this year – from beginning construction of a £10M (US$14M) ferry to launching its latest catamaran, Red Jet 7, and trialling a new biofuel

BELOW: A rendering of Red Kestrel, a ferry which will overcome fleet capacity constraints

constrained.” He said an example was on early morning sailings from the UK mainland to the island freight capacity was full on most peak sailings, so the operator needed more capacity.

Solving capacity constraints

“Also, we have other times when we are capacity constrained for cars, like at the start of school holidays when lots of people want to travel.” Therefore, rather than make an investment in a full vehicle roro ferry (to join the three Red Funnel already has), Mr George said it was decided that a more cost-effective investment would be in a smaller vessel made “as simple as possible”, with space for 12 heavy goods vehicles (HGVs). “This gives us a huge degree of flexibility,” he explained. “It is of benefit for times that are really busy for car traffic, as we can take up to 12 HGVs off our current roro vessels and put them on the freight ferry.” By removing the HGVs, the mezzanine decks on the roro ferries can carry 100 extra cars per sailing. The ferry operator has limited the ferry to 12


Kevin George (Red Funnel)

Kevin George was appointed chairman of Red Funnel Group in January 2018, having spent the four previous years as the ferry operator’s chief executive. An engineer by training, he has over 30 years of experience in the transport sector and roles have spanned senior management within companies including British Airways and Monarch Airlines. In December 2015, he was appointed chairman of industry body Discover Ferries.

passengers (drivers of the HGVs) as this “makes a huge difference” in terms of accommodation offered. “We can provide a rest area more tailored to what freight drivers want than a full normal offering for customers.” The ferry operator initially thought it would purchase a secondhand vessel rather than build one. “But finding a vessel in an acceptable condition and the costs associated with making it compliant to UK regulation took us to the point where it was more cost effective to have a new one built.” Therefore Red Funnel looked for a yard that had both design and build capability, “ideally experienced in relatively small roro ferries and generally supporting British shipbuilding – but driven by normal criteria of cost quality and delivery,” explained Mr George. Red Funnel looked at a number of yards across Europe but decided that “in terms of meeting the criteria, Cammell Laird came to the fore”. On top of its new ferry contract, Red Funnel welcomed Red Jet 7 to its fleet in July this year. Sister to Red Jet 6, delivered in 2016, the company’s latest Red Jet was built by Wight Shipyard, which also delivered Red Jet 6. Mr George said the company would turn its thoughts to renewing some of its fleet in the mid2020s. “We are actively watching what happens in terms of technology development in propulsion, because although several years away, we need to start thinking about this as it is a huge project.”


The price of Red Kestrel


The number of HGVs that Red Kestrel will take, freeing up space for cars in other ferries


When Red Funnel will look at renewing its fleet

Positive biofuel trial

In terms of alternative fuel, the company recently trialled a biofuel consisting of hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) and Mr George said the initial results were positive. But despite the push within some parts of the ferry sector to use alternative power, he expressed caution. “We are monitoring [renewable sources of power] closely but because reliability is such a fundamental part of our service offering we are fairly reluctant to get involved with technology that does not have some degree of maturity.” Which in part explains why, when Cammell Laird shipyard started construction in June this year on Red Funnel’s new roro ferry Red Kestrel, the operator chose to stick with conventional diesel, due to emerging technologies being a “long way yet from maturity”. Mr George said “We have no desire to be at the leading edge of technology and reliability is more important to us.” However, despite exercising some caution when it comes to using alternative power, the company has been exploring using a biofuel based on HVO. Earlier this year, Red Funnel trialled Green Biofuels’ Green D+ fossil-free fuel on its ropax fleet of ships, operating between Southampton and the Isle of Wight. Green D+ fuel is formulated using a patented performance additive to HVO renewable diesel. The HVO is produced by Neste in Europe from waste and residue materials (for example, used cooking oil and waste fats from the food processing industry) as well as plant oils such as palm oil and rapeseed oil. The waste oil is recycled back into fuel, eliminating the dangers of inefficient and often dangerous disposal, or its re-use in the food chain. The aim of the trial – which powered the main engines and onboard generators – was to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Mr George explained that the emissions monitoring involved using pure marine gasoil (MGO), a 50:50 mix of MGO and Green D+ and 100% Green D+. He said the “beauty of HVO is that it is a direct replacement for diesel and can be mixed with diesel.” The trial showed the use of HVO had led to no degradation in the engines of the ferries. Red Funnel is still analysing the emissions results, but Mr George said “Without question, emissions were dramatically reduced”. He added “It is very early days and HVO is quite expensive at this point, but I think if there was mass production of it, it would be economically more viable than it is at the moment.” He highlighted the importance of carrying out the trial. “While we had been reassured this fuel would work, we wanted to test it ourselves and initial indications from an emissions perspective are very encouraging. It is now an economic case of how to go forward with it.” PST

Passenger Ship Technology | 4th Quarter 2018

Sovereign of the Seas, Seaward, Seabourn Pride, Star Princess, Seabourn Spirit, Club Med I, Fantasy, Westerdam, Nordic Empress, Crown Princess, Horizon, Silja Serenade, Ecstasy, Regal Princess, Monarch of the Seas, Hanseatic, Silja Symphony, Majesty of the Seas, Dreamward, Zenith, Royal Viking Queen, Club Med II, Crown Jewel, Gruziya, Costa Allegra, Barfleur, Normandie, Windward, Crown Dynasty, Costa Romantica, Kazakhstan II, American Adventure, Kong Harald, Richard With, Nordlys, Oriana, Legend of the Seas, Century, Splendour of the Seas, Sun Princess, Carnival Destiny, Galaxy, Costa Victoria, Grandeur of the Seas, Nordkapp, Rhapsody of the Seas, Dawn Princess, Mercury, Enchantment of the Seas, Nordnorge, Vision of the Seas, Grand Princess, Sea Princess, R One, R Two, Voyager of the Seas, R Three, R Four, R Five, R Six, R Seven, R Eight, Norwegian Sky, Seven Seas Navigator, Explorer of the Seas, Aurora, Costa Atlantica, Millenium, Infinity, Adventurer of the Seas, Carnival Spirit, Radiance of the Seas, Norwegian Sun, Summit, Brilliance of the Seas, Constellation, Coral Princess, Navigator of the Seas, Island Princess, Crystal Serenity, Mariner of the Seas, Serenade of the Seas, Carnival Miracle, Jewel of the Seas, Pont- Aven, Caribbean Princess, Carnival Valor, Pride of America, Norwegian Jewel, Carnival Liberty, Pride of Hawaii, Freedom of the Seas, Crown Princess, MSC Musica, Norwegian Pearl, Liberty of the Seas, Emerald Princess, MSC Orchestra, Norwegian Gem, Ventura, MSC Poesia, Independence of the Seas, Ruby Princess, MSC Fantasia, Celebrity Solstice, MSC Splendida, Oasis of the Seas, Celebrity Equinox, MSC Magnifica, Carnival Dream, Silver Spirit, Azura, Celebrity Eclipse, Le Boreal, Norwegian Epic, Queen Elizabeth, Allure of the Seas, L’Austal, Disney Dream, Carnival Magic, Celebrity Silhouette, Disney Fantasy, Carnival Breeze, MSC Divina, Celebrity Reflection, MSC Preziosa, Royal Princess, Mein Schiff 3, Regal Princess, Quantum of the Seas, Mein Schiff 4, Britannia, Anthem of the Seas, Carnival Vista, Ovation of the Seas, Harmony of the Seas, Mein Schiff 5, Silver Muse, Seabourn Encore, Majestic Princess, MSC Meraviglia, MSC Seaside, Symphony of the Seas, MSC Seaview, Seabourn Ovation, Mein Schiff 1, Aida Helios, Celebrity Edge, Mein Schiff 2, Costa Asia

MI_Passenger_210x142mm.pdf 1 16/01/2017 19:55:58


A rendering of The Ritz-Carlton Yacht Collection cruise yacht, due to be launched in 2020 (credit: The Ritz Carlton Yacht Collection)

The Ritz-Carlton Yacht Collection: on choosing a shipyard new to cruise


he Ritz-Carlton Yacht Collection stands out for a number of reasons – having a famous hotel brand behind it to choosing a shipyard that has never built a cruise ship before. Indeed, its chief executive Douglas Prothero told a press conference at Seatrade Cruise Global 2018 “What differentiates us is the Ritz-Carlton brand.” Indeed, the backing of this brand was essential for company to launch itself in the cruise industry. “From a business perspective, the entry to cruise is very difficult to break through.” He speaks from experience – he spent part of his career in maritime finance specialising in cruise ships and “without a brand it is virtually impossible”. In July last year, Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company announced it was entering the cruise sector with its Yacht Collection. It has struck a contract with Spanish shipyard Hijos de J Barreras to construct three luxury cruise ships. The first will be launched in 2020, with the further two expected to be delivered in 2021. The cruise yacht – designed by

The Ritz-Carlton Yacht Collection is the first cruise operator to launch as an extension of a hotel brand, and decided to use a shipyard with no previous cruise bulding experience. Its chief executive explains

Ritz-Carlton Yacht Collection, Tillberg Design and Barreras – will have an overall length of 190 m, a 23.8 m beam and will accommodate 544 people, including 298 passengers in 149 suites and 246 crew members. This contract also marks the Spanish shipbuilder’s entry into the cruise market. Mr Prothero explained why the company chose Spanish shipyard Hijos de J Barreras, despite its lack of cruise experience. “We had a bidding process – we wanted a shipyard to give us a customised experience, a yard that had a lot of experience in great steelwork and had experience in highly technical ships.” He said the area the yard was lacking

in experience was outfitting – but this was overcome by outsourcing the outfitting to the ‘best’ company in this field. Interior Proman, an Austrian company with expertise in outfitting superyachts, has been awarded a contract with the shipyard to outfit the vessels. Speaking about the Ritz-Carlton hotel brand, Mr Prothero said “It has been heavily invested in the project. We work together on every single element of design, the guest experience, culinary sales and marketing.” Indeed, he emphasised “Our focus is on the Ritz-Carlton guest experience – this takes up days and nights figuring out how on day one to deliver that in every

Passenger Ship Technology | 4th Quarter 2018


respect, from reservations to pre-guest arrival processes and what happens after guests leave us after their first cruise. Our internal mission is to be the highest standard in the brand and we think we will make that.” As well as its backing, RCYC will be able to draw on hotel customers as potential passengers on its yachts. Mr Prothero said “Our research tells us guests will include Ritz-Carlton customers.” There are 400,000 cruisers within Marriott luxury brands’ database. “There are those who will come that have never thought of taking a cruise but will look at our yacht and think: ‘that feels like more my style’.” Indeed, Mr Prothero feels that the size and design of the company’s cruise yachts make the company stand out. “What makes us different? Our size. No one is building in this size any more, no one has for quite a long time; the higher percentage of larger suites.” He said in luxury cruise ships, generally 80-85% of suites are in the smallest category. But RCYC’ smaller suites make up about 60% with the rest being larger suites. And he added “We have a couple of unique things for a ship this size. We have all-terraced suites. On the lower deck, where we are not allowed to have terraces, we have solved this by having a two-level suite.” This comprises of a bedroom below and a living room above with a terrace.

