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2nd Quarter 2018

Symphony of the Seas Technical considerations behind biggest-ever cruise ship

Cruise industry has passed LNG ‘tipping point’ Enter Rederij Doeksen’s pure LNG-fuelled ferries

“We have enough bandwidth for years of advances in connectivity” Carnival Corp chief experience and innovation officer John Padgett, page 28


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2nd Quarter 2018 volume 11 issue 2

23 11


Fast ferry profile 7 Damen Shipyards Group has scooped the contract to design Canada's first fully electric ferries. It reveals the technical specifications to PST

Ferry description 11 Rederij Doeksen’s newbuild ferries are ground-breaking in many ways, including being 100% fuelled by LNG. The ferry operator, key suppliers and Strategic Marine shipyard reveal the technical details of the ferries

Ferry operator profile 28

17 Ever-increasing demand for its commuter and tourist services has sparked a multi-million dollar round of investments by ambitious US fast ferry operator Seastreak

Shipyard profile 20 Rauma shipyard, previously owned by STX Finland, has bounced back after being relaunched as Rauma Marine Constructions and is targeting the ferry newbuild market

Cruise ship description 23 STX France reveals the challenges and considerations behind building Symphony of the Seas - the largest cruise ship in the world

Cruise operator profile 37

28 Carnival Corp’s focus on VSAT has increased and it has driven this technology to new levels within the cruise ship sector. One of its bosses reveals its connectivity strategy

River cruise market 30 Ambitious developments and projects are boosting the river cruise ship market, as the newbuild boom continues in this sector

Wastewater solutions 33 As IMO’s new directive for the Baltic Sea Special Area comes closer, both wastewater treatment manufacturers and cruise ship operators are preparing to meet its requirements

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018

contents Alternative fuels 37 2018 is a landmark year for the use of LNG by the cruise industry, although there are still challenges to be overcome

Flooring and decking 41 Flooring manufacturers have developed and launched innovative solutions for cruise ships and ferries

Propulsors 44 Lighter, more powerful waterjets are enabling passenger ferry operators to combine high speed with more economic, environmentally friendly performance

Elevators 48 New cruise and ferry elevator developments boost traffic flow and energy efficiency

Fire safety technology and training 50 There is currently a big push to improve the fire safety of ropax ferries and to drive passive fire protection

HVAC 54 Big data, new partnerships and new technology are driving the development of HVAC solutions for cruise ships and ferries

Cyber security 56 PST interpreted Pen Test Partners Ken Munro’s 10 top cyber security tips to shipping for the passenger ship sector

How to 59 A pilot installation on board Viking Line’s Gabriella is providing the first practical application for an ABB synchronous reluctance motor used to drive a mooring winch. PST unveils the project background and the advantages of the new technology

2nd Quarter 2018 volume 11 issue 2 Editor: Rebecca Moore t: +44 20 8370 7797 e: Brand Manager: Indrit Kruja t: +44 20 8370 7792 e: Head of Sales – Asia: Kym Tan t: +65 6809 1278 e: Production Manager: Richard Neighbour t: +44 20 8370 7013 e: Subscriptions: Sally Church t: +44 20 8370 7018 e: Chairman: John Labdon Managing Director: Steve Labdon Finance Director: Cathy Labdon Operations Director: Graham Harman Head of Content: Edwin Lampert Executive Editor: Paul Gunton Head of Production: Hamish Dickie Published by: Riviera Maritime Media Ltd Mitre House 66 Abbey Road Enfield EN1 2QN UK

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Main features include: energy efficiency: interior and design; safety technology: liferafts and evacuation systems; communications: digitisation; environmental technology: fresh water generation; operational: reservation and ticketing systems; engines; electronics: bridge systems; classification: technical, safety and energy efficiency; cruise ship description: Ponant: Le Laperouse

ISSN 1758-7255 (Print) ISSN 2051-0608 (Online) ©2018 Riviera Maritime Media Ltd

Cover image Credit: STX France/Bernard Biger

Total average net circulation: 4,000 Period: January-December 2017

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Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018

Disclaimer: Although every effort has been made to ensure that the information in this publication is correct, the Author and Publisher accept no liability to any party for any inaccuracies that may occur. Any third party material included with the publication is supplied in good faith and the Publisher accepts no liability in respect of content. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, reprinted or stored in any electronic medium or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written permission of the copyright owner.


DRYDOCK SPECIFICATIONS LENGTH: 293m (960 ft) WIDTH: 57m (186 ft) CAPACITY: 81,000 MT (80,000 LT)



The future is emission-free L Rebecca Moore, Editor

“The message is that we are doing as much as we can not to use any fuel in the cruise ship”

NG has officially made it in the cruise industry – and has been widely used in the ferry industry for a while now. And now it is time to open the door to other alternative fuels and power. Many argue that the challenges of using alternative fuels such as hydrogen mean they are not going to be deployed as a mainstream alternative fuel any time soon. But despite these challenges, I think they will be embraced sooner than some critics think. As Lloyd’s Register Americas lead electromechanical specialist George Legg said at this year’s Seatrade Cruise Global panel on LNG and alternative fuels (see pages 37-39) “LNG is a stepping-stone technology for the next 30-40 years, but we need to keep developing sources that have less environmental impact.” LNG, while it has huge advantages in terms of reduced emissions, is still a fossil fuel, and the maritime industry environmental regulatory framework is becoming increasingly strict. Speakers at Seatrade Cruise Global’s alternative fuels panel agreed that LNG has passed a ‘tipping point’ in this industry (see pages 37-39). This surely helps smooth the path to using other alternative fuels. Indeed, in this session, while the challenges of using hydrogen were discussed, Shell LNG marketing and trading team lead for the Americas, John Grubic, said that Shell was “looking carefully at hydrogen”. RINA Services marine chief commercial officer Paolo Moretti said the class society has developed rules for classing methanol on board vessels, and that IMO will soon be launching guidelines on the use of methanol as fuel. The creation of a solid framework will encourage the use of methnaol. Inroads have already been made into the use of fuel cells in the cruise industry. ABB’s fuel

cell system is to be piloted on board a Royal Caribbean International vessel and will be the first fuel cell system to provide an energy source for a luxury cruise ship. ABB Marine & Ports managing director Juha Koskela said “Fuel cells have been the next big thing for 25 years, but now they are reality.” And in October last year Viking Cruises revealed plans for a liquid hydrogen-fuelled cruise ship in an effort to create an emission-free cruise ship. There is a definite movement towards an emission-free passenger ship. STX France has launched a carbon-free cruise design that uses wind as a main source of power – a design that is first-of-its-kind (see page 39). And the wind technology solution will be trialled on a Ponant cruise ship. STX France vice president of projects Stéphane Cordier told Passenger Ship Technology “The message is that we are doing as much as we can not to use any fuel in the cruise ship.” There is also other encouraging news on the wind front. Viking Line’s LNG-fuelled Viking Grace has become the first passenger ship to be powered by wind. It started deploying wind power in April after being equipped with a rotor sail – and the ferry operator’s newbuild will also use wind power. Viking Line said LNG dual-fuelled Viking Grace is the first passenger ship in the world equipped with a rotor sail for using wind power. Developed by the Finnish company Norsepower, the Rotor Sail solution will cut fuel consumption and reduce emissions by up to 900 tonnes annually. Viking Line and STX France are opening the door to other passenger ship operators to use wind power. The growing momentum to build emissionfree cruise ships and ferries will accelerate mainstream use of other alternative power apart from LNG. PST

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018






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amen Shipyards Group has announced the Government of Ontario has accepted its proposal to build two ferries with full electric propulsion. Damen is building two road ferries – a 68 m model with capacity for 40 cars and a 98 m with capacity for 75 cars – to operate in the Canadian waters of the Great Lakes. The vessels will be the first fully electric, non-cable vessels in Canada. Both ferries have been designed to sail in 60 cm-thick ice and to be fully operational at -25ºC in the harsh winter conditions of Canada. As part of the tender process for the contract to build the ferries, Damen was required to identify future innovations and green technologies for sustainable power solutions. It is estimated that electrification of the two ice-class ferries – one servicing Kingston and Wolfe Island and the other Millhaven and Amherst Island – will reduce emissions by the equivalent of 7M kg CO2 per year. Damen Shipyards Group product director ferries, Henk Grunstra told Passenger Ship Technology that generators will be used in case of heavy ice conditions over the route, while the onboard battery bank will be selected to achieve 10 years' operation of approximately 160,000 cycles. Explaining the decision behind the battery size, Mr Grunstra said calculating average energy consumption to use as a benchmark for battery size was a major consideration. Both ferries have very different operating conditions throughout the year. In winter, there is ice channel sailing and a high hotel load to deal with, and different wave, wind and loading conditions in each season. “We have carefully investigated each operation profile and calculated the energy use per crossing for these conditions. Both vessels

Damen scooped the contract to design Canada’s first fully electic ferries. It reveals the technical specifications to Rebecca Moore

have approximately 21 hours operation at 365 days. This means batteries should be sized for approximately 160,000 crossings (10 years).” He explained that to maximise the efficiency of the electrical system and minimise power conversion, a DC grid has been selected for the main switchboard. High-efficiency electrical components have been selected to minimise power loss during power transfer, while cruising speeds and hulls have been optimised to minimise energy consumption and maintain a longer duration of full electric operation.

The signing of the contract between Damen and the Government of Ontario for two electric ferries. From left to right: Mark Gerretsen (MP for Kingston and the Islands), Leo Postma (sales manager, Damen Shipyards Gorinchem), Sophie Kiwala (member of the Provincial Parliament), Mike Bossio (MP for Hastings-Lennox and Addington)

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018


Both ferries are fitted with an autocrossing system to optimise speed and energy use during crossings.

Robust and reliable

Meanwhile, “robustness is the number one priority for the design”. Mr Grunstra explained “Since both vessels are lifelines for island communities, redundancy and reliability of the system was the number-one priority.” Therefore, the system has been designed with a very high level of redundancy to be able to maintain operation all year long. The redundancy has been increased with several independent battery packs connected to the DC grid. Reliability was especially important due to the weather conditions. Mr Grunstra said that “harsh winter conditions are one of the biggest challenges”. “Since reliability is the number-one priority, to keep the charging station up and running is a must. We will use protected and heated charging plugs at shore and on board. Since the schedule of the ferry is fixed, we have very limited time to charge the batteries on board.” With the high-power DC chargers that will be installed on shore, they will be able to charge back the energy used at each crossing. To achieve full electric sailing, shorebased energy storage stations will be installed due to limited available grid power. These stations will also be able to maintain operation in case of loss of grid power on the mainland and island side.   Explaining further benefits of the electric propulsion design, Mr Grunstra said “Ferries can be operated with preselected operational modes. Our smart energy management system automatically starts and stops the diesel generators when it is needed. In addition, the

Henk Grunstra (Damen): robustness is the number one priority for the design

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018

system will be fine-tuned after the start of operation based on the actual energy consumption figures.” Highlighting the electric mooring system, he said “Normally, double-ended ferries use aft thrusters to keep pushing the ferries to shore and to maintain position during loading and unloading. However, using the auto-mooring system, with holding power of 20 tonnes, allows the ferries to moor in a very short period of time and keep them in position during loading and unloading.” This also minimises energy consumption. Batteries will be charged via the fast DC shore charger. Mr Grunstra added “Since the grid power is not enough to charge the batteries on board in 10 minutes, we will install shore battery storage to charge the batteries on board.” Shore batteries will be charged in 50 minutes via the grid and together with the grid power will charge the batteries on board in 10 minutes. Damen has tailored the design to ensure the performance profile of the ferries is not affected by electrification. Their capacity to transport 300 passengers and 42 cars on the Amherst Island ferry, and 399 passengers and 75 cars on the Wolfe Island ferry at speeds up to 12 knots remains the same as with conventional propulsion. Another goal was to maximise passenger experience on board. This will include comfortable passenger saloons and large passenger-accessible open deck areas, with wheelchair access to all passenger spaces. Damen’s scope of work in the project includes installing an automated mooring system and a charging system via which the vessels will automatically connect to the shore power system to recharge the batteries. Ontario’s minister for transportation, the Honourable Kathryn McGarry said “This is great news for residents and commuters in this region, knowing they will soon be able to ride a ferry that is completely powered by electricity. Investing in innovative green technology is helping Ontario become a leader in North America for sustainable transportation, and our government is committed to improving service while simultaneously reducing our carbon footprint.” Mr Grunstra said “This is a perfect fit to our ongoing ambition to electrify public transport all over the globe.” PST

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Rederij Doeksen’s catamarans are being constructed at Strategic Marine’s Vietnam shipyard. (Credit: MTU)


ederij Doeksen’s two newbuild ropax ferries are distinctive because they are 100% LNG-fuelled – in contrast to the more usual LNG-diesel dual-fuelled model that many operators are using. Strategic Marine is building the two vessels, general manager commercial, Mike Bell told Passenger Ship Technology. “LNG is the unique point of them, the fuel system is very different to the normal, traditional diesel engines. The fact that they are pressurised and temperature sensitive has to be taken into account,” he said. Currently being finished at Strategic Marine’s shipyard in Vietnam, Willem Barentsz and Willem de Vlamingh are due to travel to the Wadden Sea area - where they will ply the route between Harlingen and Terschelling in the Netherlands - at the end of July this year. The vessels will then have final commisioning and trials upon arrival in Europe. Rederij Doeksen managing director Paul Melles told delegates at the annual Interferry conference in October last year the key reasons why the ferry operator had decided to commission the newbuilds. The company wanted to replace old tonnage

Rederij Doeksen paves the way with pure LNG Rederij Doeksen’s newbuild ferries are groundbreaking in many ways, including being 100% fuelled by LNG

(its Midsland ferry that currently plies this route); meet the demand for two additional midday departures from Harlingen and Terschelling; add more car deck space; allow more flexibility (to adapt to seasonal effects); allow more daily turnarounds and increase capacity. To meet these demands, it decided to use two smaller ropax ferries rather than one single, large ferry. The operator also wanted to increase the service speed from 12 knots to 14 knots to meet its new requirements. Mr Melles commented “We wanted to increase the speed of the ropax ferry – but to do this to a 1,000 gt vessel on a 21 nautical mile shallow route would mean using a huge

amount of power and create a disturbing wash in a World Heritage area.” Instead, the ferry operator realised that building two smaller ferries to travel at 14 knots was achievable. Other aims of the ferry operator focused on reducing the environmental impact by lowering NOx, CO2 and noise, and increasing the efficiency of the ferries, leading to lower operational costs. A reduced ship size means less wave-making and squat resistance, leading to less propulsion power used and reduced emissions and operational costs. Therefore, Mr Melles said the decision was made to construct the ferry out of aluminium.

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018


Water depth challenges

Water depth was an important consideration. The water depth goes down to 5 m in some areas, with some quite turbulent sea conditions. It was decided that the most efficient hull form for the shallow waters the vessels would travel was long, slender hulls. “This also offers a safe and wide stable platform with no need to carry ballast water,” commented Mr Melles. Rederij Doeksen head of operations Richard de Vries said “The round bilge of the two slender catamaran hulls, with the very sharp bows, give the underwater ship a nice line and, with the anodes and sea inlets recessed, it will certainly ensure a very low ship resistance.” Mr Melles said the ferry operator’s research concluded that the “most practical, reliable and clean energy source” for a 21 nautical mile ferry service for a fixed A-B route meant that an LNG-fuelled ferry with direct mechanical propulsion, using batteries for peak-shaving to power their bow thrusters, should be built. Rederij Doeksen said other reasons for choosing LNG included that the price of fuel has risen sharply in recent years. In contrast, the price of

LNG is rising less fast and is more stable. “This means that the extra investments of sailing on LNG can be recovered better. LNG is also less scarce than oil fuels. In addition, LNG is produced in different countries, making the price and supply less dependent on the local (political) atmosphere,” the ferry operator explained. LNG tankers from terminals in Zeebrugge, Rotterdam or Eemshaven will be deployed to fuel the ferries. The plan is to bunker once a week, so the ferry operator is creating a gap in the ferries’ schedule for this.