Flexibility in design

Furthermore, flexibility of space is an important feature of the cruise yachts. A wall panel used in the smallest suites can be opened up to merge two separate suites into one larger suite. This means the yacht can adapt from 149 suites to 107. Mr Prothero commented “If we charter the vessel we can give more larger suites or on a voyage where larger suites sell first we can generate more larger suites as we go along.” Flexibility can be seen elsewhere in the structure – hydraulic stairs lower to the sea so guests can walk straight into the sea an anchor; the same set of stairs goes up to a diving board. This is “a great flexible option for us,” said Mr Prothero. The cruise yacht can also tender on three sides, so can tender in any weather, which is “unique”. At the back, like on a superyacht, a garage door opens up for sea kayaks and sail boats.

Passenger Ship Technology | 4th Quarter 2018

“We have gone to great lengths to be a digital company” Douglas Prothero (The Ritz-Carlton Cruise Collection)

The cruise operator is also focused on the digital side. Mr Prothero said “We have gone to great lengths to be a digital company, so that folks have done all their pre-arrival information online or on an app and when they arrive there is a lowkey process confirming it is the right guest and they can go straight to their suite or living room area.” Indeed, the cruise operator has implemented Resco’s Central Reservations and CRM modules. The Ritz-carlton Yacht Collection vice president of information technology Benny Lago said “Resco’s experienced team of professionals have proven an invaluable resource to us in making sure the systems are designed and tailored to our very specific needs ...our whole team are very pleased in the flexibility and capabilities of the Resco products”. Key suppliers include MAN Diesel for the engines and ABB for the Azipods. The cruise yacht will run on marine diesel oil only. The classification society being used is DNV GL and the registry of the vessels will be Malta. ABB’s solutions for the cruise ship will optimise energy efficiency and allow the vessel to be remotely monitored from shore. Two Azipod D propulsors will enable the ship to manoeuvre efficiently and effectively while the remote diagnostics service will empower a smarter approach to maintenance. Mr Prothero summed up “We think the superyacht concept is creating a lot of buzz, this type of product is mirroring the yachting lifestyle and is appealing in some respects to a new audience to cruising. We are focused on the smallest destinations for a highly immersive experience.” PST

Douglas Prothero (The Ritz-Carlton Yacht Collection) Douglas Prothero serves as chief executive of The Ritz-Carlton Yacht Collection. In this role, Mr Prothero oversees all operations and the strategic growth of the company. As a founding partner of the venture, Mr Prothero is also responsible for relations to and with Marriott International and The RitzCarlton Hotel Company. Mr Prothero was educated in maritime studies and has been a ship master since 1989. He has over 35 years of professional experience in the hospitality and maritime industry, including running all facets of maritime businesses involving both commercial vessels and private yachts. As a seasoned entrepreneur, Mr Prothero has founded numerous enterprises with lead responsibility for product development, sales, ship design, ship construction and marine operations. While partner of a boutique investment bank, Mr Prothero established an extensive professional network through his work advising shipowners on finance sourcing. Mr Prothero serves as past chairman of the Nobel Peace Prize-nominated charity Sail Training International and the organisation’s for-profit trading companies. Activities included significant industry relations with IMO, Nautical Institute, the International Chamber of Shipping and ports worldwide.



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AVIC aims for international ferry and cruise orders China’s AVIC Weihai Shipyard has its sights set on winning more international ferry newbuild orders on the back of its Stena contract – and is aiming to use this experience to enter the cruise shipbuilding market


hina’s AVIC Weihai Shipyard, one of the shipyards under AVIC Ship, aims to become a “first-class, international” yard within the ropax sector after scooping a newbuild order from Stena. Stena has ordered eight ropax ships with four optional vessels at AVIC Weihai Shipyard, representing the yard’s first ever ferry order. The shipyard is justly proud of this order. As vice president of AVIC Weihai Shipyard Eric Deng told Passenger Ship Technology, “European shipyards have more experience and resources than Chinese shipyards in the field of ferry building.” But he singled out several “great advantages” to choosing AVIC Weihai Shipyard, which he believes are the main reasons the shipyard was successful in winning the order. Primarily, that Finnish naval architect and ship design company Deltamarin, which has a close relationship with AVIC Weihai Shipyard, has designed Stena’s ferries. Indeed, Mr Deng said “AVIC Weihai Shipyard focuses on high value-added and high-tech products such as ropax, roro ship and engineering ships and aims to be a first-class and international shipyard in this field. Because of the close relationship with Deltamarin, the size of the organisation and the methods they employ led to a highly technologically driven way of approaching design and delivery that we continue to sustain today.” He added that with the strong support of Deltamarin, which has allowed the shipyard to learn from European good practice, “AVIC Weihai Shipyard plans to be a leading Chinese shipyard in the roro ship and passenger shipbuilding market”.

International approach Eric Deng (AVIC Weihai Shipyard): One factor behind winning the Stena order was the shipyard's close relationship with Deltamarin, which designed the ferries

Passenger Ship Technology | 4th Quarter 2018

Another important factor was that, as mentioned, the shipyard is managed by AVIC Ship, a subsidiary of AVIC International Holding Corp, which is

“There is no doubt we are interested in building cruise, however, we have to do it step-by-step” Eric Deng (AVIC Weihai Shipyard)

a subsidiary of Aviation Industry Corp of China. There is no doubt that AVIC Weihai Shipyard can gain more resources and support from its mother company. “AVIC Ship is equipped and operating with a whole industrial chain in the ship industry. Its business scope covers trade, financing, design and engineering, construction, supply chain management, after-sales service and other fields,” said Mr Deng. He singled out how the company’s international approach and culture helped it to win the Stena contract. Furthermore, AVIC Ship has an international marketing and sales team (it has six overseas representative offices in Germany, Greece, Norway, Turkey, the Middle East and Singapore), and is expanding into international markets with the support of its parent company AVIC International Holding Corp, which has 166 offices in 66 countries. A competitive price also worked in the shipyard’s favour. Mr Deng explained. “The benefits include a competitive price, but high-quality products compared with European shipyards. This means low opex and low capex for the owners.” In addition to its relationship with Deltamarin, the shipyard has built strong links with other European resources for vessel construction, using German interior outfitter R&M for the Stena


vessels. “This was very important as Chinese shipyards do not have the same experience as European companies for ferry interiors,” explained Mr Deng. R&M has a local branch in China, which is also beneficial. Mr Deng said the shipyard would learn about interiors from R&M with the aim of managing this aspect themselves for a future ropax project. The Stena vessels the shipyard is building are complex to construct and highly innovative. Explaining how the shipyard approached the project, Mr Deng explained that AVIC Ship has organised a dedicated technical research team and project management team to take care of the Stena project. “We have utilised all kinds of resources... to ensure smooth progress of project engineering, procurement, production management and quality controls.” The yard has also developed its facilities for constructing the Stena ferries. A new plate welding production line has been in operation for almost a year to meet the high requirements of thin plate welding. Furthermore, its newly established workshop for modular cabin production will be ready for production in October. The unit cabin building method means the cabins can be prefabricated. AVIC Ship said it is the first Chinese shipyard to have such a facility.

Stena technical innovations Explaining the technical innovations on the Stena newbuilds, Mr Deng said the efficient hull form and propulsion will have a “very advanced” EEDI compared to the current IMO index requirement. These vessels will have heat recovery systems for engines and air conditioning plants, frequency control technology for shaft generators, bow thrusters, larger pumps and ventilation fans and will be equipped with energy efficient motors and LED lighting. He added “These vessels are a ‘clean’ ship design and include the best environment friendly marine equipment”, such as USCG type-approved ballast water treatment plants for salt and fresh water service, a high performance bilge water treatment system of 5 ppm, a total waste management system including a vacuum toilet system, food waste and dry waste handling system and sewage treatment plant that meets Baltic Sea special area

The efficient hull form and effective propulsion will gain Stena's newbuilds a “very advanced” EEDI comparing to the current IMO index (Credit: AVIC Ship)

discharge requirements. The ships will also use biodegradable oil and grease for lubricating and use an environmentally friendly antifouling system. Mr Deng added “These ships will also be equipped with intelligent ship systems including an integrated automation system, integrated ship data network and ‘paperless’ one-man bridge.” Two of the ferries will be LNG dualfuelled, while the rest will be gas-ready. The first vessel to be LNG-fuelled will have its steel cut next year. So successful is the design of the ferries, that the service speed power demand they will achieve will be 10% over what was required by Stena in the contract. As well as the Stena ferries, AVIC will deliver a ropax ferry for Jiaodong Ferries for the sino-Korean route by the end of October 2018. “We gained more experience though this project too,” said Mr Deng. This newbuild was also under the dedicated project and technical management teams that AVIC Ship and AVIC Weihai Shipyard set up for the

Stena project. Mr Deng said the shipyard was currently in discussions for more ropax projects. While many shipyards in China are interested in the European ferry market, Mr Deng warned it was a “severe challenge for a Chinese shipyard to build a ropax in line with European standards”. He explained “The yards have to upgrade and think outside of the box, which means they need to change their operations management, building methods, culture, and way of thinking from the traditional ways. And the yards also need to focus on improving the capabilities of project management, technological innovation, marketing and lean manufacturing.” The shipyard has its eyes on the cruise market too. Mr Deng said “Cruise vessels are recognised as the pearl in the imperial crown of the shipbuilding industry, so there is no doubt we are interested in building cruise, however, we have to do it step-by-step.” PST

Passenger Ship Technology | 4th Quarter 2018

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Siemens provided the propulsion and battery solution for Ampere, the world’s first fully battery-powered car ferry. Credit: Siemens

Ferries: the future is electric Norway’s tough environmental legislation is spearheading the drive towards electric hybrid and battery-powered ferries, with several innovative newbuild projects highlighting recent developments


arlier this year, the Norwegian Parliament announced it had adopted a resolution to halt emissions from cruise ships and ferries in the Norwegian world heritage fjords as soon as technically possible, and no later than 2026. Operators must conform, and this is resulting in a scramble towards battery and hybrid diesel-electric power as a standard means of propulsion. Siemens head of its offshore and marine centre Torstein SoleGärtner told Passenger Ship Technology “In the near future most ferries [in Norway] will include some kind of energy storage, and we also think that by 2020 there will be 60 ferries that are hybrid or electric in Norway.” The development of battery ferries in Norway is expected to drive similar developments in the ferry sector further afield. Mr Sole-Gärtner said “One of our major plans is to take the electric propulsion and battery technology developed in ferries globally from Norway, to help develop the electric propulsion marine sector.” Siemens is opening a fully automated and digitalised plant in

Norway in Q3 2018 that will develop and manufacture energy storage technologies for both marine and offshore oil and gas applications. Indeed, the company has been at the forefront of developing electric propulsion and battery technology for the ferry industry. It provided the propulsion and battery solution for Ampere in 2015, the world’s first fully battery-powered car ferry. Mr Sole-Gärtner said the solution was based on technology Siemens had developed for the offshore industry. With the change from diesel propulsion to battery, Norwegian shipowner Norled has reduced the cost of fuel by 60% on Ampere. Other recent contracts include two new battery-powered ferries for Fjord1 (announced in 2016) and the electric solution for FinFerries’ battery-powered car ferry Elektra, delivered last year. Most prominently, Siemens is providing the electric propulsion and energy storage solution, management and automation for Color Line’s new battery-diesel hybrid vessel, which will be the largest battery-hybrid plug-in ferry in the world when delivered next year. Siemens is using its BlueDrive PlusC propulsion system and the new BlueVault lithium-ion energy storage solution, which aims to reduce emissions and risk for offshore and marine deployment. Mr Sole-Gärtner said “One advantage is that it allows integration of the energy storage system in an efficient way without a lot of equipment.” The system uses a direct current rather than an alternating current, which makes it “fit for purpose for use with a battery system” and it works more efficiently with a battery system compared to an alternating system. One challenge Siemens must overcome in the installation is the sheer size of Color Hybrid. “The propulsion system and batteries are larger than those usually deployed in a ferry, but the technology is

Passenger Ship Technology | 4th Quarter 2018


scalable, so it can meet different needs and be used across small and large ferries,” explained Mr Sole-Gärtner. An increasing number of newbuilds using diesel-electric propulsion are being announced. In July this year Remontowa Shipbuilding signed a contract to construct two double-ended hybrid ferries for Norled. The new ferries will be equipped with a diesel-electric hybrid system. The shipyard explained that in normal operation the required power will be taken from two battery packs installed on board. The batteries will be recharged from the land grid during the vessels’ stay at quay, which will typically be about 11 minutes. Remontowa added that a fast charging solution of pantograph or plug-in type will be used to ensure the required state of charge of the batteries is maintained. The shore charging system will be integrated with an automatic mooring system of vacuum or magnetic type, holding the ferries when at quay and giving the ‘green light’ for the charging process to start. The intention is to use the generating sets the vessels will be equipped with, running on 100% biodiesel, only in case of emergency. The electric system will be prepared to operate them alongside batteries, for example in peak shaving mode. The new ferries will service the Festøya-Solavågen connection. They will be capable of carrying up to 120 cars and 296 passengers.

Innovative lengthening project

Grimaldi is lengthening two ropax ferries to create space for installing batteries to convert the vessels from diesel-powered to diesel-hybrid. The project is a first-of-its-kind as it is the first time batteries have been installed in the extension of a ferry. The lengthening will also create extra cabins and public spaces. Grimaldi signed a letter of intent with Fincantieri in March

2018 for the shipyard to undertake the lengthening and extensive refurbishment of cruise ferries Cruise Roma and Cruise Barcelona, built by the Italian yard in 2007 and 2008 respectively. Two 28-m long sections will be fitted to the mid bodies of the ropax ferries. Before lengthening, the vessels’ statistics are: 54,000 gt, 225 m long, 3,000 passengers, with a 2,400 m2 car deck and 3,000 lane metres for heavy vehicles. After lengthening: 63,000 gt, 254 m long, 3,500 passengers, 3,400 m2 car deck and 3,700 lane metres for heavy vehicles. Fincantieri will kick off the work at the start of January 2019 on Cruise Roma, with work expected to take 12 weeks. It will be followed by the lengthening of Cruise Barcelona. Fincantieri’s ship repair and conversion division will carry out the project at its Palermo site. Such a large refit meant that Fincantieri had to carry out a feasibility study and proposed a completely new general arrangement to Grimaldi, in accordance with class society RINA. Commenting on the reasons behind the lengthening, Fincantieri’s manager for the project Andrew Toso said “The reason is to increase capacity, but the ferry operator has a very environmentally friendly approach so is using this new section to install batteries. This will allow the vessel to have zero emissions in port as all of the electrical needs of the vessels will be met by the batteries, allowing all gensets to be switched off.” The batteries will be recharged while at sea. He added “The ferries will perform sea trials like a newbuilding because from a stability and manoeuvrability viewpoint, it is like having a completely new vessel.” The batteries will total 5 MW of installed power and will be supplied by Corvus Energy. Mr Toso explained there will be two battery rooms and “due to space and battery weight” the battery pack will be spilt into two, with one half in the battery room port side and the other in the room on the starboard side.

Rolls-Royce launches batteries developed with ferry operators Rolls-Royce is launching a lithium-ion based energy storage system it developed with Color Line and Norled ferry operators for use in a variety of marine applications.

Jens Hjorteset (right) technical product manager for Rolls-Royce's SAVe Energy battery system and Erling Johannesen, site manager at Rolls-Royce power electric systems, launch SAVe Energy. Credit: Øystein Klakegg/Rolls-Royce Marine

Passenger Ship Technology | 4th Quarter 2018

Rolls-Royce began offering battery systems for vessels in 2010, but they were all developed by third parties until the company's partnership with Color Line and Norled. Three shipowning companies, Color Line, Norled and the Norwegian Coastal Administration Shipping Company, partnered with Rolls-Royce in the battery system's development, “ensuring that the energy storage system covers a wide variety of marine applications, including ferries, cruise vessels and multi-purpose vessels”, according to a statement from Rolls-Royce. Rolls-Royce described its new SAVe Energy product as a modular, liquidcooled battery system that can be scaled according to a vessel’s energy and power requirements, noting SAVe Energy complieswith international legislation for lowand zero-emission propulsion systems. Rolls-Royce said SAVe Energy can be applied to supply and supplement

power during several engine operating sequences, including peak shaving and spinning reserve, and can be coupled with most types of propulsion units. In a hybrid set up, SAVe Energy handles the peak load, while the main power generators relate to the average load, allowing the propulsion units to maintain thrusting capabilities. “The electrification of ships is building momentum,” said Rolls-Royce executive vice president Andreas Seth. “From 2010, we have delivered battery systems representing about 15 MWh in total. However, now the potential deployment of our ... SAVe Energy in 2019 alone is 10-18 MWh.” Mr Seth said battery systems have become a ‘key component’ of power and propulsions systems at Rolls-Royce and the company will add its new battery system to several ongoing projects. These include the upgrade programme for Hurtigruten’s cruise ferries. PST


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China: the secrets of its ferry building success China has won an influx of ferry orders on the back of strong European collaboration with consultants, manufacturers and designers, writes Barry Luthwaite

Passenger Ship Technology | 4th Quarter 2018


he rise of China from nowhere, to now stand out as the world’s leading builder of ropax ferries is remarkable. For decades European builders have held the leading role in constructing ferries and have dominated cruise liner orders. But the destination of roro/ropax construction has dramatically altered direction. China should never be underestimated in its ambition to construct the most sophisticated designs. The ambition has been there for many years and great progress has been made in each decade on a variety of vessel types. Co-operation with European and especially Scandinavian designers has been the key to export success. It was in early 2016 that a determined bid was made to secure export roro business but the considerable success could never have been anticipated. Currently roro construction is booming as owners realise there is a great need for change globally in facilities and propulsion demands from new environmental legislation from the start of 2020. The ropax export orderbook in China has risen from nothing to 33 large ferries in under three years. Of these, 25 are for export and will join the fleets of Stena Line, DFDS, Gotland and Viking Line with more options attached which

are likely to be exercised. What lies behind the success of China in winning such ground-breaking business? Scandinavia exhibits a strong influence not only with ownership but also the respective designs of the vessels. Reputable yards in China will always produce well-built vessels but inevitably there is a drawback because vessels are delivered later than originally scheduled. Owners never really confirm this, but there must be provision in the contracts for certain slippage. In the case of high-specification ropax units, interior fitting is a crucial ingredient for passenger comfort. Indeed, there are often delays to such vessels in European construction. China is no stranger to building ferries for Chinese services but these are to lower Asian specifications. Only two European-owned ropax ferries have previously been built in China, for Sweden’s Gotland – Visborg and Gotland which were both delivered from Guangzhou Shipyard International, Guangdong in 2003 and are still in service. It is fitting therefore that Guangzhou should receive repeat orders in November 2014 and June 2015 for two similar upgraded units that will carry 1,650 passengers compared with 1,500 guests on their older predecessors.


Viking Line is building a ferry in China which involves strong European collaboration

Both newbuildings will take nearly four years to build, underlining the sophisticated high-grade design. Guangzhou Shipyard International was due to deliver Visborg in September this year and its sister ship in January 2019. Despite worries over late deliveries, studies of the Gotland newbuildings convinced some owners of China’s construction potential. Both Gotland newbuildings will incorporate dual-fuel LNG-ready propulsion. Another inducement for potential clients is cheaper pricing in China over Europe, although with such high-specification vessels, the gap is probably quite narrow. Price considerations fall largely on the interior decor of the vessels which, these days, are as large as some cruise liners with luxury accommodation to match.

Forging links with Europe

Winning so many orders for highly technical vessels has been accomplished by forging agreements with European designers and consultants. Scandinavian companies particularly are offering their expertise before and during construction. Such marketing is now paying rich dividends as now is the time for renewing roro fleets.

Prime movers in the ownership stakes are Sweden’s Stena Line and Denmark’s DFDS. In the case of Stena, a new E-Flexer design was evolved and provided Deltamarin Group, Finland, with its first engineering, procurement, construction and management package covering building four state-of-the-art ropax ferries at Avic Weihai. Options were recently exercised by Stena doubling its commitment to eight vessels stretching deliveries into 2022. Main propulsion for each will be provided by two 12-cylinder M43C MaK dual-fuel engines using methanol or LNG as the second fuel. The China newbuildings mark the first time Stena has used the wide passenger vessel design experience of Deltamarin Group. All eight vessels are for deployment on north European routes. The choice of E-Flexer for the ferry designation type sums up flexibility, notably from the fact that two of the four exercised options will be longer at 239.7 m, cater for 1,200 passengers and offer increased lane capacity of 3,600 lane-m. The previous six units will offer 930 passenger berths and 3,100 lane-m within a length of 215 m. Next to these eight ships, Stena has taken out options for four more E-Flexers which would take employment as far ahead as 2023.