LNG engines based on diesel models

A symmetrical propulsion system arrangement within the two hulls of each catamaran was agreed on. Two MTU 16-cylinder V 4,000 engines were chosen – to be fed by two LNG tanks – with each driven by a Veth CRP azimuth propeller. MTU director, application centre marine, Stefan Müller said the main challenge was that the “propellers need a propulsion system that is very focused on very good load acceptance.” To meet this challenge, the gas supply comes through a spark-ignition system to the

engines, with an injector for every cylinder. Mr Müller said it was “very important” to have “individual combustion control for each cylinder” to meet the load requirements. He explained that doublewalled fuel piping was used, which is an IGF requirement for an “inherently safe” engineroom. Another striking feature of the engines is that, according to Mr Müller, they are the first highspeed pure gas engine to be used with diesel-like performance. He explained “The first parameter was to deliver a product that had a behaviour very close to that of diesel, with the same performance range and map. The engines’ dynamic acceleration behaviour meets the requirements needed for this application.” Its engines are based on MTU’s existing S4000 marine diesel engine Rederij Doeksen explained just how important it was that the engines were based on the existing MTU diesel model in a press conference at Hamburg’s SMM trade exhibition in 2016. Mr de Vries told the SMM press conference “Besides our aim to have a sustainable, innovative ferry, our guests depend on year-round reliable operations, and in our selection for a propulsion

The round bilge of the catamaran hulls will lead to very low ship resistance. Credit: MTU

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018

“The first parameter was to deliver a product that had a behaviour very close to that of diesel, with the same performance range and map” Stefan Müller (MTU)

system, reliability was one of the primary requirements. We think that we can meet all these requirements with our catamarans.” He explained that the operator was keen for MTU to provide gas engines as the ferry operator was impressed by the “excellent performance” of MTU engines used in its current fast ferries. “We frequently insisted that MTU come up with a gas engine for the project, but unfortunately at the time we started the investigation for this project their planning for gas engines was not at the same stage as our planning,” explained Mr de Vries. But when Rederij Doeksen was in the final tender process for the ships with just two yards left, MTU announced it had proceeded with the gas engine. Rederij decided to order the MTU engines, having been impressed by the “enthusiasm of the R&D people working on the engines and also their approach, and what the engine can do for us.” The IMO Tier III- compliant engines will each deliver 1,500 kW. The power output per cylinder is 93-125 kW with an engine speed 600-1,800 rpm and fuel gas consumption of 9,561 kJ/ kWh @ ›100% power. The ››

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››› engine’s cooling system consists of a separate circuit for charge air cooling. The gas gensets are Scania-based units developed and manufactured by Scania distributor Sanfirden. The LNG tanks have been placed mid-ship. They came pre-fabricated and were inserted through the side of the vessel before they were plated in what Mr Bell described as a “straightforward process”. The engines are being positioned behind the tanks. Mr Bell said “They have created soft patches on the car deck through which it will be very easy to drop them into position when everything else on the vessels is complete.”

Waste heat to power batteries

Waste heat recovery systems are being provided by Orcan Energy, whose ePack system will be added to the main and auxiliary engines. The waste heat recovery systems are based on the Organic Rankin Cycle (ORC). Orcan

Energy explained that the ORC solution works with a refrigerant (R245fa), which already “boils” at 15ºC at atmospheric pressure. Via a screw expander, the vapour will be directly converted to rotational energy. This screw expander operates at a much lower speed and has a flat efficiency curve over a wide operating range, in contrast with a steam turbine. The outcome (active power) from the waste heat recovery system is 77 kW. This is converted into direct current by a frequency converter to charge the batteries. Both battery packs are charged during the mooring of the ferries via inverters, to deliver power to the two electric bow thrusters with a power of 77 kW each. The Veth propellers also boost energy efficiency. They consist of two contra-rotating screws with two rudder propellers. Rederij Doeksen said they ensure efficient and low-noise propulsion. Because the power is distributed over two smaller screws, this gives less pulsating vibrations

compared with one large screw and that improves the comfort on board. Smaller screws usually have a lower propulsion efficiency compared with screws with a large diameter. Thanks to their contrarotating arrangement, a higher efficiency is obtained than with a single screw with the additional advantage of more comfort due to less pulsating vibrations. The rear propeller of each pair uses the rotating wake of the front propeller and converts it into 10% extra propulsion force. Aside from the LNG used by the ferries, they have many other environmentally friendly and efficient features: solar power will be used for part of the hotel electric load; boilers are LNGpowered; low-energy LED lighting is being used throughout the vessel; zinc-free anodes for cathodic protection will be deployed and silicon non-toxic anti-fouling is being used. Mr Bell summed up “The entire design has been done to be as energy efficient and clean as possible.” PST

DESIGN PARTICULARS Capacity: 64 cars and 600 passengers Truck lanes: 130 m Speed: 14 knots Propulsion system: Two MTU lean burn single-fuel LNG engines each driving a Veth CRP azimuth thruster Class: Lloyd’s Register

MAIN SUPPLIERS Construction: Strategic Marine Vessel design: BMT Nigel Gee Interior and exterior design: Vripack Sneek LNG fuel system: Marine Service Noord Hoogezand Waste heat recovery systems: Orcan Energy Gas gensets: Scania (developed and manufactured by Scania distributor Sanfirden) Contra rotating rudder propellers: Veth Main engines: MTU

The first two pre-production units of the new mobile MTU gas engine from Rolls-Royce. (From left to right: Rederij Doeksen managing director Paul Melles, MTU sales manager Phil Kordic and Strategic Marine service and warranty superintendent Peter Cottam. Credit: MTU

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018

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Seastreak gears for growth with fleet and e-commerce initiatives Ever-increasing demand for its commuter and tourist services has sparked a multimillion dollar round of investments by ambitious US fast ferry operator Seastreak


fter a decade of growth under its current owner, Seastreak faced an ironic barrier in its development curve – how to cope with the success of its high-speed business and leisure passenger services covering New Jersey, New York and New England. Running close to capacity and further inhibited by the lack of an online sales facility for significant portions of its business, the need for future-proofing was clearly recognised by the company. A watershed strategy has now addressed these concerns. Far-reaching investments have launched a US$13M newbuild – the first

Seastreak Commodore being constructed at Gulf Craft shipyard

under present ownership as a subsidiary of New England Fast Ferry (NEFF) – together with an US$11M programme to upgrade power and interiors on three of its seven existing catamarans. Meanwhile the company is transforming its customer-facing software by implementing reservation and e-commerce services. The initiatives underline an impressive track record since Seastreak was acquired in 2008, 18 months after former operator Sea Containers filed for bankruptcy. Its new owner was already operating three vessels on seasonal tourist services in New England. Under the deal, it added a four-vessel commuter operation between New Jersey and New York. Seastreak’s core activity is a year-round, daily commuter service to New York from two points in the neighbouring state of New Jersey – its home base – Atlantic Highlands and nearby Highlands, both small towns in a county heavily populated by city professionals. Up to 14 round trips per day serve Manhattan, the city’s financial heart, via the Pier 11 Wall Street and East 35th Street public berths. At 35 knots over 22 nautical miles, the fastest crossing is scheduled to take just 38 minutes and cuts commuting time by an average of 75 minutes per day compared with driving 50 miles each way. The commuter services attract a capacitycrunching total of more than 1M passengers per year, a challenge that is increased by half a million leisure travellers annually. The New York route offers an exhaustive choice of special event, city sightseeing and excursion cruises ranging from sports fixtures to beach outings. Further north in New England, the intensive May to October seasonal schedule serves iconic vacation and short-break islands. The routes include a Massachusetts link from New Bedford to Martha’s Vineyard and Nantucket, which are

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018

Seastreak is carrying out an upgrade programme across some of its current fleet

also destinations on weekend sailings from New Jersey and New York, representing the longest high-speed ferry route in North America. “We are reaching capacity after 5% growth in commuter carryings in each of the past five years,” Seastreak president Jim Barker, the 53-year-old elder son of business patriarch James R Barker, told Passenger Ship Technology. “In 2016 we hit the million mark by the end of December. Last year it was a month earlier. That’s why we need the new boat and the upgrades to our fleet and booking system.”

A newbuild breakthrough

Jim Barker (Seastreak): The ferry operator is adding a new ship, upgrading current fleet and launching a new booking system because its fleet is reaching full capacity

Seastreak’s owner will soon take delivery of its first newbuild since the takeover from Sea Containers. Built by Gulf Craft of Franklin, Louisiana, the catamaran Seastreak Commodore is due to launch and enter service in April on the New York commuter route. The order was announced in September 2016 as the lead element of the US$24M fleet expansion/upgrade programme. With room for 600 passengers, the new vessel will be the largest capacity high-speed ferry certified in line with the US Coast Guard’s K-class limit. Billed as first in the Commodoreclass, it has an overall length of 45.7 m, a 12.2 m beam and a draught of 2 m. The proven high-stability hull design is from Australian naval architect Incat Crowther, which also designed the existing seven-strong fleet.

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018

Four sets of Tier 3 MTU 12V4000 M64 low-emissions diesel engines and Rolls-Royce S4S63 waterjets will provide a service speed of 35 knots and a Humphree Active Ride Control System will ensure smooth sailing. The bridge equipment on Seastreak Commodore features cutting-edge radar, gyro compass, echo sounder, thermal camera and weather station systems. Each navigation and communications component includes a redundant system to ensure consistent operation and most of the equipment has been sourced from Furuno and Simrad. Seastreak said the specification far exceeds official requirements, but fitting “the best that money can buy” was a priority to ensure the safety of its passengers and crew. Fire protection is provided by a Siemens Cerberus detection panel and 3M Novec 1230 suppression system. Lifesaving equipment includes six 100-passenger Viking IBA liferafts and a man-overboard raft retrieval system from Naiad Dynamics. Enlarged gates and doors will allow speedy boarding and disembarkation. Energy-saving LED lighting is from Massachusetts-based marine and transport specialist Imtra. The exterior lighting is tricolour in white, red and blue and includes handrail-mounted stairwell lights, while interior units are recessed and dimmable. Main deck internal bulkheads are made from an aluminium-based laminated honeycomb


structure saving 70% in weight compared with pure aluminium. The white-finished ceiling and wall panels, from DAMPA of Denmark, are perforated and felt-backed to reduce noise. Passenger comfort is also enhanced by other top-end specifications. Heating, ventilation and air conditioning is provided by Daikin’s VRV IV heat pump system and luxury interior seating is from Australia’s Beurteaux, which also supplied the exterior seats. Service facilities include a saloon bar, flatscreen TVs, wifi and multiple dedicated charging stations. Panoramic windows are from Pro-Curve’s safety-laminated bent glass range and tinted to 27% for low solar load. All forward-facing windows are hurricane proof and the heated wheelhouse windows are equipped with Window Wiper Technologies’ wipers and spray nozzles.

Fleet upgrade

The newbuild supplements the 505-passenger commuter service vessels commissioned by Sea Containers – Seastreak New York, Seastreak New Jersey, Seastreak Wall Street and Seastreak Highlands, which entered service in May and December 2001, September 2003 and March 2004 respectively. Designed by Incat Crowther and built by Gladding-Hearn Shipbuilding in Somerset, Massachusetts, they are 43 m long, 10.4 m wide and have a draught of 2 m. Each was originally driven by four Cummins KTA50M2 engines and Kamewa A50 waterjets. An initial repowering took place in 2012 when Seastreak Wall Street was equipped with two MTU 16V4000 diesels and Servogear CPP controllable pitch propeller systems, which were chosen for their ability to keep the main engines at an optimal load profile using highly skewed propellers rather than a super-heavy operating load. Repowering the three sister ships formed part of the upgrade programme announced in 2016, scheduled at one per winter. This time, taking into account the shallow water on Seastreak’s routes, it was decided to retain waterjets because of their more forgiving draught margins. Identical power sets were specified for each vessel – four Tier 3 MTU 16V4000 diesel units serving four Rolls-Royce Kamewa 63S4 waterjets. Under a contract with Midship Marine of Harvey, Louisiana, the programme began in 2016 with Seastreak New York, continued in 2017 with Seastreak New Jersey and will conclude with Seastreak Highlands this year. The new configuration offers cleaner burning and also lightens the vessels by around 20 tonnes, enabling service speeds of up to 35 knots. The

upgrades also include interior refurbishment with new seating, carpets and windows. The company’s other three catamarans, each with 149-passenger capacity, date from Jim Barker’s heritage as founder of NEFF, which now operates the seasonal services under the Seastreak flag. In 1987 he joined the Barker family’s newly acquired maiden venture as a 22-year-old marketing graduate at famed Great Lakes ore carrier The Interlake Steamship Company. While there, and with no formal training, he cut a 25,000 gt ship in two for conversion into the barge Pathfinder, for which a tug was built in 1999. The project inspired him to leave the company after 13 years to pursue an ambition to build ships. By 2003 he had launched Ocean State at Merrifield Roberts in Bristol, Rhode Island and formed NEFF to operate the 20 m x 7.3 m vessel between Providence and Newport. A service speed of 27 knots is provided by two Detroit Diesel 12V2000 engines, which were rebuilt in 2016, and twin ZF propellers. Two more newbuilds soon followed, constructed to a different Incat Crowther design by Derecktor Shipyards of Mamaroneck, New York – Whaling City Express in 2004 and Martha’s Vineyard Express in 2005. These 29 m x 8.5 m sister vessels operate at 28 knots on both the Massachusetts and New Jersey/New York services, powered by two MTU 16V2000 diesels driving fixed pitch propellers.

System enhancement

In a crucial shoreside initiative, Seastreak has signed up for the Bookit reservation, ticketing and check-in system from Sweden’s Hogia Ferry Systems. The two-phase agreement schedules implementation this year for the seasonal routes and next year for the commuter services. The operator’s current online booking process has limited facility for mobile devices and cannot issue tickets, which have to be collected at terminals. In another drawback, boarding on commuter routes is governed on the basis of ‘first come, first served’. Seastreak director of marketing Brett Chamberlain said “If it’s easy to buy, you’re more likely to buy, but our website can’t convert interest from customers into an online sale for the majority of our products. We met several potential providers but were very impressed by Hogia’s heavy investment in its API, which ensures seamless data transfer between the in-house booking system and our e-commerce platform. As another family owned company, we also recognised their similarly honest work ethic and felt trust in them as partners.” PST

A FAMILY VENTURE Seastreak is part of a diverse family conglomerate founded by Jim Barker’s father, James R Barker. In 1971 Mr Barker Snr joined former shipping giant Moore-McCormack Lines as the youngest chief executive of a major American corporation at 35 years of age. He left the post in 1987 after buying out the group’s Interlake Steamship Company subsidiary, which remains a key element of the family owned business. The Seastreak commuter operation started life in 1986 as TNT Hydrolines. Australian parent company TNT floated it off in 1994 under the independently listed Holyman, which renamed the service Express Navigation. Holyman ran several overseas fast ferry operations, but collapsed soon after taking control of ailing UK-Belgium operator Sally Line in 1997. The Seastreak brand was launched in 1999 when Sea Containers acquired and renamed Express Navigation, but bankruptcy proceedings in 2006 led to the Barker acquisition.

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018


Rauma shipyard: a new chapter Rauma shipyard, previously owned by STX Finland, has bounced back after being relaunched as Rauma Marine Constructions and is targeting the ferry newbuild market


auma Marine Constructions (RMC) has hailed its ferry order from Danish operator Molslinjen as a “milestone”. The order, placed in June 2016, is significant on two levels: it is both RMC’s first newbuilding order and the first ferry commission since the shipyard restarted as RMC. Indeed, the shipyard has been through a turbulent time. It was closed by former owner STX Finland in 2013 and in 2014 bought by the city of Rauma and relaunched as RMC. Since being under new ownership, it has steadily increased its workforce to 350 employees, compared with 700 when the yard was owned by STX Finland. Investments have also been made in yard facilities, with upgrades including adding automated equipment to modernise the shipyard. RMC executive vice president of sales and marketing Håkan Enlund told Passenger Ship Technology “To restart a yard was tougher than we thought, but we are on the way there and the Molslinjen order is an important milestone.” He singled out the main consideration to restarting the shipyard “We have had a controlled development in the increase in our newbuilding activity – if we accelerate too fast there is a danger that we will fall down.”