Deltamarin’s experience working in China with Stena on board already gained a jumbo ferry order from Viking Line, Finland soon after the E-Flexer contract. This single order will see Xiamen Shipbuilding Industry deliver a 2,800-passenger capacity ropax offering 1,500 lane-m of freight space. It will be LNG-powered and revives a newbuilding previously ordered in Spain by Viking Line a few years ago and cancelled due to unacceptable delays. A unique feature of the vessel will be two 24 m high rotor sails to complement LNG fuel burning.

Chinese orders for DFDS and Moby

Complementing the Stena ropax ferries are orders from DFDS for similar-sized units. The Danish owner will take two of the Stena ferries on 10-year charters for service between Dover and France. Additionally, DFDS has ordered two plus optional two smaller ropax units from Guangzhou Shipyard offering accommodation for 600 passengers and 4,500 lane-m of freight space. The two firm units will operate between Lithuania and Sweden or Germany and will together cost Dkr1.8Bn (US$297M).These

Passenger Ship Technology | 4th Quarter 2018


will again be built to Deltamarin design with the Finnish designer’s contract with DFDS valued at ₏5M (US$5.8M). Deltamarin is set to go one step further and is in close liaison with Chinese builders for adopting a state-ofthe-art luxury accommodation ropax designed for Asia ferry routes. China has a thriving internal ferry industry and now may also be the time to serve routes to countries within the vast hinterland surrounding China. Orders and more collaboration between European designers and owners is likely in this new era as more Chinese yards look for high-value, specialist tonnage. Italy is the latest nation to favour China with ropax business. In another ground-breaking deal, cruise liner giant Mediterranean Shipping Co (MSC) changed course to enter a new Builder

sector of luxury cruise ferries. Working in collaboration with Onorato Shipping Group, Italy (Moby Lines), both owners committed to two luxury cruise roro ferries offering accommodation for 2,500 passengers in 534 cabins and 3,765 lane-m of freight space. The ships will operate from its Genoa ferry office. Guangzhou Shipyard International will build the quartet and both owners have attached options for two more vessels. The dominant presence of Deltamarin was again in evidence having been awarded the design contract. Deliveries are set for 2019 and 2020. China is well versed in domestic ownership construction but in recent weeks has been consolidating with more export

contracts from neighbouring countries. A rare order was secured from South Korea for a 35,000-gt ropax for Han Joong Ferry Lines valued at US$59M. The ferry will run between Incheon and Yantai (China) and will be jointly owned by South Korea and China. Danish designer OSK Ship Tech teamed up with ENTMV, Algeria, for construction of an 1,800-passenger, 600-car capacity ropax for delivery in June 2019 at a cost of US$175M. Construction is underway at Tianjin Xingang. Indonesia has ordered the first two in a 10-ship series of passenger ferries at Fujian Southeast where previously this order might have gone to Germany or be built to German blueprints. PST

Beneficial owner


AVIC Weihai

Stena RoRo (6)


PAX/LM/CARS 930/3100/300

AVIC Weihai

Stena RoRo (2)



AVIC Weihai

Stena RoRo (option 4)



China Merchants Industry

SunStone Ships



China Merchants Industry

SunStone Ships



China Merchants Industry

SunStone Ships



China Merchants Industry

SunStone Ships



China Merchants Industry

Sunstone Ships (option 6)



CSIC Wuchang (MOU)

Fujian GuoHang Ocean Shipping. Co.


CSIC Wuchang (MOU)

Fujian GuoHang Ocean Shipping. Co.


Fuzhou Arrow (2)


Indonesian Owner (2)


Guangdong Bonny Fair

Nisa Navegacion SA


Guangdong Bonny Fair

Transportes del Estuario (2)


Guangzhou Shipyard

DFDS A/S (2)


Guangzhou Shipyard

DFDS A/S (option 2)


Fujian Funing Fujian Southeast



Guangzhou Shipyard




Guangzhou Shipyard

Gotland AB (2)



Guangzhou Shipyard

Grandi Navi Veloci (2)



Guangzhou Shipyard

Grandi Navi Veloci (option 2)



Guangzhou Shipyard

Moby Lines (2)



Guangzhou Shipyard

Moby Lines (option 2)



Shidao Int. Ferry Co.


Beibu Gulf Tourism


Huanghai Huarun Dadong Dockyard Jinling

TT-Line (Pending)


TT-Line (Pending)

Penglai Zhongbai Jinglu

650/4600/-/ 650/4600/-/

Changdao Xianglong (2)


Shandong Huanghai

Bohai Ferry Co.


Shandong Huanghai

Huajia International Shpg.


Carnival Cruise Line (2)


Guangdong Shuangtai Group


Shanghai Waigaoqiao Taizhou Kouan Shipbuilding Taizhou Kouan Shipbuilding Tianjin Xingang Xiamen Shipbuilding Ind.

Beibu Gulf Tourism


Han Joong Ferry Lines


Viking Line





Credit: BRL Consultants

Passenger Ship Technology | 4th Quarter 2018

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SeaKing's energy management system provides up to 20% savings in energy by reducing galley equipment usage

Galleys and pantries: mega ships, varied dining and energy management T

he rise of the mega cruise ship and passenger demand for more varied dining have made galley and pantry planning and development more complex and challenging. SeaKing vice president of sales Jan Montonen told Passenger Ship Technology, “The trend for cruise ships over 200 gt is continuing, with some ships of more than 7,000 passengers. Main dining rooms often seat over 2,500 people.” An accompanying trend and challenge is that “more and more people want to eat quicker, which means the turnaround for tables needs to be shorter”. Mr Montonen said people would like to eat in less than 90 minutes rather than two hours. He commented

Passenger Ship Technology | 4th Quarter 2018

The increase in large cruise ships and more varied passenger dining demands are challenges for the galleys sector – but automation and energy management systems can help overcome these obstacles

“Therefore, from the same footprint, the galley produces the food quicker and gets it out quicker to the tables.” Another theme is that rather than one main dining room, the trend is now for more speciality-themed restaurants. Mr Montonen explained it was key for the general arrangements to get these volumes of people moving, as well as optimising the galley and pantry production flow. “It needs to look at equipment and how it is placed, so that no waiter is waiting too long in the galley but is moving food to the passengers.” He explained that the general arrangement needs to look at where dining venues are located so passengers can get there smoothly and back of house traffic (crew and provisions) can work well. Mr Montonen said “They need


to locate the provision stores as efficiently as possible and move food into venues. The big dining venues need to be located on top of each other so the same service lifts can be used to reduce movements.” The trend to use multiple dining venues rather than the traditional large single dining room adds complexity, Mr Montonen said, but makes it more interesting. He added “When we add complexity it requires broader knowledge of dining concepts and new technologies.” Another challenge galley and pantry manufacturers have to deal with is that European shipyards’ orderbooks are full, so they are designing a ship that will not be delivered for six years. Mr Montonen explained “This leaves ample time to update dining concepts which means more work for us, as rather than four or five versions, there are 14 or 15. As food trends are moving quicker and quicker, you cannot always anticipate the theme of a restaurant in six years; the design is kept generic so that it can be adapted.”

Energy management focus

Alongside complexity, energy monitoring is a huge theme for galleys and pantries. As Mr Montonen pointed out, “galley equipment is a big consumer of power and a big opportunity to save power.” SeaKing’s energy management system, launched on Mein Schiff 3 four and a half years ago, is currently being installed on 20 cruise ships. Other cruise projects include Quantum of the Seas. Mr Montonen said the system saved 20-25% of power needed for ventilating galleys and provided up to 20% savings in energy by reducing galley equipment use. SeaKing has recently developed the system’s user interface, with different interfaces and information depending on who is using the system. Mr Montonen said “The information a chef seeks from the programme is different from a chief refrigeration engineer, so we have to cater for all users.” Elsewhere, energy efficiency is a focus for other galley and pantry providers. Due to 2020 GWP regulations, Welbilt Marine brand Manitowoc Ice will soon be changing the refrigerant within its products from R404a to R410. This will improve energy efficiency while reducing greenhouse gases. Welbilt Marine brand Convotherm has been tapping into cooking trends. Welbilt Marine global key accounts manager cruise line David Weightman said “With regards to Convotherm, the add on of a smoker

The Convotherm mini combination oven includes EasyStart, which allows users to simultaneously cook up to six different product categories

is becoming ever more popular especially with refurbishments and newbuilds. For operators looking to offer a new smoked option to their menu, then the precise, automated smoke cooking from the in-built ConvoSmoke system is the perfect choice.” Designed for the Convotherm 4 combi steamers from Manitowoc Foodservice, the in-built ConvoSmoker option features an integrated smoker box which holds up to eight flavoured bisquettes. Convotherm has announced the launch of a new black variant of its Convotherm mini combination oven. “The matt black coating which helps eliminate fingerprints means the oven retains its clean and elegant appearance, even after a whole day’s use,”

said Mr Weightman. It includes features including EasyStart, which allows users to simultaneously bake and cook up to six different product categories. “Models featuring the easyTouch panel have an intuitive picture-based user interface, meaning unskilled staff can use the mini black without requiring timeconsuming training,” said Mr Weightman. Welbilt Marine has a busy orderbook. It has recently installed equipment from its Convotherm, Merrychef, Cleveland and Manitowoc Ice brands on to Princess Cruises’ newbuild Princess Sky, as well as ships for Celebrity Cruises, Royal Caribbean, MSC Cruises and Saga Cruises. Indeed, Welbilt Marine’s products are being specified in over 110 newbuild vessels over the next five years. Energy efficiency and using smart systems is also important to MKN. The German company has introduced updates to its FlexiChef system and FlexiCombi range of combi steamers, which now have more features aimed at enhancing efficiency and optimising kitchen and galley processes on board. These include MagicPilot: a touch and slide operation similar to a modern smartphone; QualityControl: an automatic quantity detector that allows automatic adjustment; and GreenInside: a water and energy consumption display shown after each cooking process. The FlexiCombi also features a tripleglazed cooking chamber door that offers a potential energy saving of up to 28% compared to earlier generation MKN steamers with double glazing, while using the heat exchanger can reduce its power requirement by about 1 kW, MKN claims. PST

Virtual galley highlights technology Halton Marine has launched a virtual galley that showcases galley ventilation technologies in action: how to save energy, keep hoods and exhaust ducts clean, create comfortable conditions and improve fire safety. Halton explained that a significant technology introduced in Halton Virtual Galley is demand-based ventilation for galleys. Halton MARVEL is designed specifically for Halton hoods to optimise their efficiency and minimise the environmental footprint. Compared to traditional hoods, the Halton MARVEL system, combined with the Capture Jet technology, can save up to 50 % in galley ventilation energy consumption,

the company said. The galley also demonstrates the company’s Capture Jet technology. This creates negative pressure along the front edge and sides of the hood and assists in capturing and containing heat and effluents in the critical work area. Capture Jet reduces the effective net exhaust volumes while improving extraction efficiency, while fan and ductwork size are minimised. Capture Jet hoods prevent heat and impurities produced by cooking appliances from spreading to the work area. The hoods deliver a small air jet that pushes the upward-flowing thermal current toward the filters.

Passenger Ship Technology | 4th Quarter 2018


Manufacturers boost shipowner maintenance agreements Lifesaving equipment maintenance agreements are being extended giving added benefits to shipowners, OEMs explain


here is an ever-greater focus on long-term maintenance agreements between OEMs and shipowners, with several new beneficial services. Viking Life-Saving Equipment has boosted its Shipowner Agreement solution with new options launched at this year’s SMM, aimed at cutting administration time for equipment maintenance and exchange. Viking ServiceConnect is a new purpose-built digital service hub featuring an intuitive customer portal for direct service booking and global online 24/7 access to information about safety equipment servicing and notifications. Viking senior vice president of global sales Benny Carlsen said “It is about reducing administration – we wanted to lighten up the administration work for shipowners.” He explained that shipowners would receive an automatic notification email prior to equipment expiring or needing maintenance. “Shipowners can then reply or click the link in the email, select which port they want the servicing carried out at and what time, then the service booking process is done. Previously, this was manually arranged by transactions over email or telephone. A lot of shipowners do not want or need emails back and forth to arrange servicing matters. With our new system, they just click, select and confirm.” Commenting further on this customer portal, he said “For Viking, communication with our customers is absolutely vital, but we need to ensure this runs as smoothly and conveniently for them as possible. In the end, this contributes to both the shipowner and us running a leaner and more efficient operation.” While the Viking Shipowner Agreement has been around for several years, Mr Carlsen said Viking was “always looking to boost it to remain in synch with changing customer needs, priorities and operational conditions. Today, a Viking Shipowner Agreement covers a fleet’s safety compliance needs in predictable fixed-price structures and can be easily and flexibly adapted, providing cost efficiencies and reduced administrative hassles.

Viking Life-Saving Equipment has launched a customer portal that will cut ship owner administration when it comes to arranging equipment maintenance

This allows the shipowner to keep a high level of safety and regulatory compliance with a bare minimum of disruption to operations. “Liferafts, personal protective equipment, marine evacuation systems, life saving appliances, marine fire equipment, lifeboats, hooks and davits and training are among the offerings that can be covered, and with 98% of customers renewing their contract upon expiry, there’s plenty of testimony to support the fact that we deliver on our promises.” The company is also focused on its online training portal, Viking Saatsea, a digitalised crew training programme for operators using Viking’s safety equipment. “It allows the shipowner to make sure their crew are trained and up-to-date with systems,” he said, pointing out that it is often easier and more efficient to train several crew members using a digital platform than send an entire crew on a landbased training course. For efficient competency management,

Passenger Ship Technology | 4th Quarter 2018


the system gives updates about what training stage different members of crew are at, and it provides different courses related to the position of the crew member. For example, the training course for a safety officer would be “very intense,” whereas galley-based personnel would just need to know basic things, such as where the system is kept, how it works etc,” explained Mr Carlsen.

Collaborative approach

Meanwhile, Liferaft Systems Australia (LSA) European manager Peter Rea highlighted the emphasis the company gave to a “collaborative approach” to ferry projects. “It is not just focusing on the capital costs of shipyards but focusing on the shipowner and really getting them to look at the long-term costs of ownership,” he said. The company looks at the longterm cost of ownership and ensures their customers have a known cost every year. Mr Rea added “We find that equipment coming to the end of serviceable life does not need to be replaced in one go, but components of an MES can be replaced one at a time, so it is not a huge change and cost and is easy to budget for. We work closely with owners and service stations, making sure they know well in advance that they are looking at replacement in one to five years, so they can budget for that.” He added “We are open and honest and don’t give any surprises. We are a responsible OEM, we don’t just sell equipment and walk away – we want to remain involved. Although we have no financial interest in service we like to keep an involvement – we have a hardearned reputation for quality, reliability, honesty and transparency and want to maintain that.” He summed up that LSA thought it was crucial to let shipowners know the complete cost of ownership over a lifetime.

Cruise care package

Survitec has focused on a servicing programme designed and built specifically for cruise clients. The company explained that the Survitec CARE package is designed for owners and operators of passenger vessels and offers a proactive approach to managing safety assets and minimising the risk of equipment failure. Survitec said it offered:

LSA works closely with its service stations to ensure that ship owners can budget for maintenance of equipment. Pictured is its UK service station, Star International

• A customised vessel solution for all equipment types. • A dedicated Total CARE manager to handle all SOLAS compliance obligations and due dates, reviewed quarterly. • Trained, multi-disciplined technicians with a complete SOLASoverseeing role, per vessel. • Single-click purchase order package for ease of business and a fixed price with no surprises. • Tailored customer portal, giving access to all safety assets and compliance data, services completed/due and spares required.

Survitec warns on rehooking deadline dash The clock is ticking for a significant number of vessels owners who have not yet met the rehooking regulations (IMO MSC.1/Circ 1392) which specify that all non-compliant lifeboat release and retrieval systems must be replaced at the first scheduled drydocking after 1 July 2014 but no later than 1 July 2019. “There is no reason to suggest this deadline will be extended,” said Survitec regulatory and compliance manager Paul Watkins. “Although, we are aware that some flag states are already being contacted by vessel owners looking to extend the period. These dispensation requests are due to wanting to scrap the vessel shortly after the deadline, or a delayed scheduled drydocking shortly after 1 July 2019”.

Passenger Ship Technology | 4th Quarter 2018

He added “Controversially, we may see vessels looking to re-flag to Registers which will give them this flexibility.” According to IMO there are 160 hooks in the market place and only just over half of these are compliant, with a further 30% becoming compliant after modification. This leaves a large number of vessels under pressure to meet the deadline in the next nine months, said IMO Global Integrated Shipping Information System. Survitec is seeing an increase in demand on a regional basis, as over 60% of drydockings are carried out in Asia and the Middle East, mainly China and Singapore. Survitec's global installation teams rehook lifeboats during drydock or at a key port. PST

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The cruise industry has almost reached scrubber saturation point due to the early adoption of this technology, but there are still some newbuild and retrofit projects (pictured: Yara's scrubbers being fitted into Norwegian Escape) (credit: Yara Marine Technologies)

Passenger ships: leading the way on scrubbers The passenger ship sector has been an early adopter of scrubbers. Industry insiders open up about how using scrubbers protects them from fuel price uncertainties, and cruise operators unveil their scrubber strategies


he cruise and ropax scrubber market is approaching saturation point – and has been overtaken by the container and bulk ship sectors. DNV GL gathers monthly global statistics for ships confirming the number operating with scrubbers and those which have scrubbers on order and as of October, there were 33 confirmed projects for ropax ships and 155 for cruise ships. Container ships and bulk ships beat these orders with 243 and 552 orders respectively. Of course, the cruise sector was an early adopter of scrubbers. Wärtsilä general manager exhaust treatment Stian Aakre told

Passenger Ship Technology | 4th Quarter 2018

Passenger Ship Technology “When everyone was waiting for the IMO decision regarding implementation in 2020 or 2025, the cruise industry was installing scrubbers. The cruise market has been a very important market for us for a while; we still sign cruise contracts for both newbuild and retrofits.” But he pointed out there had been a “distinct change” in the market since October 2016, when IMO decided to introduce the low sulphur directive in 2020, which is when the merchant marine market was forced to relate to scrubbers. “Bulk carriers, tankers and container ship sectors are where we now sell the most,” Mr Aakre said.


Wärtsilä figures show that as of August 2018 it has 415 signed scrubber contracts for vessels across all sectors. Of these, 42 are cruise ships and 17 are for the ropax/ferry sector. It has signed contracts for 128 bulk ships and 114 container ships.

Fuel uncertainty drives scrubber market

Talking about one of the main drivers of all segments to adopt scrubbers, Mr Aakre said “the potential of savings is what drives people to order scrubbers in all segments, and a contributory factor is the uncertainty of 0.5% fuel after 2020, in terms of quality, availability and price. “I know that a lot of operators in all segments are worried about the varying quality so they might be happy with one quality in Europe, for example, and then not have a good bunker somewhere else, in case of inconsistency in bunker quality. Whereas if they install scrubbers, they can bunker well known fuel and at the same time open up to savings’ potential.” CR Ocean Engineering (CROE) president and chief operating officer Nicholas Confuorto told Passenger Ship Technology “Today’s large price difference [between HFO and low sulphur fuel] is not even close to what I believe it will be in 2020.” In recent years, CROE delivered a large order for Royal Caribbean – which marked its first entry into the cruise ship market. Seven cruise ships across the Millennium and Radiance classes have had its scrubbers installed. CR Ocean Engineering has also fitted four scrubbers on Stena Line’s Scandinavica and in 2015 and 2016 installed four scrubbers on two of its roro vessels along with many others. Yara Marine Technologies chief sales and marketing officer Kai Latun told Passenger Ship Technology his thoughts on the cruise scrubber market. “The cruise segment is nearly saturated, most cruise vessels have either scrubbers, or have chosen distillate or LNG, so it is not very active these days. The cruise industry was the early adopter and has already decided on a solution.” Nevertheless, Yara is still installing scrubbers on newbuilds and ferries, including projects for Brittany Ferries, MSC Cruises and

Norwegian Cruise Line. The MSC Cruises contract involves MSC Fantasia and MSC Preziosa, which are are the fleet’s first ships to be retrofitted with hybrid Yara Marine Technologies’ SOx exhaust gas cleaning systems. This took place in 2017. The project was led by a team from STX France, the yard that originally built the two vessels. The process equipment installation was completed with the ship in full operation, while the drydock operations, namely the exhaust gas cleaning system installation, was carried out at Fincantieri’s shipyard in Palermo. A statement said that other ships in MSC Cruises’ fleet are set to be retrofitted with exhaust gas cleaning systems in coming years, ahead of the entry into force of the new international sulphur emissions requirements in January 2020.