And the company has recently undergone more changes in order to achieve its growth plans. In December last year, the shipyard announced it had appointed the chairman of its board, Jyrki Heinimaa, to be the new chief executive. In addition, RMC also elected a new chief operating officer, chairman of the board and member of the board. “Rauma Marine Constructions’ growth story has been phenomenal from the beginning,” said Mr Heinimaa. “The changes in management are a natural consequence of the next growth phase of the company. At this stage, the challenges the company faces are different from those at the start-up phase. It is, therefore, the right time to strengthen and develop the management of RMC according to the requirements set by the new phase. Private-sector funding has a crucial role to play in enabling growth and ensuring private funding in future projects will be essential to RMC’s growth.” Against the backdrop of change, RMC is building Molslinjen’s vessel and surpassing the targets set. In March 2017, construction of the ship started ahead of schedule and RMC announced that construction has progressed as planned. RMC launched the ship in January this


Håkan Enlund (RMC): The Molslinjen order is a milestone

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018



STX Finland decides to close Rauma shipyard.

Rauma Marine Constructions (supported by City of Rauma) takes over the shipyard. Local private investors play a key role re-establishing the shipbuilding activity in Rauma. The Finnish flag is hoisted on the yard’s roof.


year. The exterior of the ferry has been completed and the ship has now been relocated to a drydock for equipment assembly and interior work, followed by trial runs and commissioning. It will be delivered to Molslinjen by the end of June 2018. The 158 m long ropax that RMC is building is the first vessel order that Molslinjen has placed with the yard. Designed and optimised for use on a route between Rønne on the Baltic island of Bornholm to mainland Denmark, it will have capacity for 600 passengers and will include two car decks totalling 1,500 lane metres, which will be able to take trailers, trucks and cars. Mr Enlund said the ferry will run purely on marine gas oil. He singled out that this was unusual, as in contrast many ferry operators had decided to go down the LNG or scrubber route. “We have gone a straightforward way and it is a clever solution that is less complicated than running on LNG or installing complicated exhaust cleaning devices that can be unpredictable.” The ferry will use engine heat recovery technology to heat up water used on board for consumption. Other energy efficient methods include using LED lighting throughout the ship. The new vessel will also include a Valmet DNA integrated automation system to cover the control, alarm and monitoring of machinery systems and Rolls-Royce scooped the contract to provide the main propellers and propulsion control system. Finnish engineering firm Telesilta will be responsible for system installation. This illustrates the importance RMC places on using a partner-network approach by taking advantage of the maritime cluster that has formed in Rauma (and Finland), which has extensive experience in building and servicing car and passenger ferries (see box-out). While the Molslinjen newbuild is the only ferry on order currently, Mr Enlund said that while he was not able to reveal

Molslinjen’s newbuild is both RMC’s first newbuilding order and first ferry commission since the shipyard restarted after being closed by STX Finland

anything yet, there was “a lot of activity” around other possible ferry newbuild contracts for RMS. The shipyard has a strong history of building ferries, having built 40 when it was under STX Finland for major operators including Stena Line, P&O Ferries and Brittany Ferries. The shipyard also focuses on small and medium-sized specialised vessels including ice breakers and naval ships. Other work it is currently carrying out includes the refurbishment and modernisation of the Finnish Environment Institute’s marine research vessel Aranda. The work will involve a 7 m extension to the vessel, as well as the implementation of an all-electric power transmission that will enable the underwater noise emitted by the ship to be significantly reduced. And after signing a letter of intent in September 2016, RMC is now working under a design contract for the Squadron 2020 Programme of the Finnish Defence Forces. But the ferry sector is RMC’s main market and it aspires to grow its orders in this area. “We want to be the major player that we used to be before the closure of the shipyard. Our strategy is to be a major player in the north European ferry market,” Mr Enlund summed up.

RMC receives boost from Finnish maritime cluster RMC has been boosted by the strong maritime cluster in Finland, expecially in Rauma and in the southwest of the country. According to figures from the Finnish Maritime Cluster 2020 study, produced by BRAHEA Centre and Turku School of Ecnomics at the University of Turku and published in June 2016, there are 461 maritime companies in this area, making up 30% of Finland’s total maritime firms. Their combined turnover is €2.8Bn (US$3.4Bn), 23% of the Finnish maritime cluster’s turnover. Highlighting RMC’s beneficial location, Rauma is number two in the list of top 10 cities in the maritime custer in southwest Finland with 94 companies located there, surpassed only by Turku with 246 companies. The added value created by the maritime cluster in different markets also bodes well for RMC’s aim to develop its ferry work. According to the study, the added value created by car ferries and roro traffic is €902M (US$1.1Bn). And the outlook is bright – the study noted that growth is highest in marine industry newbuilding at shipyards and in their supplier networks. PST





The yard carries out refits on Tallink Group ferries and Finnish state-owned icebreakers.

RMC receives a further capital injection from the original local investors, Finnish Industry Investment and a fund managed by Taaleri.

RMC wins a contract to build a Molslinjen ropax.

RMC signs a design contract with Finnish Defence Forces (FDF Logistics Command) for Squadron 2020 corvettes.

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018


Rauma Marine Constructions Oy Sales Newbuilding Products: HÃ¥kan Enlund Life-cycle Services: Markku Uusitalo P.O. Box 55, Suojantie 5, FI-26101 Rauma, Finland t: +358 30 600 5400 | e: |




Symphony of the Seas undergoes last minute touch-ups before its delivery (Credit: Royal Caribbean)

ymphony of the Seas has been delivered to owner Royal Caribbean International – not only is it the largest cruise ship in the world but also, alongside sister ship Harmony of the Seas, it is over 20% more energy efficient than the rest of the Oasis-class ships. STX France vice president of projects and ship performance Stéphane Cordier told Passenger Ship Technology about the challenges of building the largest cruise ship in the world and about the techniques used to achieve such energy savings. At 228,000 gt, it beats its predecessor Harmony of the Seas by just 1,000 gt to be crowned the largest cruise ship in the world. Mr Cordier said “It is slightly larger than Harmony of the Seas because we added some staterooms towards the aft, meaning that 5 m

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018


have been added to the ship’s superstructure, compared to Harmony of the Seas.” Symphony of the Seas has 2,759 staterooms and capacity for 6,800 passengers. The other main difference between the two ships is that the speed and power performance has been improved. Mr Cordier explained “At the reference speed sea trial of Harmony, we were a little bit surprised by the result because, although it was quite an improvement on the previous Oasis ships, we felt that we could have done even better.” On closer examination, the STX team worked with ABB to optimise the pods’ running conditions, and Symphony was able to surpass the performance of Harmony and achieve more speed at less power. Another difference between Symphony of the Seas and Harmony of the Seas is the Solarium, which has been extended by including another deck level and adding a double-storey space between two of its restaurants.

Surpassing energy efficiency standards

Energy efficiency was a huge factor for the ship, and Mr Cordier explained how the ship and its sister Harmony became more than 20% more energy efficient than the other Oasisclass ships. “The whole hull form was changed to improve resistance,” he said. Furthermore, the vessel has been fitted with an air lubrication system, which was first used in the cruise industry on Quantum of the Seas. It generates a stream of air bubbles that are driven beneath the hull, creating a layer of air that allows the ship to glide more easily through the water, thus improving energy efficiency and improving fuel consumption by 7-8%. The air

layer also reduces excitation from the propellers, which cuts noise and vibration levels in the aft part of the ship. Another important element for energy efficiency is that a steam turbine is used to recover waste heat from the engines and convert it into energy to power aspects of the hotel load, such as laundry. The 2 MW unit was provided by Japanese company Shinko, but STX France created the whole steam turbine package, which included STX France’s patented heat recovery system, which generates heat from the diesel engine’s cooling system. This system not only reduces the need for oil fire boilers, it also uses the excess heat to provide significant free electrical power output through the steam-powered turbine. Mr Cordier explained that the ship’s size was beneficial when it came to installing a steam turbine. “It was possible because of the scale of the ship – on a smaller ship it is difficult to justify due to the cost of investment which is less favourable, but on this ship it makes sense and is quite unique.” Symphony, like sister ship Harmony, has been fitted with a ducktail at the aft of the ship offering a lower resistance through water and reducing the energy required to reach the same speed. Symphony of the Seas has also had scrubbers inserted to meet the new emission regulations for SOx. Mr Cordier said “That is not a small item because there is a lot of equipment to be fitted in the casing. A large volume is involved and this puts constraints on the upper decks, with the various machines associated with it. For example, the power of the pumps for seawater circulation is above 1 MW, so that is a big system in the machinery space.” Two Wärtsilä hybrid scrubber systems are installed within the funnel casings.

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018

The Wärtsilä system has the flexibility to operate in both open and closed loop mode, using seawater to remove SOx from exhaust gases. The engine configuration consists of three engines in each of the two enginerooms. Wärtsilä supplied the 12- and 16-cylinder 46F series engines. Mr Cordier commented “This is a high number of engines for today. It offers a lot of flexibility and in case one goes down, the ship can maintain normal ship operation.” He added that the ship was designed to be “very redundant”, which is why it has six engines, due to the number of people on board. It is also why it has three pods; if there is a problem with one of them the ship can continue its programme. “It means that the ship is very reliable in terms of scheduling,” Mr Cordier said. He added that the use of pods was the preferred solution for minimising fuel consumption. “Their main advantage is that they do not have shaft lines and rudders, which reduces the resistance of the ship. They have a good efficiency in themselves.”

Weight challenge

While both Symphony and Harmony are bigger than the other Oasis-class vessels with more systems on board, the weights are very similar. This was achieved through a weight saving programme. Originally 1,000 tonnes was added to the ship due to the increase in systems and size of ship, but STX France was able to cancel out this added weight. “We looked at everything, from the structure to the choice of materials and to many minor things; each trade had targets to meet. It was challenging because it was a very short timeframe, and we had to work on many different aspects to achieve this gain,” ›››

Stéphane Cordier, STX France Stéphane Cordier has been vice president at STX France for three and a half years. Before this, he was head of naval and specialised projects at the shipyard. He is also head of ship performance, with responsibility for newbuild performance in terms of weights and stability, hydrodynamics, noise and vibration. Previous positions include chief naval architect at DGA and technical director at the Bassin d’essais des carènes. His education includes a DSc in fluid mechanics at George Washington University and an MSc in naval architecture (hydrodynamics) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

No limits

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››› Mr Cordier said. He singled out insulation technology as an example. “One big item [in terms of weight] was the insulation technology. We kept this weight down by only including what was necessary and choosing the lightest materials.” The ship is the first to be granted SILENT-Eclass from DNV GL for its low level of underwater noise. This acknowledges the fact that the ship has a silent mode of operation where the underwater noise generated is below a published criteria to avoid disturbing marine life. Accordingly, this notation

will enable Symphony of the Seas to sail in waters that are restricted to low noise vessels which have a minimum impact on the environment. Mr Cordier said that this technical performance, which is the result of STX France’s Ecorizon research and development programme, opens the way to the attribution of the SILENT-E notations to future deliveries and vessels already in operation. Synthetic flooring specialist Bolidt has launched a worldfirst glow-in-the-dark decking material that harvests and stores solar energy during the day to provide luminosity by

night, which has been used on both Symphony and Harmony. It is called Bolideck Glow and offers energy efficiency savings by reducing lighting requirements. When used outside, it can also harvest energy, storing solar energy generated by day that can be converted into exterior lighting at night. It could also bring safety benefits, Bolidt points out, by illuminating escape routes and signage, as the luminous material ensures decking areas remain highly visible in the dark. In both cases, the product was installed in a 350 m2 area at the top of the 10-deck

Ultimate Abyss slide (outside), which will be used in the dark as well as in daylight. Wärtsilä has supplied its NACOS Platinum navigation and dynamic positioning system for the bridge, featuring highly advanced integrated navigation technology. Wärtsilä Funa International has supplied electronic and automation solutions including onboard CCTV, a house light dimming system for all public venues, a dimming system for suites and an LED wall for the theatre. STX France will start work on the next Oasis-class ship this year, and there are options for two more vessels. PST


Propulsion Azipods

Autronica Fire and Security Dorint Door International Emmebiesse

Life rafts


Bathroom/toilet fittings

Henry Vacuums

Vacuum cleaners

Indel B

Stateroom accessories (safe, minibar etc)



MTU Friedrichshafen

Emergency generator

Premaberg Manufacturing Puzzle Break

Plant care system

Robos Cruise Furniture SAACKE

Registered tonnage: 228,000 gt Length: 362 m Beam: 66 m Height: 70 m

Deck furniture Boiler


Fire safety doors


Onboard display screens


Main generator steam turbine

Schneider Electric

Electrical plugs, charging sockets, light switches

Spark Cooperative

Ultimate Abyss Slide (design)

Wave Loch

Flowrider water attractions

Wärtsilä Finland

Onboard generators, navigation, dynamic positioning, scrubbers, CCTV systems

Cabins: 2,759 passenger cabins Passenger capacity: 6,800 Crew: 2,000

Vetrotech Saint-Gobain

Decks: 18

Viking Life-saving Equipment

Filtration systems Games room

Rain Bird Corp


Door equipment Linen


Symphony of the Seas under construction at STX France shipyard (Credit: Royal Caribbean)

Fire protection systems

Glass Passenger evacuation chutes

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018


Carnival pushes VSAT ‘to its limits’ Engineers installed three tri-band VSAT antennas on Regal Princess


arnival Corp’s focus on VSAT has increased and it has driven this technology to new levels in the cruise ship sector. Indeed, the cruise operator has taken VSAT to new levels of connectivity for passengers on its cruise ships and broken the bandwidth-at-sea world record using its MedallionNet connectivity service on Princess Cruises’ Regal Princess. Connectivity over the satellite link reached 2.25 Gbps during a specific mediadriven event at the end of February, said Carnival Corp chief experience and innovation

“We have enough bandwidth for years of advances in connectivity” John Padgett (Carnival Corp)

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018

officer John Padgett. This demolished the existing record that was set in December 2017 when MSC Cruises’ newbuild MSC Seaside reached just over 500 Mbps using an Intelsat EpicNG satellite, as reported in our sister publication Marine Electronics and Communication. This new record was achieved while the ship was anchored off Princess Cays in the outer Bahamas. “We have pushed the VSAT to its limits to demonstrate that there are no practical limits to creating great connectivity,” Mr Padgett told Passenger Ship Technology. Bandwidth was made available to guests for streaming images and video over satellite uplinks and downlinks. MedallionNet uses connectivity from SES Networks’ constellation of geostationary and O3B medium Earth orbit (MEO) satellites to provide a pool of bandwidth. “Our 2.25 Gbps is far in excess of what guests actually need on a daily basis at present,” he said, adding that this pilot test demonstrated what could be achieved to cover future requirements. “We have enough bandwidth for years of advances in connectivity,” he said. When Carnival is not testing the boundaries of connectivity, Bermuda-flagged, 2014-built Regal Princess is provided with around 50 Mbps in “a mutual fund of bandwidth”. This is compared with a cruise industry average that is around 10-20 Mbps per ship. To achieve this, Carnival

A top Carnival boss unveils the cruise operator’s connectivity strategy worked with SES Networks to minimise any changes in available bandwidth and connectivity experience when ships move out of the O3B satellite Ka-band coverage, which stretches between the tropics. When this happens, connectivity goes seamlessly on to the geostationary satellite coverage of C-band and Ku-band. Carnival uses the positive elements of geostationary satellite coverage that includes resilience to different weather patterns and reliability of coverage with the higher bandwidth and lower latency from MEO satellites. “We always give guests the best experience possible even when outside MEO coverage as we work to eliminate barriers that prevent people going on cruises,” said Mr Padgett. “It is part of improving the vacation experience to provide land-based connectivity. Passengers can use Facetime, watch Netflix and run their own business from our ships with 24/7 video conferencing.” Carnival evolved VSAT hardware and ship networks using “ground-breaking technology” as it developed MedallionNet, working with Intellian Technologies on installing the world’s first tri-band antennas. There are three of these on board Regal Princess to receive and transmit using C-band and Ku-band for the geostationary constellation, and Ka-band to the O3B satellites. There is a dedicated wifi


network for passengers and a separate one for crew and ship operational requirements. “We distribute the bandwidth through a hybrid fibre Ethernet around the ship and distributed access points for every guest in high-density formats,” Mr Padgett explained. “Ships historically have access points only in public areas and hallways. We decided that we wanted wifi access points in all 4,000 staterooms so there is complete access around the ship.” There are highthroughput modems and routers for managing connectivity and wifi for mobile access. For other services, Speedcast supports the ship’s administration and media content is from Global Eagle. More innovations are coming as Carnival is deploying “embedded wifi access points in television displays that enable more efficiency in distributing signals,” said Mr Padgett. Currently, MedallionNet is available on Medallion-class ships, although only Regal Princess has been tested to Gbps bandwidth limits. There are also plans to deploy MedallionNet on other ships

in the Princess Cruises’ fleet, which includes three on order and 17 existing vessels. “We can rewire ships in the confines of a standard drydocking period so MedallionNet does not have to be fitted just on a newbuilding,” he said. “We can retrofit ships to this level in 12 days.” Existing ships in the Carnival fleet have communications networks with wifi access points in public areas and wifi coverage. Wifi access in staterooms depends on the distance from the hallway wifi access point and whether passengers have the door open, said Mr Padgett. These ships have dual-band antennas for C-band and Ku-band coverage from geostationary satellites. “We have prepared a couple more vessels in the Princess fleet and plan to share the learning and capability with other Carnival brands,” said Mr Padgett. “Each brand and operating company can then plan this investment.” Carnival is involved in other connectivity innovations. Linked to MedallionNet is interactive guest experience platform Ocean Medallion. Princess Cruises was

Network: hybrid Ethernet fibre

Infotainment: Ocean Medallion

chosen by Carnival as its first cruise line to deploy this service. Launched on Regal Princess in November last year, it provides guests with information linked to their location on board. It tracks a medallion that is about 25 mm in diameter and carried by each passenger. These gather information about the wearer’s preferences and are updated multiple times per minute, which enables the ship’s IT infrastructure to present each guest with relevant options. A key element in Ocean Medallion technology is Ocean Compass. This enables the guest to access cruise planning and concierge information, either via their own personal device, from their cabin’s TV or through one of the interactive screens that are located throughout the cruise ship. In another innovation, Carnival introduced OceanView TV streaming in September 2017. This is available to download on Apple and Amazon devices. Mr Padgett said this includes “original content that can be downloaded anywhere and is a new level of connectivity experience.” PST

Connectivity: split between passengers and crew

Carnival MedallionNet

Wifi access points: all staterooms

Satellite: SES Networks MEO and GEO Bands: Ku, C & Ka.

Bandwidth: apex of 2.25 Gbps.

Antennas: 3x Intellian Tri-band

REGAL PRINCESS PARTICULARS Operator: Princess Cruises Built: Italy, 2014 Tonnage: 141,000 gt Guest capacity: 3,560 Crew: 1,346 Registry: Bermuda Length: 330 m Decks: 19 Service speed: 22 knots

John Padgett (Carnival) John Padgett joined Carnival Corp in 2014 as chief experience and innovation officer, spanning the company’s 10 global cruise line brands. He is responsible for guest experience innovation, development, creation and operations integration across creative, digital, technical and operational functions. Prior to Carnival Corp, Mr Padgett worked for Walt Disney Parks and Resorts for 18 years. He holds 19 patents and multiple innovation awards for wearable devices, experience itinerary scheduling and optimisation, digital experience interaction platforms and operational processes. He earned a master’s degree in business administration with a concentration in management science and a bachelor’s degree in finance from Virginia Tech’s Pamplin College of Business.

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018




ver the last fiscal year there has been a consolidation in river cruise vessel ordering, but the emphasis has been on seeking out new routes and negotiating new licences to operate in more countries for maximum voyage penetration. Firmly under the microscope are Asia and the US, but it is often difficult to clear all hurdles for operation in the US. The battle for ‘river hotel’ bookings has intensified with stiff competition from expedition cruise ships which, although sea going, do tempt a change of appetite for potential passenger choice. Some companies with ocean going liners like Viking Ocean Cruises and the Genting Group offer choices of a combined deepsea and river cruise experience in one booking by passengers. This is likely to grow in popularity as more river destinations beckon, especially those within a short journey from sea ports. Never content to rest on its laurels, Switzerland-based, Norway-operated Viking River Cruises returned to the German yard Neptun Werft for construction of seven more inland cruise ships for delivery in 2019. The owner originally ordered six for north European rivers such as the Main, Rhine and Danube. Neptun Werft previously delivered six units for Viking River Cruises accommodating 190 passengers in 95 cabins. Known as the Viking Longships design, the 135 m long vessels are specially evolved for north European cruising. An additional seventh vessel was recently added to the new contract to accommodate increasing bookings for Douro river cruising. This vessel requires modifications to the Longships design adopted for the six north European cruisers and will be the last vessel in a total of seven orders now in hand at the German yard for delivery by September next year. There is intense competition in this region

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018

with competing companies Riviera Travel, Emerald Waterways and Scenic Cruise. Viking River Cruises now covers Europe, Russia, Ukraine, Asia and Egypt and negotiations are in hand for more opportunistic destinations. One bid which has been frustrated by US bureaucracy is for permission to operate on the Mississippi river. The country’s famous Mississippi riverboats may feel a threat from the competition, although many tourists like the feel of history and the old Mississippi

‘most owners opt for diesel-electric hybrid propulsion for maximum fuel efficiency and emission control consideration’ steamboat style. Viking River Cruises originally announced a bold plan in March 2015 to order six new vessels designed specifically for Mississippi River cruising. This was then postponed for a year and is still delayed. In order to continue increasing revenue streams from the river cruise boom, the Mississippi plan has been “replaced” with the six new north European river cruisers. There is no confirmation the Mississippi expansion has been dropped but there will be at least a one-year gap for construction of the vessels and conformity with US regulations, which can be somewhat onerous. Ambition for new challenges is not tempered. The Viking Ra will cruise the Nile offering 12-day round trips from Cairo. The vessel was stripped to the bare hull and

rebuilt to a modern, all-suite, state-of-the-art unit with a geometric Arabic flavour. It can accommodate 52 guests and is due to deliver into Nile cruising in 2018. The river cruise owner is a subsidiary of parent owner Viking Ocean Cruises, which has just announced a new agreement in principle with Fincantieri to build six more ocean liners, which would take its fleet complement up to 16 ships by 2027, of which four are already commissioned. The combination of river and ocean is a powerful advertising inducement for custom. With the Mississippi a key attraction for tourists, US companies have shown signs of fine tuning outside competition with newbuildings and conversion/upgrading of existing vessels. American Cruise Line will take delivery of American Constitution and American Song this year. The latter is definitely for Mississippi cruising, while the former is slated for coastal itineraries. The vessels are being built by Chesapeake Shipbuilding and will carry 170 and 200 passengers respectively. Additionally, the yard is building four more sister ships to American Song for delivery in 2019 and beyond, all destined for the Mississipi River. An American company will further penetrate the European market in 2018 and 2019. Ama Waterways Cruises was due to commission the 158-passenger capacity sister ships Amalea and Amadora respectively from Vahali Shipyard, Serbia. They will serve the Danube and are members of the CERTO class. The 106-passenger capacity Amadouro will deliver in 2019 and serve the Douro River. The Serbian shipyard has been building river cruise ships for years where, after launching, vessels are taken to the final outfitting yard of Gendt in the Netherlands. Ama Waterways covers cruising in Europe, Russia, Vietnam and Cambodia. AmaMagna is under construction as the biggest vessel in the fleet at 135 m long. It will carry 194 passengers and is twice the width of traditional European river ships. Five-star luxury status applies, including 97 cabins, most of which offer 100 m2 of


space, among the largest in river cruising. In keeping with today’s new constructions, most owners opt for diesel-electric hybrid propulsion for maximum fuel efficiency and emission control consideration. On commissioning in 2019, AmaMagna will cruise the Danube. The Dutch/Serbian builder also builds river cruise vessels for Scylla AG, which has now expanded its fleet to at least 11 units and will take delivery of three new vessels in 2018/2019. The fleet now cruises under the banner of Riviera Travel. The new vessels will accommodate 176 passengers, in 169 berths

and 132 berths respectively, with delivery in April 2018 and the latter two in 2019. In a huge boost for European construction, the European Investment Bank (EIB) and Dutch bank ING will contribute €300M (US$371M) in loans to clients who pursue green innovations. EIB already supports maritime construction, and this new injection of cash will be eligible for inland vessels as well as sea-going vessels if they meet EU policy objectives. This policy will undoubtedly provide more inland cruise vessels built and owned by European Union owners.

Shipyard De Hoop reveals ‘completely new re-engineering’ behind Amadeus Queen

Credit: BRL Consultants

Shipyard De Hoop has introduced technical innovations on Lüftner Cruises’ new Amadeus Queen – the fifteenth river cruise vessel the shipyard has delivered to the river cruise operator. Named Amadeus Queen, the new 162-passenger capacity vessel follows the model of the Amadeus Silver ships – but the yard has “decided on a completely new re-engineering, based on the lessons learned from the previous vessels”, it said. The vessel is now in service following its naming ceremony in April. Shipyard de Hoop pointed out the 135 m long vessel includes a large indoor swimming pool on the aft. It commented “The weight increase caused by the redeveloped luxury aft area was a specific challenge, as the aft underwater ship does not provide much buoyancy. As such, the engineroom also had to be scrutinised and completely re-engineered.” The layout of the propulsion system and aft hull design, however, were redefined to compensate for the addition of the pool. This resulted in an “upgraded, well-balanced and matched engineroom layout, allowing for an even higher maximum cruise speed with the same machinery. Due to the higher efficiency, lower fuel consumption and reduced exhaust emission levels were accomplished”. As a result, using the two Caterpillar 3508 main engines, rated at 783 kW @ 1600 RPM, the ship can achieve a service speed of 22 km/hr. The engines directly drive two Veth Z-drives with contra-rotating propellers. These main thrusters are recessed, limiting the minimum operational draught to only 1.5 m and allowing the vessel to cruise most European rivers where the water depths are often critical. To lower the impact of propeller blade impulses to the hull, an air curtain buffer was installed – by blowing air in between the propeller and hull, the pressure pulses are not transmitted to the hull. PST

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018



Ama Waterways



Vahali/Gendt (NETHERLANDS)


Ama Waterways




Ama Waterways




Ama Waterways




Amadeus River Cruises

Amadeus Queen



Amadeus River Cruises

Amadeus Star

De Hoop


American Cruise Line

American Constitution

Chesapeake (US)


American Cruise Line

American Song



American Cruise Line

American Harmony



American Cruise Line



American Cruise Line



American Cruise Line





All American Marine (US)


APT Cruises

Douro Serenity

Argosy Cruises Ltd



Avalon Saigon




Avalon Envision








Van Gogh





CroisiEurope Crystal River Cruises


Lloyd Werft (GERMANY)


Crystal River Cruises


Lloyd Werft


Crystal River Cruises

Crystal Ravel

Lloyd Werft


Crystal River Cruises

Crystal Debussy

Lloyd Werft


West Sea


Douro Azul Emerald Waterways

Adriatic Princess II

Geiranger Fjordservice

2018 Maritime Partner (NORWAY)


Wight Shipyard (UK)


Lotos Shipyard (RUSSIA)


Moscow River Company

United Shipbuilding Corp. (RUSSIA)


Moscow River Company

United Shipbuilding Corp.


Brodrene Aa (NORWAY)



Planning stage



Planning stage


GS Yard B.V.


Victoria Emperor

Planning stage


Viking RiverCruises

Viking Helgrim

Neptun Reparaturwerft (GERMANY)


Viking River Cruises

Viking Einar

Neptun Reparaturwerft


Viking River Cruises

Viking Sigrun

Neptun Reparaturwerft


Viking River Cruises

Viking Sigyn

Neptun Reparaturwerft


Viking River Cruises

Viking Tir

Neptun Reparaturwerft


Viking River Cruises

Viking Ullur

Neptun Reparaturwerft


Viking River Cruises

Viking Vali

Neptun Reparaturwerft


Prince Vladimir

Krasnoye Sormovo (RUSSIA)


Jacobite Cruises Moscow River Co./Caspian Shipping.


Uniworld Victora Cruises





CRUISING INTO THE FUTURE Shipyard De Hoop concentrates on designing, engineering and building custom vessels, for both the inland and seagoing markets. The yard has all the core disciplines in house to provide clients with creative and innovative solutions, both in design and production. De Hoop is committed to a customer-oriented, goal-based approach in which quality and flexibility are paramount.

Shipyard de Hoop 11-2017 185x120 DEF.indd 1


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‘BALTIC-READY’ DRIVES CRUISE WASTEWATER MARKET As IMO’s new directive for the Baltic Sea Special Area comes closer, both wastewater treatment manufacturers and cruise ship operators are preparing to meet its requirements


hipowners are increasingly concerned about meeting the new stringent sewage treatment guidelines for passenger ships in the Baltic Sea – and are looking at updating their wastewater treatment systems accordingly. IMO MEPC.227(64) including section 4.2 is set to come into force for newbuild passenger ships at the start of June 2019 and for the existing fleet on 1 June 2021. It states that nitrogen must be removed before wastewater is discharged into the Baltic Sea Special Area. The options for meeting this regulation include holding the sewage and discharging at port or deploying an advanced wastewater treatment system that removes nitrogen. Scanship has noted an increasing demand for its advanced wastewater system that removes nitrogen. Scanship chief technical officer Henning Mohn told Passenger Ship Technology “Shipowners are more and more concerned about the new Baltic Sea regulations and they want to retrofit to make sure they are ready for these new regulations.” While the regulation is only for the Baltic Sea, Mr Mohn pointed out that passenger ship operators are looking at installing such systems in ships that do not currently trade in this area to have the flexibility to redeploy the fleet in the future. “They want to future-proof their vessels,” he summed up. The Scanship Advanced Wastewater Purification system (AWP) is designed according to IMO Marpol MEPC 227(64) for nutrient removal, in addition to the removal of organic matter, suspended solids, residual chlorine and faecal coliforms. The ships that Scanship is retrofitting to comply with the Baltic Sea directive include a retrofit contract with Norwegian Cruise Line Holdings (NCL) in March this year for delivering and installing a Scanship AWP system on Insignia, operated under its Oceania Cruises brand. The installation will be carried out during Q3 2018, and follows the AWP retrofit with nitrogen removal carried out on sister ship Sirena in 2016. This will be the thirteenth contract for a wastewater retrofit that Scanship has done for NCL and the second for Oceania Cruises. Moreover, Scanship AWP with nutrient removal is installed on NCL’s Breakaway Plus-class and will also be fitted on its new Leonardo-class to be built at Fincantieri. Scanship has fitted its AWP on 60 new cruise ships and in

Headhunter’s TidalWave HMX marine sewage treatment plant has been installed on a Silversea Cruises vessel (see page 34)

26retrofits. Mr Mohn commented that MEPC.227(64) contributed to Scanship AWP’s presence on half the cruise ships delivered since 2014. MEPC 227 (64) is also a main focus for Wärtsilä Water Systems (WWS). WWS now has several type-approved systems operating to MEPC 227(64), including paragraph 4.2 based on its external membrane MBR technology. “These systems produce a reliable effluent quality without significant additional operator intervention or increased operating costs over and above the small amount of chemical required to remove phosphorus,” said WWS process and proposals manager Peter Woollard. He pointed out that all of the principal suppliers in the market

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018


now have type-approval to MEPC 227(64), including paragraph 4.2. Mr Woollard said “Over the next few years it will become apparent which of these solutions can deliver a consistent effluent quality at the lowest operating cost, while also providing process flexibility for vessels not intending to operate within special areas. In this regard, membrane bio reactors offer a solution that requires less energy when removing nitrate from the wastewater and the option to switch off the chemicals when phosphorus removal is not required.”

New contracts

WWS is currently delivering full waste management systems for Saga Cruises and Genting Crystal Cruises. In addition to these projects, WWS has recently been awarded the contract to deliver a waste management system for two large cruise vessels. This new project will comprise an integrated wet and dry waste management system, with the liquid waste stream being treated to MEPC 227(64), including paragraph 4.2. WWS has two paragraph 4.2-compliant vessels for Seabourn Cruise Line, one in service and one due for commissioning later this year. It has also recently commissioned a vessel for MSC with its membrane bio reactor system and will deliver a second during 2018. Highlighting challenges on the projects, Mr Woollard said that in each case the wet waste system's space was a particular challenge. He said “Here WWS are able to offer an advantage to our customers as the bio reactor volumes required are smaller than would be required for other current market technologies. This is due to the fact that the external membrane bio reactor can utilise a much higher concentration of biomass in the bioreactor than comparable waste water systems, which delivers a like-for-like saving on the bioreactor volume.” He said that typically WWS would expect its bio reactor to be two-thirds that of a MBBR or submerged membrane bio reactor system. “With the current expectation that all new ships will be ‘Baltic-ready’ this footprint saving is a big help as larger bio reactors are required to meet this standard,” Mr Woollard added.