Holistic solutions

While the cruise market might be almost saturated with scrubbers and is also increasingly using LNG to comply with 2020, it seems that many passenger ship operators want to embrace different ways of complying within a single fleet. Indeed, the theme of the passenger ship panel debate at SMM in September 2018 was that cruise and ferry operators should not embrace just one method for meeting the low sulphur cap – Carnival Corp senior vice president of maritime affairs Tom Strang and MSC Group executive vice president, maritime policy and government affairs, Bud Darr highlighted the importance of operators using a variety of solutions within their fleet. See page 43 for more. Mr Darr illustrated how the MSC fleet was using different ways to meet these regulations, with five ships that “may or may not be fitted with a scrubber”, a series of ships that will be fitted with one and five ships on order to be fuelled by LNG. As he explained, it is important to look at the problem holistically, and find the right solution for the right ships and right itineraries. Carnival Corp’s fleet is a good example of this too. Its current fleet has 62% of vessels fitted with scrubbers, while 11 newbuildings will use dual-fuel LNG. LNG, while suiting the profile of a newbuild, is much harder to retrofit in cruise ships. PST

Yara highlights corrosion issues and solutions Yara Marine Technologies chief sales and marketing officer Kai Latun has warned that operators could be facing corrosion of scrubbers in as little as three years’ time as he claims that some scrubber manufacturers choose cheaper materials over more expensive corrosion-proof material. He said “Scrubbers are exposed to sea water, temperature variations and sulphuric acid – which is a perfect storm for corrosion.” Yara itself uses a very tough high nickel alloy (steel) which does not corrode. “It costs a bit of money, but we do not want to use lower quality. We are quite confident that ship owners appreciate that we can give much better quality and have scrubbers that last the lifetime of a ship”. He said that he believed that in two or three years the industry would start to see replacement scrubbers due to corrosion – which would be a “horrendous cost”. He elaborated “That is my big fear – with a booming

scrubber market there are a lot of new entrants. Some are ok, but some are after quick profits.” While he said there are serious scrubber suppliers with good references in the industry, he claims that some companies are using low-cost materials which he does not think will withstand corrosion. He said “I am afraid for shipowners fighting for survival in a tough market, where it is very tempting to cut down technical staff, cut costs, focus on capex and only select cheap scrubber solutions.” He warned “I am afraid we will soon start to hear stories of corroding scrubbers which may kick back on the whole scrubber technology as some people will start to say scrubbers don’t work.” He is trying to raise awareness in the shipping industry of this risk. Mr Latun summed up “The scrubber industry as a whole will get hit if there are a lot of low quality scrubbers installed out there.”

Passenger Ship Technology | 4th Quarter 2018


Is the passenger transport sector seeing 2020 clearly? While many passenger ship operators have decided how they will meet the 2020 low sulphur directive, there are issues to consider surrounding their choices. 20|20 Marine Energy senior associate Per Funch-Nielsen explains


Per Funch-Nielsen (20|20 Marine Energy): There are issues to consider surrounding the choices of passenger ship operators for meeting the 2020 low sulphur directive

ome 1 January 2020 all ships will need to reduce their sulphur emissions by more than 80% at a minimum from a maximum of 3.5% sulphur to 0.5%. It is a huge change for the passenger and ferry sector, and it will be the biggest decrease in the sulphur content of a transportation fuel ever undertaken. Compliance can only be achieved by switching to substantially lower sulphur fuels – and there are credible advocates for LNG, hydrogen, heavy fuel with scrubber, hybrid diesel-electric or going fully electric – but each comes with additional costs, complexities and challenges. Unlike the delays we have seen to the Ballast Water Management Convention, this change is definitely being implemented and it will affect all ocean-going vessels. IMO head of air pollution and energy efficiency Edmund Hughes has repeatedly spoken about the impossibility of a delay, and in July last year most member states rejected any talk of a transitional period at IMO’s Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) 71. In short, it is happening. The global sulphur cap comes into force in less than 450 days and cruise operators need to ensure that their fleets are fully ready to handle this epochal change. For most operators the nearterm decision on what fuel to burn has already been taken, but a number of issues remain and are often complicated further by passengers who expect compliance that goes beyond the letter of the law.

The options

While scrubbers have their merits, the mainstay of compliance will be distillates and distillate blends throughout the shipping sector. In the cruise and ferry sector scrubbers are a much

Passenger Ship Technology | 4th Quarter 2018

more popular option – especially as many of them already operate in ECAs – but there remain challenges over yard space pre-2020, and substantial concerns about open loop scrubbers’ long-term legality. Although with Wood Mackenzie anticipating the price differential between marine gas oil and HSFO will be roughly double the 2017 differential, there would be an undeniable commercial attractiveness even in the short term. LNG also continues to be a longer-term play with continued requirements to develop global infrastructure and bunkering standards. Often left unspoken but very much a reality, is the potential for non-compliance. But as we have seen from the French police’s reaction to alleged air pollution by P&O Cruises’ Azura, there are unlikely to be many captains who are willing to face the prospect of a year in jail and a €200,000 (US$230,000) fine.

Steaming into 2020

Whatever happens, the reality is that the global sulphur cap is already changing the structure and will soon substantially disrupt the supplyand-demand equilibrium of the oil market. Yet regardless of the compliance solution shipowners and fuel payers adopt, too many are still yet to fully map out the consequences and second order effects of their choice. Change is happening, and there remains substantial room for improvement in terms of understanding the cost and operational implications, so that a sustainable and cost effective long-term strategy can be implemented. We are moving into a new era for shipping and bunkering, where there are real opportunities for companies on the buy and supply side of the marine fuel supply chain to realise real competitive and commercial advantage. The whole global supply chain – refineries, shipowners and operators, traders, blenders, and physical fuel suppliers – will be affected by these changes. As such, owners and fuel buyers need advice and counsel from companies such as 20|20 Marine Energy on how to implement and manage the solutions they’ve chosen to ensure compliance, mitigate risk, and keep their costs as low and as controllable as possible.


LNG dual-fuelled Costa Smeralda will boost LNG bunkering infrastructure for the cruise industry

Low sulphur cap: no one solution for a passenger ship fleet Meeting the 2020 low sulphur cap will require cruise and ferry operators to take a flexible view of solutions on a ship-to-ship basis to deal with challenges including bunkering. There is no one solution for the passenger ship industry to meet the low sulphur cap – it varies from ship-to-ship, top operators argued at a passenger ship conference at September 2018 maritime fair SMM. Cruise and ferry operators should not embrace just one method for meeting the low sulphur cap – Carnival Corp senior vice president of maritime affairs Tom Strang and MSC Group executive vice president, maritime policy and government affairs, Bud Darr highlighted the importance of operators using a variety of ways within their fleet.

Mr Darr illustrated how the MSC fleet was using different ways to meet these regulations, with five ships that “may or may not be fitted with a scrubber”, a series of ships that will be fitted with one and five ships on order to be fuelled by LNG. As he explained, it is important to look at the problem holistically, and find the right solution for the right ships and right itineraries. Carnival Corp’s fleet is a good example of this too. Its current fleet has 62% of vessels fitted with scrubbers, while 11 newbuildings will use dual-fuel LNG. LNG, while suiting the profile of a newbuild, is much harder to retrofit in cruise ships. It is not even just about taking a flexible view across the fleet, but even on a single ship. Mr Darr pointed out that operators

have to hedge against fuel supply chain difficulties, such as the fuel of choice not being widely available. He said that operational flexibility on a particular ship was important – for example, operating on dual-fuel LNG and MGO, so there is a back-up should problems arise. Mr Strang (who is also chairman of CLIA Europe environment, safety and security committee) said “LNG meets and exceeds requirements… it is not as available as it could be but we are making it more available, and if we do find a problem then we have dual fuel.” Underpinning the fuel discussion is the ambitious goal to finally reach zero emissions. “That will be a breakthrough not seen yet,” noted Mr Darr. It will take all sectors of the industry working together to reach that goal, with work starting now. PST

Shell has a clear vision into 2020 In a move to calm owners' fears ahead of the 2020 global sulphur cap, Shell vice president shipping and maritime Grahaeme Henderson has issued a statement entitled Working Together. Shell's statement aims to reduce fears that certain fuels will no longer be available. Shell is “developing a variety of fuel product offerings to the shipping industry that include marine gas oil and very low sulphur fuel oil (VLSFO) supply in key bunker ports; high sulphur fuel oil supply for ships with onboard scrubbers and liquefied natural gas (LNG)”, the statement reads. “The market will continue to need multiple types of fuel to meet the industry’s demand, such as LNG, 0.10%S, DMA, and 3.50%S for ships with scrubbers. Shell will provide multiple

products at key ports.” To this end Shell is working with customers to test new 0.50% VLSFO in Rotterdam, Singapore and New Orleans. Mr Henderson also explainedthe oil major is improving lubricants and cylinder oils to cope the changing fuel compositions that will come with the 0.50% sulphur cap. The company is also developing a global network of LNG stations that will overlap with key maritime hubs. The company assured customers switching to gas as a marine fuel that “Shell is working towards a very robust marine LNG supply chain to fulfil our marine customer needs across the world with bunkering infrastructure in place or in development across the Americas, Europe and Asia.”

Passenger Ship Technology | 4th Quarter 2018


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Carnival Corp launches new app to standardise training assessment Carnival Corp has teamed up with Marine Learning Systems to develop an application to ensure training assessments are objective and standardised

Carnival Corp's training academy CSMART has created an app together with Marine Learning Systems to align training and its assessment across its fleet


arnival Corp has developed an app to allow it to assess the skills of its crew across its fleet. Developed with the help of e-learning software provider Marine Learning Systems, the app was launched to help Carnival ensure its crew were all at the same level of commitment and compliance the cruise operator required. Both Carnival Corp and Marine Learning Systems presented the app to delegates at the annual Interferry conference in Mexico in October, to help give ferry operators ideas for training. Carnival Corp director of maritime professional development John Allen explained that the words of Carnival Corp chief executive Arnold Donald were an important factor behind developing the app: “No matter which ship is sailed on [Carnival Corp] they are all as safe as each other and the safest ships that you can sail on.” Mr Allen told delegates “We wanted to align and standardise our approach.” The challenge was the size of the company’s fleet: 105 ships across nine brands, 120,000 crew at any given time and over 6,000 maritime officers. “Everyone was doing everything the correct way anyway, but we needed to align procedures and our training programme and that was a significant challenge for us.” Delving into the assessment aspect of training, Mr Allen said “The assessment goes with the training needs to be aligned, we looked at what we have already.” There was a differing approach across the fleet to training, with some ships having their own fleet trainers and others using visiting trainers. The company built a tiered competency framework and designed an approach called performance-related training. Mr Allen said “This is where we recognise what most of our crew are doing – we assess them first and do not assume no knowledge and put them through a course. If they can do what

they say they can, they can carry on working. If not, they have a targeted training programme.” To manage this, Carnival needed a system and worked with Marine Learning Systems to develop an app that “gives it the opportunity to run an assessment programme on any ship with any of the officers on board. “We do not have the time and capability of rolling out fleet assessors, and partly we don’t want to, we want ships to maintain responsibility,” he said. He singled out the fire-fighting training assessment application that has been created as an example. “It is simple to use and specific about assessing and metrics.” Currently being piloted on board, Carnival brought all of its brands’ firefighting programmes together to create standardised competencies and put together several programmes to assess the fire-fighting capability of crew. Mr Allen commented “While doing that we worked out that we had to do a fire-fight programme every week on the ship anyway, so why not use the drill to standardise the assessment to identify training needs?” He singled out how all fire types were put into the app to have training for dealing with each of them assessed. “While the fire scenario can be changed, for example set in the engineroom or on the bridge, there is a standard competency for each fire type, which is the same for all of the fleet.” The app contains an algorithm that works out whether the team and individual are working correctly or if there is work they need to do. “That is where targeted training comes in,” said Mr Allen. The app assigns skill levels between one and four: one is when a complete retrain is needed, two some mentoring, three satisfactory and four means the crew member might be asked to do peer training. Marine Learning Systems chief executive Murray Goldberg explained the background to the app. “The skills assessment industry