ACO Marine can configure its Maripur NF system to use a vessel’s existing holding tanks to reduce system footprint and costs

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018

The WWS membrane bio reactor advanced waste treatment system has undergone development to make the system more efficient and easy to operate. WWS has introduced new technology on the membranes that has a “significant impact” on the flux rates (the rate at which treated effluent passes though the membrane wall). Mr Woollard explained “With this new innovation, the power required to drive the membranes is now half that required five years ago. This upgrade reduces operating costs, footprint and maintenance costs as well as allowing complete automation of the membrane bank cleaning cycle.” WWS has recently widened its portfolio to include dry waste management systems. Mr Woollard said that WWS can now offer a complete waste management system incorporating wet and dry waste collection, dry waste volume reduction, incineration, food waste collection, food waste treatment, drying and wet waste treatment. It can also deliver waste collection systems, providing an integrated dry and wet waste management system for all sizes of vessel. Elsewhere, US-headquartered Headhunter’s TidalWave HMX marine sewage treatment plant has been tested by an independent laboratory and certified by the United States Coast Guard in accordance with the latest IMO effluent performance standards. These systems now comply with MEPC.227(64). Headhunter president Mark Mellinger told PST that during 2017 the most notable delivery for a passenger vessel was its TidalWave TW-HMX 7205, delivered to Silversea Cruises to be installed on Silver Galapagos. Mr Mellinger said the installation was done in Panama during a yard period and the final commissioning was finished in March when Headhunter’s team met the vessel in Baltra, one of the Galápagos Islands. Mr Mellinger commented on the benefits of deploying the system. “Our TidalWave HMX is smaller than most competitors’ systems and can be integrated in a way that uses the ship’s holding tank for part of the process. This saves space.” ACO Marine has been awarded contracts to supply its advanced wastewater treatment technology as retrofit solutions to river cruise vessels operating on European waterways. The 232-passenger capacity sister ships Ukraina and Moldavia, undergoing refit work at the Ukrainian Danube Shipping Company’s fleet maintenance base in Izmail, Ukraine, will each be retrofitted with a Maripur NF 250 unit. In a separate agreement, a Maripur NF 150 unit will be supplied to Linz Shipyard for retrofit to the 150-passenger capacity river cruise vessel Carissima. Due to space limitations aboard all these vessels, ACO Marine will use the ships’ existing holding tanks as a bioreactor in the first stage of the treatment process. ACO Marine managing director Mark Beavis said “Usually the main biochemical purification process occurs in the first stage activation chamber of the Maripur NF unit, but by converting the vessels’ existing tanks – provided they are of sufficient size – we can create an environment in which bacteria can thrive.” He said ACO Marine needed to install blowers and additional pumps, but it was still a much simpler process. “This is a much more cost-effective approach to wastewater treatment where space is a limitation. Use of existing tanks in this way can reduce system footprint by more than twothirds, depending on the dimensions of tank, and reduce capital expenditure. But additional tank venting would be required for safety reasons.” PST


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he cruise ship industry has now passed the tipping point for LNG, speakers at Seatrade Cruise Global’s Alternative Fuels panel agreed. The session revealed that there are 18 LNG-powered cruise ships currently under construction, out of 94 ships on the global cruise ship orderbook. This represents a quarter of newbuild cruise ship capacity so will have a significant impact. Carnival Corp is taking the lead with the use of LNG as fuel – it will launch seven fully LNGpowered ships by 2022 – a move that will cause ripple effects throughout the industry. And 2018 is a key year – it will see Carnival’s first LNG-fuelled vessel delivered. All this means that the cruise industry has now “passed the tipping point” for LNG, GTT general manager North America, Aziz Bamik said. Furthermore, major players in other ship sectors will help strengthen the take-up within the cruise industry: CMA CGM announced in November last year that it was going to build nine 22,000 TEU ships fuelled by LNG. Mr Bamak told delegates “When you see those kind of players that have huge LNG requirements, it is a very good sign for long-

2018 is a landmark year for the use of LNG by the cruise industry, although there are still challenges to be overcome

Tom Strang (Carnival Corp): Training in LNG is a huge challenge and huge opportunity

term infrastructure that will sustain growth.” GTT is supplying the LNG tanks. Mr Bamik added “Our mission and duty is to accompany this revolution and help the cruise industry adopt technology in a safe and reliable manner. Not only in technology, safety, training and design, but also looking at developing the industry network for long-term and sustainable growth.” CMA CGM will require 300,000 tonnes of LNG a year over the next 10 years, a huge amount of fuel that will help drive the development of the LNG bunkering infrastructure. This is crucial, because to establish LNG as a main source of power for cruise ships, the industry needs to ensure that the infrastructure is there to support it. Speaking at the Seatrade Cruise Global panel, Carnival Corp senior vice president of maritime affairs Tom Strang said “Making sure the fuel is where it needs to be is still a big challenge.” He elaborated “We know the technology works – it is new for us [cruise] but is not new technology. The challenge for us is getting fuel to where it needs to be.” Despite the number of cruise ships powered by LNG on order, there are currently only six

bunkering vessels in operation. Mr Strang commented “That’s a huge challenge and Shell is helping us here.” Carnival Corp has signed a framework agreement with Shell Western LNG (Shell) to supply fuel to power the LNGfuelled ships for AIDA Cruises and Costa Cruises. Shell LNG marketing and trading team lead Americas, LNG business development, John Grubic said “As it relates to marine fuel, we have dedicated a lot of energy to LNG. It is not just about getting it to the vessel, there is a whole regulatory regime that has had to come together to support this. We are working with partners – Carnival in particular – very closely, making it even more easy to choose the LNG pathway.”

Training challenges and opportunities But aside from infrastructure, there are other challenging areas. Mr Strang said one of the areas taking up the most time is LNG training. “This is a huge challenge and huge opportunity,” he said. As well as chief engineers and stakeholders, familiarity training by other members of crew is needed. “A huge amount of effort needs to be put in, we are working on

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018


that very hard and working together with specialists to write procedures.” Indeed, Carnival Corp is developing LNG-related safety training at its stateof-the-art training facility – the Center for Simulator Maritime Training (CSMART) Academy at Arison Maritime Center, located in Almere, the Netherlands. Carnival has partnered with Meyer Werft and MaK Caterpillar to develop ship-specific training that will ensure all crew are fully ready when these vessels are delivered. Carnival has a partnership with Shell, which allows crew to

get hands-on LNG experience where necessary and for them to witness first-hand operations such as LNG bunkering and related LNG activities. Training is an area that GTT is also involved in. Mr Bamak commented “Training is key. There are thousands of crew that are not involved in bunkering, but among them are people who need to know what is on board, so we need to give them a certain level of training.” GTT has developed a programme for customised training. It also includes 24/7 customised services to deal with any LNG-related issues. Another challenge is the

Key cruise LNG statistics


LNG ships on order



Representing a quarter of newbuild cruise capacity

Vincent Lagarrigue (Trelleborg Oil and Marine): cryogenic floating hose technology can bost LNG infrastructure for cruise ships

regulatory side. Mr Strang said that Carnival will bunker in nine ports in Europe, which means there are nine different regulatory areas to deal with. Carnival is trying to standardise this. “This is a key area of opportunity and we are working with regulators,” Mr Strang said. There are also design challenges. Mr Bamak said space optimisation was very important when it came to the location of the LNG tank within the vessel, as when the shift is made from heavy fuel oil to LNG, cabins can potentially be lost due to the size of LNG equipment.

LNG versus hydrogen

Despite the challenges, LNG is still seen by many as the best option to meet future environmental regulation compared to other fuel options such as hyrdrogen, fuel cells and methanol. Mr Grubic commented “LNG is the default choice for cruise. The key drivers are availability; there is a primary distribution of LNG available to start with.” He said that while there was “no question of other potential fuels in the industry,” the issue is very much about economics. Indeed, he singled out an

Solving the LNG infrastructure conundrum To establish LNG as a standard for powering cruise ships, the industry needs to ensure the infrastructure is there to support it. As cruise ships get bigger, and destinations become increasingly remote, the industry will need to think laterally to come up with ways of delivering LNG to a diversifying fleet in multiple locations across the globe. Part of the answer to the infrastructure conundrum is cryogenic floating hose technology. In October 2017, the Universal Transfer System (UTS), developed with Connect LNG and Gas Natural Fenosa, underwent its sea launch to assess performance in real-life conditions, enabling the transfer of LNG from an LNG carrier to bunker tanks onshore. The UTS demonstrated a system that would bring bunkering infrastructure to a vessel using a floating platform, connected to the shore by Cryoline cryogenic floating hoses. It showed how flexible floating hose technology can underpin new solutions that could easily

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018

be used to upgrade existing ports or establish new bunkering facilities with lower start-up costs and much faster installation times than heavier infrastructure would require. With no need for heavy infrastructure, the UTS solution brings down capex for bunkering facilities significantly and allows LNG transfer to occur in locations that would otherwise be inaccessible for large vessels. It also reduces the impact of the infrastructure on the environment and can be retracted when out of use, which is essential for busy ports. With 2018 expected to be a momentous year in the cruise industry in terms of passengers, newbuilds and new destinations, innovative solutions like UTS have a significant role to play in meeting the infrastructural challenges facing global LNG bunkering. Vincent Lagarrigue is director at Trelleborg Oil and Marine


economic benefit of using LNG. “You can choose the point of supply where LNG is cheaper.” He summed up “There are other options longer term, but the reason why we are so committed is that it is available very broadly, it is a commodity that trades globally so is accessible, it is an affordable fuel, performs well and has a global infrastructure.” He said that the move to hydrogen was probably “too big a step for the foreseeable future”. Mr Strang added that hydrogen weighs more and there is not the technology to transport hydrogen in bulk currently. “I am not very comfortable transporting large amounts of hydrogen. I am not saying LNG is the solution for the future, it is a solution for right now.” While Lloyd’s Register Americas lead electromechanical specialist George Legg added “LNG is a stepping stone technology for the next 30-40 years, but we need to keep developing sources that have less environmental impact.” The drive to increase the LNG bunkering infrastructure due to large operators like Carnival and CMA CGM will only encourage more use of LNG by cruise ship operators.

CARNIVAL’S LNG ORDERBOOK AIDA Cruises (AIDAnova); delivery Q3 2018. Costa Cruises (Costa Smeralda); delivery October 2019. Carnival Cruise Line; delivery 2020. P&O Cruises UK; delivery 2020. AIDA Cruises; delivery 2021. Costa Cruises; delivery 2021. Carnival Cruise Line; delivery 2022.

STX France launches first-of-itskind carbon-free cruise concept STX France has launched a carbon-free cruise design that uses wind as the main source of propulsion power

“This is something that nobody has done before. The message is that we are doing as much as we can not to use any fuel in the cruise ship” Stéphane Cordier (STX France)

STX France has launched a carbon-free cruise design that uses wind as a main source of power – a design that is first-of-its-kind – to be used alongside LNG. And the wind technology solution will be trialled on a Ponant cruise ship. STX France vice president of projects Stéphane Cordier told Passenger Ship Technology “This is something that nobody has done before. The message is that we are doing as much as we can not to use any fuel in the cruise ship.” Explaining why wind was chosen as the main source of power, Mr Cordier said “The main idea is to go to carbon-free cruising, for which there are many different alternatives. We see that hydrogen and fuel cells are very expensive and hydrogen is not readily available everywhere and can be very cumbersome to

contain.” Whereas he pointed out that wind was available and free everywhere. STX France decided to use sails to draw on the source of wind power and the yard created the technology to be used with the sails (Solid Sail). The sails are mounted on masts, with a benefit being that the “interference between the sail and the ship is minimised to the foot of the mast”, as there are no cables or ropes. There are three masts and three rigs. The masts rotate to adapt the sails to the wind. Mr Cordier explained an area of more than 1,000 m2 of sails was needed to get the wind power required. STX France advocates using a hybrid propulsion system, combining wind as the main source of power with options such as LNG, and in time, potentially using fuel cells. The ship can travel 12 knots in 15 knots of wind and if there are more than 15 knots of wind then the propellers can be used to make power for the ship load. “The system is reversed so the propeller acts as a turbine to draw power from the sails,” Mr Cordier said. STX France has an agreement with Ponant to replace one of the existing sails on its Le Ponant cruise ship to test the shipyard’s solution. STX France has created its carbon-free cruising concept for three ship sizes, with the largest being for a 15,000 gt cruise ship with 150 staterooms. PST

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018

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Bolidt has launched decking embedded with LED lighting



ruise and ferry flooring manufacturers are investing heavily in innovation. This is certainly the case for Bolidt. Bolidt head of maritime division, Jacco van Overbeek highlighted the innovation and effort the company is putting into research and development in an interview with PST. The Dutch flooring company launched decking that incorporates LED lighting at Seatrade Cruise Global in March this year. He explained “The LED lighting can be programmed in any shape or form, in different colours, multi-colours or can include changing colours.” The lighting system is 15 mm thick. “It is a very durable

Flooring manufacturers have developed and launched innovative solutions for cruise ships and ferries. Rebecca Moore unveils recent major developments

lighting system that doesn’t wear quickly so it lasts as long as the decks themselves. When we renew the decks we can do the lighting at the same time,” said Mr van Overbeek. All that is needed during installation is a wire to connect the connections box, which can be installed in a wall and connected with a plug.

Bolidt has used LED floor lighting on helicopter decks on mega yachts, but never on a cruise ship before. “It can be used as a design feature, both inside and out,” said Mr van Overbeek. “The reaction from the industry has been amazing.” Bolidt is working on another innovative concept – deck

sensor flooring. This is still a work in progress and is not expected to be ready for market for 18 months to two years. The concept involves a reaction within the deck to step-on movement. The person stepping on the deck will set off a sound which can be used to alert crew if someone is entering a zone they are forbidden to enter, if children are playing in areas they should not be or if water is leaking in a technical area. And Mr van Overbeek said the solution could go even further and be included in the big data drive. “If linked to a computer, data analysis could be carried out,” he explained. An example of where this could help is if there is a fire on board. The system could alert crew to

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018


people not yet at drill stations. Bolidt is aiming to use deck sensor flooring on cruise ships and ferries. Bolidt is developing the technology itself. Mr van Overbeek said this was a “big secret”, but was able to say that a liquid would be used as a sensor rather than an electronic contact. Explaining the benefits, he said “There is no risk of failure as there are no moving parts to it, as with an electric system.” As well as sounding an alarm, light could also be used as an alert to crew. The sensor can be used with Future Teak and Select Soft decking. “We are really enthusiastic about it and really believe in this product,” Mr van Overbeek said. Elsewhere, new and innovative solutions are also important for UK-headquartered Forbo Flooring Systems. Forbo marketing manager for international key accounts Jemma Masters said “First impressions are crucial, which is why effective entrance flooring that stops dirt and moisture being tracked on board is fundamental to modern day cruise and ferry design.” Forbo Flooring Systems already has such an entrance system, Coral T32 FR, within its marine product portfolio. But it was decided during 2017 that this collection needed updating to be more in line with both current and future demands. So the company has launched its new IMOcertified textile entrance system Coral Marine FR, which absorbs moisture and removes dry soiling in entrance and circulation areas. Ms Masters said “By removing wet and dry soiling from the soles of shoes and wheel treads, an effective entrance system reduces premature wear and tear to interior floor coverings, minimises cleaning and maintenance costs and

“LED lighting can be programmed in any shape or form, in different colours, multi-colours or can include changing colours” Jacco van Overbeek (Bolidt)

protects passengers by reducing slip hazards.” The product stops up to 95% of dirt and moisture from being tracked on board. It is constructed out of a wool and polyamide mix, and is available in eight colours. It meets all the fire safety standards set by IMO. “Yarn and backing systems have been developed to meet the stringent smoke toxicity and low flamespread standards required,” said Ms Masters.