Passenger Ship Technology | 4th Quarter 2018


has been largely the same as before. There is an expert assessor observing the skill, making notes and providing feedback, which leaves much to the discretion of the assessor. “You can get great outcomes, but you can also can get very poor outcomes; you need objectivity, standardisation and consistency.” He explained that Carnival’s training academy, CSMART, recognised this as an issue and decided to do something about it. “They recognised the need for greater metrics around skill assessment and more objectivity and standardisation, so built a webbased skill assessor platform called SEAS and instead of a clipboard, which is what was used previously, an assessor has an iPad running the SEAS application.” The assessment of skills includes indicators for each participant, with a check box for each individual and the team. Mr Goldberg said “This is binary. The assessor is not being asked stuff; things either happened or didn’t, and this improves objectivity and consistency. These skills assessments are very fast paced. There might be 20 people being assessed. You don’t want an assessor to retract into thought as this is a fastpaced environment.” An algorithm kicks in, assesses all the performance indicators and provides levels of reporting, from overall reporting to those on the team and individual, looking at whether they were fit for duty, and providing competency breakdowns for the team and individual. As well as being used by Carnival, he pointed out that such training could be used

to boost ferry safety in developing countries. “They don’t have to implement expensive technical solutions, they just need an iPad. It helps developing countries access expertise.” It also gives the safety skills these developing countries require. PST

Carnival Corp. director of maritime professional development John Allen told delegates at Interferry about the benefits of using an app to assess crew skills

Container ship provides LNG training for AidaNova AidaNova will become the first cruise ship that can run on LNG when it is delivered at the end of 2018. To fully prepare the officers for this technological changeover, a series of practical training sessions at sea started in June. The basis of this training project is a new co-operation between Carnival Maritime and Wessels Reederei, which is providing the LNG-powered container ship WES Amelie for training purposes. The 30-day onboard training sessions on WES Amelie enable AIDA’s captains and officers to experience first-hand what it is like to control an LNG-powered vessel under real operating conditions. A training record book is kept throughout to document the skills acquired; the participants also take part in a bunker procedure and an emergency drill. In addition, Carnival Maritime’s landside ship superintendents are completing training courses with Wessels Reederei. Wessels Reederei general manager Christian Hoepfner said “Safe handling of LNG is a key aspect of the introduction of LNG

Passenger Ship Technology | 4th Quarter 2018

as maritime fuel. By contributing our expertise, we hope to make the use of LNG more widespread, which will also help to further roll out LNG bunker infrastructure.” Carnival Maritime director of maritime training Caroline Baumgärtner said “The purpose of practical training is not just to build knowledge, but also to gain confidence in handling the technology and develop safety awareness when using LNG. I am very grateful to Wessels Reederei for their excellent and unbureaucratic support. This co-operation is very valuable for our company and our crews.” As well as the training courses, Carnival Maritime has a co-operation agreement with LNG supplier Shell. Officers also undergo intensive LNG management level training at the Center for Simulator Maritime Training (CSMART) in Almere in the Netherlands. In the next five years, the Costa Group plans to commission five LNG cruise ships, and Carnival Maritime will provide relevant training courses for the crews.

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Why it pays to slash underwater noise and vibration Class societies have launched a raft of notations related to underwater noise and vibration – while there has been a slow take-up from ship operators, this may soon change with incentives and benefits to encourage adoption


nterest in reducing underwater noise has cranked up – but in order to capture more interest from shipowners, initiatives have recently been launched, including one from Bureau Veritas (BV). BV introduced its class notation NR 614 – URN in 2014 and updated it in 2016. BV launched this voluntary notation to help ship operators and

shipbuilders measure and reduce underwater-radiated noise. RINA Services launched a voluntary notation last year to be applied to commercial vessels that have mitigated underwater noise. Its Dolphin notation was developed for vessel operators which operate in sensitive marine areas and who want to demonstrate they have acted to

mitigate the impact of their vessels. And ABS and Lloyd’s Register have followed in their footsteps this year by launching their own voluntary notations in this sector. DNV GL has its Silent notation. To make the notation more attractive to shipowners, in July BV updated its rules to include another measurement procedure for adding the notation to the vessel. BV head

Shipyard De Hoop: innovations to cut noise and vibration on Amadeus Queen Noise and vibrations were one of the top items on the agenda for Shipyard De Hoop when it came to building Lüftner Cruises’ new Amadeus Queen – the 15th river cruise vessel the shipyard has delivered to the river cruise operator. The vessel is now in service following its naming ceremony

Shipyard De Hoop slashed vibration on Amadeus Queen, isolating vibrations from the propulsion units by installing a double hardwearing flexible mounting system

Passenger Ship Technology | 4th Quarter 2018

on 4 April 2018. Two Caterpillar 3508 main engines, rated at 783 kW at 1,600 rpm, directly drive two Veth Z-drives with contra-rotating propellers. These main thrusters are recessed, limiting the minimum operational draught to only 1.52 m allowing the vessel to cruise most European rivers where water depths are often critical. To isolate vibrations from the propulsion units, a double hardwearing flexible mounting system has been applied. On both sides, the azimuthing thrusters are mounted on separated bottom sections, which are integrated in a frame of the actual ship’s bottom. Furthermore, the main engines are mounted on double-vibration dampers and paired to the thruster units through flexible couplings. This so-called ‘boat-in-boat’ solution has the effect of reducing the sound levels in the public spaces and guest cabins. To further reduce the sound and vibrations in the Amadeus club and pool above, another innovation was introduced: to lower the impact of propeller blade impulses to the hull, an air curtain buffer was installed – by blowing air in between the propeller and hull, the pressure pulses are not transmitted to the hull.


of measurement department Eric Baudin explained the measuring procedure has been shortened from two passages by the ship including two u-turns and realignments, to just one passage. This has been achieved by doubling the instruments used to measure underwater noise and vibration. Mr Baudin said “After continuous exchanges with stakeholders, we have introduced a new underwater noise measurement procedure in line with shipin-service constraints. The expertise of BV specialists and their key partners answered this need with a cost-efficient solution that still sustains the level of accuracy. This procedure means it is less expensive (in terms of fuel and time spent) for the shipowner. “This was particularly aimed at ships in service for which we have less flexibility than for newly-delivered ships during sea trials.” While there is interest in the underwater notation and BV is seeing “more and more requests”, the uptake among ship operators has been slow. BV’s notation is currently being used by a fishing research vessel. To increase shipowners using the notation, “we are trying to listen more carefully to the market, put efforts into informing the stakeholders and find ways to promote the notation.” Another problem is the reluctance of some shipyards to follow the notation. Mr Baudin explained “Some shipyards are not fully aware of what could be done to fulfil the notation so are afraid to accept the specification.” He explained that measuring and reducing underwater noise has a cost, which means it had not previously been a focus for ship operators. But Mr Baudin is keen to address this. “Dealing with underwater noise and vibration is not solely one initial cost, it is linked to the rest of the ship and design and is part of the overall noise and vibration management. If you do it properly you can address underwater noise and vibration at the start and boost comfort, and propeller efficiency is increased if a design is worked upon; that reduces underwater noise and vibration as well. The return on investment is thus obvious.” Mr Baudin said it was a good sign that both ABS and LR had released notations. “The trend is promising, as more class societies are considering this an important issue and shipowners are more and more aware of this.” He singled out another reason that would push the uptake of such notations: Two Canadian ports, Port of Vancouver and Prince Rupert launched port tax reductions of 47% and 50% respectively last year to reduce underwater noise due to the endangered

Bureau Veritas has made measuring underwater noise and vibration (pictured) for its notation a shorter process to save time and fuel consumption

species off the coast of British Columbia. Mr Baudin commented “Regarding global actions Canada is still very active and during the last MEPC session in IMO [in April 2018] a lot [much more than expected] of flag representatives showed their interest in this underwater noise topic. There have been new discussions and actions are in progress to carry on working in the direction of improving knowledge, sharing feedback and tackling this issue at the lowest cost possible.”

Eric Baudin (BV): advice to ship operators

• Technically efficient solutions exist but need to be included at the earliest stage of the design to be cost-effective and to go along with fuel efficiency. • Operational measures can be efficient for local (protected areas) underwater noise reduction. • Ships' noise labelling (measured and certified) demonstrates compliance with limits.