Quantifying structureborne noise

Last year, Sikafloor Marine announced its collaboration with an acoustics specialist to quantify the reduction of structure-borne noise in its acoustic flooring solutions. The company explained that the control of unwanted noise on ships is an ongoing issue for owners, builders and designers. Flooring and wall panelling with insulation and resilient layering are the most commonly used systems, although there are myriad options available. It highlighted that noise sources such as propulsion systems and generators act as sources of vibrational energy that can manifest throughout the vessel as structure-borne noise. There is no ISO standard for measuring structure-borne sound and damping properties for marine floors and bulkheads so Sikafloor Marine has been working with leading acoustics

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018

specialist Delta Acoustics of Denmark to measure the damping properties of its structure-borne systems. “In order to minimise this transfer of energy throughout the vessel and so reduce nuisance noise, passive damping systems are most commonly used whereby the vibrations are diverted into special materials or structural components that dissipate the energy,” said Tony Jenkins, key account manager for Sika Marine in the UK. “Damping systems do not isolate vessel structures from the vibration source but instead reduce the magnitude of the vibration within the structure. Thanks to our collaboration with Delta Acoustics, we are now able to measure this reduction of magnitude and provide this information to the acoustic experts involved in the design of vessels.” Marine carpet supplier Dansk Wilton has also launched a new product. Based on its Colortec technology, the company has created the new carpet quality, DW Twist by combining hard-twisted yarn and normal velvet yarn. Dansk Wilton said the mix of yarns creates a shimmering texture and a 3D-type effect.

New contracts

Dansk Wilton has supplied all the carpet designs for the public areas on MSC Meraviglia and MSC Seaside and deliveries for MSC Seaview are well under way.

The greatest part of the design work has been done in close collaboration with Italian design and technical consultancy Studio De Jorio, which wanted a series of large, striking graphic patterns in several areas. Dansk Wilton commented that “the stringent and simple graphics made extra demands on the design and technical execution to ensure that the carpets fitted precisely together”. Dansk Wilton delivered custom-designed Axminster carpets to all public areas. Elsewhere, Bolidt has highlighted its strong relationship with Norwegian Cruise Line as it announced that it has seven ship projects currently with the company. Work in hand includes the newbuildings Norwegian Bliss and Norwegian Encore, and refits for Norwegian Star, Norwegian Sun, Norwegian Breakaway, Norwegian Jewel and Pride of America. The 323 m long, 4,000-passenger capacity Norwegian Bliss is nearing completion at Meyer Werft in Papenburg, with service entry set for July. Norwegian Bliss will sail with 6,700 m2 of Bolideck Select Hard, which will mainly be used as an underlay surface on steel balconies throughout the vessel. Also used extensively is Bolideck Select Soft, a synthetic system that has high anti-skid properties and is easy to clean. Around 8,900 m2 of Bolideck Select Soft has been used in various areas on board. Approximately 5,575 m2 of Bolideck Future Teak has been installed to cover most of the cabin balconies and some public spaces. Several balconies on board Norwegian Bliss have also been fitted with Bolideck Future Teak as part of Bolidt’s Smart Balcony system – a concept using composite interlinked planks, which are easier and quicker to install and repair than poured materials. PST



Wärtsilä has been working on a number of solutions to further reduce the weight of its waterjet systems

Waterjet manufacturers deal with weighty matters Lighter, more powerful waterjets are enabling passenger ferry operators to combine high speed with more economic, environmentally friendly performance


or fast ferry applications, weight is always a key factor when selecting waterjet technology, alongside power, environmental performance and durability. Consequently, introducing lighter waterjet technology has been a key area of focus for several companies active in this sector. Wärtsilä has been investigating the benefits of designing its modular waterjets using duplex stainless steel. Those components that come under the highest stress, the shaft and impeller, have already been delivered to some customers in duplex stainless steel, but Wärtsilä has now also made the outboard parts available in this material instead of 316 grade stainless steel. According to the company, constructing the outboard as well as internal components in duplex stainless will

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018

save around 1,250 kg on a LJX1500SRI waterjet of the type now being applied on most fast ferries, with an engine power of 9,100 kW per jet installed on board. The technical challenge for Wärtsilä’s design teams has been to create waterjets that are strong enough to withstand the propulsive stresses, but are as light as possible to improve the performance and fuel efficiency of the vessel. The company believes this challenge has been successfully met. Reliability and ease of maintenance are also key customer prerequisites, which Wärtsilä has responded to with the LJX1500SRI model featuring an inboard hydraulics arrangement. Over the past year, the company has secured four contracts to supply waterjets on newbuild fast ferries, two each at Incat Tasmania and Austal Australia, which all feature inboard hydraulics.

Wärtsilä Marine Solutions sales manager for waterjets, Jeroen Vedder said “The major advantage of inboard hydraulics is that all of the cylinders and hoses are mounted inside the vessel, and so they are not exposed to hostile conditions outside the vessel, including seawater. Another advantage is the fact that maintenance on these components can be undertaken inside, and so any potential oil leaks into seawater are avoided.” The two new fast ferries ordered from Incat are being prepared for Malta-based Virtu Ferries and the Spanish company, Naviera Armas. These contracts continue a close working relationship between Wärtsilä and Incat that stretches back around 30 years and has seen the delivery of 174 modular waterjets to date to Incat’s Tasmanian shipyard. Wärtsilä will supply four LJX1500SRI waterjets and


a Protouch control system to Incat for the 110 m long Virtu Ferry craft, which will operate between Malta and Sicily. The fast ferry is scheduled for delivery towards the end of 2018 when it will become the largest high-speed catamaran in the Mediterranean, carrying 900 passengers and 167 cars at a service speed of up to 38 knots. Meanwhile, Wärtsilä will supply a further four LJX1500SRI waterjets and a Lipstronic control centre for a 109 m high-speed ferry for Naviera Armas at Incat, which is due for delivery in 2019. For both projects Wärtsilä engineers will be involved at the yard in commissioning the waterjets and then for the initial sea trials. For another long-term partner, Austal, Wärtsilä has been contracted to supply four of its waterjets, the hydraulics and control systems for a new 109 m long high-speed ropax ferry for Molslinjen of Denmark. Wärtsilä’s compact axial flow jet solution was considered the most appropriate choice for this vessel, since it fully met the customer’s weight and performance criteria. The all-aluminium catamaran will have a top speed of 40 knots and will be able to carry up to 425 cars and over 1,000 passengers on a route between Aarhus and Odden. Wärtsilä is due to deliver its waterjet systems to the yard in May this year, with final delivery of the vessel in Q4 2018. Mr Vedder added “The design of the LJX1500SRI waterjet encompasses high levels of efficiency, excellent hydrodynamic performance, low noise and reduced maintenance. As a result it is rapidly becoming the waterjet of choice for owners and shipyards worldwide.” One of the main requirements for fast ferries is, of course, reliability and performance. Mr Vedder said “Fast ferries operate

on tight schedules and owners expect that the equipment on board is able to operate without any problems to meet their promises to their passengers. Our technology is well proven with an extensive reference base backed up by an excellent service network that is able to meet our customers needs for waterjet maintenance and repairs.” Environmental factors are a further key influence on Wärtsilä’s waterjet design development programme. Mr Vedder added “We are working a lot on environmentally friendly solutions at the moment. For example, we are currently developing a system with dual-fuel engines, using diesel or LNG, in combination with waterjets.”

Weight and space

Rolls-Royce is another leading waterjet supplier for the highspeed ferry market, and the ongoing customer requirement for compact, low-weight systems is also reflected in some of its recent projects, including SeaStar II, which was delivered by Austal from its Philippines shipyard last year. A 50 m catamaran designed by Incat Crowther for South Korean operator Seaspovill, the ferry can carry up to 450 passengers at 40 knots. SeaStar II features S56-3 waterjets mounted in pairs

on two common base plates to provide a lightweight and compact propulsion arrangement. Rolls-Royce designers were able to trim away the edges of the reversing buckets without causing any significant loss of sideways thrust, making the jet system as narrow as possible. All four waterjets have steering and reverse capabilities, to ensure the ferry is agile, with a high degree of manoeuvrability and propulsion redundancy. Rolls-Royce sales manager, Australia, Richard Dreverman said “This order was rather special for us as the catamaran is designed for low resistance and low wash, and consequently has very fine-lined hulls and limited space at the stern. Putting two type S56-3 waterjets together on a single base plate allows us to save a significant amount of space.” Rolls-Royce waterjets have also been specified for a 56 m long, 35 knot passenger catamaran also under construction at Austal’s Philippines yard for operation in German coastal waters. Förde Reederei Seetouristik will use the vessel on a service between Hamburg and the island of Heligoland. Because the route is partly in open sea and partly along the River Elbe, reduced wash was a key requirement, Rolls-Royce

points out. In this case four S71-4 waterjets will propel the catamaran, each powered by a 16-cylinder MTU 4000 series engine. More recently, Rolls-Royce has been selected to supply a combination of its Kamewa waterjets and MTU engines for three 42 m high-speed ferries being built at Brodrene Aa in Norway, which will operate between Hong Kong and Guangzhou, China. The waterjets for these ferries will be manufactured from duplex stainless steel to achieve lower weight and high levels of durability. The company said the fuel savings from specifying a highly efficient pump unit combined with the design of the steering and revising units will also aid faster and more accurate manoeuvring. Brodrene Aa chief executive Tor Øyvin Aa commented “The lightweight and high power capabilities of the Kamewa steel series waterjets along with the proven power output and reliability of MTU engines in fast ferries makes Rolls-Royce a logical choice for this type of vessel.” The ferries, to be operated by Zhongshan-Hong Kong Passenger Shipping Co-op Company, are of two designs. Two out of the three will have a capacity of 300 passengers and will operate at speeds of up to 40 knots. This pair will

The SeaStar II is powered by two Rolls-Royce type S56-3 waterjets mounted on a single baseplate

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018


feature four Kamewa S56-4 type waterjets and four MTU 12V 2000M72 engines. The third fast ferry will be designed to carry 230 passengers at up to 37 knots and will be powered by two MTU 16V2000M72 engines, each driving a Kamewa S63-4 waterjet. Rolls-Royce offers waterjets in both aluminium and steel. Its aluminium series, which provides propulsion for smaller vessels with units up to 2,000 kW, offers a high volume flow from the axial pump with a good driving thrust at lower speeds. Rolls-Royce’s latest steel series waterjets provide

propulsion over a wider range, from 450 kW to over 30,000 kW, and the mixed flow pump’s stainless steel construction makes it highly durable. Indeed, the company points out that the average time between overhauls is set as standard to 15,000 hours and if any maintenance is required the pump unit is of an easily removable plug-in design.

Focus on efficiency

One of the leading providers of waterjets for smaller passenger ferries is New Zealand’s HamiltonJet. The

company’s latest addition to its portfolio is the HT range, which currently covers the three largest sizes of waterjet offered by HamiltonJet – the HT810, HT900 and HT1000. Global business development manager, Antony Tomkins said “These represent a significant step forward in the overall operational spectrum of our waterjets, bringing a substantial increase in high-speed efficiency, whilst maintaining the traditional HamiltonJet advantages of good mid-speed thrust and excellent control and manoeuvrability. These jets

have already proved very successful in the oil and gas and military markets, and as we see a resurgence of the high-speed ferry market they are now proving popular in this sector too.” Meanwhile, there have been evolutionary improvements to the company’s existing range over the past few years including the introduction of the JT Steering system, which has replaced the traditional deflector steering mechanism with a steerable nozzle assembly. Mr Tomkins said “This has had a significant impact on the passenger vessel sector, as

ABB reaches Azipod

Azipod units awaiting delivery

A leading supplier of azimuthing thrusters, ABB is continuing to win cruise ship contracts for its electrically driven podded propulsion concept. In 1990, the Finnish Board of Navigation vessel, Selli, was fitted with the first Azipod propulsion system following its conversion by ABB. This was the starting point for the launch of a new generation of azimuthing propulsion systems, which has found particular favour in the cruise shipping business. Around five years after the successful trials on Selli, the first order for a cruise ship was received from Carnival Cruise Lines for its Fantasy-

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018

class newbuildings Elation and Paradise. Many more have followed over the past two decades and ABB recently passed the 100-cruise ship milestone for Azipod installations, with an order to supply the French’s company Ponant’s latest polar expedition cruise ship. Ordered from the Norwegian yard, Vard Søviknes, the vessel is designed to undertake demanding Arctic and Antarctic cruises, and will be fitted with Azipods with 6 m propellers and a combined power rating of 34 MW to allow the vessel to operate through icecovered seas and achieve greater manoeuvrability and low noise and vibration levels. Another recent contract demonstrating Azipod’s popularity amongst niche, expedition-type cruise operators, is an order to supply propulsion solutions for a new vessel ordered by Lindblad Expeditions Holdings that will also take passengers on cruises in polar waters. ABB claimed it was the only supplier of azimuthing electric podded propulsor systems of sufficiently high ice-going class able to meet this owner’s requirements. While the Ulstein Verft-built Lindblad vessel, due for delivery in 2020, will be equipped with Azipod DO units, the contract for Ponantincludes two Azipod VI units, which are claimed to bethe most powerful azimuthing propulsors on the market. The Ponant vessel will be built to Polar Class 2 ice class and is the first commercial application of the Azipod VI for both icebreaking and open water operation in high arctic conditions. “Azipod VI propulsion is a unique azimuthing solution for ice applications in a power range between 5 and 17 MW,” said ABB Marine and Ports head of passenger, ice and dry cargo Marcus Högblom. “With a built-in high-efficiency AC motor and fixed-pitch propeller mounted directly on the motor shaft, it stands out from other thruster solutions. While mechanical thrusters have complex transmission with gears and shafts, Azipod propulsion has only electrical cables between the power source and the thruster unit


the improvement to steering efficiency allows the operator to either run a faster service or reduce speed and save fuel whilst still running the same timetable. In addition, the superior steering efficiency combined with the higher midrange thrust of the HamiltonJet system means that higher levels of overall performance can be maintained when rough weather is experienced, allowing operators to keep to their timetables more reliably.” The company has also improved its Blue Arrow control system for smaller jet ranges, typically up to 1,000

kW. The JetAnchor add-on gives operators the ability to have a stationkeeping system with two modes: one which allows high-precision station keeping, and another that allows good positional accuracy with a lower fuel burn and better crew comfort, but enables the vessel to swing around a virtual anchor set by the GPS. The other control innovation HamiltonJet introduced to the market last year was the XCI module, which gives operators the ability to add an autonomous operational capability to

waterjets. “Traditionally this has been something that was only of interest to our military customers, but we are now seeing this as an increasingly interesting proposition for our commercial clients as well,” added Mr Tomkins. HamiltonJet has recently won significant new ferry contracts including Red Funnel’s Red Jet 7, currently under construction at Wight Shipyard, which will be the first newbuild ferry ordered by Red Funnel to feature HamiltonJet systems. The ferry will be fitted with four HM 571 type waterjets. The

company is also supplying three new 43.5 m ferries capable of 34 knots for WETA’s operation in the San Francisco Bay Area. These will be the first fast ferries to feature the company’s new HT810 jets. HamiltonJet has an active R&D programme and promises exciting new product launches later this year. Mr Tomkins added “Our R&D teams are constantly looking at ways in which we can increase the overall efficiency of our jets and the way in which our control systems can be used to exploit the best benefits from our systems with maximum ease of use.” PST

cruise ship milestone and this makes it possible to build an extremely robust propulsion device with the simplicity, strength and reliability for the most challenging ice conditions, and to any ice class.” Mr Högblom added “Since Azipods were first installed on the Carnival cruise ships, we estimate that energy savings equivalent to 700,000 tonnes of fuel have been made in the cruise sector due to the selection of Azipod propulsion, while over 400,000 passengers have perhaps unknowingly benefited from the greater manoeuvrability, lower noise and lower vibration levels that Azipod propulsion achieves.” ABB is also supplying Azipod propulsors for a new LNGpowered Viking Line cruise ferry that is being built in China by Xiamen Shipbuilding Industry. The newbuilding will feature twin XO 2100 type Azipods and this is believed to be the first time a cruise ferry has opted for a podded propulsion system of this type. “Following on from our power and propulsion systems role with the pioneering Viking Grace, we are very excited that the continuation of our co-operation with Viking Line involved the groundbreaking order for azipod propulsion for this cruise ferry,” said Mr Högblom. ABB’s success in the cruise sector in recent years has largely been based around the popularity of the Azipod XO technology, which is designed for high-power open-water applications. The world’s largest cruise liner, Symphony of the Seas, delivered to Royal Caribbean in April 2018, features Azipod XO units following their successful use on board several earlier vessels for this company including Quantum of the Seas, which was the first vessel to utilise XO technology.