Incat launches ‘silent drive’ passenger ship Incat Crowther has launched Spirit of the Wild for Gordon River Cruises – which it claims is the first tour vessel in Australia to operate in World Heritage-listed wilderness with silent drive. Built by Richardson Devine Marine, Spirit of the Wild is fitted with a pair of MTU 10V2000M72 main engines. Added to this is a hybrid electric system, consisting of a pair of ABB e-motors, driving hybrid-ready ZF gearboxes. Incat Crowther said particular attention was given to the mounting of the engines and gears to reduce the transmission of vibration and noise. The main engines’ modest rating is tailored to the local manning requirements. In open water, the vessel will use ‘boost’ mode from the hybrid system, which matches motor speed to engine speed to add electric power. In this mode, the vessel operates at 25 knots. When the tour vessel comes to the World Heritage-listed Gordon River, silent drive mode is engaged. In this mode, the main engines are shut down and the vessel runs on electric power. Engine ventilation systems and the engineroom were addressed with a fullyengineered acoustic insulation system. Attention was paid to fittings and door openings, with seals and bushes used extensively to stop rattles and gaps. Incat Crowther said “In silent drive mode, the experience is eerily quiet, with seats returning sound level readings as low as 45 dbA.” PST

Passenger Ship Technology | 4th Quarter 2018


MOL tests intelligent awareness on ferry to help with challenging route MOL is working with Rolls-Royce’s marine division to test intelligence awareness on passenger ferry Sunflower to help it overcome the challenges of the route


olls-Royce has introduced a situational awareness and intelligence system to reduce the risk of ship collisions and groundings at night – and one of its first adoptions will be on an MOL passenger ferry. Its intelligent awareness (IA) system combines multiple sensors with intelligent software to mitigate against the safety risks navigators face when operating vessels in adverse weather conditions, in darkness or in congested waterways. IA uses data collection and information display to enhance navigational safety and operational efficiency. It “provides bridge personnel with a much greater understanding of the ship’s surroundings”, said RollsRoyce general manager for remote and autonomous operations Iiro Lindborg. “IA forms part of our ongoing development of the autonomous ship, but we decided to make the technology available today as it offers real benefits to the existing shipping environment.” Rolls-Royce has developed technology that creates a 3D map of a vessel based on light detection and ranging (Lidar). This provides an overview of the vessel’s external situation in what Mr Lindborg said, “creates an accurate bird’s-eye view of the surrounding area”. Lidar is a remote sensing method that uses light in the form of a pulsed laser beam to measure distances. It can be linked to GPS data to create 3D environments that allow crews to visualise what the human eye cannot. IA also uses technology from 2D and 3D virtual reality, augmented reality and precision mode interfacing. “We can use the IA system in any ship where there is a need for better situational awareness,

Passenger Ship Technology | 4th Quarter 2018

LIiro Lindborg (Rolls-Royce): “Intelligence awareness creates a bird’s-eye view of the surrounding area”

particularly during night sailings or in adverse weather conditions,” said Mr Lindborg. It is intended to supplement navigational information already available from ECDIS and radar, not replace it. This technology comes from RollsRoyce’s participation in the AAWA (Advanced Autonomous Waterborne Applications) project and its collaboration programmes with Stena Line and Mitsui OSK Lines.

Test trials took place in April. Sunflower operates a passenger service over a 220 nautical mile route between Kobe and Oita in Japan only at night. This takes it through the Akashi Kaikyo, Bisan Seto and Kurushima Straits, which Mr Lindborg said were some of the most congested waters in the world. Intelligent awareness will provide information to crew to enhance their understanding of the ship’s surroundings. It combines data from a network of onboard sensors with information from bridge equipment such as ECDIS, automatic identification system, radar and environmental data. Rolls-Royce’s intelligent awareness system on Sunflower includes a tripod of sensors incorporating a camera unit, radar, inertial navigation system and AIS equipment. “We are collaborating with MOL to get feedback from owners,” said Mr Lindborg. “Sunflower has a challenging route at night with an oil terminal in the way and fishing vessels and nets during a 12-hour voyage.” Rolls-Royce has also carried out trials of intelligent awareness with Stena Line in 2017. “We used a tripod plugand-play unit on ferry Stena Atlantica that operates between Frederikshavn, Germany and Gothenburg, Sweden,” he explained. “We are having discussions about a fixed installation.” He expects IA will be rolled out to other ships to offer crews “an enhanced decision support tool, increasing their safety and that of our vessels”. PST

IA to help night ferry

One of the first adoptions of IA will be on board 165 m passenger ferry Sunflower, which Mitsui OSK Lines (MOL) operates between Kobe and Oita, Japan. Explaining the decision to install IA, MOL director Kenta Arai said “Sunflower operates in some of the most congested waters in the world and will provide an opportunity to test rigorously Rolls-Royce’s intelligent awareness system.”

“Sunflower will provide an opportunity to rigorously test Rolls-Royce’s intelligent awareness system” Kenta Arai (MOL)

Yacht Mapper HOW TO | 51

Yacht Mapper mobile phone app: finding your way around a super yacht

G Two years ago, the super-yacht design agency Marcelo Penna Engineering of Barcelona became aware of a problem with the increasing size of the vessels – getting lost on board

etting lost on board a superyacht was highlighted when the interior designer of one of their yachts found herself lost inside a 154-m long yacht two years ago. “As engineers and designers, we knew this was a problem we could solve,” said Marcelo Penna Engineering founder and director Marcelo Penna. The aim of the Yacht Mapper mobile phone app is to provide safety and security, so it needed to work if there was a power failure on the yacht and the app could not rely on the internet or wifi, which may not be available in a blackout. The solution was to create a Bluetooth network inside the yacht. Tiny batterypowered Bluetooth beacons are installed

by Marcelo Penna Engineering throughout the super yacht as part of the Yacht Mapper app service. The Yacht Mapper app pings the Bluetooth network from the phone, giving the location of the mobile phone on a plan view of the super yacht on the screen. Yacht Mapper goes further than a simple dot on a screen. In a blackout the captain can broadcast an alert via the mobile phone app, which will guide guests to muster points in the vessel. As a security device, an iPod or similar can be given to day workers to guide them to work areas while restricting them from private quarters. The Captain can monitor their movements from his phone and alert security if needed. PST

Internet-independent mobile phone app offers ship marketing and safety Having developed an app to guide guests and crew to safety during a blackout on today’s cruise ship-sized super yachts, Marcelo Penna Engineering have scaled-up the app for the cruise industry and added marketing features. Internet connectivity is still a challenge on cruise ships, but a mobile phone app is an ideal solution for communicating with guests. Marcelo Penna Engineering has overcome the internet issue with a clever solution. Using a network of battery-powered Bluetooth beacons installed throughout the ship, the Cruise Mapper app (Cruise Mapp) mobile phone app works independently of the ship’s power supply and internet. When a guest arrives on board they download Cruise Mapp to their mobile phone. The phone connects to the Bluetooth network installed throughout the ship. The app locates the phone on the Bluetooth network and can immediately checkin the guest and guide them to their cabin. In an emergency the Captain can broadcast instructions to crew and guests over the app and instruct the app to provide individual real-time guidance to a safe muster

station, giving cruise companies a way to demonstrate a high level of commitment to guest safety and security. Once Cruise Mapp is downloaded onto the phone, each guest can set a schedule, book activities, receive special offers and book tables at the restaurants. The safety and security features include: • Safe escape routes. • Off-limits and restricted routeing. • Officer-to-officer communications. • Panic button. • Call doctor button. Guest features include: • Check-in via QR code. • Ship layout and personal location. • Find your cabin button. • Routing and mapping. • Peer-to-peer and group chat. • Meet me here function. • Share my location with friends. • Guest schedule. • Log book and photos. • Activity booking including restaurants.

Direct marketing: • Chef ’s suggestions. • Captain’s messages. • Discounted services. • Online upgrades. • Payment through the app. • Shopping and excursion offers. • Off-season alerts. • New destination promotions. According to Marcelo Penna Engineering, the Cruise Mapp Bluetooth network collects big data on the guests’ movements on the ship. Potential developments include analysing waiting times and queue lengths at restaurants or sending the guest a pop-up offer as they walk past boutiques. Installing the Bluetooth network and the cost of the app licence will pay for itself through the revenue gained from selling extra goods and services through Cruise Mapp. Marcelo Penna Engineering is primarily a super yacht design agency and is looking for director level support within a cruise company to realise Cruise App’s full commercial potential.

Passenger Ship Technology | 4th Quarter 2018


Ferries - a strong candidate for methanol As the 2020 low sulphur deadline looms, methanol will be added to the marine fuels mix – and would suit ferries and polar cruise ships

S Chris Chatterton (Methanol Institute): methanol is 'far less' costly or complex than LNG to install

hipowners and operators build assets for the long term but must take a shortterm view of the markets in which they will trade. Seen in this context, IMO’s 2020 sulphur cap, while important, is the start of the conversation about clean fuels, not the end. The shipping industry is focused on 2020’s near-term effects, but the likely impact of this piece of regulation extends beyond its intended environmental goals. Despite being shrouded in a fog of contradictory reporting and analysis, we know that bunker prices will rise in 2020 and there will be shortages and pinch points where supply and demand are out of step. All bets are off if we revert to a sustained higher world oil price regime. In the past, shipowners have tended to go where the bunkers are low cost – even if that means some risk to quality – but given the supply position, it seems less likely that they will be able to source low sulphur fuel oil (LSFO) or gasoil in future without having long-term agreements in place. Even after supply/demand normalises, the post-2020 era will be one of higher fuel prices, making alternatives more attractive to owners planning newbuildings in the next few years. A sustained high price for LSFO or gasoil, especially when some form of carbon levy is added, might be a boost to LNG but could also make methanol competitive as a marine fuel for newbuildings and conversions alike. Granted, it will take some time for methanol to be adopted across the global fleet, but as the marine fuels market moves from a spot business to one defined by longer-term contracts, it becomes more attractive. The ferry sector is a potential market for methanol. The environmental argument is irrefutable: unlike LNG which addresses the SOx/NOx/PM emissions problem, methanol is liquid at atmospheric pressure and offers a future pathway to a low- and zero-carbon emissions profile, allowing shipping to be part

Passenger Ship Technology | 4th Quarter 2018

of the solution to global warming in addition to being compliant in terms of SOx/NOx and particulate matter. As the world’s most widely shipped chemical commodity, an additional benefit of methanol is its availability at ports around the world. Wherever you see tank farms at port facilities, you are likely to have methanol storage capacity – and that includes most major container ports. Methanol’s safety profile should also be better understood. Safe handling practices draw on a long history and experience in shipping and industrial use. No more harmful than diesel or gasoline, methanol is miscible in water, so is far less hazardous to the environment than heavy fuel oil, biodegrading rapidly in the event of a spill. As a low flashpoint fuel, methanol is subject to the revision of the IGF Code. Further guidance should be available this year and full regulatory approval by 2023. Methanol production already offers a wide range of feedstock and process technologies for future-proof, zero-carbon biomethanol and several plants are already producing low-carbon methanol through a carbon capture/re-injection production loop, as well as from biomass. To generate a like-for-like comparison of the costs of methanol versus LNG or LSFO, the industry requires a better means of pricing than the current link to posted contract pricing. The Methanol Institute has been working with industry partners including Lloyd’s Register to develop an online cost comparison tool. Available free of charge, the calculator enables owners and operators to understand the comparative fuel costs associated with HFO, LSFO, LNG and methanol-based propulsion. Methanol may not be the fuel of the mass market by 2020, but owners able to think beyond the next few years to the next phase of maritime regulation should be considering what the marine fuel market will look like, and how alternatives such as methanol fit into that future. PST

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Passenger Ship Technology 4th Quarter 2018  

Passenger Ship Technology is a leading market title dedicated to technical coverage of all aspects of passenger shipping, including ferries...

Passenger Ship Technology 4th Quarter 2018  

Passenger Ship Technology is a leading market title dedicated to technical coverage of all aspects of passenger shipping, including ferries...