ABB has now built up a reference list for its Azipod technology for over 100 cruise ships

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018


Making passenger flow more efficient


levator manufacturers are focusing on efficiency when it comes to their cruise ship projects. Lift Emotion is working on several projects and new developments. Director Mike Brandt told Passenger Ship Technology the company is currently in the final stage of a new product line – side loaders for cruise vessels. Lift Emotion has two 3,000 kg side loaders in the production and testing phase at its factory. Mr Brandt explained “This product allows the crew to load goods on a retractable platform and from there the platform slides inside the vessel and lowers itself to the needed deck below for unloading.” The company is also focusing on its robot arm project for cruise vessels. Mr Brandt said the next phase will be a feasibility study including a bigger scale model so that Lift Emotion can show this to design bureaus and shipyards. Lift Emotion said this would allow a passenger to move between locations or deck levels as the elevator cabin

New cruise and ferry elevator developments boost traffic flow and energy efficiency would have a rotating function to align with the different locations of the landing doors. Recent ferry and cruise projects include a lowmaintenance elevator system that was delivered last year to the latest National Geographic cruise vessel, while Lift Emotion has elevator parts already assembled at the shipyard for the next National Geographic cruise vessel. “These elevators have an inverter-driven hydraulic system for low energy consumption, which is less interfacing, more silent and offers better quality for passengers on the lift,” said Mr Brandt. Lift Emotion is also in the final stage of fitting out the two ferries being built at Strategic Marine for Rederij Doeksen (see pages 15-17). Mr Brandt commented “These lifts have the latest state-of-the-art

A rendering of Lift Emotion’s Robot Arm for cruise ships

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018

inverter-driven technology as there was a wish... to reduce energy consumption. An advantage for the end users will be a smooth and silent ride.” Lift Emotion finished the production of a hydraulic elevator for one of Australian shipbuilder Austal’s newbuilds, including certification of the whole system. In April Lift Emotion will test two pre-assembled elevators inside a structure. They will then each be placed in a 40 ft container and shipped to Incat Tasmania for two highspeed ferries. Kone Marine Solutions has launched a solution to make traffic flow more efficient. The company has adapted technology used in land-based business for use within cruise ships. A destination operating panel is set up outside the elevators for passengers to select their destination. The system will then allocate the correct lift grouping of people for certain decks. Kone’s head of marine sales Jarkko Pekkala told Passenger Ship Technology this prevented two elevators stopping at the same deck simultaneously and reduced extra stops by elevators, as well as adapting to peak flow traffic hours. He added “It makes it faster and more efficient so in the best case an operator could reduce the number of elevators, by handling the same amount of

traffic with this new technology.” Kone carried out a pilot test in Q3 last year that Mr Pekkala said was “very successful”. “We learnt that flexibility is key. A flexible system that adapts to a very demanding environment is needed.” He said the technology could be further developed by connecting elevator controls to mobile phones, bosting service levels. Elsewhere, Schindler has also been focusing on energy efficiency. It provided the lift system and accompanying software on Carnival Cruise Lines’ Vista-class Carnival Horizon, delivered in Q1 this year. The software is used to decrease energy consumption and increase the lifts’ efficiency and is new to Vista-class. This is significant as passengers will spend less time waiting for the lift and the traffic is managed in a more efficient way to reduce energy consumption. This has been achieved by collecting destination information from passengers before they enter the lifts via a touch screen. This advance information is processed by software created especially for the lifts that combines all the passenger selection information and optimises lift availability according to the requests. This will give an average reduction of 30% in waiting time at peak periods. PST

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PASSENGER SHIP FIRE SAFETY PUSH: ROPAX AND PASSIVE PROTECTION There is currently a big push to improve the fire safety of ropax ferries and to drive passive fire protection. Rebecca Moore reports


ork to improve ropax fire safety has become a major area of activity following several high-profile incidents in recent years – and this has been underlined by industry association Interferry’s work in this area. Interferry attended the fifth annual session of the IMO's Ship Systems and Equipment (SSE) Sub-Committee, which took place 12-16 March. Among several fire-related issues, the European Commission (EC) presented proposals arising from its Fire Safe 1 studies, primarily on electrical connections and alternatively powered vehicles. Interferry chief executive Mike Corrigan explained “We argued that while technically robust, some proposals such as fitting earth fault breakers are practical for newbuilds but not necessarily for existing ships, which the EC also plans to include.” He said that any requirements on existing ships “must be more generic in nature”, allowing for adaptations to the ship's current systems. He added “Our concern is that good ideas for new ships could be killed off by the EC because the proposals simultaneously push for retrospective application, albeit with a fairly substantial delay to conform to new regulations.” For instance, positioning

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018

of vehicle deck sprinkler and nozzles could be optimised for new ships, but would be “very cumbersome” to address for existing ships. Japan and China also submitted several potential risk-mitigation options, many of which were very reasonable proposals, Mr Corrigan commented. But he warned that Interferry emphasised “the need to avoid working with a general wish list”. “After the Costa Concordia accident, IMO spent several years trying to remove items of a less defined nature and we maintained that such generalities should be avoided regarding ropax fire protection.” Mr Corrigan said the “most concrete” outcome of SSE5 was the development of a structure for interim guidelines, to be further developed in a correspondence group between now and the SSE6 subcommittee meeting.

PeeJay V sinking

In 2016, the ferry PeeJay V caught fire and sunk off the coast of Whakatane, New Zealand. A total of 53 passengers were on board at the time of the incident, one person suffered smoke inhalation and there was a total loss of the vessel. The New Zealand Transport Accident

Giorgio Lauro (Promat): Current standards should be revised to reach a more feasible time elapse for evacuation in case of fire

Investigation Commission has investigated the cause of the incident and concluded that a lack of understanding of the CO2 fixed fire-fighting system contributed to the sinking of PeeJay V. One of the significant issues was “the CO2 fixed fire-fighting system installed in the engineroom could not be fully effective in extinguishing the fire because the space it was protecting could not be fully closed down”. This was partly because “the builder and operators of the vessel did not fully appreciate the principles of how the CO2 fixed firefighting system operated”. Coltraco Ultrasonics chief executive Carl Stephen Patrick Hunter told Passenger Ship Technology that such an incident could happen again. “The risks remain. So unfortunately, another incident could happen again. For as long as ships do not check and maintain the contents


MAIN FIRE SAFETY ISSUES Minimise the incidences and consequences of fires in the garage deck of roro/ropax ships

Lack of understanding of CO2 fixed fire-fighting systems

New fire safety proposal for existing ships need to allow for adaptation of existing systems

CO2 cylinders are not individually checked MAIN FIRE SAFETY ISSUES

Items must be defined and not generalized for ropax fire safety

Crew must take responsibility for fire-fighting systems on board

Interim guidelines are to be developed

Drive to amend Solas A60 (which requires a 60-minute safe evacuation time) to A180, with evacuation enabled within three hours

of their CO2 fire extinguishing systems against the risk of accidental discharge or slow leakage, there will remain high risk of the fire system being unable to deliver the design concentration of CO2 required to extinguish the fire event.” He commented that currently the industry services its systems, “often from the lowest bidder”, to gain its certificate which enables its insurance. He explained “This inevitably leads to situations in which the CO2 cylinders are not individually checked, since the lowest bidder will often be under time pressures that inhibit their ability to service them properly.” Elaborating on why he thought there is a lack of understanding and servicing of fixed fire-fighting solutions, Dr Hunter said “Designing, installing and maintaining fixed gaseous fire-fighting systems is more complicated than commonly thought and requires scientific understanding to ensure they remain fully operational at all times. The race to the bottom in price means that fire engineers and servicing teams do not always have the training required. Better respect for the industry and fire safety needs to be adhered to, to ensure safety of life, assets and infrastructure.” Gaseous extinguishing systems are highly pressurised, he said, and the risk of leaking and discharging is accepted as part of their use, shown in the regulations

that demand their upkeep. IMO SOLAS FSS Ch5. states that ‘means shall be provided for the crew to safely check the quantity of the fire extinguishing medium in the container’. But Dr Hunter said “Often this is misunderstood. This code specifically states that the crew must test their extinguishing installations in between the periodic inspection, maintenance and certification. Only having the annual inspection by accredited marine servicing companies is not enough – the crew must take responsibility for its own fire protection.” He warned that the crew are “often not trained or certified to shut down,

“The race to the bottom in price means that fire engineers and servicing teams do not always have the training required” Dr Hunter (Coltraco Ultrasonics)

dismantle, weigh and reinstall the gaseous cylinders – the traditional method [of testing fire suppression systems].” Highlighting how Coltraco’s testing system benefited crew, he said that its Portalevel Max ultrasonic liquid level indicator – designed primarily for the vessels’ crew to themselves inspect large fire suppression systems of up to 600 cylinders – enables one person to test the contents of a cylinder in 30 seconds, compared to traditional manual weighing with two people testing the cylinder contents in 15 minutes. “The ease of operation in comparison to weighing, increases the ability of more regular and frequent checks, improving fire safety management on board,” he said. Coltraco Ultrasonics has launched its Safeship concept to prevent PeeJay V-type incidents occurring again. Dr Hunter said Safeship promotes protecting critical infrastructure at sea. He said “This is a call to respond to regulations with a rigorous attitude, to go above and beyond, to provide security of life and infrastructure.” As a result of SafeShip, Coltraco designed FleetSafe, a package of safety tools to comply with regulations, which includes: • An ultrasonic watertight integrity tester. • An ultrasonic thickness gauge.

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018


• A bearing indicator. • An ultrasonic liquid level indicator. • A calculator which converts liquid level readings to weight. With this package, hatch covers, doors, compartments, pipework, hulls, bulkheads, rotating machinery, pumps, sprinkler systems and gaseous extinguishing installations are protected. “The package is based on integrity, from design, through to lifetime support, and is accurate, reliable and easy to use for any crew members,” said Dr Hunter.

Passive fire protection push

Belgium-based Promat is pushing forward its case for passive fire protection. Tests carried out with Promaguard – a newgeneration product used for passive fire protection and thermal insulation, based on microporous technologies – are said to have demonstrated a level of performance which, the company said, would enable a modification of the SOLAS A60 standards, which require a 60-minute safe evacuation time, to A180 standards, with evacuation enabled within three hours. Explaining why he felt it necessary to change the regulations, Promat marine segment manager and naval architect Giorgio Lauro told Passeger Ship Technology “The actual highest passive protection standards are A60, meaning 60 minutes of structural fire protection and insulation to allow persons on board to follow escape routes and abandon the ship in case of fire.” But he pointed out such standardisation refers to the first safety regulation established at the time when SOLAS came into force in 1974. “We have to be aware that, at that time, ships’ dimensions and number of passengers were very small compared to the actual giant cruise ships, where more than 6,000 people are hosted in 350 m long vessels,” he said. “Should it be the case to revise such a standard to reach a more feasible time elapse for evacuation in case of fire?” Along with Interferry members, Mr Lauro attended the IMO SSE5 subcommittee meeting in March, where the fire protection sector discussed, among other issues related to fire on the roro deck, the enhancement of passive fire protection for fire containment, as requested by the document MSC 97/19/3. Mr Lauro said this would allow a discussion on enhancing the passive

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018

fire protection standards to be raised. “All of this process, if successful, will take at least another two years,” he observed. There have been other developments within the drive for passive fire protection. Class society RINA last year launched a service called Fire Risk Mitigation, which includes periodical onboard checks such as passive fire protection verification throughout the ship’s life, hot-spot assessment in machinery spaces, and electrical equipment verification and maintenance in specially categorised spaces and other areas classified as hazardous. “The scope is to verify that the likelihood of a fire occurring in machinery compartments is as low as possible,” commented Mr Lauro. In terms of its Promaguard solution, Promat has tested solutions and achieved certification with performance in excess of one hour. Mr Lauro said that Promaguard A240 Plus, for example, can achieve more than four hours

of insulation in case of fire. “We are still focusing on extra fire insulation performance by extending the interest to the naval sector where the survivability of ships is a must and ship’s evacuation is the last option,” he commented. Commenting on the benefits of using Promat lightweight passive fire protection alongside non-combustible furniture, Mr Lauro said that it saves insulation and outfitting weight compared to chipboard or mineral wool, and boosts the ship’s energy efficiency design index. “Although initial cost seems higher, savings for logistics must be taken into account (four to five times less volume for transportation, storage and handling on board),” he said, adding that the ship’s survivability of fire can be achieved with a reduced use of active fire protection, leading to less weight, complexity and through-life maintenance costs. PST

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Big data, new partnerships and new technology are driving the development of HVAC solutions for cruise ships and ferries

Forecast of chilled beam technology savings


allenberg Technology Group is focused on “turning big data to smart data”, its energy management and HVAC marine conversion director Magnus Hansson told Passenger Ship Technology. This has involved connecting all systems within HVAC (chillers, pumping system, fan coils, ducts, airhandlers, fan coils, and other critical components and sub-systems serving the machinery and accommodation systems ) to ensure the systems are closely integrated and work as one. Mr Hansson explained “We have worked with our own network, smart components and wireless technology to link the different areas and sub-sectors of HVAC, taking full control of, for instance, the cabin climate. This also reduces the cabling usually required.” He said the “next challenge” is digitalisation and Internet of Things (IoT) technology. “A challenge is how do we handle all this information, how to efficiently turn big data to smart data, as big data just takes space if not used correctly. A major challenge has been to sort out invalid or corrupt data by qualifying it at point of collection." Such validation is paramount with big data utilisation. He said this required advanced software, otherwise it means “ending up taking decisions that are not correct and that could result

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018

in [a] poor climate control and waste of energy.” Callenberg’s recent focus has been all about ensuring the data it uses is “smart”. To this end, it uses an advanced process involving several algorithms to qualify the data. Another important part of this process is to make sure all parts of HVAC work as one seamless system. “It is very easy for sub-systems to counteract each other, as very often different parts are provided by different suppliers. Therefore, smooth co-operation between the different systems is of great importance,” Mr Hansson elaborated. Callenberg’s accumulated annual HVAC energy savings have hit 300M kWh annually. “Every year, we achieve an improvement on digitalisation and improve return on investment,” said Mr Hansson.

New technology

Halton Marine has been developing a completely new HVAC technology that promises to provide substantial savings in ventilation lifecycle costs. The cabin HVAC solution called CaBeam – uses chilled beam technology as opposed to the usual fan coil. While it has been used on land in hospitals and hotels, this is the first time that it has been applied in the marine sector. Halton Marine director Sami Piirainen explained the benefits to Passenger Ship Technology. “There are not so many components in the product compared to fan coils. For example, there are no filters that require changing, or a fan with electrical consumption and maintenance needs.” Also, one of the benefits of the solution is that the sound levels are much lower compared to other products traditionally used. The efficient mixing of the chilled beam ventilation system results in uniform air quality inside the cabin. Supply air is diffused from linear slots on the product. Chilled beams use the primary air

HVAC | 55

to induce and recirculate the room air through the heat exchanger of Each cruise ship will have approximately 2,500 cabins. The first the unit, resulting in high cooling capacities and excellent thermal cruise ship will be delivered in 2020 and the second in 2021. conditions in the space without a fan. The two partners have already collaborated successfully on The other innovative aspect of CaBeam is that passengers similarly sized cruise ships. This consortium combines ENGIE/ control the temperature via a tablet-type touch panel in the cabin. Axima’s experience on large turnkey projects and Koja Marine’s This can also be extended to control lights and automatically open HVAC systems. and close curtains. “This makes it simpler for the passengers and Koja Marine managing director Matti Sippola said on for the shipyard, as the HVAC and electrical cabin operations are announcing the partnership “We have created an unbeatable combined,” Mr Piirainen said. consortium which can offer the best energy efficiency, the lowest The CaBeam concept was launched at SMM 2016 and has lifecycle costs, and superior passenger comfort.” been undergoing cabin integration testing. Once this is completed, Koja Marine’s part includes the HVAC system, equipment and Halton is planning to trial the product on cruise ships this year to design. ENGIE/Axima is responsible for the HVAC installations, “fine-tune” it, before launching it later in 2018. accommodation, machinery room, chillers, and chilled and heated Another new cabin HVAC development comes from AirD, water production. which is focused on matching ventilation with real-time needs. AXIKO will be responsible for the assembly and preLaunched in 2015, its air vents use smart commissioning of the equipment, and the technology via sensors that detect different overall project management. factors in the air, such as CO2, temperature The project design and engineering and humidity. These sensors detect the realstarted in 2016 and the installation work time needs of the air conditioning, working began this year. when needed and closing the valves when not. Koja Marine director Esko Nousiainen AirD chief executive Artur Glad explained told Passenger Ship Technology “This is a big that – based on an independent study and impact [for us] as these are huge vessels, the on AirD’s own simulations – the system can biggest to be made in Germany. It is a big achieve up to 52% in HVAC energy savings task.” on a cruise ship. He said that while HVAC energy The AirD control and monitoring system efficiency was always important, special contains both real-time and historic data on attention was being paid in this project to the HVAC needs of a cruise ship. It allows the select highly energy-efficient equipment. operator to see energy savings achieved and He was not able to say too much about the the customer satisfaction rates on temperature products to be used but commented “They and air changes in cabins. Mr Glad added “It will be state-of-the-art products. We will be is very easy to use – diagrams of the cruise producing new fan coils and using many in ship outline in red where air conditioning public areas. needs to be adapted to the needs of the area. Pointing out the benefits of the new Esko Nousiainen This is done automatically, and the blue areas fan coil that the company is designing, he (Koja Marine) mean that they have the correct amount of commented “This new type of fan coil will air. This means that an operator can see at a [use] less energy consumption and control the glance the HVAC situation.” air flow better than previous solutions. Our Quick and easy installation is an important feature of the tests of this new fan coil have been successful.” solution. Several weeks can be saved when calibrating the In other news, Mr Nousiainen said that Koja had been investing ventilation with AirD’s software, with around 50 units calibrated heavily recently, having built a new process fan factory and R&D in 10 minutes. laboratory. In the fan factory the company has installed welding AirD sales and marketing director Leena Salmi told Passenger robots that were fully operational from Q4 last year, allowing the Ship Technology “When the units are assembled in the duct they production of more sophisticated fans. appear on a list in our software and then they are dragged and He commented “Our old factory was too old and small to dropped to the right cabin/room.” She said the cabin has pre-set accommodate all the testing needed.” limits for correct air flow, with the unit automatically calibrated Indeed, Koja is developing a new cabin HVAC monitoring according to these limits. system that can be controlled through the internet. It will help save costs as it will allow operators to see exactly how much energy is being used.The new facilities are key to this. “We have the facilities New partnerships for doing full-scale testing of these cabins in the laboratory.” Koja Marine has formed a consortium that has scooped the HVAC Other projects that Koja is working on are the Mein Schiffs 7 turnkey contract for Star Cruises’ Global-class cruise ships. and 8, Symphony of the Seas and sister vessel, Spectrum of the Seas and AXIKO – formed by Koja and power and energy services several smaller projects. business ENGIE/Axima – was contracted by German shipyard MV Elsewhere, Teknotherm is suppling the complete HVAC systems Werften, which is building the four ships (including two options) for Hurtigruten's newbuild cruise ships, including its CFU-500 intended for the Chinese market. Enigma cabin fan coil unit. Teknotherm said that due to the energy The HVAC turnkey contract will employ more than 300 people recovery that the system provides, it considerably reduces the in France, Germany and Finland between the start of the design number of air handling units, the size of the chillers and the amount phase in 2017 and the delivery of the second cruise ship in 2021. of ducting needed on board. PST

“This is a big impact [for us] as these are huge vessels, the biggest to be made in Germany. It is a big task”

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018


KEEP SATCOMS AND BRIDGE SYSTEMS CYBER SECURE Martyn Wingrove interpreted Pen Test Partners partner Ken Munro’s 10 top cyber security tips to shipping for the passenger ship sector


assenger ship operators need to be prepared for cyber attacks and ensure that their security is as strong as possible. They need a security policy that follows frameworks from IMO, the International Standards Organization and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), according to Pen Test Partners senior partner Ken Munro. “These are important, but it can take a long time for companies to implement, particularly where process and mindset changes are required,” he said. But there are several things for shipowners to check and enact that are mostly cost-free and will help protect them from cyber threats. Passenger ship operators can follow Mr Munro’s 10 tactical suggestions to improve cyber security. These are mostly focused on securing satellite communications, bridge systems and training crew and onshore teams in cyber security. It is especially important to keep on board systems secure on ships where passengers have access to the internet over vessel satellite or cellular communications systems. System passwords need to be secure, software needs to be updated and should be segregated from passenger networks. Here are those suggestions and explanations.


Make sure satellite communications are not on the public internet

This is particularly important on passenger ships as public and guests on board could access many types of ship systems over wifi if the IP address is public. Most airtime providers offer private IP address space, so hackers cannot reach satellite communications easily over the internet. Ship operators can easily identify if terminals are public or not. Managers should “put the IP address in a browser and see if they can route to the terminal web interface from the public internet”, said Mr Munro. If they are public, then operators should contact the airtime provider for private IP addresses.


Check that satellite communications systems have passwords changed from the manufacturer’s default

Mr Munro said this is the most common problem encountered on ships and something that would be an easy access pathway. Satellite terminal installers typically do not change the administration passwords from the default admin.

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018

Cruise and ferry owners should ensure that they do this and that “the passwords are complex and only known by those who need to know”. Otherwise satellite communications are open to potential hackers on board or anywhere worldwide. Passenger ships have multiple terminals to provide high levels of online access to passengers, so operators should check all of these, not just the main one.


Regularly update satellite communications systems software


Check that bridge, engineroom, crew, wifi and business networks on board are logically separated

Software updates usually include patches for security flaws, “so the more out-of-date the software is, the more vulnerable it is”, Mr Munro explained. Which is why owners of ferries and cruise ships should make sure onboard systems are loaded with the latest software versions and are updated every time the manufacturer publishes a new version. This should be an automated process, but is often not. In some cases “security fixes are hidden in the changelog and not easy to find”, Mr Munro said. Managers need to check terminal vendors’ software update pages regularly, or consider using a patch update alerting service.

Segregating crew and passenger connectivity from a ship’s operational network should be compulsory. Otherwise anyone on board with a mobile device could access the ship network to access engine controls or navigation systems. Another reason, said Mr Munro, was “if a device on a vessel is compromised, segregated networks will ensure critical systems are kept safe from the hacker”. It is worth double-checking that networks are separated.


Secure USB ports on all ships systems

It is very easy to accidentally get malware on USB keys. There have already been cases of ECDIS and other systems being compromised by ransomware. A common route for malware is the USB port. This can come from USB sticks with electronic navigational chart updates or a crew member’s mobile phone, which are plugged into bridge consoles for charging too often.


“To prevent accidental introduction of malware to vessel systems, lock down USB access,” suggested Mr Munro. If critical systems can only be updated by USB, “keep dedicated USB keys in a secure location that are used for nothing other than this purpose”.


Check all onboard wifi networks are secure

Strong encryption for wifi and administration passwords is essential. For merchant shipping, Mr Munro advised that crew wifi be only for personal use and is not connected to anything other than the internet or systems used for media access. For ferries and cruise ships this has to be extended to passenger wifi, without limiting access. Owners then need to check that any ship systems that use wifi, such as mobile devices used for corporate communications and navigation, “have raised security levels, including stronger authentication”.


Do not rely on bridge technology for accurate ship positioning

Another type of hacking is to access ship navigation systems to misreport a vessel’s position or navigate it in the wrong direction. Hackers can spoof satellite positioning devices and manipulate radar and ECDIS, perhaps from a cabin or onboard vehicle. “Officers of the watch must be reminded not to rely too heavily on technology and get fixated on screens,” Mr Munro explained. They should keep a watch through the bridge window for navigation and collision avoidance “to ensure the situation outside the bridge reflects what the technology reports”.

Train crew about cyber security

Seafarers are the easiest access for cyber threats and the first line of defence. They should be trained in methods of recognising a cyber threat, reporting incidents and for keeping their own devices secure. Some of this training could be extended to passengers on cruise ships.



Make technology suppliers prove that they are secure

Suppliers and third-party engineers are other easy threat access throughways. Passenger ship operators should request proof from suppliers that they have cyber security. Owners should “ask them for evidence of security accreditations such as ISO27001 or compliance with the NIST cyber security frameworks”.

Carry out a ship security audit


“Some of the worst vessel vulnerabilities are the easiest to find and fix,” said Mr Munro. Maritime security issues are often systemic, “they do not affect just one ship in a fleet. The same issue can affect them all”.

Seafarers are the weakest link, but best defence

Class society DNV GL’s principal consultant, in charge of management systems advisory, Jan Haul, provided his own advice on how shipowners can improve cyber security. He agreed that humans are the weakest link but also the most important defence. In a presentation at the Baltic Exchange in March, he advised ship operators to train crew in cyber security in different ways. During voyages, seafarers that are not on duty can access computer-based training courses or be taught by superintendents. Owners should run cyber security awareness courses in their offices and discuss good and bad security practices during onboard safety meetings. They should also consider onboard and onshore cyber drills and prohibit bad practices, such as having open USB ports. PST Many of the cyber risk issues highlighted here will be discussed at Riviera Maritime Media’s European Maritime Cyber Risk Management Summit, which will be held in association with Norton Rose Fulbright in London on 15 June.











Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018

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HOW TO | 59

Viking Line takes mooring winch operation to next level A pilot installation on board Viking Line’s Gabriella is providing the first practical application for an ABB synchronous reluctance motor (SynRM) used to drive a mooring winch. ABB segment sales manager for marine winches and cranes Mikael Holmberg outlines the project background and the advantages of the new technology

ABB segment sales manager for marine winches and cranes Mikael Holmberg

Pilot summary Background • Equipment needed upgrading to meet operational targets. • The original winches could create a time lag. New technology benefits • Much faster start and stop time. • Easier for crew to operate. • Winches can be operated by the existing control stand. • Peak current demand posing risk of system failure is eliminated. • Uses less power. • New drive smaller and uses fewer components. • Less maintenance. • Longer lifespan for bearings. • No need for an expensive speed feedback device on the motor for automatic mooring. New equipment challenges • At first, winch operators were not completely comfortable with the new installation and its configuration. The solution Drive parameter adjustments were made.


iking Line offers passenger travel and cargo carrier services on routes serving Finland, Sweden and Estonia with its seven vessels, including Gabriella. The ship was built in 1992 and some of its deck equipment is reaching the end of its lifespan. Viking Line carried out a pilot retrofit installation of a SynRM motor and ACS880 variable speed drive (VSD) combination for its mooring winches.

Fast starts, fast stops

The original winches on Gabriella use a three-speed control system with three winding, direct-on-line motors, and an external mooring controller and load sensor in the gearbox. However, this can create a lag of up to a second while the motor is magnetised. Only when the stator is magnetised is the brake released so that the winch can start to rotate. The advantage of the SynRM motor and ACS880 drive combination is that it has a much faster start and stop time. That means that when the winch operator uses the joystick to start the winch, it reacts immediately and starts rotating. This instant response has had a positive impact on crew operations, since the operator simply releases the mechanical brake and lets the speed controller take over. Modern VSD-controlled

winches offer completely stepless speed control. However, this project was carried out as a fasttrack retrofit with Viking Line retaining much of its original equipment. The ACS880 has been programmed with three speed levels – low, middle and high – so that the winch can be operated by the existing control stand that previously switched between three contactors. This control now provides a digital output for each speed, with a ramping transition programmed into the drive to provide the smoothest possible changeover.

Peak current issues are eliminated

Power consumption used to be a constant problem on the winch deck. Previously, when every lever was shifted to full-ahead it resulted in a peak current demand that posed the risk of system failure. Gabriella’s chief electrician, Christian Holmberg, stated that in the past there were times when he wondered if the ship would be able to dock. Now, the new variable speed drive and SynRM motor have eliminated this serious issue. “We now have two different new drives,” said Mr (Christian) Holmberg. “The first was installed with the old motor, which was a good improvement. The second was installed with the new SynRM motor – and this is so much better. It uses less power and is really smooth when you change the speed. ”

The SynRM motor also requires less maintenance as it has no rotor windings and runs cooler, which means a longer lifetime for the bearings. At about 600 kg, the SynRM is about half the weight of the induction motor it replaced.

Auto mooring is critical for operations

The auto mooring system on board a passenger-vehicle ferry like Gabriella is crucial for its operations. When the ship comes into harbour it has a certain load draft and as unloading and loading take place, its level in the water changes. So constant precise adjustment to the mooring winches is vital to maintain the correct tension. This is where ABB’s solution offers another important saving as the VSD features a built-in time control sequence for auto mooring, handling tension control without a load cell sensor in the gearbox. There is now no need for an expensive speed feedback device on the motor. Once the vessel is moored, it is simply switched to automatic operation. The direct torque control provided by the drive ensures precise regulation of lower motor speeds with high torque levels. Handling line tension with time control means fewer components face the risk of being subjected to fault conditions, making it more reliable. PST

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018


Safety concerns for electric ships – is the industry doing enough? E

Grant Brown (PBES): One of the biggest risks for batteries is thermal runaway

ach year there are more and more hybrid or fully electric ships navigating waters worldwide, including ferries transporting thousands of people daily. These ships increasingly rely on lithium energy storage as their power source, with modern designs containing over 1,000 individual modules (batteries). Safety concerns still linger and should be kept among the utmost of considerations for this new technology. One of the biggest risks for batteries is thermal runaway. Thermal runaway occurs if the lithium-ion cells used in marine batteries are subjected to mechanical abuse, suffer from internal manufacturing defects, or operate over or under the correct voltage or temperature. It means that heat is generated within the lithiumion cells and causes a reaction between the cathode material and electrolyte. This can result in the cells’ temperature increasing until the cell vents toxic and flammable gasses. If ignition occurs, these gasses can create an unpredictable fire, which can be very difficult to extinguish. The minimum requirement by the Norwegian Maritime Authority (NMA) for batteries used in commercial vessels in Norway is the Propagation Test Type 1. This is intended to prevent propagation of the thermal event from one module to the next. This test simply means that if a cell in a single module enters thermal runaway and ignites, fire will consume the module but will not ignite the other modules in the pack, and thus the larger system remains safe. Approval is granted when a single module in a battery pack is tested in a lab situation by putting it into thermal runaway and the adjacent modules in the pack do not ignite. However, in the event of an overcharge situation where it is most likely a fault of charging software, or in the event of catastrophic mechanical damage, the likelihood that only one cell or module in the pack is affected by itself is extremely unlikely. It is much more probable that a) the entire system was damaged or b) any number of individual modules were damaged. In a multi-module event, it is my assertion that NMA Propagation Test Type 1 may not prevent propagation from module to

Passenger Ship Technology | 2nd Quarter 2018

module. In my opinion, this renders Propagation Test Type 1 an ineffective method to ensure the safety of the vessel. Currently there are many battery solutions on the market that use an air cooling system in to try to maintain safe internal temperatures. The effectiveness is questionable and the reliance on a thin-layer fire-resistant separator between cells only reduces the fire risk from thermal runaway, it does not prevent it. Almost all these manufacturers claim this “inherent” and “passive” system prevents propagation from one module to the next. This is the minimum requirement by the NMA Test Type 1 for batteries used in commercial vessels in Norway. I assert that adherence to this standard alone endangers the vessel, crew, passengers, cargo and environment. It is far more sensible to take all reasonable precautions to eliminate thermal runaway from occurring in the first place.

Prevent thermal runaway

Liquid cooling is the only safety system currently tested and proven to prevent thermal runaway. Liquid cooling prevents batteries from entering thermal runaway by extracting more heat than the cells can produce. A low pressure, high volume closed loop of chilled water is circulated through the battery. PBES has developed a proprietary cooling system, CellCool, which takes the idea one step further and circulates coolant through the alloy core of the battery, around each individual cell in every battery. The PBES CellCool is able to remove more thermal energy than the cells can produce when in an overcharge or damage scenario. In comparison, forced air cooling only cools the external surfaces of the module and is ineffective at eliminating hot spots in the cells. PST

Grant Brown is vice president of marketing at PBES. In 2017 PBES installed 15.3 MWh of lithium storage on 12 vessels. The PBES energy storage system is DNV GL type- approved and the company is ISO 9001:2015 certified.

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Passenger Ship Technology 2nd Quarter 2018  

Passenger Ship Technology is a leading market title dedicated to technical coverage of all aspects of passenger shipping, including ferries...

Passenger Ship Technology 2nd Quarter 2018  

Passenger Ship Technology is a leading market title dedicated to technical coverage of all aspects of passenger shipping, including ferries...